Papers

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SocArXiv papers

  • Trojan Horse, Copycat, or Scapegoat? Unpacking the Refugees-Terrorism Nexus
    Widespread fear that hosting refugees will mean more terrorism in host states is at the heart of the `refugee crisis'. Yet, we lack rigorous evidence for such claims. This article theoretically unpacks how and under what conditions transnational refugee movements plausibly lead to different types of terrorist outcomes. Combining original data with a multi-pronged approach involving a treatment-placebo design as well as instrumental variable estimation, we provide systematic and robust evidence that sheds new light on the security implications of forced migration. Our findings challenge the claim that hosting refugees heightens the risk of ``importing'' terrorist attacks against nationals of host countries, especially in developed countries. However, in these countries refugees themselves are particularly prone to becoming the targets of terrorist attacks by natives, driven by fear and revenge. Dominant policy responses to the refugee crisis that raise fears and suspicions are therefore not only ill-suited, but potentially counterproductive.
  • Economic Precarity and the Gender Revolution: Young Adults' Division of Labor in Their Future Families
    Acceptance of mothers' labor force participation is commonly considered evidence of support for gender equality. This approach overlooks perceptions of both men's and women's behavior in public and private spheres. Using Monitoring the Future surveys (1976-2014) to trace youths' imagined division of labor arrangements, we show a more complicated picture of gender attitudes. Over this period, contemporary young people exhibited greater openness to a variety of division of labor scenarios for their future selves as parents, although the husband-as-breadwinner/wife-as-homemaker setup remained most desired. Using latent class analysis, we identify six configurations of attitudes: conventionalists, neo-traditionalists, conventional realists, dual-earners, intensive parents, and strong intensive parents. None of the configurations are gender egalitarian, showing equal support for both parents' earning and care work. Race predicts preferences more than gender. By 2014, a greater proportion of young White people were classified as intensive parents while young Black people were more likely to desire a dual-earner arrangement. Our findings suggest attitudes about divisions of labor are not necessarily tied to gender egalitarian principles, instead reflecting broader economic concerns about adequate income and parents' time with children. Future research must distinguish acceptance of flexibility in dividing work and care responsibilities from gender egalitarian attitudes.
  • Conversational Agent Research Toolkit: An alternative for creating and managing chatbots for experimental research
    Conversational agents in the form of chatbots available in messaging platforms are gaining increasing relevance in our communication environment. Based on natural language processing and generation techniques, they are built to automatically interact with users in several contexts. We present here a tool, the Conversational Agent Research Toolkit (CART), aimed at enabling researchers to create conversational agents for experimental studies. CART integrates existing APIs frequently used in practice and provides functionality that allows researchers to create and manage multiple versions of a chatbot to be used as stimuli in experimental studies. This paper provides an overview of the tool and provides a step-by-step tutorial of to design an experiment with a chatbot.
  • Multilevel Simulation of Demography and Food Production in Ancient Agrarian Societies: A Case Study from Roman North Africa
    Feedbacks between population growth, food production, and the environment were central to the growth and decay of ancient agrarian societies. Population growth increases both the number of mouths a society must feed and the number of people working to feed them. The balance between these two forces depends on the population's age structure. Although age structure ultimately reflects individual fertility and mortality, it is households that make decisions about the production and consumption of food, and their decisions depend on interactions with all other households in a settlement. How do these organizational levels interact to influence population growth and regulation? Here, I present a multi-level agent-based model of demography, food production, and social interaction in agricultural societies. I use the model to simulate the interactions of individuals, households, and settlements in a food-limited environment, and investigate the resulting patterns of population growth. Using Roman North Africa as a motivating example, I illustrate how abstract properties like "carrying capacity" emerge from the concrete actions and interactions of millions of individual people. Looking forward, bottom-up simulations rooted in first principles of human behavior will be crucial for understanding the coevolution of preindustrial societies and their natural environments.
  • How to align disciplinary ideals with actual practices: Transparency and openness in archaeological science
    Archaeology is a highly diverse community of researchers without universally adopted methods,concepts, or theoretical perspectives. One ideal that unites us is that we typically perceive of ourselves as contributing to the public good by helping to understand and preserve the past (Chippindale 1994). We act as stewards for archaeological sites and artefacts, and we work to correct misinformed views of the past that might have sinister motives. However, many of the current norms of archaeological practice are at odds with these ideals of archaeology. We share relatively little of our research with each other or the public. Typically we produce a journal article or monograph as a final product, but we rarely share the data files or computational methods that generated those final products, nor do we share our written work in ways that are readily accessible to the public. This suggests a gap between current practice and ideals. It also limits the reproducibility of our research, and the efficiency with which new methods can spread through the discipline. We show that an exploration of this mismatch between ideals and practice can reveal untapped potential for digital tools in archaeology to improve its sustainability as a research domain, and indicate new ways to engage with the public. We describe emerging norms in archaeology, and some new digital tools that archaeologists are using, that are helping to close the gap between ideals and current practices.
  • Kalesang dorp in Context De bouw van Village
    Kalesang Village is an innovative program of regional leaders to improve the well-being and economic standard of rural communities, a strong desire to involve the entire community comes together in assisting the implementation of the village. Objective examined Kalesang Village solely for reviewing how far the success of the program was to the community in rural development. In research and studies conducted using qualitative research approach to strengthen and formalize the findings of the field. That what has been done in the village of Kalesang Program evokes patronage and downstream program where community involvement is not the result of consciousness has awakened, but because of problems of bureaucratic structures that create dependence on the direction of companion gave birth to participation this village working units (SKPD). The most important thing that is related to indicator of success and engagement that is not that perceived can be found needs no improvement and changes in patterns of approach and implementation in the field
  • Black Holes and Purple Squirrels: A Tale of Two Online Labor Markets
    The Internet and social media have fundamentally transformed the ways in which individuals find jobs. Relatively little is known about how demand-side market actors use online information and the implications for social stratification and mobility. This study provides an in-depth exploration of the online recruitment strategies pursued by human resource (HR) professionals. Qualitative interviews with 61 HR recruiters in two southern US metro areas reveal two distinct patterns in how they use Internet resources to fill jobs. For low and general skill work, they post advertisements to online job boards (e.g., Monster, CareerBuilder) with massive audiences of job seekers. By contrast, for high-skill or supervisory positions, they use LinkedIn to target passive candidates - employed individuals who are not looking for work but might be willing to change jobs. Although there are some intermediate practices, the overall picture is one of an increasingly bifurcated "winner-take-all" labor market in which recruiters focus their efforts on poaching specialized superstar talent ("purple squirrels") from the ranks of the currently employed, while active job seekers are relegated to the hyper-competitive and impersonal "black hole" of the online job boards.
