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SocArXiv papers

  • Crowds, police and provocations: Temporal patterns of rioting in Britain, 1800-1939
    This essay develops an original, temporal approach to the study of rioting. It uses a catalogue of 414 riots from nineteenth and early twentieth century Britain to trace some common developmental patterns, demonstrating that: (i) riots often begin with provocation, intervention by the police, or routines that license violence; (ii) riots are linked together by cycles of revenge and the feedback loop between action and identity; and (iii) the state's monopoly of organised violence was often decisive in bringing riots to an end. These findings reveal significant limits to the explanatory power of two widely used concepts in this area: triggers and identity. More interestingly, they show that this power varies meaningfully over time. I therefore end by calling for a properly historicised theory of rioting and drawing attention to two key sites of historical change: the norms and traditions which govern public violence, and the state's monopoly of force.
  • A strategic framework for selecting adverse events in healthcare for investigation to improve patient safety
    Aims This paper aims to address the research question: What is an effective framework to strategically select nationally reported serious adverse events in healthcare for investigation to improve patient safety? Background The healthcare system is globally under strain due to an aging population with increasing co-morbidities. Serious adverse events remain a consistent challenge. Patient safety can be improved by investigating cases and addressing underlying systemic risks. However, due to resource limitations, only a limited number of cases can be investigated. This necessitates a strategic selection of cases with the greatest potential for improving patient safety. This paper aims to develop a theoretical framework that identifies the key strategic issues that should be addressed when setting up a new national healthcare safety investigative body to select adverse events for investigation. Methods This study will primarily draw on semi-structured interviews with senior stakeholders in key healthcare regulatory agencies in Norway. For comparative purposes, a stakeholder from a key United Kingdom healthcare agency was also interviewed. The interview template is developed based on insights from a literature review and develop existing safety frameworks such as the Framework for Managing Risk. The paper also draws on selected tools from Strategy Management. Results A novel theoretical framework was developed to help set up case selection mechanism in a new national investigative body. The framework consists of four strategic themes that should be considered both sequentially and cyclically. Within each theme several key policy questions were identified. (1) Governance: role and powers, independence, and stakeholder engagement (2) Monitoring risk: adverse events, quality indicators, and unexplained variation (3) Strategic portfolio: broad coverage, vulnerable groups, and underreporting (4) Individual case selection: outcome, systemic risk, and learning potential Conclusions Policy makers should carefully consider the themes and questions in the proposed theoretical framework when setting up a new national safety investigative agency. In turn, this can ensure that the implemented selection mechanism identifies cases with the greatest potential to improve patient safety.
  • Social Network Approaches to Bullying and Victimization
    Social network research is the way to examine bullying as a group process. Cross-sectional network studies allow us to examine who bullies whom or who defends whom, as well as the agreement on these dyadic relationships. Longitudinal network studies allow us to particularly examine selection and influence processes. The longitudinal studies with the most power have shown that selection and influence processes play a role for bullies. For victims, selection and influence processes have been found in adolescence (secondary education), but not in childhood (elementary education). Social network dynamics in bullying and victimization can also be linked to research on the impact of social norms or the evaluation of an intervention. Recent studies have also started to examine interdependencies between multiple positive and negative relationships. Most social network research on bullying and victimization has been done in late childhood or early adolescence. A few studies, however, have shown that it is also feasible to examine network-behavior dynamics at younger ages. Further research is necessary on whether and how individuals in a network, relationship patterns, or the entire network structure can be targeted by interventions.
  • Drug offence detection during the pandemic: a spatiotemporal study of drug markets
    Research on COVID-19 and crime has so far shown that most crime types declined, especially in the early months of the pandemic. Illicit drug offences were a notable exception, however few studies have considered changes at specific drug market locations. This study documents how key drug markets were affected during the lockdown. Using a spatiotemporal generalised additive model (GAM), this study examines the pattern of drug offence detection throughout the city of Brisbane, Australia and identifies areas of change during lockdown. Statistical meshblock analysis is used to illustrate discrete changes at key market locations. Contrary to aggregate-level analysis, we show that several of the major drug markets experienced a significant decline in drug offence detections, but that these local changes were offset by a displacement to neighbouring areas. We also find some preliminary evidence of the emergence of new outer-urban markets. Existing drug markets were adversely affected by the COVID-19 lockdown, however drug market activity was likely displaced rather than diminished.
  • Personal income inequality in USA from a two-class perspective: 2004-2018
    US incomes follow a two class pattern -- an insight originally shown by physicists in the econophysics literature. The upper class fits a power-law, or Pareto distribution, while the lower class follows an exponential distribution. I show that these patterns hold over 2004-2018 and that the upper class has expanded, from 1-3 percent until 2001, to almost the top 6 percent by 2018. I find that growing income inequality is explained by growing \emph{between-class} inequality. As the fraction in the upper class increases, higher average incomes are allocated to more members of the population, while the lower class is constrained tightly around mean incomes that are an order of magnitude smaller.
  • Vulnerabilities, consequences, and help-seeking behavior related to sexual victimization in migrants, applicants for international protection, and refugees in Europe: A critical interpretive synthesis
    Background: Migrants, applicants for international protection and refugees (MAR) have been identified as vulnerable for sexual violence (SV) victimization. Since many European countries, including Belgium, have been confronted with high migratory pressure, it is important to develop prevention strategies and care paths for MARs affected by SV. Knowing possible risk factors for and consequences of SV in MAR in Europe and their help-seeking behavior is crucial to this. Methods: A critical interpretive synthesis of 37 peer-reviewed articles and 22 grey literature documents gave an overview of the existing evidence based on the socio-ecological model. Results: Risk factors and consequences of SV in MAR are comparable to those in the general population, but engender a different impact. We identified barriers for seeking and finding appropriate help after SV in MAR. Conclusions: The vulnerability for and impact of SV on MAR may be far greater than in the general population due to the specific risk factors emerging from their vulnerable situation and help-seeking barriers associated with their migration status.
