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- HEALTH CONDITION IN PERSONS WITH AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERSIntroduction: Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are behaviourally defined syndromes where the etiology and pathophysiology are not very well understood. If the child has been diagnosed with autism, parents already face special behavioural challenges. What makes ASD even more difficult, are the many other medical health issues that often arise in this population. The purpose of this article is to summarise the latest understanding of autism's commonly associated physical and mental health conditions. Methods: An analysis of relevant literature, sources from the internet and published literature, personal experience and observations of the author. Recent findings: Autism is a disorder of the whole body. It is often in co-morbidity with: epilepsy, gastrointestinal disorders, neuro-inflammation and immunological disorders, asthma, eczema, sleep disturbances, eating and feeding disorders, food allergies, attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), headaches, anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder, depression, schizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, Fragile X syndrome, intellectual disability, nonverbal learning disorder, motor clumsiness, Tourette syndrome, sensory problems, tuberous sclerosis, oxidative stress, acquired mitochondrial dysfunction and metabolic abnormalities. Many of the issues outlined here can overlap each other. Conclusions:Improved understanding of the underlying pathology of ASD and associated conditions, and the development of a common purpose across multiple treating sites, can improve the consistent and coordinated healthcare of children with autism. There is need for the development of improved strategies for delivering effective health education and healthcare to this large population. Improving the ability of these persons to lead relatively independent lives has a great economic impact.
- Grundlagen fur die Entwicklung einer Open Scholarship-StrategieDies ist die deutsche Ubersetzung und vorsichtige redaktionelle Adaption des englischen Originaltextes "Foundations for Open Scholarship Strategy Development", verfugbar unter https://doi.org/10.31222/osf.io/b4v8p --- Dieses Dokument mochte einen moglichst breiten Konsens zur Findung einer internationalen Strategie zur Implementierung von Open Scholarship finden, die sowohl den Anspruchen verschiedener nationaler und regionaler Communities gerecht werden kann, aber auch global funktioniert. Forschung kann idealisiert als ein inspirierender Prozess gesehen werden, um unser kollektives Wissen zum Nutzen der gesamten Menschheit weiterzuentwickeln. Die aktuelle Forschungspraxis sieht sich jedoch im aktuellen Prozess der Adaption an die digitale Welt noch mit einer Reihe von Spannungen und Konflikten konfrontiert, die sicherlich teilweise auf Differenzen zwischen dem Ideal einer wissenschaftl. Commons-Community und dem Alltag des traditionell-hochkompetitiven Wissenschaftssystems liegen mag und teilweise auf die sowieso schon bestehenden Herausforderungen durch die Veranderung des Wissenschaftssystems inkl. Infrastruktur hin zu digitalen Losungen. Das, was gemeinhin als Open Scholarship bezeichnet wird, ist hier als Ansatz gedacht, moderne Forschungs- und Lehr-/Lernpraktiken auf diese digitale Welt auszurichten. Wir schlagen hier keine normative Definition von Open Scholarship vor, sondern wollen anerkennen, dass es sich dabei um einen holistischen Begriff handelt, der das ganze Spektrum wissenschaftlicher Disziplinen und damit einhergehender, sich unterscheidender Prinzipien und Praktiken umfasst, die in anderen Kontexten u.a. auch als Open Science, Open Research oder Digital Humanities bezeichnet werden (mehr dazu in Punkt 3). Wir wahlen den Begriff "Open Scholarship", um diese Aspekte in einem universellen und konstruktiven Sinne inklusiv einzubinden. (Wenn wir hier verkurzt mancherorts den Begriff der Forschung verwenden, ist dies stets den historischen Entwicklungen Rechnung tragend und als verkurzt fur den gesamten Life Cycle von Wissenschaft, Forschung und Lehre.) Zweck dieses Dokuments ist es, eine prazise Analyse des aktuellen Standes der weltweiten Open Scholarship-Bewegung bereitzustellen: dies wird eine Auseinandersetzung mit Fragen nach gemeinsamen Gedankenstrange, nach Starken der Bewegung und nach Potential und beinhalten. Abschliessend wird dargestellt, wie wir als global vernetzte Gemeinschaft effizienter zusammenarbeiten konnen, um die wichtigsten strategischen Prioritaten zu erkennen und gemeinsam voranzubringen. Dieses Dokument wurde von den Foundations for OER Strategy Development und der Arbeit der FORCE11 Scholarly Commons Working Group inspiriert und durch eine offene Arbeitsgruppe gemeinsam kollaborativ entwickelt. Wir hoffen, dass dieses Dokument als eine Grundlage fur weiteren Austausch, Diskussionen und sich daraus entwickelnden Initiativen zur Umsetzung wirksamer Strategien dienen kann, um die Integration von Open Scholarship-Praktiken in eine sich entwickelnde, moderne, digitale Forschungskultur gemeinsam voranzubringen. Dadurch erhoffen wir uns, die Reichweite und Wirkung von Open Scholarship in einem globalen Kontext ausweiten und verstarken zu konnen, um damit sicherzustellen, dass es wirklich offen fur alle ist. Wir hoffen auch, dass sich dieses Dokument im Laufe der zahlreichen Diskussionen uber Open Scholarship weiterentwickeln und dazu beitragen wird, nutzliche Erkenntnisse sowohl fur die globale Koordination der Sache, als auch fur direktes Handeln vor Ort zu liefern. Wir glauben, dass dies ein wichtiger Schritt vorwarts ist, um Open Scholarship zur Norm werden lassen zu konnen. Letztendlich erwarten wir, dass sich die Auswirkungen einer weit verbreiteten Ubernahme von Open Scholarship vielfaltig aussern werden. Wir erhoffen uns, dass neuartige Forschungspraktiken das Innovationstempo erhohen und damit wichtige Industriezweige weltweit stimulieren konnen. Durch Open Scholarship ware auch eine Zunahme des Vertrauens der Offentlichkeit in die Wissenschaft moglich, da Transparenz im Wissenschaftsprozess damit normativer wird. Daher erwarten wir, dass das Interesse an Open Scholarship aufgrund seines inharenten Einflusses sowohl auf die Zivilgesellschaft als auch die Weltwirtschaft in Zukunft deutlich zunehmen wird.
- The Unbearable Lightness of the Cosmopolitan Canopy: Accomplishment of Diversity at an Urban Farmers MarketThis article provides a critique of work on urban public space that touts its potential as a haven from racial and class conflicts and inequalities. I argue that social structures and hierarchies embedded in the capitalist system and the state's social control over the racialized poor are not suspended even in places that appear governed by civility and tolerance, such as those under Anderson's "cosmopolitan canopy". Durable inequality, residential segregation, nativism, and racism inevitably shape what happens in diverse public spaces. Using an ethnographic study of an urban farmers' market in New York City, I show that appearances of everyday cosmopolitanism, tolerance, and pleasure in difference coexist with conflict and reproduction of inequalities that are inextricable because the space is embedded within larger structures, institutions, and cultural paradigms. By focusing on meaning-making in interaction, I analyze situated accomplishment of diversity and consider the implications for other types of urban spaces.