  • Teaching and learning about teaching and learning: The Mastery Rubric for the Master Level (MR-ML)
    The Mastery Rubric is a curriculum development and evaluation tool. It articulates the knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) of a given curriculum, together with the developmental trajectory that learning these KSAs is intended to follow. Mastery Rubrics have focused on graduate and post-graduate curricula, and utilize the European Guild Structure for staging growth and development of KSAs. Bloom's taxonomy is also essential for describing the performance, and performance levels, in each stage. A defining characteristic of the Mastery Rubric is the Master level: the Master is qualified, with evidence, to take a learner from novice through to Master. However, the transition from competent independent performer of a set of KSAs to Master is not addressed in any of the Mastery Rubrics to date. This article describes three levels through which any instructor can progress in order to generate evidence they are qualified at the Master level for any Mastery Rubric, even those that have already been published to include a (single) Master level. These three levels describe the evidence that can be observed to represent early, middle, and late Master capabilities in terms of teaching, and assessing learning, in students and trainees. Two new Mastery Rubrics (MRs) have recently been completed, and neither has a Master level: one for Bioinformatics (MR-Bi) and one for the Nurse Practitioner (NR-NP). Although this new Mastery Rubric for the Master Level (MR-ML) can be used with all of the existing Mastery Rubrics to characterize the development of the Master's engagement with theories and practicalities of learning, we use the MR-Bi and MR-NP to illustrate how the MR-ML can work with these two new MRs, and how individuals in any field can compile their evidence of the specific abilities to diagnose problems exhibited by those at earlier stages, devise remediating activities for those problems, and assess the result.
  • The Impact of BMI on Mental Health: Further Evidence from Genetic Markers
    We examine the relationship between BMI and mental health for young adults and elderly individuals using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and the Health & Retirement Study. While OLS estimates show that BMI is significantly associated with worse mental health in both young adulthood and old age, they are likely to be confounded by (i) unobserved factors that affect both BMI and mental health and (ii) reverse causality. To tackle confounding, we take two complementary approaches. First, we use a polygenic score for BMI as an IV and adjust for polygenic scores for other factors that may invalidate this IV. The IV estimates indicate that there is no statistically significant relationship between BMI and mental health for young adults, whereas there is a positive and statistically significant relationship for the elderly. Moreover, we show that IV estimates likely have to be interpreted as identifying a weighted average of effects of BMI on mental health mostly for individuals on the upper quantiles of the BMI distribution. Given potential remaining concerns about the validity of the IV, our second approach is to consider it an "imperfect" IV and estimate an upper bound on the average treatment effect for the corresponding population following Nevo & Rosen (2012). The estimated upper bounds reinforce the conclusions from the IV estimates: they show little evidence of a detrimental effect of BMI on mental health for young adults while being consistent with an economically meaningful effect for elderly individuals. Lastly, we explore some of the potential channels through which BMI may affect mental health for the elderly.
  • The Christmas Market Attack in Berlin and Attitudes Toward Refugees: A Natural Experiment with Data from the European Social Survey
    ABSTRACT: Using a quasi-experimental research design, this study examines changes in attitudes toward refugees after the terrorist attack on the Berlin Christmas Market of December 19, 2016. In our analysis, we make use of random variation in the field period of the European Social Survey (ESS) to fashion a natural experimental design. The survey's field period took place in Germany from August 23, 2016, to March 26, 2017. Hence, the Christmas market attack took place approximately halfway through the ESS's field phase, thus making it possible to study the causal effect on changing attitudes toward minorities before and after the attack. We argue that the terrorist attack creates a spillover effect and negatively shapes public opinion of uninvolved ethnic minorities. Our data analysis suggests that immediately after the event, only people with a right-wing political attitude appear to be affected by the proposed spillover effect. However, we find that the worsening of attitudes toward refugees can also be observed in the general population as time progresses. We do not find variation according to educational levels.
  • Between Physicality and Symbolism: Kyiv as a Contested Territory in Russian and Ukrainian Emigre Letters, 1920-1939
    The paper deals with visions of Kyiv in the writings of Russian and Ukrainian emigre writers during the interwar period. The city became a focal point of intensive intellectual debate whose participants regarded Kyiv not only as a place of a recent battleground but also as a sacral place and a highly symbolic image. Within the methodological framework of ethnic symbolism, this study attempts to explain how this physical/symbolic dichotomy was used to reinforce continuing claims for historical origin and cultural heritage, thus serving the contemporary purpose of national identity and political legitimacy. It also deploys the concept of displacement as a complex process of negotiation between homeland and hostland within an emigre community -- whose sense of loss and identity crisis creates additional impetus, though in different forms, for exploiting historical narratives. SOROKA, Mykola Iv.. Between Physicality and Symbolism: Kyiv as a Contested Territory in Russian and Ukrainian Emigre Letters, 1920-1939. Kyiv-Mohyla Humanities Journal, n. 5, p. 143-159, 2018. ISSN 2313-4895. Available at: . doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.18523/kmhj150394.2018-5.143-159.
  • Bohdan Boichuk's Childhood Reveries: A Migrant's Nostalgia, or, Documenting Pain in Poetry
    This paper examines Bohdan Boichuk's poetry by looking into the role his childhood memories played in forming his poetic imagination. Displaced by World War II, the poet displays a unique capacity to transcend his traumatic experiences by engaging in creative writing. Eyewitnessing war atrocities perpetrated by the Nazis does not destroy his belief in the healing power of poetry; on the contrary, it makes him appreciate poetry as the only existentially worthy enterprise. Invoking Gaston Bachelard's classic work The Poetics of Reveries: Childhood, Language, and the Cosmos, I argue that Boichuk's vivid childhood memories, however painful they might be, helped him poetically recreate and reimagine fateful moments of his migrant life. REWAKOWICZ, Maria G.. Bohdan Boichuk's Childhood Reveries: A Migrant's Nostalgia, or, Documenting Pain in Poetry. Kyiv-Mohyla Humanities Journal, n. 5, p. 133-142, 2018. ISSN 2313-4895. Available at: . doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.18523/kmhj150392.2018-5.133-142.