  • Rural-Urban and Within-Rural Differences in COVID-19 Mortality Trends
    Since late-2020, COVID-19 mortality rates have been higher in rural than in urban America, but there has also been substantial within-rural heterogeneity. Using data from USA Facts, we compare COVID-19 mortality trends between U.S. urban (nonmetro) and rural (metro) counties from March 2020 to May 2021. We then compare trends within rural counties across different types of labor markets defined by county economic dependence (farming, mining, manufacturing, government, recreation, and nonspecialized) and by metropolitan adjacency. As of May 22, 2021, the cumulative COVID-19 mortality rate was 199.3 per 100,000 population in rural counties compared to 175.8 in urban counties. Net of controls, rural counties experienced a 3% higher average daily increase in COVID-19 mortality rates than urban counties over the study period. Rural mortality rates have been highest in the South, Southwest, and Great Plains. Both overall and within rural counties, mortality rates were highest in farming-dependent counties and lowest in recreation-dependent counties. Interaction models demonstrate that the protective buffer for recreation counties was even stronger for remote rural counties (those not adjacent to metro areas.
  • Peer Production and Collective Action
    A variety of social movements across the world and the political spectrum are now taking advantage of peer production mechanisms such as collaboration, co-production, and self-organisation. This essay investigates the consequences of peer production for social protest, looking at how peer production reshuffles and remediates social change activism today. It explores the convergences and tensions between peer networks and contemporary social movements ranging from informal coalitions and amorphous grouping to traditional social movement organisations. First, it traces the historical trajectory of peer production as it has come to permeate the progressive social movements of the last three decades, linking distinct approaches to organizing to technological innovation. Second, it reflects on the so-called social affordances (and constraints) of digital infrastructure and their role in fostering specific modes of creativity and convergence apt to support protest actors. Third, it explores three types of consequences of peer production for social movements, namely cultural production and norm change, collective identity, and the commons. The chapter then examines three tensions that might emerge in the process of embedding peer production mechanisms and values in instances of collective action, namely: individual vs. collective engagements, peer networks vs. social movement organizations, and self-organized vs. commercial infrastructure.
  • Mapping urban living standards in developing countries with energy consumption data
    Data deficits in developing countries impede evidence-based urban planning and policy, as well as fundamental research. We show that residential electricity consumption data can be used to partially address this challenge by serving as a proxy for relative living standards at the block or neighbourhood scale. We illustrate this potential by combining infrastructure and land use data from Open Street Map with georeferenced data from ~2 million residential electricity meters in the megacity of Karachi, Pakistan to map median electricity consumption at block level. Equivalent areal estimates of economic activity derived from high-resolution night lights data (VIIRS) are shown to be a poor predictor of intraurban variation in living standards by comparison. We argue that electricity data are an underutilised source of information that could be used to address empirical questions related to urban poverty and development at relatively high spatial and temporal resolution. Given near universal access to electricity in urban areas globally, this potential is significant
  • Latent Attitude Method for Trend Analysis with Pooled Survey Data
    Millions of people are surveyed every year regarding their attitudes toward various topics. Together these surveys have produced a large corps of data that document how people think collectively toward various aspects of contemporary social life.The wealth of the attitude surveys has promoted scholars to move beyond the single-survey analysis. However, the use of survey data for studying trends in attitudes is handicapped by a measurement difficulty: different surveys have used different survey instruments to measure the same attitude and thus have generated data that strictly non-comparable. We propose the Latent Attitude Method (LAM) to address this issue. Our method borrows strength from two research traditions: (1) the latent variable method in attitude research and (2) the comparable distribution condition in survey design and evaluation. The core of this method is that, when two or more surveys overlap in a given year, we assume that the same latent attitude is measured as if two measurement scales are randomly given to two independent samples drawn from the same population. Thus, we can assume the same statistical properties for the latent attitude. In so doing, we are able to reduce the number of unknowns to be less than the number of established equations and estimate the best-fit parameters with maximum likelihood method. We demonstrate the utility of the method with simulated data, and apply the method to an empirical example of estimating America's attitude toward China from 1974 to 2019.
  • Changes in Religiosity during Adolescence among European Children of Immigrants: Towards or Away from the Mainstream
    Immigration theorists argue that religion in Europe is a source of social cleavage, a "bright boundary" separating Muslim immigrants from non-Muslims (Alba 2005; Zolberg and Woon 1999). This dynamic can lead to salient religious identities and subsequent heightened religiosity. I use latent growth analysis to model changes in religiosity in early adolescence using the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Survey of Four European Countries. Even as they secularize, I find that Christian children of immigrants assign more importance to religion compared to natives, a difference that does not decrease over time. Muslim children of immigrants are not only more attached to religion but participate more in religious communities over time, diverging from other second-generation immigrants. However, Muslim religiosity does not impede engagement with the mainstream, but may instead foster the development of a Muslim European pan-ethnic identity.
  • A Copula-Based Framework for Studying Intergenerational Income Mobility
    The sociological analysis of the mobility tables enhances the examination of the circulation mobility and helps one reveal the nuanced morphological patterns of mobility. In contrast, the economic analysis based on the measure of elasticity provides a handy way of covariate conditioning and statistically testing the similarities of mobility patterns across groups. In this article, we argue that the distinct methodological merits of these two approaches can be equipped by adopting a more comprehensive analytical framework using the copula functions: (1) The copula functions concern the dependence structure that is independent from the margins, which enable scholars to focus on the relative mobility; (2) The copula density, estimated either parametrically or non-parametrically, reveals the nuanced morphological mobility patterns; (3) By residualizing the marginal variables, the detected mobility pattern can be interpreted in a stronger causal sense; and (4) the Cramer-von Mises Test offers an easy-to-use statistic to conduct intergroup comparison of mobility patterns. The copula-based framework is illustrated by investigating the income mobility between 1978 and 2017 in the U.S., using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79).
  • Business Analytics untuk Perguruan Tinggi: Studi Kasus Atas Pembukaan Program Studi Baru di UHAMKA
    This title of article is Business Analytics for Higher Education Institutions. By taking a case study at the Universitas Muhammadiyah Prof. Dr. Hamka (UHAMKA), this article aims to analyze and provide recommendations for the plan to establish a new academic of undergraduate degree program. Analysis of the institutional and technical environment that affects the legitimacy and sustainability of the university. This study uses the SWOT analysis method in the perspective of Business Analytics, where data availability plays a key role.