- Ensuring Confidentiality and Rich Data in Large Data Sets: Birth Rates vary between Warm and Cold Seasons in the US PopulationPrevious work argues that confidentiality is compromised by using an individual's sex, full date of birth, and US zip code. With use of the American Community Survey we test this assumption while maintaining participant confidentiality to study how timing of births vary by season, region, race/ethnicity, origin, sex, and birth cohort. We found that region and demographic factors help explain the likelihood for giving birth in warm months, which provides evidence contrary to the birth-rate temporal-homogeneity assumption.
- Citizenship Increases the Long-Term Earnings of Marginalized ImmigrantsWe provide evidence that citizenship catalyzes the long-term economic integration of immigrants. Despite the relevance of citizenship policy to immigrant integration, we lack a reliable understanding of the economic consequences of acquiring citizenship. To overcome non-random selection into naturalization, we exploit the quasi-random assignment of citizenship in Swiss municipalities that held referendums to decide the outcome of individual naturalization applications. Our data combines individual-level referendum results with over 30 years of detailed social security records from the Swiss authorities. This allows us to compare the long-term earnings of otherwise similar immigrants who barely won or lost their referendum. We find that winning Swiss citizenship in the referendum increased annual earnings by an average of approximately 5,000 U.S. dollars over the subsequent 15 years. This effect is concentrated among more marginalized immigrants.
- Journalismus und PolitikDie Interrelation von Journalismus und Politik ist, in einem anspruchsvollen Sinn, zentral fur das Funktionieren von Demokratie. Das Kapitel gibt eine uberschau der wichtigsten normativ-theoretischen Anspruche an diese Interrelation sowie relevanter empirischer Befunde zu ihr. Es beschreibt zunachst drei zentrale normative Demokratiemodelle und prasentiert sodann Ergebnisse normativ angeleiteter und relevanter empirischer Forschung zu den Beziehungen von Journalismus und Politik. Wir betrachten dabei jeweils Deutschland im internationalen Vergleich und behandeln zunachst die Strukturen, dann die Inhalte und schliesslich die Wirkungen des politischen Journalismus.
- OffentlichkeitOffentlichkeit ist ein sozialer Raum, in dem unterschiedliche Erfahrungen und Meinungen ausgedruckt, allgemein interessierende Fragen diskutiert und kollektive Losungen kommunikativ entwickelt werden. In Flachenlandern wie der Bundesrepublik Deutschland sind die Massenmedien (Zeitungen, Zeitschriften, Fernsehen, Radio) und seit Ende der 1990er Jahre auch Online-Medien (Webseiten, soziale Netzwerke, Diskussionsforen, Blogs etc.) die zentralen Foren offentlicher Kommunikation. Aufgrund der Vielzahl der Foren wird Offentlichkeit zumeist als ein Netzwerk aus Teiloffentlichkeiten aufgefasst, die sich jedoch vielfach gegenseitig beobachten.
- Role of Trade and the Media in Minority Language Maintenance: The Case of ciNsenga in Central Western MalawiMalawi has more than 14 languages but only a few of these, including ciCewa, ciYao and ciTumbuka, have a significant number of active speakers. This article examines the retention of ciNsenga, a minority indigenous language, which provides a different picture. Speakers of ciNsenga straddle the border between Central Western Malawi and Eastern Zambia. Although ciNsenga has a comparatively small number of speakers, the language is actively maintained. Within this paper, ethnolinguistic vitality, domain analysis and social network theories are applied to explore the factors fostering the retention of ciNsenga among the Ngoni, who settled within a predominantly ciCewa speaking area. This study finds that both the media and cross-border trade have greatly supported the retention of ciNsenga, despite years of prolonged contact with ciCewa. It is hoped the case of ciNsenga may illustrate a path that other Malawian languages could follow, in the interest of language preservation.
- A framework for mission-oriented innovation policy: Alternative pathways through the problem-solution spaceWe aim for a better conceptualization of Mission-oriented Innovation Policy (MIP). Our starting point is an analytical decomposition of societal problems and innovative solutions based on the degrees of wickedness regarding three aspects: i) contestation, ii) complexity and iii) uncertainty. We argue that both problems and solutions can be diverging (contested, complex, uncertain) or converging (uncontested, well-defined, informed). Based on the resulting problem-solution topology, we suggest a process-oriented view on MIP and discuss three alternative pathways along which convergence between problems and solutions can be achieved to transform wicked problems into legitimate solutions. We illustrate the pathways with the examples of smoking bans, CCTV and wind energy. For policy makers, locating a societal challenge in this problem-solution space, and implementing policy strategies accordingly, is expected to accelerate both the legitimacy of a mission and the resulting solutions.
- In the Mix: Social Integration and Social Media AdoptionWhat is the nature of the relationship between online and offline social life? Specifically, how does participation in the traditional forms of social life of a community shape social media adoption? Using a unique, two-wave panel dataset with saturated network data from over 20,000 students in 56 New Jersey middle schools, we test how measures of integration into a community are associated with adoption and de-adoption of social media platforms over the course of a school year. Social media adoption and de-adoption are related to the extent of students' bonding integration (social connections and social support) and competitive integration (related to status and dominance hierarchies) into the social life of the school, where more integrated students are more likely to adopt more social media platforms. Social media provides a space for community members to be in the know and to be known, both of which are more valuable with greater social integration.
- Abortion Prevalence by Age at First Coitus, Race, Ethnicity, Age, and Education: Evidence from the National Comorbidity Survey ReplicationOur specific aim was to report prevalence of abortion by first age of sexual intercourse, by race and ethnic groups, and educational attainment.
- An agent-based approach to weighted decision making in the spatially and temporally variable South African PalaeoscapeEven a simple human foraging system has a large number of moving parts. Foragers require a complex decision making process to effectively exploit the spatially and temporally variable resources in an environment. Here we present an agent-based modelling framework, based in optimal foraging theory, for agent foragers to make mobility and foraging decisions by weighing expected caloric returns against geographic and social factors, and forecasted future return rates. We apply our Paleoscape model to a spatially explicit South African coastal landscape to better understand the human foraging system of the Middle Stone Age, when foragers began systematically exploiting a wide variety of flora and fauna in both terrestrial and inter-tidal environments. We also discuss the broader importance of agent-based models of foraging systems for a wide variety of archaeological research questions.
