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SocArXiv papers

  • Resistance to Racial Equity in U.S. Federalism and its Impact on Fragmented Regions
    In this commentary, we provide our ground-level observations of how the novel COVID-19 pandemic has exposed weaknesses in our federal system to respond to local communities, particularly African Americans and Latina/os who live and work in the St. Louis region. It is based on a virtual town hall hosted by the Community Innovation and Action Center (CIAC) at the University of Missouri, St. Louis on April 18, 2020. Based on these initial public discussions, we use St. Louis as a lens for arguing that that government's attenuated impact is not due to a natural disaster itself, but the inevitable result of race-based policies that had worked against African Americans over generations. The real failure involves our federalist system's lack of a commitment to racial equity - when race no longer is used to predict life outcomes, and outcomes for all groups are improved - when designing the federal plan to respond to COVID-19 in local communities.
  • Latinx Families' Extended Household Structures and Child Behavioral Problems across Mother's Immigrant Status in Los Angeles
    Using the panel samples from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (L.A. FANS), this paper examined the associations of extended household structures--the entry, stay, and exit of grandparents (vertical kin) and other extended adults (horizontal kin)--with child behavioral problems across US-born, documented and undocumented Latinx families. Difference-score regression models showed differential associations of extended kin by different types of transitions. For children of US-born Latina mothers, gaining grandparents was associated with higher (worse) levels of internalizing (i.e. withdrawn) behaviors, whereas losing grandparents was associated with lower (better) levels of internalizing and externalizing (i.e. disobedient) behaviors. For children of documented Latina mothers, gaining grandparents had no effect, but losing grandparents and keeping horizontal kin were associated with lower levels of internalizing behaviors. For children of undocumented Latina mothers, gaining grandparents was associated with higher levels of externalizing behaviors, but keeping grandparents was associated with lower levels of internalizing behaviors, and keeping horizontal kin was associated with lower levels of both internalizing and externalizing behaviors. The association between the household transition of extended kin and children's behavior reflects selection rather than causation in the context of family life course and US immigration policy.
  • Longitudinal changes in the outdoor recreation community's reaction to the COVID-19 pandemic: Final report on a three-phase national survey of outdoor enthusiasts
    The COVID-19 pandemic continues to alter daily life and lead to changes in the way we spend time outside. In an effort to gather timely and relevant data on national recreation patterns, the Leave No Trace Center for Outdoor Ethics and its academic partner, Pennsylvania State University, have been working to conduct a study that can offer guidance to land managers, recreation providers, and outdoor enthusiasts across the United States. Through three phases of survey-based data collection, ranging from April 9th to May 21st, 2020, a longitudinal perspective of how outdoor recreationists are reacting to the COVID-19 pandemic was developed from this research. The timing of this research was purposeful, as it intended to capture self-reported information related to outdoor recreation and COVID-19 during periods of time when the virus had been officially documented as a pandemic, resulting federal and state stay-at-home orders were implemented across the U.S., and many parks and protected closed or discontinued regular operations. Phases 1 and 2 of this assessment were detailed by previous reports. This report details the findings across all three phases of research. These findings track behaviors, psychosocial determinants of outdoor recreation decision-making, and future intentions across the study period. This report is intended to provide valuable information for managing the changing recreation use of public lands, predicting spikes in recreation, and offering insight for land managers as they work to protect the natural world. The following tables, figures, and corresponding brief descriptions are intended to compare results across the three phases of this research effort.
  • Gender inequalities: Changes in income, time use and well-being before and during the UK COVID-19 lockdown
    This report aims to provide basic facts about gender inequality in income, time use, and wellbeing before and during the COVID-19 pandemic in the UK. We compare employment, income, time use, and well-being figures reported before and during the lockdown period (late March to April 2020) of the same group of individuals by analyzing longitudinal data from the 2020 UK Household Longitudinal Survey (UKHLS) COVID study and the full UKHLS data. Earlier studies on the topic are based on cross-sectional data with different survey designs and sample selections. - Women undertake the major share of housework and childcare and form 80% of the health and social care workers who are more exposed to the virus, among people aged between 20 to 49. - There was a 30% reduction in paid work time for both women and men, and the percentage was 45% among non-key workers. Women and men experienced a similar amount (3-4 hours) of an increase in weekly housework hours. We also note a comparable reduction in monthly labour income for women and men. - Women, especially mothers experienced a more dramatic decline in well-being amid the COVID pandemic. - Single mothers fare the worst in the labour market, are the least likely to own a house, have a car in the household, and have the highest risk of depression, which makes them particularly vulnerable in the current circumstances. Single parents experience the largest 7% increase in the non-working rates during the lockdown period. - Childcare support is critical when the usual support networks, such as grandparents, friends, and neighbours, can no longer help with childcare, especially for mothers.
  • Cyclic Mechanics: the Principle of Cyclicity
    Cyclic mechanic is intended as a suitable generalization both of quantum mechanics and general relativity apt to unify them. It is founded on a few principles, which can be enumerated approximately as follows: 1. Actual infinity or the universe can be considered as a physical and experimentally verifiable entity. It allows of mechanical motion to exist. 2. A new law of conservation has to be involved to generalize and comprise the separate laws of conservation of classical and relativistic mechanics, and especially that of conservation of energy: This is the conservation of action or information. 3. Time is not a uniformly flowing time in general. It can have some speed, acceleration, more than one dimension, to be discrete. 4. The following principle of cyclicity: The universe returns in any point of it. The return can be only kinematic, i.e. per a unit of energy (or mass), and thermodynamic, i.e. considering the universe as a thermodynamic whole. 5. The kinematic return, which is per a unit of energy (or mass), is the counterpart of conservation of energy, which can be interpreted as the particular case of conservation of action "per a unit of time". The kinematic return per a unit of energy (or mass) can be interpreted in turn as another particular law of conservation in the framework of conservation of action (or information), namely conservation of wave period (or time). These two counterpart laws of conservation correspond exactly to the particle "half" and to the wave "half" of wave-particle duality. 6. The principle of quantum invariance is introduced. It means that all physical laws have to be invariant to discrete and continuous (smooth) morphisms (motions) or mathematically, to the axiom of choice. The list is not intended to be exhausted or disjunctive, but only to give an introductory idea.