  • Assessment of Risk Management Practices in the Public Sector of Malaysia
    Public sectors around the world, especially in the developing counties, are not functioning well due to widespread fraud, governance, corruption, and inefficacy. For this reason, the world's public sectors need to improve their efficacy by using a sound risk management system. This study attempts to comprehend the phenomenon of current risk management practices among the public sector employees in different service schemes in Malaysia. A questionnaire survey was utilized to collect primary data from 194 department heads in Malaysia's federal ministries. The collected data was analysed using descriptive statistics and factor analysis. Findings revealed that 94.7% of respondents agreed to implementing risk management in their respective departments, but the level of priority for these risk management factors differs based on the service schemes. This study will assist policymakers to identify what is needed to enhance risk management practices in the public sector.
  • Government Policies, Financial Scopes and Technological Usages for Agricultural Development and Post-Harvest Loss Reduction in Algeria
    Agriculture is considered to be a vital aspect of Algeria's national economy and rural development. Achieving sustainable agricultural production, generating employment, reducing imports and minimising post-harvest crops losses are the major objectives of the Algerian government. However, based on the evaluation of existing policies, this study found that poor governance is hampering the agriculture sector, particularly in terms of management of financial resources, where most financial investments are made only for short-term gains. The lack of awareness about the importance of post-harvest practices and lack of using modern technology threaten the growth of this sector. Adopting sound post-harvest methods can reduce food losses and wastage in every stage of the food supply chain, and integration of modern techniques, skilled labour, and education training systems are very important if agriculture in Algeria is to progress.
  • Impacts of Accountability, Integrity, and Internal Control on Organizational Value Creation: Evidence from Malaysian Government Linked Companies
    Credible and well-functioning governance is crucial for the value creation of firms. Recently, private sectors have undergone substantial changes by focusing on good governance as a tool to enhance value, reputation, and image. The primary features of firms with good governance include greater emphasis on accountability practices, proper implementation of a corporate integrity system, and sound internal controls in place to avoid risk and to ensure policy and procedures that are complied. Government Linked Companies (GLCs) as the backbone of the Malaysian government have been harshly criticised for not being able to create value(s) despite receiving high priority in the process of getting government projects. Therefore, this study aims to examine the role of good governance systems, which are reflected through accountability systems, corporate integrity systems, and internal control systems towards value creation of Malaysian GLCs. This study collected primary data based on a set of questionnaire survey among 100 GLCs in Malaysia. Based on the regression analysis, this study found that corporate integrity systems and internal control systems were vital elements in ensuring value creation in GLCs.
  • Climate Change Impacts on Yield and Financial Performance of Agro-Plantation Companies in Malaysia
    In Malaysia, there is a declining trend in agricultural productivity and crop yields due to various climate events in the recent years. Therefore, this study aims to examine the impacts of climate change, especially El Nino and flood, on the financial performance of Malaysian agro and plantation firms. The study used a panel data set on 33 Malaysian agro and plantation firms listed in Bursa Malaysia for the period of 2003 to 2016. A panel of regression models including GMM, Pooled OLS, Random Effect and Fixed Effect were used to analyze the data. The results show that both the El Nino and flood have significant negative impact on the firms' financial performance as measured by ROA and ROE. The findings indicate that climate change results in reduction of agricultural production which reduces revenue and consequently the profit of the agro and plantation firms. The study findings might help the firm managers as well as policy makers to take into consideration the environmental factors that affect the overall financial health of the firms and take appropriate adaptation and mitigation policies to climate change at firm level and macro level in the country.
  • The Impact of Economic Growth, Trade Openness and Technological Progress on Renewable Energy Use in Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development Countries
    This study investigates the short-term and long-term impacts of economic growth, trade openness and technological progress on renewable energy use in Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries. Based on a panel data set of 25 OECD countries for 43 years, we used the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach and the related intermediate estimators, including pooled mean group (PMG), mean group (MG) and dynamic fixed effect (DFE) to achieve the objective. The estimated ARDL model has also been checked for robustness using the two substitute single equation estimators, these being the dynamic ordinary least squares (DOLS) and fully modified ordinary least squares (FMOLS). Empirical results reveal that economic growth, trade openness and technological progress significantly influence renewable energy use over the long-term in OECD countries. While the long-term nature of dynamics of the variables is found to be similar across 25 OECD countries, their short-term dynamics are found to be mixed in nature. This is attributed to varying levels of trade openness and technological progress in OECD countries. Since this is a pioneer study that investigates the issue, the findings are completely new and they make a significant contribution to renewable energy literature as well as relevant policy development.
  • SUITCEYES Scoping Report on Law and Policy on Deafblindness, Disability and New Technologies: United Kingdom
    This report discusses law and policy on new technologies: artificial intelligence (AI), machine learning and the Internet of Things (IoT) in relation to disabled people and people with deafblindness in the UK. Written as part of the SUITCEYES project, it provides a broad overview of formal rights and the extent to which disabled people can access new technologies in practice. The field is fast moving and volatile, with judgements regularly made and overturned in the courts and frequent new initiatives. The UK government emphasises the importance of investing in new technologies as a means of strengthening the economy. The opportunities represented by technological developments have been largely welcomed by disabled people but questions remain about how the technology might be used and developed by disabled people and people with deafblindness themselves and the need for safeguards against exploitation.
  • Museums at the Crossroads: Between Digitality, Reality, and COVID-19
    When Covid-19 rushed into our lives, it sent shockwaves across the globe - suddenly we faced "lockdown" - we said goodbye to the way it was but did not understand what this brave new world of isolation and separation would mean and how it would the impact life as we knew it - our identity, relationships and freedoms we enjoyed, and wondered what daily routine post-Covid-19 would look like, while the experiences defining life itself were up for grabs. With social distancing, masks and work from home mandates, the arts and performing arts from theatres, museums, galleries and the public square were shuttered - their very existence challenged and spiralling out of control as staff were laid-off, exhibitions cancelled while concurrently creating an urgency to go online to dwell in cyberspace, the new daily destination.