  • Ukrainian Students in Spain after World War II
    The paper analyzes a book written by Volodymyr Yarymovych, Oleksandr Bilyk, and Mykola Volynskyi, entitled Narys istorii ukrainskoi studentskoi hromady ta Ukrainskykh poselen v Espanii 1946-1996 (An Overview of the History of the Ukrainian Student Community and Ukrainian Settlements in Spain, 1946-1996), which tells about the Ukrainian students who arrived in Madrid in 1946 and formed part of the early Ukrainian Diaspora in Spain. The book proves to be an important source of information, previously unknown to scholars, which describes the dramatic and controversial process of constructing Ukrainian identity in the aftermath of World War II. The authors of the study consider the historical and cultural context of the Ukrainian emigration in the second half of the 20th century, its connection with Francoist ideology, and its integral role in the Spanish-Ukrainian cultural dialogue. PRONKEVYCH, Oleksandr; SHESTOPAL, Olga. Ukrainian Students in Spain after World War II. Kyiv-Mohyla Humanities Journal, n. 5, p. 117-132, 2018. ISSN 2313-4895. Available at: .doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.18523/kmhj150391.2018-5.117-132.
  • Kyiv Theological Academy Professors at the Beginning of the 20th Century: At the Intersection of Cultures
    This article attempts to reveal intercultural connections at the Kyiv Theological Academy at the beginning of the 20th century by reconstructing the spiritual biographies of two theological academy professors: Archimandrite (later, Archbishop of Berlin and Germany) Tykhon (Tymofii Liashchenko) and Petro Kudriavtsev. The article demonstrates how different cultural traditions intersected and combined in the spiritual experience of these figures. The author of the article argues that, as a result of revolutionary events in 1917-1919, both Kyiv Theological Academy professors experienced transformations in personal cultural identity, and their spiritual biographies reveal a transition from Russian to Western European and a combination of both (Tykhon (Liashchenko) identities), and from Russian to Ukrainian ideological cultural orientation (Petro Kudriavtsev). PASTUSHENKO, Liudmyla. Kyiv Theological Academy Professors at the Beginning of the 20th Century: At the Intersection of Cultures. Kyiv-Mohyla Humanities Journal, n. 5, p. 97-116, 2018. ISSN 2313-4895. Available at: .
  • Teaching Open Science and qualitative methods
    Open Science is an umbrella term, which includes Open Access, Open Data, Open Methodology, Open Science Evaluation and Open Science Tools. The listed aspects cover the entire research process from data generation to the evaluation of the research results by the scientific community. So far, little attention has been paid to teaching Open Science, even though it is an equally important part of the everyday life of academic staff at higher education institutions. The case study from a research-based learning seminar presents teaching Open Science through students' practicing. The seminar had the following open science components: Using open access literature for the theoretical and methodical approach. Conducting interviews in which re-use had already been explicitly agreed upon. Online interpretation of the interviews was done using the digital tool Collaborative online Interpretation (KolloIn). The interviews are archived in a repository.
  • "BUPOLO" Movement
    Maghrib Bupolo movement chant is a form of social movement initiated by the Government of Buru together with the Ministry of Religious Affairs Buru as efforts to use maghrib time and avoid the public from the negative impact of technological developments and to make the movement as a medium pruralisme achievement. Bupolo movement recite Maghrib received a positive response from the community where the initiation is done society to become an instrument of achieving the harmonization of social life to look after each and remind the maghrib time utilization. In addition, the mapping of sectoral activities in the community recite Maghrib Bupolo Movement spawned two components moral and ethical.
  • Functionaries: Institutional Theory without Institutions
    In conceptualizing institutions, theorists tend to resort to conceptual metaphors of nInRs or sBsns. We argue these construals are responsible for difficulties analysts encounter in conceptualizing the sources and mechanisms behind institutional change. We propose IsRIBIn as a more effective foundational metaphor for institutional analysis. From this perspective, institutions are conceived as non-random dispersals of activity and knowledge across people and not as containers encasing persons or substances endowed with an essence. Most of a population may know how to take interactional advantage of an institution but few know how to keep institutions going and are therefore usually powerless to change them. This means those who do have the requisite operational knowledge and engage in the required upkeep activities, whom we refer to as "functionaries," play pivotal roles in institutional change and reproduction. We revise theories of institutional entrepreneurship around the role of functionaries, and distinguish between two ideal types of institutional change.
  • An Excel-Based Simulator Game for Teaching Development Economics
    This paper explains how to use a game built using an excel spreadsheet that plays out key structural changes studied in development economics. The game is inspired by Sid Meier's simulators, namely Civilisation and Alpha Centauri. It provides a fun way to introduce students to the central themes of a development economics course including industrialisation, demographic transition, sources of growth, trade, institutions, diminishing returns when land is a fixed factor, the resource curse, and the importance of productivity. The foundation of the game is a production function, with the class allocating labour and capital to different industries each turn in order to grow their economy. More advanced concepts like trade and institutions are introduced each turn in the form of exogenous shocks.
  • The Polarization of Nationalist Cleavages and the 2016 U.S. Presidential Election
    Political scientists have acknowledged the importance of ethno-nationalism as a constitutive element of radical-right politics, but have typically empirically reduced the phenomenon to its downstream attitudinal correlates. Sociologists, on the other hand, have extensively studied nationalism, but have rarely weighed in on debates about institutional politics. In this study, we bring these literatures together by considering how nationalist beliefs shaped respondents' voting preferences in the 2016 U.S. presidential election and how the election outcome built on long-term changes in the distribution of nationalism in the U.S. population. The results suggest that competing understandings of American nationhood were effectively mobilized by candidates from the two parties, both in the 2016 primaries and the general election. Furthermore, over the past twenty years, nationalism has become sorted by party, as Republican identifiers have become predominantly ethno-nationalist and Democrats have increasingly endorsed creedal and disengaged conceptions of nationhood. This points to the rising demand for radical candidates among Republicans and suggests a potentially bleak future for U.S. politics, as nationalism becomes yet another among multiple overlapping social and cultural cleavages that serve to reinforce deep partisan divisions and undermine the stability of liberal democratic institutions.
  • Back to the Future - Changing Job Profiles in the Digital Age
    The uniqueness of human labour is at question in times of smart technologies. The 250 years-old discussion on technological unemployment reawakens. Frey and Osborne (2012) estimate that half of US employment will be automated by algorithms within the next 20 years. Other follow-up studies conclude that only a small fraction of workers will be replaced by digital technologies. The main contribution of our work is to show that the diversity of previous findings regarding the degree of job automation is, to a large extent, driven by model selection and not by controlling for personal characteristics or tasks. For our case study, we consult Austrian experts in machine learning and industry professionals on the susceptibility to digital technologies in the Austrian labour market. Our results indicate that, while clerical computer-based routine jobs are likely to change in the next decade, professional activities, such as the processing of complex information, are less prone to digital change.