- Factors influencing low prevalence of neurodevelopmental disabilities among Hispanic/Latino childrenObjectives. Hispanic/Latino children have substantially lower prevalence of neurodevelopmental disabilities than other groups (Boyle et al., 2011; Froehlich et al., 2007; Pedersen et al., 2012). The explanation for variations in prevalence are complex, but are generally thought to be related to language barriers and lack of access to and utilization of healthcare services. Previous research focused on how language barriers and lack of access to and utilization of healthcare services affects children with neurodevelopmental disabilities (NDD), but no research has examined whether these factors predict NDD. This study extends prior research by examining if social and environmental factors explain low prevalence of NDD in this population. Methods. This study uses nationally representative Integrated Public Use Microdata Series National Health Interview Survey data and multivariate analyses to compare NDD prevalence in whites and Hispanics/Latinos and examines whether healthcare access, healthcare utilization, language barriers, and length of time living in the United States (U.S.) explains this disability disparity. Results. Findings reveal that the H/L NDD disparity is not explained by differences in access to or utilization of healthcare, or as a result of spoken language differences that may create barriers to NDD diagnosis. However, while H/Ls born in the U.S. have lower rates of NDD than whites, H/Ls who were not born in the U.S. have even lower probability of NDD than H/Ls who were born in the U.S. Conclusions. These findings may be a result of cultural differences in understanding of disability knowledge, differential treatment within the U.S. healthcare system, avoidance of the U.S. healthcare system out of mistrust, or difficulty navigating the complex U.S. healthcare system. These findings underscore the importance of accessible and culturally appropriate health and clinical care interventions among H/L families, and emphasize the importance of ongoing, culturally responsive education for parents, childcare providers, and healthcare professionals to ensure early and culturally appropriate intervention among H/L children.
- The Long Arm of the Arab StateUnder what conditions do authoritarian states exercise control over populations abroad? The securitisation of cross-border mobility has been a common theme in examining immigration policies in the Global North. The securitisation of emigration and diasporas in non-democratic contexts remains neglected; this is particularly true with regard to Arab states' extraterritorial authoritarian practices. This article argues that authoritarian states develop a range of migration policies that are driven by the contradictory pressures of economic and political imperatives or, put differently, an "illiberal paradox": if a state does not expect economic gains from cross-border mobility, it is more likely to securitise its emigration policy; otherwise, it is more likely to securitise its diaspora policy. The article illustrates this trade-off via a most-similar comparison of Algeria, Libya, Tunisia, and Morocco. Drawing on Arabic and non-Arabic primary and secondary sources, it sketches a novel area of research on migration and security.
- The POPC Citizen: Political Information in the Fourth Age of Political CommunicationThe goal of this chapter is to describe how the POPC environment operates in tandem with personal characteristics to influence people's exposure to and processing of political information. In describing the political consequences of the POPC phenomenon we take a social-psychological perspective and focus on the individual level (for a more sociological perspective see the chapter by Vromen, Loader, and Xenos, this volume). We sketch the psychological contours of the contemporary "POPC citizen" and outline recent developments in citizens' use of mobile information and communication technologies (ICTs) for political information, which have consequences for their individual civic competencies as well as democracy at large.
- Debriefing Digital Simulations: Exploring Designs that Support Teacher Educators in Using Teacher Candidate Performance DataTeacher preparation programs are beginning to embrace new ways for teacher candidates to practice enacting complex professional activities, such as digital simulations. It can be challenging for teacher educators to support teacher candidates in learning through these experiences when the records of practice are stored in audio or video files. This article discusses a portal being developed through design-based research to allow teacher educators to access and efficiently process records of teacher candidates' performance from a digital simulation. A pilot study was conducted to see how two teacher educators used a prototyped portal to plan and facilitate a post-simulation debriefing with five teacher candidates, and to identify additional opportunities to foster teacher candidate learning. Findings suggest that accessing short transcripts of teacher candidate performance supported teacher educators in planning a debriefing that was grounded in clear learning objectives and responsive to teacher candidates' needs, while using the data from the portal to make practice public during the debriefing created opportunities for targeted feedback and supported meaning-making.
- Re-evaluating the NSF broader impacts with the Inclusion-Immediacy Criterion: A look at nanotechnology researchA major goal of government and non-profit scientific funding agencies is to support research and development (R&D) that has broad impacts, generates responsible innovation, and positively impacts society. This study proposes a new framework, called the Inclusion-Immediacy Criterion (IIC), that better assesses the inclusion and immediacy of research to determine whether the research helps marginalized communities, reduces inequality, and encourages inclusive innovation. To test the framework, the study analyzes NSF sponsored nanotechnology grant abstracts from 2013 to 2017. We find that 109 out of the 300 grants feature research that is inclusive, while 235 out of the 300 grants have broader impacts that either maintain the status quo or predominately help advantage groups. Using the Inclusion-Immediacy Criterion, policy makers and scholars will better understand the potential impact of funded science.
- Flexibility Capital and Flexibility JusticeFlexibility has increasing value across sectors of the economy, including energy. The ability to be flexible is affected by a wide variety of sociotechnical factors and determines what we term 'flexibility capital'. Levels of flexibility capital vary in populations, both absolutely and in the extent to which they are primarily derived from technological or social means, which has implications for the (dis)comfort and (in)convenience involved in economising flexibility capital. Furthermore, we argue that freedom of choice over whether and how to economise flexibility capital can be limited by factors such as financial resources, among others. In constrained systems (such as energy networks), the level of service enjoyed by the more affluent may not simply be higher than those who are less affluent, but may be directly enabled by reductions in the latter's comfort and/or convenience which may not feel fully voluntary. There is a real risk that such injustices could be locked into energy infrastructure and market design and governance for the long term as has already happened in labour markets. We introduce the concept of 'flexibility justice' as a frame for these issues of fairness. While the concepts we offer in the paper emerge from longstanding engagements with energy research contexts and they relate directly to the issues currently being debated in the energy research and policy communities, we contend that they can be related to a much broader range of issues in 21st century economies.
- Merits and Limits: Applying open data to monitor open access publications in bibliometric databasesIdentifying and monitoring Open Access (OA) publications might seem a trivial task while practical efforts prove otherwise. Contradictory information arise often depending on metadata employed. We strive to assign OA status to publications in Web of Science (WOS) and Scopus while complementing it with different sources of OA information to resolve contradicting cases. We linked publications from WOS and Scopus via DOIs and ISSNs to Unpaywall, Crossref, DOAJ and ROAD. Only about 50% of articles and reviews from WOS and Scopus could be matched via a DOI to Unpaywall. Matching with Crossref brought 56 distinct licences, which define in many cases the legally binding access status of publications. But only 44% of publications hold only a single licence on Crossref, while more than 50% have no licence information submitted to Crossref. Contrasting OA information from Crossref licences with Unpaywall we found contradictory cases overall amounting to more than 25%, which might be partially explained by (ex-)including green OA. A further manual check found about 17% of OA publications that are not accessible and 15% non-OA publications that are accessible through publishers' websites. These preliminary results suggest that identification of OA state of publications denotes a difficult and currently unfulfilled task.