  • Exploring the concept of place in the literature on smallholder farmers and climate change adaptation in Sub-Saharan Africa.
    This critical review paper expands on the meaning of place. It opens a new narrative on how the geographic concept of place is conceptualized in smallholder farmers and climate change adaptation literature in Sub-Saharan Africa. The review suggested that place is not only the 'where' of a location but a location geographically connected and interdependent to illustrate how smallholder farmers' experiences in adapting to climate shocks interact with global efforts such as improving food security, eliminating poverty and building sustainable rural livelihood. Through the various climate change adaptation strategies exhibited by different farmer groups, the paper demonstrated that people in places have the agency to make choices that control their destinies irrespective of whatever global force overwhelms them. The paper argues sense of place expressed through ecological place meaning shapes people's intuition, beliefs, actions and experiences as illustrated by smallholders' perception of the determinant and barriers to effective adaptation strategies. The ecological place meaning also influences the 'glocalization' of climate impact on agroecological-based livelihoods at different locations and how maladaptive outcomes are perceived. Place gives people identity by (re)shaping actions and experiences and vice versa. There is an undeviating relationship between power, place and people's experience. Further exploration of the relationship between lifeworld experiences, people, and power is central in understanding the meaning of place to smallholder farmers and climate change interaction
  • It's (not) like the flu: Resonant Expertise and the COVID-19 Pandemic in Mainland China, Hong Kong, and the United States
    Why did societies respond to COVID-19 differently? Unlike popular explanations relying on political or cultural differences, we examine the role that experts and expertise play in shaping the initial responses to COVID-19. We ask three specific questions: (1) Who were the COVID-19 experts, (2) How was expertise mobilized to understand the emerging threat of COVID-19, and (3) How did these expert statements resonate with policymakers and publics in different political contexts? Through our three-case comparison of Mainland China, Hong Kong, and the United States, we show how past experiences with disease outbreaks shaped how experts deployed their expertise to make sense of the emerging crisis. Furthermore, past experiences with disease outbreaks also shape how these forms of expertise become resonant with policymakers and publics, as the past itself becomes a cultural object that is mobilized, contested, and seen as potentially useful to solve the problem of COVID-19. We argue that the process of resonant expertise played a key role in coming up with effective policies to tackle COVID-19.
  • Decolonizing the single mentality approach to solving underdevelopment and rural poverty in the Global South: A Book Review
    What is the best way to tackle global poverty and underdevelopment? How much confidence should we put into the free market and democracy for the poor? This book review decolonizes the single mentality approach to addressing global challenges such as poverty and underdevelopment in developing nations.
  • (Russian) Deterrence, we hardly know ye...
    This paper provides the epistemic equivalent of an 'MRI' scan of the English and Russian literature on deterrence in an international security context. Using a variety of different recent datasets and -tools, the paper exposes a surprisingly high number of glaring weaknesses and holes. The paper's first, more 'technical', section presents compelling evidence that the volume, velocity, collegiality and uptake of publicly available scientific insights into 'security deterrence' remain decidedly suboptimal - also compared to the other scientific disciplines that have examined human deterrence. The data on the scientific thoroughness of this field also paint a discomfortingly bleak picture, albeit less conclusively so. The paper's second, more substantive section equally painfully highlights what it calls the field's unbearable empirical lightness; conceptual confusion and cacophony (even within language domains); as well as multiple major (highly relevant) epistemic holes and other weaknesses. The paper concludes with some recommendations on how the epistemic community working on these issues as well as the academic and policy communities that fund much of this research can build on uniquely promising new developments in the access to (especially also textual) data to build and validate more granular and trustworthy datasets; in humans' newfound ability to interact with machine algorithms to semantically parse texts to discover and validate 'knowledge' in unprecedented ways; but also - in a more mundane mode - to start incentivizing more organically collaborative ways of knowledge building.
  • Sentence Length and Recidivism: A Review of the Research
    In response to increasing concerns about jail and prison overcrowding, many officials and legislatures across the U.S. have undertaken different efforts aimed at reducing the prison population, such as reduced sentence lengths and early release of prisoners. Thus, there is currently a high degree of public interest regarding how these changes in policy might affect recidivism rates of released offenders. When considering the research on the relationship between incarceration and recidivism, many studies compare custodial with non-custodial sentences on recidivism, while fewer examine the impact of varying incarceration lengths on recidivism. This article provides a review of the research on the latter. While some findings suggest that longer sentences may provide additional deterrent benefit in the aggregate, this effect is not always consistent or strong. In addition, many of the studies had null effects, while none of the studies suggested a strong aggregate-level criminogenic effect. Overall, the literature on the impact of incarceration on recidivism is admittedly limited by important methodological considerations, resulting in inconsistency of findings across studies. In addition, it appears that deterrent effects of incarceration may vary slightly for different offenders. Ultimately, the effect of incarceration length on recidivism appears too heterogenous to be able to draw universal conclusions. We argue that a deepened understanding of the causal mechanisms at play is needed to reliably and accurately inform policy.
  • Artificial Intelligence in Quebec: A Tightly Knit Network
    Who are the key actors of artificial intelligence (AI) in Quebec? What are the links between the different organizations that constitute the AI research infrastructure? How have academia, politics and economics intermingled in the development of this infrastructure? Based on what promises did the Quebec and Canadian governments invest hundreds of millions of public funds in this infrastructure? This research note attempts to answer these questions. After briefly describing the AI research infrastructure and tracing the extent of public investment, we show how a small number of actors have positioned themselves so as to control the direction of most taxpayer-funded AI initiatives.