  • Powering Social Media Footage: Simple Guide for the Most Vulnerable to Make their Urgencies Visible
    Eyewitness media was boosted by ubiquitous smartphones and social media use. User-generated content by non-professionals, or netizens, has shed light on issues they deem important by capturing and sharing footage appealing to their inner digital network and mainstream media. However, the influence that digital testimonials exerts on activism and indexing setting has been restricted to those possessing some media training. This paper aims to fill this gap by providing a framework to guide vulnerable people experiencing harsh conditions to leverage the power of social media. The expectation is that such a guideline would help the most vulnerable draw the attention of other members of the community, authorities and mainstream media to the conditions they are in. The proposal of this framework is based on the theory of mediatized conflict and analysis of the hashtag #FallecidosCovid19Ec on Twitter. This hashtag helped organize scattered experiences, raise media attention and pressure officials to respond to urgent demands.
  • High-order metaphysics as high-order abstractions and choice in set theory
    The link between the high-order metaphysics and abstractions, on the one hand, and choice in the foundation of set theory, on the other hand, can distinguish unambiguously the "good" principles of abstraction from the "bad" ones and thus resolve the "bad company problem" as to set theory. Thus it implies correspondingly a more precise definition of the relation between the axiom of choice and "all company" of axioms in set theory concerning directly or indirectly abstraction: the principle of abstraction, axiom of comprehension, axiom scheme of specification, axiom scheme of separation, subset axiom scheme, axiom scheme of replacement, axiom of unrestricted comprehension, axiom of extensionality, etc.
  • Die Zukunft der Soziologie hangt von Open Science ab
    Dieser Artikel untersucht den Stand der Disziplin Soziologie. Die Soziologie sei in der ge-genwartigen Krise der gesamten Wissenschaft keine Ausnahme. Dies bedeutet, dass die Soziolo-gie wie alle wissenschaftlichen Disziplinen Open Science Praktiken anwenden muss. Im Einklang mit den Zielen der Open Science Bewegung, bedeutet dies, die Soziologie transparenter, repro-duzierbarer und ethischer zu machen. Die Logik hinter dieser Behauptung beruht auf (A) man-gelnder Zuverlassigkeit in der soziologischen Forschung, die sich sowohl aus institutionalisierten Normen zugunsten der Intransparenz als auch aus individualistischen Forschungsmodi ergibt, (B) aus perversen Anreizen unter Forschern und Gutachtern und (C) dieser Soziologie selbst fordert offene Wissenschaft. Die Ethik-Richtlinien von langjahrigen Soziologie-Vereinigungen und die Uberlegungen von besonders einflussreichen Sozialtheoretikern (Weber, Merton und Habermas) verweisen auf einen offenen und ethischen Weg in der Soziologie. Die Soziologie hat sich bisher jedoch nicht entsprechend der Visionen ihrer Begrunder entwickelt, so dass die Gesellschaft die Nutzlichkeit und Nachhaltigkeit der Soziologie fur die Zukunft in Frage stellen wird. Dies erklart auch, warum die Offentlichkeit zuruckhaltend ist, Soziologen bei der Suche nach Losungen fur soziale Probleme zu vertrauen. Soziologie als offene Wissenschaft zu betrieben, konnte dies an-dern. Dies gilt fur alle Arten der Soziologie, also sowohl fur quantitative als auch qualitative Her-angehensweisen. Ohne Open Science konnten sich Mittelgeber, Regierungen und Universitaten im Recht sehen, die (finanzielle und ideelle) Unterstutzung der Soziologie einzuschranken. Kleine und einfache Veranderungen konnten eine solche ungluckliche Lage abwenden und wurden dazu beitragen, dass die Soziologie ihre eignen Ideal verwirklichen kann.
  • COVID-19 and urban vulnerability in the megacities of the global south
    The global pandemic has an inherently urban character. The UN-Habitat's awareness of it has led to the publication of a Response Plan for mollification of the disease-induced externalities in the cities of the world. This article takes the UN-Habitat report as the premise to carry out an empirical investigation in the four metro cities of India. The report's concern with the urban character of the pandemic has underlined the role of cities in disease transmission. In that wake, the study demarcates factors at the sub-city level that tend to jeopardize the two mandatory precautionary measures during COVID-19 - Social Distancing and Lockdown. It investigates those factors that bring deprived locales parallel to COVID-19 induced vulnerability. Secondly, UN-Habitat's one of the major action areas is evidence-based knowledge creation through mapping and its analysis. In our study, we do it at a more granular scale than the city so a more nuanced understanding can be arrived at. Thus, in tune with the UN-habitat's we have embarked on a detailed study of the four metro cities in India that are simultaneously the densest in the global south.
  • Negative shocks predict change in cognitive function and preferences: Assessing the negative affect and stress hypothesis in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic and the lockdown mitigation strategy
    In the context of the current COVID-19 pandemic, households throughout the world have to cope with negative shocks, either because of the disease or the various mitigation strategies that have caused massive unemployment and financial insecurity. Previous research has shown that negative shocks impair cognitive function and change risk, time and social preferences. In this study, we analyze the results of a longitudinal multi-country survey conducted in Italy (N=1,652), Spain (N=1,660) and the United Kingdom (N=1,578). We measure cognitive function using the Cognitive Reflection Test and preferences traits using an experimentally validated set of questions to assess the differences between people exposed to a shock compared to the rest of the sample. We measure four possible types of shocks: labor market shock, health shock, occurrence of stressful events, and mental health shock. Additionally, we randomly assign participants to groups with either a recall of negative events (more specifically, a mild reinforcement of stress or of fear/anxiety), or to a control group (to recall neutral or joyful memories), in order to assess whether or not stress and negative emotions drive a change in preferences. Results show that people affected by shocks performed worse in terms of cognitive functioning, are more risk loving, and are more prone to punish others (negative reciprocity). Data do not support the hypotheses that the result is driven by stress or by negative emotions.
  • Disparate Impact Pandemic Framing Decreases Public Concern For Health Consequences
    It is known that the new coronavirus (COVID-19) is disproportionately affecting the elderly, those with underlying medical conditions, and the poor. What is the effect of informing the public about these inequalities on people's perceptions of threat and their sensitivity to the outbreak's human toll? This study answers this question using a novel survey experiment and finds that emphasis on the unequal aspect of the pandemic, especially as it relates to the elderly and those with medical conditions, could be causing the public to become less concerned about the outbreak and its human toll. Discussion situates this finding in the literature on scientific communication and persuasion and explains why language that emphasizes the impact of the virus on all of us -- rather than singling out certain groups -- could be more effective in increasing caution among the general public and make them take the situation more seriously.