  • Can p-values be meaningfully interpreted without random sampling?
    Besides the inferential errors that abound in the interpretation of p-values, the probabilistic pre-conditions (i.e. random sampling or equivalent) for using them at all are not often met by observa-tional studies in the social sciences. This paper systematizes different sampling designs and discusses the restrictive requirements of data collection that are the sine-qua-non for using p-values.
  • GGP Technical Case & E-Needs
    This deliverable is designed to evaluate the current technical state of the GGP infrastructure and possible amendments and developments that can help increase its performance as part of its infrastructural development. It outlines a technical evaluation that will be used to adapt the fieldwork and implementation guidelines and enable the initiation of a new round of GGP. This technical evaluation will also help inform planning elsewhere such as the requirements for financing and governance structures within the GGP, as well as the capacity of the GGP to increase its socio-economic and scientific impact.
  • The effect of public surveillance cameras on crime clearance rates
    Much research has examined the crime reduction benefits of public close-circuit television (CCTV) cameras, suggesting that cameras may not deter enough crime to justify their cost. Another benefit of CCTV though is its utility in investigations and in clearing cases, which has been much less studied. Using a sample of public crimes and case clearances in Dallas, Texas, we examine the efficacy that public CCTV cameras increase case clearance rates using a pre-post research design. We find that cases closer to cameras did have an increased clearance rate after the cameras were installed in Dallas. But the effects faded quite quickly in space, and were mostly limited to thefts. While our estimates here suggest the cameras are likely not cost-effective in this sample in terms of increasing clearances, it suggests there is potential to be more targeted in camera placement that might provide better justification for their (limited) use.
  • The 2017 French Riots and Trust in the Police. A quasi-experimental approach.
    OBJECTIVES: To test (1) the impact of a severe case of police misconduct in France on trust in the police as well as (2) the moderating role of a migrant background and frequency of use of different media. METHODS: This study exploits the coincidence that a serious case of police misconduct (Feb. 02, 2017) occurred during the survey period of the European Social Survey (ESS) 2016 (Nov. 11, 2016 - March 11, 2017) in France, thus providing the basis for a Natural Experiment. Data is analyzed by means of a Regression Discontinuity Design (RDD) as well as more conventional regression analyses with robust standard errors. RESULTS: In line with procedural justice theory as well as institutional theory, the present study finds support for the notion that this special case of police misconduct did decrease trust in the police. In addition, people reporting a migrant background show even less trust in the police after the event. Frequency of different media consumption does not appear to explain deterioration of police trust after the event. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study increase the internal and external validity of the assumption that trust in the police can be explained not only by personal experiences, but also by the perceived unfair treatment of others. Results are robust to various placebo tests. There is some evidence that the effect seems to be short-lived, although the data basis is limited in this regard. Several fruitful approaches for future studies as well as implications for police practitioners are discussed.
  • Using natural experimental studies to guide public health action: turning the evidence-based medicine paradigm on its head
    Despite smaller effect sizes, interventions delivered at population level to prevent non-communicable diseases generally have greater reach, impact and equity than those delivered to high risk groups. Nevertheless, how to shift population behaviour patterns in this way remains one of the greatest uncertainties for research and policy. Evidence about behaviour change interventions that are easier to evaluate tends to overshadow that for population- and system-wide approaches that generate and sustain healthier behaviours. Population health interventions are generally implemented as natural experiments, which makes their evaluation more complex and unpredictable than a typical randomised controlled trial (RCT). We discuss the growing importance of evaluating natural experiments, and their distinctive contribution to the evidence for public health policy. We contrast the established evidence-based practice pathway, in which RCTs generate 'definitive' evidence for particular interventions, with a practice-based evidence pathway in which evaluation can help adjust the compass bearing of existing policy. We propose that intervention studies should focus on reducing critical uncertainties, that non-randomised study designs should be embraced rather than tolerated, and that a more nuanced approach to appraising the utility of diverse types of evidence is required. The evidence needed to guide public health action is not necessarily the same as that which is needed to provide an unbiased effect size estimate. The practice-based evidence pathway is neither inferior, nor merely the best available when all else fails. It is often the only way to generate meaningful evidence to address critical questions about investing in population health interventions.
  • Income Inequality Across the Rural-Urban Continuum in the United States, 1970-2016
    Since the 1970s, the U.S. has experienced dramatic increases in income inequality. Although this macro-level trend is well-established in research literature, less is known about subnational patterns of income inequality in the U.S., particularly as they vary between and within rural and urban localities. Using Census and ACS data, this study produces Gini estimates of within-county income inequality and examines these trends across a six-strata urban-rural typology from 1970 to 2016. This study finds the following. Income inequality has remained consistently higher in nonmetropolitan counties than metropolitan counties throughout the study period. However, levels of inequality have converged by 2016, a convergence that has been driven by increases in metropolitan counties. There are notable exceptions to the secular trend of increasing inequality. The central Plains region has experienced decreasing levels of inequality, and inequality in large, peripheral metropolitan counties lags noticeably behind other types of counties. Almost all low-inequality counties in 1970 have shifted to moderate- or high-inequality, such that almost no one lives in low-inequality places by 2016. This increase in exposure to inequality has been particularly dramatic among residents of large, central metropolitan counties. As the only county-level analysis to track income inequality across the rural-urban continuum from 1970 to 2016, this study lays the foundation for more sophisticated analyses that explain spatial variation in income inequality and that account for the demographic and economic diversity of the rural and urban United States.
  • Exponential-Family Random Graph Models for Multi-Layer Networks
    Networks with multiple layers of relationships are of increasing interdisciplinary interest. Such networks arise in a host of contexts where more than one type of relation may be observed among a common set of actors or vertices. The ability to model dependence processes giving rise to such systems within the exponential-family random graph framework has been previously introduced for cases where the underlying association between layers is assumed to be independent or ignorable, and where they were not, the development was limited to dependence arising from just two layers. To address these limitations, we introduce an extension to estimate a joint exponential-family random graph model over all separate measurement types which retains the (possibly correlated) layered nature of the data while facilitating estimation of dependence effects for arbitrary numbers of relations. Specifically, we apply the Conway-Maxwell-Binomial distribution to model the marginal dependence between layers while simultaneously modelling joint dependence in multi-layer networks arising from cross-layer graph features. Model terms include analogs of familiar ERGM effects for arbitrary numbers of layers in the network and employ a novel "layer logic" in their specification, including non-degenerate triadic and degree effects. Our empirical examples are drawn from two previously published multi-layer network data sets: Knecht's Students and Lazega's Lawyers.