  • Innovation in the Business Sector: Where There's a Will There's a Way. Managers' Perception of Science and R&D and Firms' Engagement in Innovation
    This research considers the hypothesis that firms' propensity to undertake innovation activities is linked to variables related to their perception of science, their appraisal of the benefits and risks of R&D investing, and their attitude towards the role science plays within the firm, besides their economic and structural characteristics. We explore an empirical approach to studying the implications of managers' perceptions and attitudes towards science and R&D on firms' engagement in innovation. Research is based on the survey 'Scientific culture, perception and attitudes towards science and innovation in the business sector'. Results evidence that corporate innovation decisions are not just a matter of money, and confirms the combined effect of a firm's economic characteristics and perception of science on innovation engagement. Results confirm that managers' attitude towards science and R&D is related to firms' commitment to innovation, suggesting that their attitudes and behaviour in relation to science and investment in R&D should be given a more prominent role in S&T and innovation studies and in developing models of innovation in the future. This study provides some important implications for the management of innovation in the business sector. It stresses that innovation is related with managers having a perception of science and R&D that paves the way for the allocation of a firm's resources to activities oriented towards knowledge generation and innovation. The results obtained here are still important regarding the way to address possible initiatives aimed at encouraging innovation in the business sector.
  • A reflection on modeling and the nature of knowledge
    We reflect on the criticism that the methods in the natural sciences have been an object of and argue that these very methods, seen from the right perspective, are crucial to the progress of social science. We propose a knowledge generation framework that sets the minimum requirements for a claim to be considered scientific knowledge and sketch an ontology of the objects of study. We present science as an accumulating yet self-revising process and present examples in the social sciences.
  • Taxing the Rich: Public Preferences and Public Understanding
    Who supports high taxes on the rich? Existing accounts of public attitudes focus on egalitarian values and material interests, but make little mention of the ideas people hold about how the economy works descriptively. Drawing on the distinction between positive- and zero-sum beliefs about the economy, and original survey data from five countries, I show that there are systematic differences in tax progressivity preferences across groups within the public who think differently about the economy. Positive-sum thinking is associated with less progressive preferences. However, despite theoretical attention, there is no evidence of systematic zero-sum thinking among the public. On the other hand, some descriptions focus on conflict between rich and poor, and these do predict support for greater progressivity. Further analysis is required to differentiate alternative causal explanations of the patterns observed, but different modes of descriptive economic thinking are an important feature of the mass politics of progressivity.
  • Measuring reciprocity: Double sampling, concordance, and network construction
    Reciprocity--the mutual provisioning of support/goods--is a pervasive feature of social life. Di- rected networks provide a way to examine the structure of reciprocity in a community. However, measuring social networks involves assumptions about what relationships matter and how to elicit them, which may impact observed reciprocity. In particular, the practice of aggregating multiple sources of data on the same relationship (e.g., "double-sampled" data, where both the "giver" and "re- ceiver" are asked to report on their relationship) may have pronounced impacts on network structure. To investigate these issues, we examine concordance (ties reported by both parties) and reciprocity in a set of directed, double-sampled social support networks. We find low concordance in people's responses. Taking either the union (including any reported ties) or the intersection (including only concordant ties) of double-sampled relationships results in dramatically higher levels of reciprocity. Using multilevel exponential random graph models of social support networks from 75 villages in India, we show that these changes cannot be fully explained by the changes in density resulting from aggregation. Respondents' tendency to name the same people as both givers and receivers of support plays an important role, but this tendency varies across contexts and relationships type. We argue that no single method of aggregation should necessarily be seen as the "correct" choice for aggregation of multiple sources of data on a single relationship type. Methods of aggregation should depend on the research question, the context, and the relationship in question.
  • The academic precariat post-COVID-19
    The nature of work has changed, in accelerated late-capitalism and as a result of the COVID-19 global health crisis. For academics, casualised and precarious, the sweeping institutional changes of contemporary neoliberal universities, the sharp rise in managerialism, and the political power plays of universities have created further untenable spaces for work and study. In this article we explore the relationship between doctoral studies, precarious academic employment, the pandemic, and the disproportionate effects of the changes in higher education on women. Through exploration of personal experience, as precarious academic workers, researchers, and doctoral students, we provide parallels to research literature across pandemic and post-COVID literature. We provide practical suggestions for the corporate university, to rebuild its catastrophically collapsing systems, and re-centre doctoral students in mentorship as the new future of universities in Australia, and around the world.
  • Trade Policy and the Marshall-Lerner Condition: Application of the Tobit Model
    This paper establishes the micro-foundation for the income-price approach to export and import functions from the firm's profit maximization problem. Following Boyd et al. (2000), we derive the Marshall-Lerner condition mathematically and analyze the effects of home and foreign trade policies, such as the minimum access and quantitative trade restriction, on the Marshall-Lerner condition. In conclusion, such trade policies make the condition theoretically difficult to hold since the marginal effects of the Tobit estimates under deterministic trade policies are always lower than the ordinary least squares (OLS) estimates under no trade policies in absolute values.
  • Colonial Legacy of Language Politics and Medium of Instruction Policy in India
    The sphere of language politics within India has been a complex one, and rightly so, owing to the country's rich and immense linguistic diversity. Naturally, this complexity has trickled into the Medium of Instruction (MOI) used in Indian schools. Hindi, English, and state languages dominate the school MOI undermining the enormous Language and Mother Tongue diversity in India. Even though the Indian Constitution and the three National Education Policies have emphasized Mother Tongue/Local language as the MOI at the primary education level, there continues to be a divergence between policy and the actual MOI used in government and private schools in India. In this article, we argue that the political hegemony of languages and its reflection in the MOI at present derives from the historic domination of classical languages in the pre-colonial era and its replacement by English in the colonial era. We trace the MOI in indigenous schools of the 19th Century and assert that their elasticity and adaptability was suited to local conditions. We argue that formal western education created rigidity and homogeneity through centralized curriculum and common language. We discuss the ambivalence of East India Company and British India's policies on medium of Instruction in English and Vernacular languages. We highlight different phases of anglicization of Education in India, and its adoption and expansion by Indians. We argue that despite attempts at reinvention of education by national leaders and push for Mother Tongue as MOI in the early 20th century, English continued to dominate Indian education.