  • 'Other' gender in India: An Analysis of 2011 Census Data
    In spite of a lot of human rights protection given to the 'other-gender' population worldwide, they still have been a deserted community who faces a significant occupational challenge around the world. In India, the other-gender community encompasses persons with a variety of gender identities, forming a culturally unique gender group. Although they have always remained an integral part of the society from the very ancient time, unfortunately, their existence is grappling with abject poverty, illiteracy, hatred, and mockery. Such stigmatisation and segregation from society have left them to compromise with the employment opportunities available. It is important to identify the gap between the other-gender population and the general population in the field of literacy and workforce participation. This paper uses the data on other-gender published by the Census of India for the first time. According to the Indian Census 2011, there is around 4.9 lakh other-gender population in the country. The data reveal that other-gender have lower levels of literacy and labour force participation compared with the general population. Our attempt is here to conceptualise the findings along with some discussion on the data limitations.
  • A social network analysis of the role of social contact in mental illness stigma using the 2018 General Social Survey
    Despite decades of research and dozens of public health campaigns, stigma continues to negatively affect the well-being and life chances of people labeled with a mental illness. One of the most promising directions for reducing stigma lies in Allport's (1954) theory of intergroup contact, suggesting that social interactions with people with mental illness invalidate negative stereotypes, decrease fear and anxiety, and enable perspective-taking and empathy. While the empirical literature is largely supportive of the contact hypothesis, social network theory indicates that the degree to which contact reduces stigma should depend on the nature, magnitude, and valence of exposure to people with mental illness. We address this question using data from the National Stigma Study - Replication II (NSS-R II), fielded on a special module of the 2018 General Social Survey (N=1,179). We find that simply knowing someone with mental illness, or even the number of people one knows, explains little about the public's desire for social distance, endorsement of coercion, or perceptions of dangerousness. However, having stronger relationships with more people with mental illness, and having more friends and family (but not more peripheral ties) with mental illness, are associated with reductions in stigma. In contrast, exposure to more dangerousness or violence among people in the network with mental illness is associated with greater levels of stigma, while contact with more people who are in treatment for mental illness (as opposed to untreated) is linked to less stigma.
  • Ecology of house lizards in the biblical palace of King Solomon
    The Bible refers to house lizards that could not be exterminated, not even from king's palaces (Solomon's Proverbs 30:28). It probably refers to Hemidactylus turcicus, carrier of the deadly Salmonella enterica, of pandemic infamy. Considering the size of Solomon's palace, it could have kept a population of 50 lizards which reproduced from March to August.
  • Six Alternative Weights that Adjust for Attrition in the 2006-2014 General Social Survey Panels
    After an explanation of the structure of the 2006-2014 rolling panel of the General Social Survey (GSS), this report details models that estimate six sets of alternative predicted probabilities of attrition for all baseline sample members. The report then explains the cross-sectional GSS weights distributed with the data, and it shows how the estimated probabilities of attrition can be used to specify panel weights that adjust for attrition. Alternative approaches are discussed in conclusion. Code and data are provided in the associated repository.
  • Financial Incentives for Downloading COVID-19 Digital Contact Tracing Apps
    Contact tracing is a key approach for controlling the COVID-19 pandemic. Traditional tracing methods might however miss a number of contacts between infected and susceptible persons. Digital contact tracing apps have been developed to assist health departments in notifying individuals of recent exposures to SARS-CoV-2. These apps are used in several countries throughout the world, and some US states have either launched or are planning to launch such apps. The potential effects of digital contact tracing apps depend however on their widespread adoption. Most investigations of the determinants of adoption among potential users have focused on issues related to privacy features (e.g., who can access data, whether location is recorded) and the accuracy of the app in notifying users of exposures to SARS-CoV-2 (e.g., false notifications). In this paper, we investigate whether financial incentives might help further accelerate the adoption of digital contact tracing apps. We conducted a discrete choice experiment with an online sample of 394 US residents aged 18-69 years old. We asked participants to make a series of choices between two hypothetical versions of a digital contact tracing app characterized by several randomly selected attributes, including varying levels of financial cost or incentives to download. In this experiment, financial incentives were more than twice as important in the decision-making process about DCT app downloads than privacy and accuracy. In order to accelerate adoption, US States planning to launch digital contact tracing apps should consider offering financial incentives for download to potential users.
  • Quantum Invariance
    Quantum invariance designates the relation of any quantum coherent state to the corresponding statistical ensemble of measured results. The adequate generalization of 'measurement' is discussed to involve the discrepancy, due to the fundamental Planck constant, between any quantum coherent state and its statistical representation as a statistical ensemble after measurement. A set-theory corollary is the curious invariance to the axiom of choice: Any coherent state excludes any well-ordering and thus excludes also the axiom of choice. It should be equated to a well-ordered set after measurement and thus requires the axiom of choice. Quantum invariance underlies quantum information and reveals it as the relation of an unordered quantum "much" (i.e. a coherent state) and a well-ordered "many" of the measured results (i.e. a statistical ensemble). It opens up to a new horizon, in which all physical processes and phenomena can be interpreted as quantum computations realizing relevant operations and algorithms on quantum information. All phenomena of entanglement can be described in terms of the so defined quantum information. Quantum invariance elucidates the link between general relativity and quantum mechanics and thus, the problem of quantum gravity.
  • A Formal Model of Metaphor in Frame Semantics
    A formal model of metaphor is introduced. It models metaphor, first, as an interaction of "frames" according to the frame semantics, and then, as a wave function in Hilbert space. The practical way for a probability distribution and a corresponding wave function to be assigned to a given metaphor in a given language is considered. A series of formal definitions is deduced from this for: "representation", "reality", "language", "ontology", etc. All are based on Hilbert space. A few statements about a quantum computer are implied: The so-defined reality is inherent and internal to it. It can report a result only "metaphorically". It will demolish transmitting the result "literally", i.e. absolutely exactly. A new and different formal definition of metaphor is introduced as a few entangled wave functions corresponding to different "signs" in different language formally defined as above. The change of frames as the change from the one to the other formal definition of metaphor is interpreted as a formal definition of thought. Four areas of cognition are unified as different but isomorphic interpretations of the mathematical model based on Hilbert space. These are: quantum mechanics, frame semantics, formal semantics by means of quantum computer, and the theory of metaphor in linguistics.