  • Saiga horn user characteristics, motivations, and purchasing behaviour in Singapore
    Unsustainable wildlife trade is a pervasive issue affecting wildlife globally. To address this issue, a plethora of demand reduction efforts have been carried out. These necessitate consumer research which provides crucial knowledge for designing and evaluating targeted interventions. We implemented a rigorous consumer survey on saiga (Saiga tatarica) horn use in Singapore, where usage is legal and widely sold. Saiga are Critically Endangered antelopes from Central Asia with horns (often marketed as ling yang) used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Few past studies have assessed saiga horn consumers. This work is the most extensive consumer research to date specifically characterising saiga horn consumers and usage. We conducted 2294 in-person surveys on saiga horn use with Chinese Singaporeans, employing neutral questioning approaches. We found 19% of individuals reported saiga horn as a product they choose most often for themselves and/or others when treating fever and/or heatiness (a TCM state of illness), indicating a minimum estimate of high-frequency usage, not including possible low-frequency users. Overall saiga users were most characterised as middle-aged Buddhists and Taoists. However, saiga users were found in a range of demographic groups. Women preferred saiga shavings (the more traditional form), while men preferred saiga cooling water (the more modern form). About 53% of individuals who used saiga horn themselves also bought it for someone else. Buyers for others were most likely to be female middle-aged Buddhists or Taoists. Key motivating reasons for usage were "it works" and "someone recommended it to me." The top two reported recommenders were family and TCM shopkeepers. Saiga users were more likely than non-saiga users to perceive saiga as a common species in the wild. This research holds significance for interventions targeting saiga horn consumption within Singapore and throughout Asia, by identifying potential target audiences, product types, non-desirable alternatives, and motivations for use.
  • How practitioners between bench and bedside evaluate biomedical translation
    Given that translational research (TR) aims at changing regulatory and organizational practices in the biomedical field, surprisingly little is known about how those who are actually supposed to practice translation in the lab or the clinic think about it. Addressing this gap, we present results from a q-methodological study on the meanings and values associated with translation held by researchers and clinicians at two major German biomedical research institutions implementing TR strategies. We identify eight different collective understandings of translation in practice, with respect to both where primary translational problems are located and what the most immediate and effective measures should be. Our findings suggest that there may not be a one-fits-all solution for improving translation and that general regulatory and organizational measures may be less effective than measures addressing specific audiences and their specific viewpoints.
  • To Sow and to Reap: The An Ceathramh Gaelic Language Centre
    This paper describes the growth and success of the An Ceathramh Gaelic language teaching centre in Rogart, Sutherland, Scotland from 1992 to 2001. It is an example of a private, community-based initiative, which contrasts markedly with top-down, agency directed projects which are the norm in Gaelic development in Scotland. An Ceathramh had a wide influence on local Gaelic, by teaching the local dialect, promoting music and dance, and by bringing parents together who later established a Gaelic medium school. It is an example of how much can be achieved in a community by working with available resources.
  • Unequal Protection Under the Law: Encoding Racial Disparities for Hispanics in the Case of Smith v. Georgia
    We interrogate the Georgia Supreme Court ruling in the 2002 capital murder trial of Brandon Smith to illustrate how "fair cross section" implementation in Georgia's legal system was used to create case law that institutionalized discrimination against Hispanic participation in the jury process. By paying scrupulous attention to legal precedents specifically intended to widen inclusion under the equal protection clause, the Justices' decision put into place one legal standard for Hispanic participation in the jury process and another standard for all other groups. Using critical race theory, we argue that legal precedents based on distorted perceptions of the composition of the Hispanic community in new destination states, common practices of jury forced balancing and sole reliance on decennial census numbers collided to create case law that unintentionally deprives Georgia's Hispanics of equal protection under the law and may contribute to the disproportionate presence of racialized minorities and Hispanic youth in the criminal justice system.
  • Engaging for Puerto Rico: #RickyRenuncia (and #RickySeQueda) during El Verano del 19 and digital identities
    Between July 13-24, 2019 the people of Puerto Rico took the streets after a series of corruption scandals shocked the political establishment. The social uprising resulted in the ousting of the Governor of Puerto Rico (Dr. Ricardo Rossello, Ricky), the resignation of the majority of his staff something unprecedented in the history of Puerto Rico; this period has been called El Verano del 19 (Summer of 19). Social media played a crucial role in both the organization and dissemination of the protests, marches, and other activities that occurred within this period. Puerto Ricans in the island and around the world engaged in this social movement through the digital revolution mainly under the hashtag #RickyRenuncia (Ricky Resign), with a small counter movement under the hashtag #RickySeQueda (Ricky will stay). The purpose of this study is to illustrate the magnitude and grass roots nature of the political movement's social media presence, as well as their characteristics of the population of both movements and their structures. We found that #RickyRenuncia was used approximately one million times in the period of analysis while #RickySeQueda barely reached 6,000 tweets. Particularly, the pervasiveness of cliques in the #RickySeQueda show concentrations of authority dedicated to its propagation, whilst the #RickyRenuncia propagation was much more distributed and decentralized with little to no interaction between significant nodes of authority. Noteworthy was the role of the Puerto Rican diaspora in the United States of America and around the world, contributing close to 40% of all geo-located tweets. Finally, we found that the Twitter followers of the former governor had indicators of being composed of two distinct populations: 1) those active in social media and 2) those who follow the account but who are not active participants of the social network. We discuss the implications of these findings on the interpretation of emergence, structure and dissemination of social activism and countermovement to these activities in the context of Puerto Rico.
  • Stability Constrains how Populations Spread Risk in a Model of Food Exchange
    Exchange of food between human populations can mitigate the risk arising from environmental variability and consequent variability in local food production. The precise network, or mode of exchange varies according to context, but these modes of exchange tend to fall into a handful of categories: specifically, giving without expectation of receiving, reciprocal relationships, and pooling. In this manuscript we address whether the stability of populations to small perturbations can play a role in understanding why only a limited number of modes of exchange are typical. We develop a simple model of exchange between populations located in different environments, and show that any mode of exchange in our model will help to buffer the risk associated with local environmental variability. However, we find only a limited set of modes of exchange will guarantee population stability when resources are scarce, and these mirror the empirical classifications of exchange. We don't consider directly the evolution of this cooperative behavior, but our results demonstrate that stability may provide a filter for viable modes of exchange once cooperation has arisen.