  • How inclusive is online education in India: Lessons from the Pandemic
    Online education has acquired a renewed interest all over the world, due to the ravaging restrictions imposed by the Covid pandemic. In the Indian context, the question remains is that "is the online medium inclusive enough to be deemed a solution?" As classes shift online and pedagogy relies on technology, it becomes imperative to ensure that no one lags behind and education remains accessible to the last learner. The issue of universality of the access to the Internet in India mingles with various socio-economic disparities that hinder its progress. This paper attempts to analyse and bring forward the factors that may contribute to the stark contrasts with regards to the success of the online education scene in India, ranging from accessibility, gender, socio-economic factors to the policy issues.
  • Arabizi across Three Different Generations of Arab Users Living Abroad: A Case Study
    The study explores the sociolinguistic phenomenon, Arabizi, from a new perspective by investigating the case of three Arabizi users coming from different generations: Azer (42 years old), Nada (29 years old), and Mira (21 years old). The main research question of the study is how generational differences between Arabizi users shape their experiences with Arabizi in terms of 1) how they learned it, 2) how they currently use it, 3) how they perceive its effect on the Arabic language, 4) their attitude towards its users, 5) and their expectations for its future use. Semi-structured interviews were employed to gain a deeper insight into participants' experiences with Arabizi, taking into consideration their linguistic, educational, work, and social backgrounds. The significance of this case study lies in how Arabizi users' surroundings and life experiences influence their linguistic choices and perceptions. Findings provide insight into how Arabizi is considered advantageous compared to using English language. It is also perceived to be a phase for youngsters that will subside in the future as technology develops. The study concludes with recommendations for future research on how Arabizi transforms as its users grow older.
  • The Appropriation of Innocence: from Shelley's Frankenstein to Ahmed Saadawi's Frankenstein in Baghdad
    This paper demonstrates the appropriation of innocence in Shelley's Frankenstein, Or the Modern Prometheus (1818) and Frankenstein in Baghdad (2013) by Ahmed Saadawi. These novels are selected because the latter appropriates the creator and creature characters and contextualizes them into the American-Iraq 2005 post-war period. In Shelley's Frankenstein, Victor Frankenstein, scientifically, gives life to a dead body amalgamated from other body parts, which start murdering and revenging upon his creator. Whereas, in Saadawi's twenty-first century Frankenstein, a person who is formed from others' dead bodies by merely a junk dealer, starts murdering and revenging upon other people. On the one hand, Frankenstein, a science student, sought to answer the question of human revival theoretically and practically. Therefore, after he resurrects the dead, it becomes monstrous due to its negligence and physical hideousness by its creator. On the other hand, the Iraqi Frankenstein's creator, Hadi, celebrates collecting old materials in a non-scientific manner, including humans' dead body parts, in order to give value to them by offering them worthy of proper burials. The resurrected creatures transform into more powerful beings than their creators as reactions against isolation and injustice. For that, both Frankenstein and Hadi lose control over their creations, who instigate new life cycles. Hence, the ethical responsibility of invention underlies the concept of innocence which this paper intends to analyze vis-a-vis the creators and their creations.
  • Love in Charles Dickens's Great Expectations: A Psychoanalytic Approach
    This research project studies love in Charles Dickens's Great Expectations through Pip's ego fluctuations. Freud's division of the human psyche into the three components of id, ego and superego is applicable to the analysis of the rise and fall of the hero in his quest for Estella's love. Four main questions have been dealt with: First, what makes up Pip's id when it comes to love? Second, what are the main components of his superego that stand in the way of his love? Third, does Pip's ego succeed in striking a balance between his id and superego? In what ways does it fail? And fourth, how does it eventually succeed if ever? The study has managed to answer its key research questions: First, Pip's id is illustrated in the feelings and actions exerts in order to win Estella's love. Second, Pip's superego is mainly made up of the attitudes of characters that stand in his way. Third, Pip's distress at the attitudes of Estella, Miss Havisham, Biddy and his friends, bring Pip's ego to its worst situation. Fourth, the quest of Pip's ego for winning Estella's heart finally becomes possible mainly thanks to Miss Havisham's repentance and Estella's transformation.
  • Tracing the Impact of Culture in the Translation of Selected Advertisements between English and Arabic
    The role of advertising across cultures can be touched upon quite differently. Therefore, translators should approach advertisements unequally in a particular culture. The translation of advertisement has gradually expanded as a result of the rise of globalization and trade intensification, and that necessitated that companies communicate with consumers of different cultures.The present study aims at investigating how sociocultural variables which play a vital role in advertisement are dealt with cross-linguistically. It first introduces a theoretical background that discusses the concept of culture and its impact on translation, as well as the major translation strategies used to deal with cultural issues. It, moreover, attempts to answer the question about how cultural variables affect the process of translation and the selection of an appropriate equivalent. To answer this question, seven ads, along with their translations, have been selected and subjected to a thorough analysis. The article comes up with some conclusions, the most important of which are: cultural domination plays a more pivotal role in translating ads than in other text types, that the translation strategies used for rendering an ad between English and Arabic range from literal translation to rewriting, with free translation to be of a higher frequency, that specific translation methods, such as transliteration, have been overused. Finally, the study has shown a growing tendency in Arabic to depart the traditional cultural aspects of writing and translating an ad and move towards those of the English-speaking culture.
  • Lexical Asymmetry as a Translation Problem Arising in the Holy Quran
    Coupled with copious evidence and cogent illustrations, this article charts an important development in the field of translating the Holy Quran. It breaks new ground in a new type of problems inherent in the translation of the Quran. It is designed to catch translators' alert senses to look beyond the traditional approach to translation, i.e. looking for the superficial equivalent. It critically discusses the long-standing proclivity for the deeply-held belief in the existence of absolute synonyms in the Quran. Although the examples given are not very exhaustive due to space constraints, the author's unbridled reason pushes him to how far semantic propinquity exists in the Quran, developing a plethora of new checklists which will definitely act as a springboard to lay groundwork to any translator. The paper draws a conclusion that the seemingly verb and noun synonyms in the Quran are not so, resulting in a lexical asymmetry in translation. This paper zooms in on a new type of sense relationships, which involve a pair of words with similar meaning, but are made up of the same root morphologically. The paper takes three very popular and mesmerizing translations of the Quran as a point of reference. This paper shatters the fervent belief that one word can be a full equivalent to seemingly synonymous words in the Quran. This is a strong call on translators to start looking at new issues in the translation of the Quran from different standpoints, an arresting fact we need to grasp.