  • World Heritage Sites on Wikipedia: Controversies in a Context of Constrained Agency for Cultural Heritage Activism
    UNESCO World Heritage sites are places of outstanding significance, and often key sources of information that influence how people interact with the past today. The process of inscription on the UNESCO list is complicated and intersects with political and commercial controversies. But how well are these controversies known to the public? Wikipedia pages on these sites offer a unique dataset for insights into public understanding of heritage controversies. The unique technicity of Wikipedia, with its bot ecosystem and editing mechanics, shapes how knowledge about cultural heritage is constructed, and how controversies are negotiated and communicated. In this article we investigate the patterns of production, consumption and spatial and temporal distributions of Wikipedia pages for World Heritage cultural sites. We find that Wikipedia provides a distinctive context for investigating how people experience and relate to the past in the present. The agency of participants is highly constrained, but distinctive, behind-the-scenes expressions of cultural heritage activism are evident. Concerns about state-like actors, violence and destruction, deal-making, etc. in the World Heritage inscription process are poorly represented on Wikipedia's World Heritage pages, instead hyper-local, and process issues dominate controversies on Wikipedia. We will consider how this kind of research, drawing on big data and data science methods, adds new dimensions to the debate on heritage controversies, especially its unique contributions, and also its limitations.
  • Wildlife stakeholders' attitude toward surveys
    Understanding aspects of the survey climate that contribute to nonresponse is an essential component of stakeholder opinion research. Participants' general attitude towards surveys has only been recently considered as a factor contributing to nonresponse. This study presents exploratory results of data gathered using recently developed survey attitude scale among commonly sampled wildlife stakeholders: deer and elk hunters. Findings suggest the stakeholders hold a positive attitude toward surveys, i.e., they value surveys and do not consider them burdensome. Assessment of the psychometric adequacy of the survey attitude scale confirmed acceptable metrics, results which align with previous psychometric assessments. Results provide evidence that the survey attitude scale can serve as a useful and accurate tool that may contribute to our understanding of the survey climate and nonresponse therein.
  • All the physical world as mathematical: Physical entity as quantum information
    Quantum mechanics was reformulated as an information theory involving a generalized kind of information, namely quantum information, in the end of the last century. Quantum mechanics is the most fundamental physical theory referring to all claiming to be physical. Any physical entity turns out to be quantum information in the final analysis. A quantum bit is the unit of quantum information, and it is a generalization of the unit of classical information, a bit, as well as the quantum information itself is a generalization of classical information. Classical information refers to finite series or sets while quantum information, to infinite ones. Quantum information as well as classical information is a dimensionless quantity. Quantum information can be considered as a "bridge" between the mathematical and physical. The standard and common scientific epistemology grants the gap between the mathematical models and physical reality. The conception of truth as adequacy is what is able to transfer "over" that gap. One should explain how quantum information being a continuous transition between the physical and mathematical may refer to truth as adequacy and thus to the usual scientific epistemology and methodology. If it is the overall substance of anything claiming to be physical, one can question how different and dimensional physical quantities appear. Quantum information can be discussed as the counterpart of action. Quantum information is what is conserved, action is what is changed in virtue of the fundamental theorems of Emmy Noether (1918). The gap between mathematical models and physical reality, needing truth as adequacy to be overcome, is substituted by the openness of choice. That openness in turn can be interpreted as the openness of the present as a different concept of truth recollecting Heidegger's one as "unconcealment" (aletheia). Quantum information as what is conserved can be thought as the conservation of that openness
  • Quantum gravity as the unification of general relativity and quantum mechanics
    nonstandard viewpoint to quantum gravity is discussed. General relativity and quantum mechanics are to be related as two descriptions of the same, e.g. as Heisenberg's matrix mechanics and Schrodinger's wave mechanics merged in the contemporary quantum mechanics. From the viewpoint of general relativity one can search for that generalization of relativity implying the invariance "within - out of" of the same system.
  • Human macroecology, energy use scaling, and the sustainability of cities: A look at Latin America
    We take a human macroecological approach using energy as a fundamental currency to quantify the emergence and future sustainability of urban societies globally with a special look at Latin America. Energetic scaling analysis showed most modern humans in cities in Latin America and elsewhere live at densities of ~10,000 ind/km2, ~4 orders of magnitude greater than our hunter-gatherer ancestors (<1 ind/km2). Meanwhile, modern cities consume ~10,000 watts mostly in the form of extra-metabolic (e.g., fossil fuels), ~2 orders of magnitude greater than hunter-gatherer biological metabolism (~120 watts). Further analysis of World Bank data across and within nations over time showed per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP), energy use, and CO2 emissions are lowest in predominantly rural countries, increase in urbanizing countries and are greatest in the most urban countries. For the same level of urbanization, Latin American countries show lower per capita GDP, energy use, and CO2 emissions than global averages. These trends coincide with changes in employment with rural countries employed largely in resource-extraction sectors and highly urbanized nations in service economies. Latin American countries have higher employment in resource sectors compared to most urban countries. Increasing energy use, especially fossil fuel use, underlies urbanization and changes in economic lifestyle. However, these trends cannot continue indefinitely. Latin America, because of its rich renewable and non-renewable resources, may be spared from future uncertainties inherent to complex human-nature systems including from climate change, energy scarcity, pandemics, migration, and trade agreements if it chooses to: 1) rapidly transition to renewable powered economies, and 2) reduce population and economy size within local and regional renewable biocapacities. A rapid cultural evolution is of the essence.
  • Popular Reactions To External Threats in Federations
    Exogenous threats pose a formidable coordination challenge to federations, as they compel governments at all levels to cooperate to prevent a collective risk. As the vertical fragmentation of powers complicates a coordinated response, we here argue that the central government becomes the focal point of the solution. In search of a more effective response against the threat, citizens coordinate their preferences around the centralization of authority boundaries in the federation. We test this argument using an on-line survey experiment in Spain, a country where the threat caused by COVID-19 has operated on top of non-negligible internal threats. The empirical analysis shows that exposure to vertical coordination failures prompt citizens to support a centralized redrawing of authority boundaries, though this effect is importantly conditioned by respondents' ideology and territorial preferences. Our findings suggest that shocks may represent turning points for the stability of federations, as citizens demands for a redrawing of authority might be followed by beneficial or opportunistic adjustments of authority.
  • COVID-19 Pandemic and Emotional Contagion: Societies facing Collapse
    This study will seek answers to three research questions, directed to evaluate the patterns and the structure of pandemics and contagious in different ages and territories, always taking into account the COVID-19 pandemic: What kind of patterns and emotional contagion are shared in different pandemic moments across ages and countries? How a pandemic affect our daily lives? Which type of emotion will dominate and why in the emotional contagion caused by a pandemic situation? To answer these research questions, our methodology is based on a mapping of epistemological knowledge from social science and history about how societies faced collapse due to epidemic outbreaks. Also, we present an autoethnography to revise moment by moment how professional and private lives are being affected by this pandemic right now.