  • Foresight in a Game of Leadership
    Leadership can be effective in promoting cooperation within a group, but as the saying goes "heavy is the head that wears the crown." A lot of debate still surrounds exactly what motivates individuals to expend the effort necessary to lead their groupmates. Evolutionary game theoretic models represent individual's thought processes by strategy update protocols. The most common of these are random mutation, individual learning, selective imitation, and myopic optimization. Recently we introduced a new strategy update protocol - foresight - which takes into account future payoffs, and how groupmates respond to one's own strategies. Here we apply our approach to a new 2x2 game, where one player, a leader, ensures via inspection and punishment that the other player, a subordinate, produces collective good. We compare the levels of inspection and production predicted by Nash Equilibrium, Quantal Response Equilibrium, level-k cognition, fictitious play, reinforcement learning, selective imitation, and foresight. We show that only foresight and selective imitation are effective at promoting contribution by the subordinate and inspection and punishment by the leader. The role of selective imitation in cultural and social evolution is well appreciated. In line with our prior findings, foresight is a viable alternative route to cooperation.
  • Unpopular Protest: Mass Mobilization and Attitudes to Democracy in Post-Mubarak Egypt
    Political science has long debated the significance of protest during a democratic transition, but attention has been largely confined to its impact on elite support for democracy. Contributing to scholarship on the attitudinal consequences of mobilization, we examine how protest shaped popular perceptions of democracy during the post-Mubarak transition in Egypt. We do this by matching Wave II of the Arab Barometer survey with geo-referenced protest events reported in Arabic-language newspapers. Our results show that Egyptians came to hold less favourable attitudes to democracy following sustained protest in their district. We find that this relationship was especially pronounced in areas where protestors launched longer-lasting, static street protests that targeted public space. Qualitative case details illustrate how such tactics could disrupt everyday life and impact livelihoods. These findings highlight one way in which popular support for democracy can be eroded during a transition.
  • A Reading of Alexander Motyl's Fall River Through the Lenses of Bordermemories
    This paper examines the concepts of borderlands, borderscapes, and bordermemories as cultural discursive practices that have been extensively presented and analyzed in an increasing number of theoretical works in Border Studies. Contemporary American Ukrainian writers have made attempts to introduce their hybrid experience and include it into American culture. One of them is Alexander J. Motyl, whose novel Fall River (2014) is analyzed as an example of border writing. The novel is based on the author's narrative memory, rooted in his mother's stories about Ukraine and their family members' crossings of borders in the interwar period and belonging to two cultures, Ukrainian and American, that shaped their identities. OSTAPCHUK, Tetiana. A Reading of Alexander Motyl's Fall River Through the Lenses of Bordermemories. Kyiv-Mohyla Humanities Journal, n. 5, p. 83-95, 2018. ISSN 2313-4895. Available at: . doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.18523/kmhj150389.2018-5.83-95.
  • "Kyiv-Mohyla Academy Intellectual Space" as a Manifestation of Intercultural Communications (on the Basis of the Ukrainian Hierarchs' Epistolary Legacy)
    Based upon the Ukrainian hierarchs' epistolary legacy, the article analyzes characteristic features of Kyiv-Mohyla Academy intellectual space, which was created by Academy alumni of different generations and various hierarchy levels. The author establishes that the closest relations were between correspondents belonging to the same or almost same hierarchy level and who were bonded together by the Kyiv-Mohyla Academy educational system and school comradeship, eventually obtained high positions in the hierarchy. Communication within the boundaries of individual centers (the Kyiv-Mohyla Academy, the Kyiv Pechersk Lavra, collegiums in Chernihiv, Kharkiv, and Pereiaslav, seats of Ukrainian bishops in Russia, etc.) depended on specificity of the environment. Predominant themes encountered in the letters of the Ukrainian bishops included needs of the alma mater, the Kyiv Academy, and the collegiums. The correspondence addressed issues of their legal status, academic staff, financial support, as well as the literary work and publishing activities of the hierarchs. KAGAMLYK, Svitlana. "Kyiv-Mohyla Academy Intellectual Space" as a Manifestation of Intercultural Communications (on the Basis of the Ukrainian Hierarchs' Epistolary Legacy). Kyiv-Mohyla Humanities Journal, n. 5, p. 61-82, 2018. ISSN 2313-4895. Available at: . doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.18523/kmhj150388.2018-5.61-82.
  • Kyiv in the Global Biblical World: Reflections of KTA Professors From the Second Half of the 19th and Early 20th Centuries
    The focus of this article is the global and European experience of the reception, assimilation, and social application of the Bible, reproduced in the works of a number of prominent Kyiv Theological Academy (KTA) representatives from the second half of the 19th and early 20th centuries. The analysis specifically covers the works of professors Stefan Solskyi, Kharysym Orda, Nikolai Drozdov, Afanasii Bulgakov, Mykola Makkaveiskyi, Vasylii Pevnytskyi, Arsenii Tsarevskyi, Volodymyr Rybinskyi, Dmytro Bohdashevskyi, and Aleksandr Glagolev. The author uses the metaphor of the Biblical world to describe the historically developed spiritual and cultural component of the European world, for which the Bible played the role of a normative and symbolic core. Affiliation with the Biblical world -- as a way of broad social application of the Bible and assimilation of the norms and public behaviors sanctioned by this text -- was and still is a stable symbolic marker as well as a cultural and ideological factor of integration with European civilization. The historical panorama of the reception of Biblical knowledge and the inculturation of Biblical morality by Christianized nations, reproduced in the writings of Kyiv academics, is presented as a field of centuries-old intercultural contacts and active inter-confessional interaction, and as an important ideological and moral factor of the socio-political integration and development of civil society. The issues addressed by Biblical studies in Europe and the rest of the world and considerations and solutions prompted by these issues proved to be fruitful for both the academic research and public practices in which academics of the Kyiv Theological Academy were engaged. The past and modern foreign experience related to the inculturation of the Bible was interpreted by the Kyiv researchers in the local context, more specifically, in the modernization attempts of the 19th and early 20th centuries. Therefore, the reflection of European and worldwide experience, though not fully implemented, was productive and was a potential factor that could have contributed to the European modernization of Kyiv cultural and religious life of the time and its integration into the global Biblical World. GOLOVASHCHENKO, Sergiy. Kyiv in the Global Biblical World: Reflections of KTA Professors From the Second Half of the 19th and Early 20th Centuries. Kyiv-Mohyla Humanities Journal, n. 5, p. 37-59, 2018. ISSN 2313-4895. Available at: . doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.18523/kmhj150384.2018-5.37-59.