- Hierarchy without Hegemony: Locating Boys in an Inclusive Masculinity SettingIn this article, the author details how 16-18-year-old boys ascribe to the tenets of inclusive masculinity in a U.K. secondary school that the author calls "Standard High." Drawing on five months of participant observation and twelve in-depth interviews, this article demonstrates that the boys' masculinities are predicated in opposition to the orthodox values of homophobia, misogyny, and aggressiveness. Accordingly, the practices of subordination and marginalization described in hegemonic masculinity theory are not used to regulate masculine behaviors or obtain dominance in this setting. At Standard High, boys ascribing to different masculine archetypes can each maintain high social status. Nonetheless, a social hierarchy still exists. Here, boys are stratified in accordance to a popularity ranking, which is determined by the possession of a matrix of variables: Namely, charisma, authenticity, emotional support, and social fluidity.
- Transition Spillovers? The Protest Behaviour of the 1989 Generation in EuropeMany studies suggest that citizens of Central and Eastern Europe are less politically active than their peers in Western Europe. Yet, it is unclear whether previous experiences of mobilization moderate these differences. This article focuses on the protest behaviour of the 1989 generation, which is composed of citizens who reached political maturity during the collapse of communism. Building on political socialization theory, the article proposes that citizens exposed to high levels of protest during their formative years might be more inclined to protest later. This implies that mobilization during the transitions from communism might moderate the current East-West gap in participation. The article combines data from 25 new and old democracies to assess how early exposure to protest has affected the participation of the 1989 generation. The results of multilevel models indicate that participation in demonstrations is not significantly lower in Central and Eastern Europe once we account for the level of protest at the turn of the nineties. Furthermore, the Eastern deficit in participation in petitions and boycotts is lower in societies that experienced higher levels of protest during the collapse of communism. Some results, however, are sensitive to the inclusion of Eastern Germany, an influential case.
- The Social and Genetic Inheritance of Educational Attainment: Genes, Parental Education, and Educational ExpansionRecently, several genome-wide association studies of educational attainment have found education-related genetic variants and enabled the integration of human inheritance into social research. This study incorporates the newest education polygenic score (Lee et al. 2018) into sociological research, and tests three gene-environment interaction hypotheses on status attainment. Using the Health and Retirement Study (N = 7,625), I report three findings. First, a standard deviation increase in the education polygenic score is associated with a 60% increase in the likelihood of advancing to the next level of education, while a standard deviation increase in parental education results in a 68% increase. Second, supporting the Saunders hypothesis, the genetic effect becomes 11% smaller when parental education is one standard deviation higher, indicating that highly educated parents are more able to preserve their family's elite status in the next generation. Finally, the genetic effect is slightly greater for the younger cohort (1942~59) than the older cohort (1920~41). The findings strengthen the existing literature on the social influences in helping children achieve their innate talents.
- Worker Power and Class Polarization in Intra-Year Work Hour VolatilityPrecarious work, which has become more prevalent in the United States in recent decades, is disproportionately experienced by workers of lower socio-economic classes, and research suggests that the erosion of worker power has contributed to this class polarization in precarity. One dimension of precarious work of growing interest to scholars and policymakers is instability faced by workers in the amount and regularity of their work hours. However, we know little about the magnitude of month-to-month or week-to-week (intra-year) volatility in hours worked, the extent of class-based polarization in this measure of job quality, and whether worker power moderates this polarization. In this paper, we make novel use of the panel nature of the nationally-representative Current Population Survey (CPS) to estimate intra-year volatility in the actual hours respondents report working in the previous week across four consecutive survey months. Using this new measure, we then show that, net of demographic characteristics and controls for occupation and industry, low-wage workers experience disproportionately greater work hour volatility. Finally, we find evidence that reductions in marketplace bargaining power--as measured by higher state-level unemployment rates--increase wage- and education-based polarization in work hour volatility, while increases in associational power--as measured by union coverage--reduce wage-based polarization in work hour volatility.
- The Consequences of Incarceration for Mortality in the USPrevious research suggests that incarceration has negative implications for individuals' well-being, health, and mortality. These studies, however, are limited because they do not follow former prisoners over extended periods of time into older adult ages when the brunt of incarceration effects may be felt. This paper contributes to this literature by employing the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) to estimate long-term effects of individual incarceration on mortality over a period of nearly 40 years. We use these estimates to investigate the implications of the US incarceration regime and the post-1980 incarceration boom for the US health and mortality disadvantage relative to industrialized peer countries (the United Kingdom).
- The Intersection of Youth Masculinities, Decreasing Homophobia and Class: An EthnographyThis article examines the emergence of progressive attitudes toward homosexuality among working-class boys in a sixth form in the south of England to develop an intersectional analysis of class, youth masculinities and decreasing homophobia. Drawing on three months of ethnographic data collection, I find that working-class male youth intellectualize pro-gay attitudes and that homophobic language is almost entirely absent from the setting. I document the presence of homosocial tactility, as well as the valuing of friendship and emotional closeness. However, these behaviours are less pronounced than documented among middle-class boys, and I use these findings to advance understanding of how class influences the development of inclusive attitudes and behaviours. Inclusive masculinity theory is used to understand these findings, refining the theory and extending it to a new demographic.
- An exploratory study of a new kink activity: "Pup play"This study presents the narratives and experiences of 30 gay and bisexual men who participate in a behavior known as "pup play." Never empirically studied before, we use in-depth interviews and a modified form of grounded theory to describe the dynamics of pup play and develop a conceptual framework with which to understand it. We discuss the dynamics of pup play, demonstrating that it primarily consists of mimicking the behaviors and adopting the role of a dog. We show that the majority of participants use pup play for sexual satisfaction. It is also a form of relaxation, demonstrated primarily through the existence of a "headspace." We classify pup play as a kink, and find no evidence for the framing of it as a form of zoophilia. We call for further research on pup play as a sexual kink and leisure activity from both qualitative and quantitative perspectives.