  • Violence, worry and trust in the emergence of weapon-carrying
    This paper identifies longitudinal predictors of weapon-carrying in a sample of 10-25 year olds in England and Wales. It conceptualises weapon-carrying as anticipation of an adverse event and proposes hypotheses about the origins of weapon-carrying derived from the field of risk analysis. Specifically, it tests if worry about victimisation and experience of violence predict later weapon-carrying and assesses the moderating influence of trust in the police. The results indicate that worry about victimisation does not predict weapon-carrying, but experience of violence does. Distrust of police and peer criminality were also identified as important precursors to weapon-carrying. The study provides further evidence that weapon-carrying is a product of exposure to violence and criminogenic factors rather than a response to concern about victimisation.
  • Free Will in Human Behavior and Physics
    If the concept of "free will" is reduced to that of "choice" all physical world share the latter quality. Anyway the "free will" can be distinguished from the "choice": The "free will" involves implicitly a certain goal, and the choice is only the mean, by which the aim can be achieved or not by the one who determines the target. Thus, for example, an electron has always a choice but not free will unlike a human possessing both. Consequently, and paradoxically, the determinism of classical physics is more subjective and more anthropomorphic than the indeterminism of quantum mechanics for the former presupposes certain deterministic goal implicitly following the model of human freewill behavior. Quantum mechanics introduces the choice in the fundament of physical world involving a generalized case of choice, which can be called "subjectless": There is certain choice, which originates from the transition of the future into the past. Thus that kind of choice is shared of all existing and does not need any subject: It can be considered as a low of nature. There are a few theorems in quantum mechanics directly relevant to the topic: two of them are called "free will theorems" by their authors (Conway and Kochen 2006; 2009). Any quantum system either a human or an electron or whatever else has always a choice: Its behavior is not predetermined by its past. This is a physical law. It implies that a form of information, the quantum information underlies all existing for the unit of the quantity of information is an elementary choice: either a bit or a quantum bit (qubit).
  • Secondary impacts of COVID-19: Risk of vaccination reduction and global resurgence of measles
    The World Health Organization temporarily suspended all mass vaccination campaigns to control the pandemic spread of COVID-19 and the national lockdown across the countries has resulted in the postponement of routine immunization programs following the recommendations of maintaining physical distance. Any disruption of immunization services, even for short duration will result in an increased likelihood of vaccine preventable disease such as measles outbreaks. Amidst ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, it is therefore, essential to prevent these challenges through effective policymaking and strategic planning. Such measures should not only aim to recover the gaps in national and regional immunization goals but also emphasize on building health systems resiliency to external shocks that may affect vaccination programs across context.
  • The Small World Network of College Classes: Implications for Epidemic Spread on a University Campus
    To slow the spread of the novel coronavirus, many universities shifted to online instruction and now face the question of whether and how to resume in-person instruction. This article uses transcript data from a medium-sized American university to describe three enrollment networks that connect students through classes, and in the process create social conditions for the spread of infectious disease: an university-wide network, an undergraduate-only network, and a liberal arts college network. All three networks are "small worlds" characterized by high clustering, short average path lengths, and multiple independent paths connecting students. Students from different majors cluster together, but gateway courses and distributional requirements create cross-major integration. Connectivity declines when large courses of 100 students or more are removed from the network, as might be the case if some courses are taught online, but moderately sized courses must also be removed before less than half of student-pairs are connected in three steps and less than two-thirds in four steps. In all simulations, most students are connected through multiple independent paths. Hybrid models of instruction can reduce but not eliminate the potential for epidemic spread through the small worlds of course enrollments.
  • The COVID-19 Pandemic and Sexual Behavior among Gay and Bisexual Men in the United States
    After decades of navigating HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, gay and bisexual men are again responding to new and uncertain risks presented by the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic by adapting aspects of their sexual behavior. We fielded a survey of LGBTQ Americans' responses to the COVID-19 pandemic collected from April 10 to May 10, 2020, an important time period during which most states issued stay-at-home orders (April 10 to April 30) and also began implementing phased reopening (May 1 to May 10). In this paper, we limit analyses to a subsample of 728 gay and bisexual men and focus on changes to sexual behavior in response to the pandemic. We find that many gay and bisexual men made significant changes to their sexual behavior and partner selection. Nine out of 10 men in our sample reported having either one sexual partner or no sexual partner in the last 30 days, which, for many, was a substantial decrease compared to just before the pandemic. Men also made changes to the kinds of partners they had and their sexual activities with partners (e.g., more virtual sex), engaged in new strategies to reduce their risks of infection from partners, and expressed high levels of concern about how HIV may affect COVID-19 risk, treatment, and recovery. We expect these changes to be important not only for reducing the impact of the coronavirus pandemic, but also for reducing new sexually transmitted infections. Despite substantial changes in sexual behavior for most men in our sample, we note concerns around the sustainability of sexual behavior change over time and nondisclosure of COVID-19 symptoms to partners.
  • An Exploration of Presidential Vocabulary by Year
    Abstract During his 2020 State of the Union address, did President Trump use a vocabulary that was especially self-aggrandizing, or arising from insecurity or inferiority? Mining the historical records, I conducted a naive analysis of presidential vocabulary from the founding to the present day. My conclusion is that Trump's use of first-person pronouns is not notably different from his recent peers, but along the way some possibly meaningful patterns in how presidents speak of themselves and of us emerged.
  • Evaluating complex interventions using qualitative longitudinal research: a case study of understanding pathways to violence prevention
    Qualitative longitudinal research may help understand people's changing experiences during interventions: dynamics which are often overlooked in evaluations. We present a case study of a partner violence prevention program where we conducted 33 repeat interviews every one to two months with nine participants, and analyzed participant trajectories. We found that participants' relationship-related beliefs and intentions changed, promoting self-reflection that in turn helped alter their relationship dynamics. Our qualitative longitudinal approach allowed us to detect and track specific examples of change, identify influential elements of the program, and gather contextualized data about participants' lived experiences. Qualitative longitudinal research provided evidence of gradual shifts on the pathways to violence prevention. Long term effects of violence prevention interventions are very hard to measure directly. We argue that a qualitative longitudinal approach provides a way to measure subtle changes that can serve as proxies for longer term impacts.