  • Wealth and Obesity Among U.S. Adults Entering Midlife
    Objective: This study examines the relationship between wealth and obesity among adults entering midlife and whether this relationship varies by gender, race, and measure of wealth. Methods: The data were obtained from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY-79). Population-averaged models were used to examine the associations between multiple measures of wealth and obesity among 6,979 respondents while controlling for education, occupation, income, and relevant sociodemographic variables. Results: The analysis found a robust association between wealth and midlife obesity as well as heterogeneity in the wealth-obesity association across gender, race, and measure of wealth. With the exception of Black men, net worth generally had a significant and inverse relationship with obesity. The net worth-obesity association was largest among women and was driven primarily by home value--in addition to savings and debt for Black women. Although home value was significant for White men, the components of wealth were generally unrelated to obesity among men. Conclusions: The association between wealth can obesity was generally robust but also complex, depending on gender, race, and measure of wealth. Research that does not consider multiple components of wealth may overlook the importance of economic resources in shaping obesity rates in the U.S. population
  • Effects of social support on cardiovascular and cortisol reactivity during passive and active behavioural challenge
    The effects of social support on cardiovascular and cortisol reactivity during stressful situations were examined. Sixty healthy male and female participants were randomly allocated to support, no-support, or alone conditions. In the active challenge, participants had higher diastolic blood pressure in the support than the alone condition. In the passive challenge, the support condition reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressure reactivity compared with no-support, and heart rate compared with the alone condition. The active and passive challenges elicited "mixed" and vascular hemodynamic profile, respectively. The results partly support the health benefits of support through reduced reactivity in stressful situations.
  • Thank You For Your Service: Sacrifice, New Warriors, and the Second Amendment in the American Rifleman from 1975-2018
    The defeat in Vietnam marked a change in the cultural meaning surrounding these warriors. One significant transition was the media image of the New Warrior - a warrior who's sacrifice no longer transformed the nation. The NRA, emerging from the 1970s with a more hardline stance toward Second Amendment absolutism, played an active role in reshaping the relationship between this new warrior culture, military service, and the Second Amendment. Building on a narrative of government betrayal of the soldiers in Vietnam, the NRA recast the ordinary gun owner into the New Warrior, an independent warrior who will go to any lengths to defend the sacred right to bear arms against corrupt agents of the government. But the deeper question of how the NRA has accomplished this transformation of cultural meaning remains largely unexplored. This paper argues that the NRA used the rhetoric of national failure following Vietnam and the blood sacrifice of American soldiers who died in the defense of the Constitution to transform the cultural meaning of the Second Amendment for ordinary citizens. Through the Second Amendment, ordinary men are transformed into Second Amendment warriors, defending the freedoms the American soldiers died to protect. As one of the original real life heroes of the post-Vietnam New War - a retired soldier who operated outside of the law in order to defend the Nation- Oliver North's ascension to the NRA presidency represents the fulfillment of the post-Vietnam New War archetype and merges the New War mythology with the blood sacrifice of Christian nationalism.
  • The "Word" (John 1:1-18): Material of Creation and Saviour of Mankind Hermeneutical Approach.
    "Ex-nihilo creation" has always been propagated especially when one reads Gen. 1:1-2: 3 with faith and without questioning any aspect of it. Such a person will not discover the existence of " the Word" with which he commanded order to exist out of disorder which mankind enjoys today. This "Word" is the power of God. It is with this Word that he was able to bring order in the "tohu wabohu" he met (Gen. 1:2). Let it be clear from the beginning that the phrase "tohu wabohu" has remained enigmatic and defies all translations. It tries to explain the 'nothingness' of the situation before God began creating the universe. It is through the "Word" that we were told that everything that exists came into being (John 1:3). This same word became flesh (John 1:14) so as to bring back the strayed (Gen. 3:24) humanity back to their original root which is eternal communion with God. The greatest problem is that humanity has not understood the meaning of that "Word." The aim of this work is to show that God created the world through the Word and this Word always appears for the good of mankind wherever it does. To live in opposition to this Word is to create more problems for mankind and to live in communion with him is to understand the essence of the 'Word' and thus help in solving human problems. This paper argues that if John 1:1-18 is properly understood, most misunderstandings as regards the creation of the world would be halted and appreciation of the 'Word' will increase in the world. Significantly, this work will benefit all human beings that seek the good of mankind. The method we shall use is Exegetical and hermeneutic of John 1:1-18.
  • IDENTIFICATION OF A NEIGHBOUR (LUKE 10:25-37) IN NIGERIAN MULTI-CULTURAL CONTEXT
    God, out of his goodness created humankind (Adam) in his own image and likeness, male and female he created them (Gen 1:27). God after creating them, he blessed them saying, "Be fruitful and multiply, fill the earth and subdue it; have dominion over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the air and over every living thing that move upon the earth" (Gen. 1:28). As mankind continued to live as was commanded, they turned inwards to subdue and dominate one another. Man against woman; village against village, town against town; state against state; region against region and worst of all tribe against tribe. This domination can come in the form of "stronger persons" dominating the "weaker ones," "the stronger families" dominating "weaker families," or "the stronger tribes" dominating "weaker tribes" etc. Jesus Christ when he came as God made man, he noticed these divisions among mankind hence on his last supper with his apostles he prayed, "That they may be one" (John.17: 11). He said it at the last supper to show how dear that unity is to his heart. St. Paul in trying to re-echo Jesus' teaching among the Corinthians says, "Has Christ been divided?" (1Cor1:13). Whenever you gather among yourselves as Christians, there should be neither Jew nor Gentile, male or female, you are all one before God (Gal 3:28).The story of Good Samaritan is one of the ways through which Christ tried to tell us that we ought to look at one another fundamentally as image and likeness of God. The presence among Christians of tribal sentiments and loyalty to one's ethnic group must be a scandal of great proportion to all of us who claim to be the agents for spreading Christ's kingdom of love, and brotherhood in the world. Since we are now the authentic image of God, there ought not to be any form of division among us.