- Detecting a Decline in Serial Homicide: Have We Banished the Devil from the Details?Objectives: The likelihood that serial murderers are responsible for most unresolved homicides and missing persons was examined by investigating the accounting of the phenomenon in the context of a declining prevalence. Methods: A mixed methods approach was used, consisting of a review of a sample of unresolved homicides, a comparative analysis of the frequency of known serial homicide series and unresolved serial homicide series, and semi-structured interviews of experts. Results: The past decade contained almost half the cases (13%) that existed at the 1980s peak of serial homicide (27%). Only 282 (1.3%) strangled females made up the 22,444 unresolved homicides reviewed. Most expert respondents thought it unreasonable that any meaningful proportion of missing persons cases are victims of serial homicide. Conclusions: Technology, shifts in offending behavior, proactive law enforcement action, and vigilance of society have transformed serial killing and aids in viewing offenders as people impacted by societal shifts and cultural norms. The absence of narrative details inhibited some aspects of the review. An exhaustive list of known unresolved serial homicide series remained elusive as some missing persons are never reported. Future research should incorporate those intending to murder serially, but whose efforts were stalled by arrest, imprisonment, or death.
- Human Resources Management, Internationalization and Academic Staff MobilityIn the following study (chapter 6), Human Resources Management, Internationalization and Academic Staff Mobility, Grischa Fraumann and Isil Guney analyze the relationship between international mobility, academic staff development and human resources management. Giving some theoretical information about the role of HRM in academic staff development and academic mobility, the authors focus on internationalization of institutional strategies and HRM. Institutional structures, processes, support and incentive mechanisms in higher education institutions are examined. Drawing attention to the lack of human resources support tools, they emphasize the role of human resources unit in international mobility of academic staff for staff development and conclude that an effective institutional strategy in collaboration with HRM and international office is needed to overcome obstacles and promote mobility.
- Socioeconomic and Genomic Roots of Verbal AbilityCognitive ability is one of the most potent and contentious human traits. Many issues surrounding cognitive ability especially those related to heredity is highly charged. Yet, all of the discussion on heredity has been based on non-DNA evidence. It is largely neglected that DNA and environmental data at individual level are indispensable for understanding the development of cognitive ability. In this article, we report findings from a study that uses both ability-related polygenic scores (PGSs) and a rich set of socioeconomic measures from Add Health. In an all-ethnicity sample excluding blacks, a social-science model predicts verbal ability well yielding an R2 of 17.5%. Adding two ability-related PGSs increases this R2 by 1.7%. Such models yield more accurate estimates of the effects of the PGSs and those of SES context, and provide an estimated degree to which SES context is influenced by parental genomes. Schooling and neighborhood remain important to verbal ability even after an early measure of verbal ability is adjusted in the model. Although the influence from the genome is evident, the influences of SES context are critical and cannot be dismissed.
- Stop, Frisk, and Assault? Racial Disparities in Police Use of Force During Investigatory StopsBlack civilians are more likely to be stopped by police than White civilians net of relevant factors. Less is known about whether or not racial inequalities exist in police use of force during stops. Using data on over two million police stops in New York City from 2007-2014 and drawing on literatures on race, policing, and the Black Lives Matter movement, we test hypotheses regarding the associations between race, civilian behavior, age, and police use of force. We also investigate whether recent reforms reduced any observed inequality in police violence during stops. Findings show that Black and White civilians experience fundamentally different interactions with police. Black civilians are particularly more likely to experience potential lethal force when police uncover criminal activity and this disparity is greatest for Black youth compared to White youth. Overall, if there were no racial disparities in police use of force, we estimate that approximately 61,000 fewer stops of Black civilians would have included police use of force and 1,000 fewer stops would have included potential lethal force from 2007-2014. Further, while reform efforts substantially reduced the number of stops annually, inequalities in police use of force persist.
- Social justice in the digital age: re-thinking the smart city with Nancy Fraser. UCCities Working Paper # 1While many urban scholars acknowledge the importance of justice and participation for emerging smart city initiatives, these dimensions remain inadequately addressed in critical literature. To strengthen the smart city critique, in this conceptual intervention we employ the theory of justice developed by philosopher Nancy Fraser, organized along the domains of redistribution, recognition, and representation. Using Fraser's tripartite framework of justice, we reformulate and expand the existing critiques of the smart city. Moreover, drawing on her notion of transformative approaches, we argue for shifting the discussion away from the smart city, even an alternative one, towards the just city and a just urbanism in the digital age.
- Boundary Violations and Adolescent Drinking: Observational Evidence That Symbolic Boundaries Moderate Social InfluenceSymbolic boundaries are widely shared understandings of what types of behaviors, tastes, and opinions are appropriate for different kinds of people. Scholars have mostly focused on how people judge others and how symbolic boundaries align with and thus reproduce social differences. Although this work has been impressive, I argue that it might miss important ways in which symbolic boundaries become effective in everyday social life. I therefore develop an understanding of how symbolic boundaries affect people's ideas and decisions about themselves and their own behavior. Moreover, I argue that focusing on boundary violations -- that is, what happens if people express opinions or enact behavior that contravenes what is considered (in)appropriate for people like them -- might offer an important way to understand how symbolic boundaries initiate and shape cultural and social change. Using data from Add Health, I demonstrate the utility of this line of argument and show that boundary violations play an important role in channeling social influence. Conservative/Evangelical Protestants and to a lesser degree Catholics, but not Mainline Protestants are highly influenced by the drinking of co-religionists. I consider the implications for cultural sociology.
- History of agriculture and intensity of warfare shaped the evolution of large-scale human societies in Afro-EurasiaUnderstanding why large, complex human societies have emerged and persisted more readily in certain regions of the world than others is an issue of long-standing debate. Here we systematically test a range of hypotheses involving the socio-ecological factors that may ultimately promote or inhibit the formation of large, complex human societies. We employ spatially explicit statistical analyses using data on the geographical and temporal distribution of the largest human groups over a 3000 year period of history. The results support the predictions of two complementary hypotheses indicating that large-scale societies developed more commonly in regions where i) agriculture has been practiced for longer (thus providing more time for the norms & institutions that facilitate large-scale organization to emerge), and ii) warfare was more intense (thus creating a stronger selection pressure for societies to scale up). We found no support for the influential idea that large-scale societies were more common in those regions naturally endowed with a higher potential for productive agriculture. Our study highlights how modern cultural evolutionary theory can be used to organize and synthesize alternative hypotheses and shed light on the ways ecological and social processes have interacted to shape the complex social world we live in today.
- The Schon case: Analyzing in-text citations to papers before and after retractionAlthough only a small fraction of all scientific publications is retracted for misconduct, it has a profound impact on the research community, policy makers and the public at large. Indeed, over the last decades scientific integrity became a hot issue in science policy (Tchao, 2014). Moreover, papers retracted for fraud or other reasons should not be cited or used anymore. Although in most cases they are earmarked as retracted in bibliographic databases and in the electronic version of journals, they often remain cited a long time after the retraction notice is published. The misconduct case of Jan Hendrik Schon is a well know example. It attracted a lot of attention due to the renown of the researcher's institute, the claims and the sheer number of publications involved. This researcher co-authored more than 100 papers and rose through prominence at the turn of the century with a number of apparent ground breaking discoveries in materials science. This study analyzes the context in which the papers from Schon, retracted or not, were referred to, and in which connotation using a full-text based citation analysis.