  • Syrian Refugees in Rio de Janeiro: Does the Brazilian Immigration Law Lead to Invisibilization?
    Considering a global scenario in which refugees are struggling to find asylum and after that integrate themselves, it is necessary to analyze the efficiency of different immigration policies and, more specifically, their practical implications in the lives of refugees. This present paper analyzed the general scenario of refugee integration through the lenses of a study case of the Syrian Refugees in Rio de Janeiro. The question this research aims to answer is if the considered progressive Brazilian integration laws are actually causing a process of invisibilization. The title takes an ontological stand and supports the sociological concept of the word "invisibilization", since the object of interest is in fact the gradual process of turning invisible. The analysis of this project consists in literature review, interview with a specialist on the topic of Syrian Refugees in Rio de Janeiro, interpretation of open interviews with three refugees living in Rio and participative observation in a field research at a Refugee Festival. Analyzing all the data and personal depositions, the analysis points to two main categories of challenges for Syrian Refugees trying to integrate: a cultural isolation and local social barriers. Both types correspond to detachments from forms of their identity: isolated from their identity in Syria and not integrated enough to have an identity in Brazil. Accordingly to Brazilian legal reports, the social barrier should be facilitated if the all the policies foreseen in the Constitution and Refugee Act were actually implemented.
  • Capturing and analyzing social representations. A first application of Natural Language Processing techniques to reader's comments in COVID-19 news. Argentina, 2020
    We present a first approximation to the quantification of social representations about the COVID-19, using news comments. A web crawler was developed for constructing the dataset of reader's comments. We detect relevant topics in the dataset using Latent Dirichlet Allocation, and analyze its evolution during time. Finally, we show a first prototype to the prediction of the majority topics, using FastText.
  • Models and methods to analyse the interaction of evidence and policy in the first 100 days of the UK government's response to COVID-19
    BACKGROUND The COVID-19 pandemic is both a global health crisis, and a civic emergency for national governments, including the UK. With currently no vaccine and no treatment, there is no medical solution. Consequently, the questions for evidence and policy are complex, draw on multiple streams, and are about management rather than medicine. This working paper sets out models and methods for a forthcoming study to analyse the interaction of evidence and policy in the first 100 days of the UK government's response to COVID-19. MODELS Drawing on chaos theory and insights from the policy sciences, three models of evidence-based policy are discussed: a linear cipher model, a multiple streams model, and a melee model. The nonlinear melee model is adopted for the forthcoming study, in which multiple forms of evidence (science, economic, political, social) and actors interact in real time, and supposedly independent evidence streams concomitantly consider evidence from other streams, creating an apparently chaotic melee in which it is unclear where, how and by whom decisions originate or are made. This is normal, and much closer to how policy decisions emerge than the process represented by rational, ideal-type, linear models. METHODS DESIGN: An analysis of evidence in and of the policy response to COVID-19 by the UK government for the 100 days from 1st February 2020 to 11th May 2020 will be undertaken. DATA: Three data sources will be accessed: papers from the Scientific Advisory Group for Emergencies (SAGE) and its feeder groups and committees; formal government statements, information and guidance; BBC News coverage of government press briefings and further documents and/or coverage snowballing from them. ANALYSIS: A thematic content analysis, pre-structured by the four evidence streams in the melee model, will be undertaken to identify critical incidents for a strict contemporaneous analysis using only information available at the time of the incident, and referring only to the contemporaneous context for the incident. ASSUMPTIONS: Illustrative critical incidents will be sufficient to provide evidence for the explanatory utility of the melee model. Comprehensive coverage of all incidents would unnecessarily super-saturate the analysis.
  • A comparison of the qualitative analysis tools GABEK/WinRelan(r) and ATLAS.ti(tm)
    In recent years, qualitative research became an increasing methodical approach besides quantitative analysis. For that, there are approx. 20 software packages. Two of them are GABEK/WinRelan(r) and ATLAS.ti(tm), which are less used than others. The aims of this study are (1) to compare directly both tools with each other by applying the tools, using a pre-interview and (2) to conduct expert interviews to come to a better understanding of how and why either GABEK/WinRelan(r) or ATLAS.ti(tm)is used. As qualitative research is helpful to answer questions associated with hypothesis-generating research processes, such as quantitative methods, this paper aims (3) how those qualitative approaches can be analyzed by computer-assisted software. This paper conducted a literature review of both CAQDAS and applied the tools by using a pre-interview for the first comparison of both tools. In the further research, it is planned to conduct expert interviews with users to collect data for a deeper direct comparison of both tools. The results at this stage show that (1) there is no direct comparison of both tools, (2) GABEK/WinRelan(r) is less know than ATLAS.ti(tm) and (3) there are differences between the two tools, such as up-to-dateness and user friendliness. The paper concludes at this stage, that both tools have their advantages and disadvantages. GABEK/WinRelan(r) is with its "Gestalten"-approach (perceptive appearance of holistic processing of complexity) is a deep analysis tool, whereas ATLAS.ti(tm) has many functions, will be kept up-to-date and is more widespread within the scientific community.
  • Ethnicity and Covid-19: Standing on the shoulders of eugenics?
    The current pandemic does not affect all ethnic groups equally. Explanations offered for these inequalities have relied on assumptions about genetic predispositions and peculiar 'cultural' behaviours. But, beyond a very small number of health conditions, there is no evidence that such genetic or cultural differences explain ethnic inequalities in Covid-19 or any other health conditions. Organisations focused on supporting the BAME population are not focused on genetic/cultural explanations, but the racism which leads to the socioeconomic differences which are so important for explaining differences in Covid-19 deaths. And how it also leads to long-term stress which causes cardiovascular disease, and other health problems like obesity. Emerging evidence shows that these influences reach into all aspects of health-related outcomes. But these ethnic disparities in experiences of the pandemic are not being given sufficient attention. This is partly due to this focus on a search for genetic explanations for societal problems.
  • Trading Radical for Incremental Change: The Politics of a Circular Economy Transition in the German Packaging Sector
    Understanding environmental politics is crucial for sustainability transitions. We study the transition politics of the shift to a circular economy in the German packaging sector, particularly the curious case of the 2019 German Packaging Act. While the policy was born out of the unanimous wish for radical regulatory change, all stakeholders evaluate the outcome as incremental. Applying the Discursive Agency Approach and drawing upon stakeholder interviews and documents, we show that stakeholders' perceived fear of radical changes are critical for transition politics. This fear created a lock-in of two narratives proposing conflicting organizational designs of packaging waste management. While the narrative lock-in could be resolved by trading radical for incremental change, it left many conflicts and challenges unresolved. Our findings suggest that stakeholders' fears not only prevent radical regulatory change but also create incremental change that may intensify unresolved conflicts and, thus, further weaken the stakeholders' capacity for future transition politics.