  • Electronic Word of Mouth and the Music Industry in the Age of Web 2.0
    The evolving dynamics of the Internet have facilitated an era in which information on virtually any given topic is readily available and richly abundant. When seeking knowledge online on specific subject matter, one may encounter a wide assortment of material ranging from professional academic research to an everyman's personal opinion - the spectrum of information available online is infinite (Hayat & Hershkovitz, 2018). The emergence and popularization of social media and networking sites in particular have led to a change in digital dynamics, segueing from the norm of mass cultural consumption to that of mass production . Today, user generated content accounts for a generous portion of online resources, and has a notable affect on people's thoughts and actions. Changes in the electronic landscape have also revolutionized industries in addition to transforming cultural norms. The digitization of services and products has led to the decline of print publications, a drastic shift in consumer's purchasing habits, and a metamorphosis in the music industry. With today's song streaming services and free and readily available online audio content, the big business of record labels and album sales are antiquated and inaccurate representations of success in the market. This work takes into account the heavy influence that the Internet has on the music industry, and aims to find a positive correlation between the volume of online discussion on a given song and the amount of Youtube views that song will have. In other words, to what extent does social media mentions predict the success of a song on Youtube? In Section 3 of this research we will detail existing work relating to this topic and discuss the changes of the Internet in the era of Web 2.0, as well as the importance of electronic word of mouth (eWOM) and it's impact on online consumer interactions. An account of our methodology in conducting this study, and an explanation of the data we used, can be found in Section 5. In Section 7, we discuss the implications of our results by drawing conclusions from the data we collected.
  • Inclusive Masculinity Theory: Overview, reflection and refinement
    In 2010, this journal published an early exposition of inclusive masculinity theory. Since then, the theory has been widely adopted within both the sport and masculinities literature. Furthermore, a large number of other scholars not using the theory have also documented and labelled new masculinity types. There has also been refinement of Inclusive Masculinity Theory, alongside theoretical critiques. In this article, we provide an overview of the genesis of the theory and its refinement, before considering and responding to published and unpublished critiques of the theory. We then suggest future directions for research.
  • An energetic analysis of the human subsistence system and its intensification
    A central goal of archaeology is to explain the fundamental reorganization of human social life that occurred over the last 13,000 years. At the onset of the Holocene human societies were universally mobile, egalitarian, foraging groups. Today all humans are members of urbanized, stratified, agricultural states or live within their jurisdiction. This reorganization depended entirely upon on the process of intensification--the production of more food energy per unit area of land. Intensification thus plays a central role in the evolution of human societies but remains poorly understood for two reasons: (i) the classical model of intensification remains rooted eighteenth century social science and nineteenth century social philosophy; and, (ii) no comparative, quantitative, cross-cultural data set describing the process exists. This paper addresses both of these social scientific problems. I propose a "macroecological" model of the nature and dynamics of the human subsistence system derived from recent work in complex systems analysis and human ecology. I then assess the validity of the classical and macroecological models with statistical analyses of a comparative, quantitative, cross-cultural data set compiled from the ethnographic and historical record. This data set describes the energy input and energy output associated with subsistence activities in sixty human societies ranging in complexity from foraging bands to industrial states. The analysis leads to the conclusion that we must reject the classical (or Boserupian) model and tentatively accept the macroecological model.
  • Elements of a Design Theory of Nano-Viral Messages: A Case Study of #Solar Nanovirals
    Viral messages reach a large number of people at almost no cost. However, the majority of viral messages are based on shocking or entertaining content. Is it possible to make other kinds of content go viral, such as science and technology news? I use conceptual blending analysis to analyze five representative, very small messages about solar technology that went viral (nanovirals). I identify four distinct viral strategies that vary according to the number of belief systems used, and whether the viral message confirmed or contradicted central beliefs. Finally, I use information systems modeling to depict a common viral mechanism underlying the strategies. I conclude with a practical heuristic to guide the design of nanoviral messages. The key finding is that messages spread virally because they confirm core beliefs in an in-group's shared belief system or they contradict core beliefs in an out-group's shared belief system.
  • Reducing Inequality through Technology Diffusion: The Case of 3D printing in Public Libraries
    3D printers are hailed as the next revolutionary technology, yet few scholars have studied whether 3D printing will decrease poverty and inequality. This paper determines the availability and accessibility of 3D printing technology in low-income communities through public libraries and gives insights on how libraries use 3D printers. By examining the 2013 Digital Inclusion Survey and conducting interviews, we found that libraries are quickly acquiring 3D printers; however, the technology is not being fully adopted by the patrons due to the lack of training, software and practical applications of the technology. Also, we found out that the cost to use a 3D printer in public libraries is relatively low, and does not prevent patrons from accessing the technology. Overall, we believe that libraries will only play a small role in providing availability and accessibility to 3D printing technology for marginalized communities.
  • School enjoyment at age 6 predicts later educational achievement as strongly as socioeconomic background and gender.
    Education is influenced by a broad range of factors including socioeconomic background, cognitive ability, and the school environment. However, there has been limited research into the role that school enjoyment, particularly at the start of schooling, plays in the development of pupil's education and their final attainment. In this study we used data from a UK cohort, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children to answer three related research questions. Is school enjoyment patterned by gender, socioeconomic background of cognitive ability? How well does school enjoyment explain later educational attainment? Does early school enjoyment at age 6 explain social or gender differences in later educational attainment at age 16? Our results show that school enjoyment measured at age 6 associates with gender and cognitive ability, but not with family socioeconomic background. For example, girls were over two and half times more likely to report enjoying school than boys (OR: 2.62; 95% Confidence Interval: 2.11, 3.24). School enjoyment and later attainment were also associated, whereby pupils who reported enjoying school at both ages scored on average 29.9 (20.2, 39.6) more points, equivalent to a 5-grade increase across all GCSE's, and were 72% more likely to obtain 5+ A*-C GCSE's including Maths and English (OR: 1.69; 95% CI: 1.38, 2.08) than those who did not enjoy school. Differences in school enjoyment helped to statistically explain the gender attainment gap, with boys' GCSE attainment more strongly linked to school enjoyment than girls. These results highlight the importance of school enjoyment for educational attainment. As a potentially more modifiable factor than socioeconomic background, cognitive ability or gender, school enjoyment may represent a promising intervention target for reducing educational inequalities and future experimental designs are required to test causation.
  • On the Ambivalence of the Aphorism in Sociological Theory
    Sociologists have long been taken by certain pithy expressions from the founders of the discipline. We propose here both a new explanation for the endurance of these statements as well as an analysis of the power, limitations, and possibilities of aphorisms. By drawing from the critical scholarship concerned with aphorisms, we demonstrate that some of the allure of the classical sociological texts derives from their form, and particularly their reliance on the relative autonomy of the aphorism. Through examining Marx's "opiate of the people," Weber's "iron cage," and, briefly, two more contemporary sociological aphorisms, we suggest that aphorisms have an ambivalent role in sociological theory: they make claims memorable even as they potentially oversimplify complex arguments. Yet that very simplification can provide a point of focus for productive misreading and reinterpretation.