  • Translation and the Individual Talent: Ambiguity in the Qur`anic Text and the Role of the Translator
    This article examines the impact of traditional Tafsir, the exegesis of the Qur'an, on the translation of the Qur`anic text into English. Caught between the authority of tradition and the sensitivity of translating a sacred text, many translators refrain from practicing interpretation as an integral part of the translation process, whereas others defiantly dismiss the authority of tradition en masse. The significance of the study lies in undermining over-reliance on explanatory texts yields semantically dogmatic interpretations recurrently manifest in the various English renditions of the Qur`an. The article questions what is called the etic translation that involves translation from the perspective of one who remains an outsider and does not participate in the interpretation. The finding of the study lead to the conclusion that many translations of the Qur`an disregard possible interpretations because of rehashing interpretations handed down from traditional exegeses. The article also argues that translators have an active, interpretative role in the translation of the Qur`an. Compatibility with tradition does not mean being constricted exclusively by Tafsir. Tradition is a frame of reference, a point of departure for new horizons of interpretation where interpretation is viewed as an augmentation to tradition, not sedition.
  • Insanity or Inspiration: A Study of Greek and Arab Thoughts on Poetry
    The nexus between poetry, insanity, and inspiration is peculiar and can be traced back to earlier centuries. There are many examples in Greek and Arab literature where poetry is believed to have connections with divinity, possession, or even madness. The paper will try to show what Greeks and Arabs thought about the origin and the creation of poetry. It will attempt to show how early mythology and legends of both assign a supernatural or abnormal source to poetry. References from these two cultures will show the similarity in some theories like that of muses and supernatural beings, helping the poet achieve his goal. In order to show the similarity, many Greek and Arab philosophers/poets shall be referred to in the discussion. The methodology used shall be descriptive and analytical in nature.
  • Embodied Oppression and Psychological Trauma: The Subjugation of O-lan's in Pearl Buck's Novel the Good Earth
    The present paper is qualitative; it illustrates the sense of oppression, negligence, and marginalization; Chinese women suffer from in their society. There, women are bound to doing housework and rearing children; they are a mere tool to meet their husbands' pleasures and find concubines when needed. Accordingly, the study examines the sources , and types of psychological trauma experienced by the character O-lan, and later by the oppressors, her husband and his new wife, Wang Lung , in Buck's novel The Good Earth. To meet the objective of the study, Robinson, Smith, & Segal's (2020) types of trauma will be adopted in the analysis. Such a study help know more about the traditions and values of Chinese society, the role of women there. It further reflects the negative societal consequence s of abusing and humiliating women, and the curse men will gain due to their unjust treatment of their wives. The psychological trauma of O-lan is highly indicated by her husband's speech and behavior. He constantly belittles her role a wife, neglecting her emotions. She keeps her agony and depression till she collapsed.
  • A Feminist Scheme Conveyed through Catherine Jemmat's The Rural Lass
    This study analyses The Rural Lass by Catherine Jemmat (1714-66); the poem will shine a new light on a feminist agenda conveyed through Jemmat's views through the persona of the rural lass by linking the lass' own experience with marriage. Challenges in a patriarchal society among female poets in the early ages and before the twenty-first century deserve appreciation for their contributions to early feminist literature. The author will illustrate how Jemmat negotiated her ambitions despite the cultural restrictions that were placed upon her during the 18th century through a rural persona. Jemmat skillfully creates a light-hearted poem, but also one that reflects the determined voice of a speaker who refuses to allow others to dictate her life. Jemmat seems to achieve this in The Rural Lass, as she subtly challenges the parental and societal objections that could often, as in Jemmat's case, prevent the marriage of a loving couple. This article will study through the feminist literary criticism, that closer analysis of the variations within the metrical composition and of the poetic features in The Rural Lass shows that a deeper level of meaning can be achieved. The structured reasoning ensures that the rural lass appears rational and justly defiant. This paper also explores how a close study of the text allows for the emergence of the admirable spirit of the figure of the rural lass that expresses challenges in a patriarchal society, an eighteenth-century British feminist that has been criticized by her community.
  • Violence/Accommodation Binary in Chesnutt's The Marrow of Tradition
    The present paper examines the divergent attitudes of black characters toward racism in Charles W. Chesnutt's The Marrow of Traditions (1901). Chesnutt wrote his novel to reflect his opinions on how African Americans should act to improve their situation. To situate the study within the historical and cultural context of Marrow, Black intellectuals' views, namely Washington and Du Bois, about the complicated problem of 'color' were explored. To analyze the contrasting views and actions of Chesnutt's black characters, the paper uses the lens of postcolonial theory. Although Marrow is not set within a colonial context, postcolonial theoretical frameworks can be used as models to re-read this novel because they deal with intersections of races, classes, cultures, and the oppressor/ oppressed relationship. The paper concludes that Chesnutt has entertained the possibility of a hybrid or third race-- as referred to within postcolonial framework--that may succeed where both races (pure white and black) have failed.
  • The Value of Intertextuality in Selvon's The Lonely Londoners and Naipaul's The Mimic Men
    Studies on comparative literature have been fragmentary concentrating on one or two aspects of the thematic concerns of novels without emphasizing the concepts of divergent and convergent intertextuality. This paper aims to revisit Selvon's The Lonely Londoners re-reading it in dialogue with Naipaul's novel The Mimic Men. The selected novels are controversial. Criticism deployed on all fronts conveys the pluralities and oppositions that are in fact the novels' hallmarks. Yet, the aspects criticized attest to, and confirm, the authors' taking of the less trodden track. The comparative analysis within the scope of this paper will show that Naipaul's and Selvon's fictional representations of creolized Trinidadian and English societies highlight specific cultural and linguistic aspects and that intertextuality is either convergent or divergent. For instance, the structure of Naipaul's text takes as much from Caribbean orature and the wake of Caribbean plantation culture. However, Selvon's novel takes the form of flashbacks. Naipaul innovates and transforms Selvon's structure to generate a Caribbean context, par excellence. Traces of Selvon's style are present in Naipaul's corrosive voice of representing Caribbean identity. Naipaul brings to an apotheosis the creative force already illustrated in the remarkable works of Selvon. This paper aims to track these traces and foreground the idea that texts can speak to each other. More significantly, this paper assesses the main characters' fates to re-question the status of creoles, a status deliberately put between parentheses, denying them the right to voice their hybrid identities. Above all, the close textual reading of Galahad's and Singh's stories is meant to value the trope of intertextuality.