- Message Received? The Role of Emotion, Race, and Politics in Social Movement Perceptions and SupportScholars have long studied how social movements frame and deliver their messages, yet much less is known about how these "signals" are received by the public. In this study, we ask whether and how social movement members' characteristics interact with a bystander's to influence whether they support a particular protest movement. In addition, we examine how perceived likelihood of violence mediates these outcomes. We test five competing models based on previous theories of emotion, race, and political views in social movement support. To adjudicate between these frameworks, we conduct an experiment using a 2x2 factorial design in which participants read a news story about a protest accompanied by an image of a neutral/angry, white/Black protestor, measuring three types of social movement support. Results provide support for the politicized race model: a Black protestor is more motivating for liberals' social movement support, while a white protestor is more motivating for conservatives. Both liberals and conservatives are more likely to associate the protest with violence after seeing a Black protestor compared to a white one. Racialized perceptions of violence explain part of conservatives' hesitancy to support the movement when seeing a Black protestor and inhibits part of the otherwise-positive effect of seeing a Black protestor for liberals.
- Balancing continuity and novelty: The practical relevance of management research from the practitioners' perspectiveIn management research, the literature on practical relevance holds that practitioners actively construct practical relevance. However, the practitioners' perspective on relevance has received very little scholarly attention to date. This paper puts forward a theoretical model for examining how practitioners construct academic knowledge as practically relevant based on interviews with practitioners enrolled on executive MBA (EMBA) courses. The model shows that practitioners construct academic knowledge as relevant by (1) perceiving it as congruent with their context, experiences and intuition, (2) extending their knowledge by new instruments, constructs, and means of scientific framing and (3) reconnecting it to their contexts and professional practices. This model extends the literature by showing that, in order to be considered practically relevant, academic knowledge needs to balance novelty and continuity. Additionally, the paper shows that practitioners are unlikely to perceive as relevant ambiguous academic knowledge that is 'action expansive', i.e. that presents them with an overwhelming range of possible actions.
- Antagonist Innovation: technologies, practices and innovation in the War on DrugsSince the early 1990s, maritime routes are the primary method used by Colombian smugglers to transport illicit drugs to consumer or transshipment countries. Smugglers have developed their kind of artifacts, the narcosubs. The Colombian Navy has adopted several strategies and adapted several technologies in their attempt to control the flows of illicit drugs. In the so-called War on Drugs (WoD), law enforcement, military, and drug smugglers have engaged in the production, modification, and maintenance of technological artifacts. Based on documentary material, observations and interviews I present the process of innovation by antagonism in the War on Drugs in Colombia. I present an overview of the co-evolution of drug trafficking technologies and the techniques and technologies used by the Colombian Navy to counter the activities of drug smugglers. I emphasize on the process of self-building artifacts by smugglers, explained as a bricolage of local knowledge of traditional boat building with off-the-shelf technologies and in the localized character of the responses by the Navy personnel. Explanations aiming to account for the process of innovation in outlaw contexts in which antagonistic relationships shape the actions of players must take into account the paradoxical and symbiotic relationship between players in the two sides
- Will the true causal effect please stand up? A critique of using fixed-effects regression to estimate the effects of personal contacts on wagesThere is an ongoing controversy about whether the correlation between job finding via personal contacts and wages reflects a causal effect. Critics such as Mouw (2003) argue that controlling for unobserved confounders, preferably by fixed-effects regressions, removes spurious correlations and reveals the actual null effect of personal contacts. More recently, however, McDonald (2015) applied fixed effects regressions and found a significantly positive effect. In this paper, we argue that both the Mouw (2003) and McDonald (2015) results are subject to sample selection. Results are potentially biased because their fixed effects estimators exclude those persons who use only one job search method. We propose difference-in-differences matching as an alternative estimator that does not induce the same sample selection bias. Re-analyzing the data used in Mouw (2003) and McDonald (2015), we find that in both cases, this alternative estimator is unbiased by unobserved confounders as well as by sample selection and gives us a causal null effect, which supports Mouw`s (2003) original argument.
- Civil War Outcome, Democratization, and Ethnic SupportWhat are the conditions under which post-conflict elections take place and why do only few post-conflict elections result in democratic post-conflict orders? This is the main puzzle raised in this paper. The argument is that the decision to stage elections and democratize is highly strategic and depends on the ethnic size of the post-conflict government leader. Especially post-conflict leaders with large ethnic support are able to utilize quick post-conflict elections to stabilize and legitimize their political position. However, in the long run the government leaders prefer institutions that maximize their time in office and therefore will hinder full scale democratization. The empirical analysis demonstrates that the timing of elections and democratization depend on the ethnic support of the new government and the civil war outcome.
- Narratives of Identity: Understanding the Experiences of Adults with Hearing Loss who use Hearing AidsOBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the identities that adults with sensorineural hearing loss construct when telling stories about their experiences with hearing loss and hearing aids. Determining and understanding these identities is important because research shows that who a person believes themselves to be has implications for how they approach their healthcare, as well as their emotional and physical wellbeing. DESIGN: We employed a qualitative study with a narrative approach and gathered stories through narrative interviewing from 30 adults with hearing loss who reported using their hearing aids and accompanying accessories during all waking hours. We then used thematic narrative analysis to identify reoccurring themes across the stories. These themes allowed us to assign emergent identities to the hearing-aid users. RESULTS: Five identities emerged from the hearing-aid users' narratives: 1) the satisfied user, 2) the overcomer, 3) the dispassionate user, 4) the frustrated and resigned user, and 5) the griever. CONCLUSIONS: These findings are a first step to improving theoretical and clinical insights into the perspectives and experiences of satisfied hearing-aid users following diagnosis of their hearing loss and their hearing aid fittings. Such insights could ultimately improve hearing healthcare providers' abilities to employ patient-centered care while helping adults with hearing loss seek out, implement, and adhere to treatment.
- A conceptual analysis of social housing as infrastructureThis study into the role of social housing as essential infrastructure assessed evaluation tools and techniques needed to enable investment by government. Cost-benefit analyses and business case preparation provide a means to quantify productivity, while the broader range of societal outcomes also needs to be considered.