  • Revenge of the Experts: Will COVID-19 Renew or Diminish Public Trust in Science?
    An effect of the COVID-19 pandemic, it is sometimes suggested, will be to reverse the secular trend toward questioning the value of scientific research and expertise. We analyze this hypothesis by examining how exposure to previous epidemics affected the confidence of individuals in science and scientists. Consistent with theory and evidence that attitudes are durably formed when individuals are in their impressionable years between the ages of 18 and 25, we focus on people who were exposed to epidemics in their country of residence at this stage of the life course. Combining data from a 2018 Wellcome Trust survey of more than 70,000 individuals in 160 countries with data on global epidemics since 1970, we show that such exposure has no impact on views of science as an endeavor or on opinions of whether the study of disease is properly an aspect of science, but that it significantly reduces confidence in scientists and the benefits of their work. These findings are robust to a variety of controls, empirical methods and sensitivity checks. We suggest some implications for how scientific findings are communicated and for how scientists seeking to inform and influence public opinion should position themselves in the public sphere.
  • The Identity of Logic and the World in terms of Quantum Information
    One can construct a mapping between Hilbert space and the class of all logics if the latter is defined as the set of all well-orderings of some relevant set (or class). That mapping can be further interpreted as a mapping of all states of all quantum systems, on the one hand, and all logics, on the other hand. The collection of all states of all quantum systems is equivalent to the world (the universe) as a whole. Thus that mapping establishes a fundamentally philosophical correspondence between the physical world and universal logic by the meditation of a special and fundamental structure, that of Hilbert space, and therefore, between quantum mechanics and logic by mathematics. Furthermore, Hilbert space can be interpreted as the free variable of "quantum information" and any point in it, as a value of the same variable as "bound" already axiom of choice.
  • Moral Religiosities: How Morality Structures Religious Understandings During the Transition to Adulthood
    Religiosity remains an important sociological concept, from assessing religion's effects on various outcomes to describing large-scale religious change. And yet conceptualizing religiosity--as a measure of intensity of religious practice--requires accounting for how respondents understand religious practice. Drawing on four waves of longitudinal interview data from the National Study of Youth and Religion (NSYR), this paper examines the religious understandings of young Americans as they develop over ten years. I find that respondents' religious understandings are shaped by deeper moral orientations that broadly structure their lives. From these moral orientations, I theorize four ideal types of religious practitioners that help explain complex patterns of religiosity in America--the Congregant, the Believer, the Spiritualist, and the Metaphysician. Recognizing the moral orders that structure young Americans' religious understandings opens new pathways for theorizing religion's influence and change over time.
  • Assessing concerns for the economic consequence of the COVID-19 response and mental health problems associated with economic vulnerability and negative economic shock in Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom
    Currently, many different countries are under lockdown or extreme social distancing measures to control the spread of COVID-19. The potentially far-reaching side effects of these measures have not yet been fully understood. In this study we analyse the results of a multi-country survey conducted in Italy (N=3,504), Spain (N=3,524) and the United Kingdom (N=3,523), with two separate analyses. In the first analysis, we examine the elicitation of citizens' concerns over the downplaying of the economic consequences of the lockdown during the COVID-19 pandemic. We control for Social Desirability Bias through a list experiment included in the survey. In the second analysis, we examine the data from the same survey to estimate the consequences of the economic lockdown in terms of mental health, by predicting the level of stress, anxiety and depression associated with being economically vulnerable and having been affected by a negative economic shock. To accomplish this, we have used a prediction algorithm based on machine learning techniques. To quantify the size of this affected population, we compare its magnitude with the number of people affected by COVID-19 using measures of susceptibility, vulnerability and behavioural change collected in the same questionnaire. We find that the concern for the economy and for "the way out" of the lockdown is diffuse and there is evidence of minor underreporting. Additionally, we estimate that around 42.8% of the populations in the three countries are at high risk of stress, anxiety and depression, based on their level of economic vulnerability and their exposure to a negative economic shock. Therefore, it can be concluded that the lockdown and extreme social distancing in the three countries has had an enormous impact on individuals' mental health and this should be taken into account for future decisions made on regulations concerning the pandemic.
  • Spillover, Selection, or Substitution? Workplace and Civic Participation in Democratic Firms
    Few studies have critically examined underlying assumptions of the civic spillover hypothesis that participation at work begets participation in civic life. We complicate extant theory by employing mixed methods and the most systematic dataset collected to date on firms fully owned and democratically governed by workers in the United States. Our findings about motivation to join participatory workplaces, substitution of workplace for civic engagement, and permeability of the boundary between professional and civic spheres lay the groundwork for a new conceptual model of civic spillover that illuminates the black box of this social process and sheds light on debates about the implications of workplace structure for democracy in America.
  • Not Minding the Gap: Does Ride-Hailing Serve Transit Deserts?
    Transit has long connected people to opportunities but access to transit varies greatly across space. In some cases, unevenly distributed transit supply creates transit service needs gaps which may impede travelers' abilities to cross space and access jobs or other opportunities. With the advent of ride-hailing services like Uber and Lyft, however, travelers now have a new potential to gain automobility without high car purchase costs and in the absence of reliable transit service. Research remains mixed on whether ride-hailing serves as a modal complement or substitute to transit or whether ride-hailing serves to fill transit service needs gaps. This study measures transit supply in Chicago and compares it to ride-hail origins and destinations to examine if ride-hailing fills existing transit service gaps. Findings reveal clustering of ride-hail pickups and drop-offs across the City of Chicago, but that the number of ride-hail pickups and drop-offs is most strongly associated with high neighborhood median household income rather than measures of transit supply. At the same time, temporal variations in transit supply and ride-hail trips suggest that a potential complement between transit and ride-hailing exists at select times. Policymakers should consider ways to encourage ride-hailing companies to fill transit gaps in low-income communities when options to increase service are limited.