  • Conceptual Metaphors in Milan Kundera's Novel, Life Is Elsewhere
    This study's primary purpose is to account for the unstated interpretation of Kundera's novel Life Is Elsewhere (1973) from a cognitive stylistic perspective. His style seems at the first plain, but his philosophical and psychological treatment of subjects is significantly necessary than the narratological world he creates. The identification of the conceptual metaphors and both mega and micro-metaphors constitute the core elements of this paper. Following the title of life as elsewhere metaphor, the metaphors used in the novel are identified in the selected passages based on the metaphoricity they display. Thus, the procedure used is informed by the Metaphor Identification Procedure University Amsterdam since it is strategic and feasible. Excerpts from the novel are selected instead of the whole text for reasons of scope and space. The study's findings are supposed to open up areas for research on the effects of metaphor-based analysis on working out the meaning of difficult contemporary items as far as literary dictum is concerned.
  • Buying a Blind Eye: Campaign Donations, Forbearance, and Deforestation in Colombia
    While existing work has demonstrated that campaign donations can buy access to benefits such as favorable legislation and preferential contracting, we highlight another use of campaign contributions: buying forbearance. Specifically, we argue that in return for campaign contributions, Colombian mayors who rely on donor-funding (compared to those who do not) choose not to enforce sanctions against illegal deforestation activities. Using a regression discontinuity design we show that deforestation is significantly higher in municipalities that elect donor-funded as opposed to self-funded politicians. Further analysis shows that only part of this effect can be explained by differences is contracting practices by donor-funded mayors. Instead, evidence from analysis of fire clearance, and of heterogeneity in the effects according to the presence of alternative formal and informal enforcement institutions, supports the interpretation that campaign contributions buy forbearance from enforcement of environmental regulations.
  • The Debate about the definition of the Mexican Violent Conflict: towards a useful concept
    Since 2007, scholars and the general public have tried to understand the nature of the increasingly violent conflict in Mexico. As a result, many different concepts, and characterisations about the violence in Mexico have arisen, but many of these, either borrowed from many fields of literature terms or new concepts, fall short to classify or explain the key differences from high scale violence involving organised crime and other types of violent conflicts such as civil wars. Also, considering the regional trend of high homicide rates in Latin America, especially in Central America and Brazil, it is relevant to build a new concept that can be useful, theoretically, and empirically, for the study of violence and conflict derived from involvement of organised crime, gangs, and other nonstate actors. In this article I review most of the academic and political commentary of the nature of the Mexican case and, from there, I analyse the different concepts proposed from two angles: first, a comparison with the characteristics of other high scale violent conflict concepts, and second, an examination of their utility in terms of theory, field studies, internal coherence, parsimony, familiarity, depth, differentiation, and familiarity. The aim of the comparison of different types of conflict is to assess how scholars use the literature from diverse fields to influence categorisation of new violent phenomenon. The examination of utility aims is to establish how these comparisons help or not to study of violence in Mexico and other Latin America cases of high scale violence of non-political conflicts, and how characterisations and evidence collected can enhance the understanding of violence with thebbuilding of a useful concept of this phenomenon.
  • HEALTH INEQUALITY ON LABOR MARKET: EXPLORING HEALTH-RELATED EMPLOYMENT TRANSITIONS AMONG KOREAN YOUNG ADULTS
    This study aims to evaluate relationships between employees' subjective and mental health and non-regular employment. I use three-wave (2012, 2015, and 2018) from the Korean Youth Panel data to access relationships between health indicators and non-regular employment. I also explore gender differences to access if relationships between health and employment are different for the two sexes. I utilized the random-effects model to estimate the association between health indicators and non-regular employment across three waves. I found that mental health indicators rather than subjective health affect one's odds of attending a temporary job. Also, the transition or maintenance of temporary positions showed that mental health indicators were associated with the transition from regular to a temporary job but were not associated with the maintenance of temporary positions. Additional analysis showed men were more likely to attend a temporary job if they had suicidal thoughts, while women were more susceptible to daily stress, despair, and suicidal thoughts altogether. I discuss the implications of this study for research and policy on non-regular employment's influence on youth's health.
  • BOOK REVIEW "PESONA & SISI KELAM MAJAPAHIT: SEJARAH PANJANG KERAJAAN TERBESAR DI NUSANTARA SEJAK MULA BERDIRI, KEJAYAAN HINGGA KERUNTUHANNYA" (THE ENCHANTMENT & DARK SIDE OF MAJAPAHIT: THE LONG HISTORY OF THE GREATEST KINGDOM IN THE ARCHIPELAGO SINCE ITS BEGINNING, ITS GLORY TO ITS FALL)
    The author wrote this book for anyone who wants to learn about the history of the Majapahit Kingdom, especially for students. It is very suitable for students to read this book because it contains the historical events of the Majapahit Kingdom, which are presented sequentially. In addition, it is ideal for reading by various groups because the discussion is attractive and easy to understand. The information discussed is quite extensive and detailed, although it only focuses on one era or kingdom. This book presents a different perspective from other history books because it presents many new facts to correct the errors and distortions of the history of the Majapahit Kingdom, which developed at this time. The interesting information presented from the book made the writer choose this book for review. Furthermore, this book also meets the criteria given by the lecturers, which is a book published in the last two years. Therefore, it is the right choice for writers to share their reading experiences with potential readers.