- Estimating Treatment Heterogeneity of International Monetary Fund Programs on Child Poverty with Generalized Random ForestA flourishing group of scholars of family sociology study how macroeconomic shockwaves propagate via households dynamics and landing a blow on children's living conditions; simultaneously, scholars of political economy unravel impacts of such shockwaves on population outcomes. Since these two strands of literature have evolved independently, little is know about the relative importance of societal and family features moderating this impact on children's material living conditions. In this article, we synthesize insights from these two strands by examining the effect of economic austerity following International Monetary Fund programs--a type of economic shock--on child poverty across a sample representative of about half the world's population of mainly the Global South. This article addresses the following fundamental sociological questions: to what extent do the pathways of economic austerity propagate through families' living conditions and societies' structural and political characteristics. To capture these multiple non-linear heterogeneous relationships between macro and micro traits, we deploy machine learning in the service of policy evaluation. First, our analysis identifies an adverse average treatment effect (ATE) following the implementation of IMF programs on children's probability of falling into poverty: 0.14, 95% CI 0.03- 0.24. Second, our algorithms identify substantial impact heterogeneity distributed about this ATE. Macro constellation moderate about half of the impact variation on children, and families' capabilities moderate the other half of this variation. We named this finding the 50-50 impact-moderation rule of thumb. Our algorithm identified family wealth closely followed by governments' education spending as the critical moderating factors. IMF program affects children residing in the middle of the social stratification more than compared to their peers residing in both the top and bottom of this stratification; for those children residing in societies that have selected into IMF programs and have historically spent most on education, are at a higher risk of falling into poverty. These findings identify the value of combining family sociology and political economy perspectives. Scholars will likely cross-fertilize this research further by testing this 50-50 rule of thumb to other types of economic shocks.
- Forgive Foucault, Forget Baudrillard - On the Other Side of Power, Toward the Ecstasy of SeductionOriginally published in Volume 13, Number 2 of the International Journal of Baudrillard Studies, this paper attempts to elucidate what Jean Baudrillard exactly means by encouraging an act of "forgetting" concerning Michel Foucault in 1977's Forget Foucault, suggesting that in order to reveal the mechanisms beyond Foucault's "power," one must push that concept towards its ecstasy in order to enter into the new meta realm of "seduction." With that in mind, the paper suggests that an additional act of forgetting is required as well, that in order to transcend "seduction," Baudrillard's own concept must be fatally hypostasized as well, and thus, forgotten.
- Using Selfies to Challenge Public Stereotypes of ScientistsIn an online Qualtrics panel survey experiment (N = 1620), we found that scientists posting self-portraits ("selfies") to Instagram from the science lab/field were perceived as significantly warmer and more trustworthy, and no less competent, than scientists posting photos of only their work. Participants who viewed scientist selfies, especially posts containing the face of a female scientist, perceived scientists as significantly warmer than did participants who saw science-only images or control images. Participants who viewed selfies also perceived less symbolic threat from scientists. Most encouragingly, participants viewing selfies, either of male or female scientists, did not perceive scientists as any less competent than did participants viewing science-only or control images. Subjects who viewed female scientist selfies also perceived science as less exclusively male. Our findings suggest that self-portraiture by STEM professionals on social media can mitigate negative attitudes toward scientists.
- Production and uptake of Open Access publications involving the private sector: the case of big pharmaOver the last years Open Access has been ranked very high on science policy agenda's both internationally as well as nationally. This resulted in many national mandates and international guidelines on OA publishing of scientific results. One of the reasons OA has been pushed so strongly by science policy is found in the argument that what is financed publicly, should be publicly available. This argument, also known as the 'tax payers argument' is used to support and legitimize the push for open accessibility, not only of scientific publications, but also of the underlying research data, in order to guarantee the nonacademic sector, with lower degrees of accessibility to otherwise 'behind-the-paywall' information, access to outcomes of scientific research in the public sector. In this study we will focus on the developments in the OA publishing in one particular institutional sector, the private sector. Business enterprises represent the main sector in terms of R&D investments. According to Eurostat, in the year 2016 this sector represented 65% of the total R&D expenditures within the EU28. While objectives and incentives in the private sector might not always been aligned with the disclosure of research results in the open scientific literature, there is no doubt that this is the main actor when it comes to R&D performance. Within the business sector, we will focus our study in the pharmaceutical sector, by selecting a number of large pharmaceutical companies. Pharmaceutical companies represent an interesting case of study, given that is it one of the most R&D intensive industries, while it si also known for its shift in R&D orientation, from an in-house focus in the development of R&D towards a model much more open and collaborative, with more interactions with academic partners and other companies. Despite the importance of industrial R&D, until now it remains relatively understudied how private sector institutions which are active in R&D have embraced the OA movement, hence it remains relatively unknown how the private sector adapts to and can benefit from the new paradigm of open scholarship. Our objective is to shed more light on the extent to which big pharma both has been publishing in OA and also has been benefiting from OA publications to build their own research.
- Ethical challenges around the use of social media data: Views of researchers and research ethics committee membersThis paper reports the presence of a problematic "personal ethics" approach to decision making by social media scholars who use data from general audience social media platforms for their research. When new methodological tools like social media (SM) research are developed, differing norms of what constitutes ethically responsible research clash. Mining data from SM platforms such as Facebook, is of particular interest to scholars in the research evaluation field and the availability of this data has contributed to the rapid development of the field over recent years. In the research evaluation field, there has been no discussion about the ethical considerations associated with using data from academic social media platforms. Instead, SM platforms are widely considered a general source of seemingly publicly available data, and therefore free for public use. Recent behaviours of researchers and their affiliated entrepreneurial partners such as Cambridge Analytica highlight that despite dominant thought to the contrary, the use of SM data is not ethically-free, nor should it be free from ethical scrutiny. Unfortunately, the nature of SM data is not contingent with traditional notions of consent, privacy, risk to participants, nor the freedom to withdraw. This paper reports uses data from UK higher education stake holders which consider the ethical boundaries of SM data, thereby focusing on how these academic governing bodies are failing to consistently promote a community-wide norm relating to the used of SM data. This leads to the application of ad hoc ethical definitions, or the promotion of the ability of researchers to apply a sense of "personal ethics" about SM use, that is not necessarily in line with the nature of SM data. As such, this paper offers a number of recommendations for the academic community to reflect on the ethical dimensions associated with responsible research behaviour relative to the use of SM data.
- Determining Textbook Cost, Formats, and Licensing with Google Books API: A Case Study from an Open Textbook ProjectThe rising cost of textbooks for students has been highlighted as a major concern in higher education, particularly in the USA and Canada. Less has been reported, however, about the costs of textbooks outside of North America, including in Europe. We address this gap in the knowledge through a case study of one Irish higher education institution, focusing on the cost, accessibility, and licensing of textbooks. We report here on an investigation of textbooks prices drawing from an official college course catalog containing several thousand books. We detail how we sought to determine meta-data of these books including: the formats they are available in, whether they are in the public domain and the retail prices. We explain how we used methods to automatically determine textbook costs using Google Books API and make our code and dataset publicly available.