  • Addressing Public Health Emergencies via Facebook Surveys: Advantages, Challenges, and Practical Considerations
    Surveys of the general population can provide crucial information for designing effective non-pharmaceutical interventions to tackle public health emergencies, such as the COVID-19 pandemic. Yet, conducting such surveys can be difficult, especially when timely data collection is required. In this paper, we discuss our experiences with using targeted Facebook advertising campaigns to address these difficulties in relation to the COVID-19 pandemic. We describe central advantages, challenges, and practical considerations. This includes a discussion of potential sources of bias and how they can be addressed.
  • From LiveJournal with Love: A Comparative Analysis of Russia's Domestic and International Disinformation Campaigns
    This article compares and contrasts the use of disinformation by the Russian government domestically and internationally, with a particular emphasis on the role of the blogging platform LiveJournal in shaping these practices. The case study draws on sociopolitical and sociotechnical frameworks, tracing the key historical, social, technical, and legal characteristics that have led to Russia's successful use of disinformation and computational propaganda. This analysis demonstrates that LiveJournal played a key role in the pattern of disinformation deployed first against Russian citizens and then expanded internationally. In understanding this success, Russia has been able to transform its own domestic legal frameworks in order to prevent both citizens and outsiders from leveraging similar tactics within the country. By better understanding the role of LiveJournal in this history, it is possible to develop a deeper understanding of current active measures in Russia's information warfare.
  • The French public's attitudes to a future COVID-19 vaccine: the politicization of a public health issue
    As Covid-19 spreads across the world, governments turn a hopeful eye towards research and development of a vaccine against this new disease. But it is one thing to make a vaccine available, and it is quite another to convince the public to take the shot, as the precedent of the 2009 H1N1 flu illustrated. In this paper, we present the results of four online surveys conducted in April 2020 in representative samples of the French population 18 years of age and over (N=5,018). These surveys were conducted during a period when the French population was on lockdown and the daily number of deaths attributed to the virus reached its peak. We found that if a vaccine against the new coronavirus became available, almost a quarter of respondents would not use it. We also found that attitudes to this vaccine were correlated significantly with political partisanship and engagement with the political system. Attitudes towards this future vaccine did not follow the traditional mapping of political attitudes along a Left-Right axis but oppose people who feel close to governing parties (Centre, Left and Right) on the one hand, and, on the other, people who feel close to Far-Left and Far-Right parties as well as people who do not feel close to any party. We draw on the French sociological literature on ordinary attitudes to politics to discuss our results as well as the cultural pathways via which political beliefs can affect perceptions of vaccines during the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • Understanding the geography of cryptomarkets using administrative data on postal drug deliveries in Scotland
    Cryptomarkets may open up the drugs supply in remote areas where access to drugs was expensive or patchy. However, using cryptomarkets relies on risk-limiting techniques to avoid detection which may be easier in urban areas. However, little is known about the geographical patterning of cryptomarket use, in part because data sources on the locations of cryptomarket purchasers are hard to come by. We use a novel dataset of packages of drugs packages intercepted by Scottish law enforcement, likely reflecting cryptomarket use, to understand the flows of drugs through cryptomarkets at regional and neighbourhood levels. This gives previously unavailable insights into the geographical patterns of cryptomarket use at the sub-national level. We use descriptive statistics, Bayesian hierarchical regression models, and exploratory analysis of spatial clustering to describe the relationship between neighbourhood characteristics and expected rate of drugs consignments identified across Scotland. The majority of intercepted drug packages were destined for urban centres, but there was a higher than expected delivery rate to some of Scotland's remote and rural locations. Increased rates of drug delivery within Scottish neighbourhoods was associated with higher levels of crime and deprivation, internet connectivity and with access to services, but not with higher rates of drug-related hospitalisation. Analysis of spatial clustering showed that drug delivery to the most remote and rural locations was still associated with good access to services because the packages were typically delivered to addresses in larger settlements within remote locations.
  • Demographic drivers of the post-recessionary fertility decline and the future of U.S. fertility
    We examine trends in demographic drivers of fertility--including fertility intentions, postponed childbearing, and unintended pregnancy--to better understand the decline of U.S. fertility since the Great Recession. As noted by others, the fall in fertility in the post-recessionary period was most pronounced for younger women, suggesting that part of the decline in total fertility may be transitional, as women shift to having children later in their lives. Here, we show that period total fertility rates (TFRs) that adjust for tempo effects indicate little evidence of large declines; in 2017, the adjusted TFR was over 2.1, substantially higher than the observed TFR of 1.77. Importantly, though, we also show that recent declines in fertility are not just the result of declining intensities of first births, but also declining intensities of higher order births. Much of the fertility decline was also driven by reductions in unintended pregnancy and reductions in births to Latina women. We argue that the future of U.S. fertility, therefore, rests on whether those who delay childbearing will ultimately meet their fertility goals, whether averted unintended pregnancies will be made up later, and whether childbearing patterns of Latina women will grow increasingly similar to those of non-Latina women.
  • Reality in a few thermodynamic reference frames: Statistical thermodynamics from Boltzmann via Gibbs to Einstein
    The success of a few theories in statistical thermodynamics can be correlated with their selectivity to reality. These are the theories of Boltzmann, Gibbs, end Einstein. The starting point is Carnot's theory, which defines implicitly the general selection of reality relevant to thermodynamics. The three other theories share this selection, but specify it further in detail. Each of them separates a few main aspects within the scope of the implicit thermodynamic reality. Their success grounds on that selection. Those aspects can be represented by corresponding oppositions. These are: macroscopic - microscopic; elements - states; relational - non-relational; and observable - theoretical. They can be interpreted as axes of independent qualities constituting a common qualitative reference frame shared by those theories. Each of them can be situated in this reference frame occupying a different place. This reference frame can be interpreted as an additional selection of reality within Carnot's initial selection describable as macroscopic and both observable and theoretical. The deduced reference frame refers implicitly to many scientific theories independent of their subject therefore defining a general and common space or subspace for scientific theories (not for all). The immediate conclusion is: The examples of a few statistical thermodynamic theories demonstrate that the concept of "reality" is changed or generalized, or even exemplified (i.e. "de-generalized") from a theory to another. Still a few more general suggestions referring the scientific realism debate can be added: One can admit that reality in scientific theories is some partially shared common qualitative space or subspace describable by relevant oppositions and rather independent of their subject quite different in general. Many or maybe all theories can be situated in that space of reality, which should develop adding new dimensions in it for still newer and newer theories. Its division of independent subspaces can represent the many-realities conception. The subject of a theory determines some relevant subspace of reality. This represents a selection within reality, relevant to the theory in question. The success of that theory correlates essentially with the selection within reality, relevant to its subject.