- National OA mandate and its potential conflicting relationship with international scientific cooperation policies: the Dutch caseOpen access mandates are setting standards on how to publish open access, as well as indicate the timeframe in which these goals are supposed to be reached. Parallel to the OA development, taken up both nationally as well supra-nationally, European and thus also Dutch academics are confronted with an increasing pressure to cooperate scientifically with European partners, via the consortia obligations expressed via for example EU funding instruments such as those under the more recent Framework programmes. In this study, the question arose to what extent Dutch output was directly under the Big deals, that means, a situation in which any publication with a Netherlands based author as corresponding author was involved, would get OA format published. The choice for corresponding author was a second best approach, as the preferred choice for this analysis would have been submitting author. In this analysis, also scientific cooperation was considered as an important element of the way output was created, and how that linked to OA publishing. The main research question here is: to what extent is the Dutch OA mandate hindered by EU policies to increasingly work together internationally for EU scientists?
- Un climat democratique? Le role de l'opinion publique dans l'adoption de la tarification du carbone dans les provinces canadiennesDans le contexte canadien, les gouvernements provinciaux jouent un role important dans l'elaboration des politiques de lutte aux changements climatiques, notamment par leurs efforts de mise en oeuvre de mecanismes de tarification du carbone. Cet ensemble diversifie d'instruments de politiques publiques vise a imposer un prix sur les emissions de gaz a effet de serre (GES) avec l'objectif d'inciter les consommateurs et les entreprises a tenir compte de l'impact de leurs decisions sur le climat. L'interet des gouvernements provinciaux en matiere de protection du climat n'est pas nouveau. Les premiers plans d'action provinciaux dans ce domaine datent de 1995. A l'epoque, apres avoir considere l'adoption d'une taxe carbone dans les annees 1990s (Macdonald et coll., 2011), le gouvernement federal liberal avait annonce un ensemble d'actions en changements climatiques afin de mettre en oeuvre le Protocole de Kyoto, ratifie par le Premier Ministre Jean Chretien en decembre 2002 (Harrison, 2007). Durant cette periode, les actions federales en matiere de protection du climat culminerent par la publication, le 16 juillet 2005, de l'Avis d'intention pour reglementer les emissions des gaz a effet de serre qui sont produites par les grands emetteurs finaux, une reglementation visant les grandes entreprises et qui incluait plusieurs mecanismes de tarification du carbone . L'election d'un gouvernement federal conservateur en 2006 changea la donne de maniere fondamentale. Pour plusieurs observateurs et dirigeants provinciaux, il semblait maintenant peu probable que le gouvernement federal s'engage sur la voie de la tarification du carbone. L'approche privilegiee par le nouveau gouvernement federal etait celle d'une reglementation sectorielle, basee sur des normes reglementaires traditionnelles (une approche parfois d'ecrite comme 'command-and-control') consistant essentiellement a fixer des cibles d'emission que les industries devaient respecter sans que des mecanismes de flexibilite (par exemple, des permis echangeables) soit disponibles. Bien que des negociations aient ete entamees avec de nombreux secteurs industriels (Munroe, 2016), seulement deux secteurs ont ete reglementes, celui des transports et des centrales au charbon (Commissaire a l'environnement, 2012). C'est dans ce contexte que les provinces, de plus en plus au fait des impacts des changements climatiques sur leur territoire et des opportunites economiques creees par la croissance des industries vertes, devinrent plus actives en matiere de changements climatiques. Elles craignaient moins, comme cela etait le cas sous les precedents gouvernements federaux de Jean Chretien et Paul Martin, un possible dedoublement de leurs efforts avec ceux du federal (Houle et coll., 2014, Houle, 2015). Certains gouvernements provinciaux incluant le Quebec, l'Ontario, la Colombie-Britannique, le Manitoba, et l'Alberta adopterent des approches innovatrices en matiere de changements climatiques. Simultanement, ces provinces firent preuve d'une preference en faveur de la tarification du carbone, qui constitua un element central de leur politique climatique, via l'adoption de taxes sur le carbone ainsi que de systemes d'echange de droits d'emission (Houle, 2015). De maniere inattendue, l'adoption de ces instruments peut etre observee autant dans les provinces ou une majorite de la population supporte la tarification du carbone que dans celles ou seulement une minorite d'electeurs s'expriment en sa faveur. Doit-on en conclure que les decideurs publics ne tiennent pas compte de l'opinion publique sur la question de la tarification du carbone? Ce chapitre va explorer cette question tout d'abord en definissant la tarification du carbone et montrant le momentum a l'echelle international en faveur de son adoption. Par la suite, pour comprendre le lien entre l'opinion publique et l'emergence de la tarification du carbone dans le contexte canadien nous examinons tout d'abord l'evolution de l'opinion publique a ce sujet et, en particuliere, les differences interprovinciales. La derniere section de ce chapitre propose des etudes de cas, en commencant par celui de la Colombie-Britannique ou la taxe carbone instauree dans cette province fit l'objet d'une intense controverse, surtout pendant les elections provinciales de 2009. Nous comparons ensuite cette campagne electorale avec d'autres elections provinciales de cette periode, notamment celles de l'Ontario de 2011 et du Quebec en 2012. Ces comparaisons nous permettent de constater, lorsqu'elles sont associees aux observations des donnees d'opinion publique, que le manque de support initial pour la tarification du carbone n'a, regle generale, empecher les gouvernements provinciaux de s'engager dans cette voie.
- Age takes hold of us by surprise: Conceptualising Vulnerabilities in Ageing as the Timing of Adverse EventsObjectives Ageing in the public eye can be distilled to a limited number of adverse events, such as loss of health, partnership and wealth. While these events are a constitutive part of "normal ageing", they do not occur uniformly at the same time point in the life course. This study investigates to what extent bereavement, functional health loss and onset of poverty are adequate markers of ageing, and illustrates inequalities in their timing according to cohort, gender, class and ethnicity. Methods Data of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), collected over 7 waves (2002-2016) (n=7913) are examined using survival analysis. Results Persistent associations of manual or routine occupational class and belonging to an ethnic minorities are found with increased hazards of health loss, bereavement and wealth loss. Later born cohorts have higher health loss hazards as well as lower hazards for wealth loss, while earlier born cohorts have lower hazards for bereavement. Gender effects are pronounced in terms of bereavement, limited in terms of health loss and absent in terms of wealth loss. Discussion The timing of adverse events is a crucial gateway through which existing social inequalities are transferred into unequal ageing pathways.