Papers

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SocArXiv papers

  • Nudge Policy, Embodiment and Intoxication Problems
    Intoxication represents a threat to individual autonomy, the self-willing, self-activating, self-making personhood at the heart of liberal philosophy. In the dominant Anglo-Saxon culture of countries like the UK, USA, Canada and Australia it is walled off from day-to-day life, surrounded by strict moral regulations and conceived of as a space of abandonment, where necessary repressions are briefly suspended. Recent developments in psychopharmacology and neuroscience have challenged the basis for thinking of individual behaviour and choice-making as inherently free and unfettered and they create interesting disruptions of this liberal subjectivity. In this chapter I want to examine these developments and their implications for the construction of intoxication as a public problem with regards to the expanding sphere of ‘nudge’ public policy and in the memory work involved in addiction recovery.
  • Not Being There: Research at a Distance with Video, Text and Speech
  • Not Being There: Research at a Distance with Video, Text and Speech
    This chapter examines the history and process of research participants producing and working with data. The experience of working with researcher-produced and/or analysed data shows how social research is a set of practices which can be shared with research participants, and which in key ways draw on everyday habits and performances. Participant produced data has come to the fore with the popularity of crowdsourced, citizen science research and Games with a Purpose. These address practical problems and potentially open up the research process to large scale democratic involvement. However at the same time the process can become fragmented and proletarianised. Mass research has a long history, an exemplar of which is the Mass Observation studies. Our research involved participants collecting video data on their intoxication practices. We discuss how their experience altered their own subject position in relation to these regular social activities, and explore how our understanding of their data collection converged and differed from theirs. Crowdsourced research raises a challenge to the research binary as the work is done by participants rather than the research team, however it also reaffirms it, unless further work is done to involve participants in commenting and reflecting on the research process itself.
  • Social Organization and the City: The role of space in the reduction of social entropy
    How can individual acts amount to coherent systems of interaction? In this paper, we attempt to answer this key question by suggesting that there is a role for cities in the way we coordinate seemingly chaotic decisions. We look into the elementary processes of social organization exploring a particular concept: ‘social entropy’, or how social systems deal with uncertainty and unpredictability in the transition from individual actions to systems of interaction. Examining possibilities that (i) actions rely on informational differences latent in their environments, and that (ii) the city itself is an information environment to actions, we propose that (iii) space becomes a means for producing differences in the probabilities of interaction, increasing the chances of certain selections. We investigate this process through simulations of distinct material scenarios, to find that space is a necessary but not sufficient condition for the reduction of entropy. Finally, we suggest that states and fluctuations of entropy are a vital part of social reproduction, and reveal a deep connection between social, informational and spatial systems.
  • Narrating imagined crises: How stress tests drive cultural reform in banking
    The scholarly consensus is that the regulatory response to the 2007-9 global financial crisis has proven a historic missed opportunity for transforming global finance. This article argues that critics risk missing some of the benefits of the new socio-technical tools regulators have introduced to augment their knowledge. We address the most significant novelty of the post-crisis period: regulatory stress testing. Informed by 13 interviews with regulators and financial practitioners involved in the Bank of England’s stress tests, the focus is on its ‘qualitative review’ component. Our findings suggest that compliance with the tests’ narrative imperative may be encouraging more transparent modelling and governance practices and weakening the boundaries between banks’ epistemic subcultures. We then reflect on how the pushback against the tests points to the limits of existing theorisations of storytelling in economic life and requires scholars to evaluate post-crisis reforms in a way that does not play into the hands of vested interests.
  • Comparing methods for measuring crime harm/severity
    Ensuring police resources are focused where they are most needed requires understanding of the consequences of crime in relation to offenders, victims and places. Most crime analysis is based on counts of crimes, but not all crimes are equivalent to one another. Researchers have recently developed two methods – the Crime Harm Index and the Crime Severity Score – for weighting crime counts according to the severity of different crime types. This article compares these two methods by applying them to two common crime-analysis scenarios: focusing resources on the most-important types of crime and in the areas most affected by crime. The two measures are found to produce substantially different results when other factors are held constant. The results of severity-weighted crime analysis (and the decision made based on them) could therefore be greatly influenced by the method chosen. The implications of this are discussed and future research avenues outlined.
  • A Case Study of Crowdsourcing Imagery Coding in Natural Disasters
    Crowdsourcing and open licensing allow more people to participate in research and humanitarian activities. Open data, such as geographic information shared through OpenStreetMap and image datasets from disasters, can be useful for disaster response and recovery work. This chapter shares a real-world case study of humanitarian-driven imagery analysis, using open-source crowdsourcing technology. Shared philosophies in open technologies and digital humanities, including remixing and the wisdom of the crowd, are reflected in this case study.
  • A Case Study of Crowdsourcing Imagery Coding in Natural Disasters
  • Testing A Digital Inequality Model for Online Political Participation
    Increasing Internet use is changing the way individuals take part in society but research on the mobilizing effects of the Internet for political participation shows mixed results. The present study takes a digital inequality perspective and analyzes the role of political interest and Internet expertise for the social structuration of online political participation. Analyses are based on two-wave nationally representative survey data from Switzerland and use cluster analysis and structural equation modeling. A distinct group of political users emerged characterized by high education and income. Further, online politi-cal participation is predicted by political interest and Internet skills, which increasingly mediated the effects of social position. Digital information policies should therefore include the promotion of Internet skills and effective use, particularly in marginalized social groups, to avoid reinforcing traditional participatory inequalities in the digital society.
  • Usage of Specialized Service Delivery: Evidence from Contiguous Counties
    This study exploits exogenous policy discontinuities along state borders to estimate the influence of differences in local autonomy on the usage of special districts in U.S. counties. Using forty years of data, this analysis compares counties on either side of state borders where local autonomy differs and finds little to no evidence that negative changes in local autonomy leads to increased utilization of special districts. This study suggests that some prior literature may overstate the importance of local autonomy in local service delivery.
  • General Intelligence in Friendship Selection: A Study of Preadolescent Best Friend Dyads
    Research on the topics of general intelligence and friendship formation separately has elicited a tremendous amount of attention across decades of psychological scholarship. To date, however, less effort has been aimed at uniting these lines of inquiry. In particular, do friendship bonds emerge, based in part, on shared levels of cognitive ability? Several disparate lines of evidence suggest this might be the case, however, a need remains to replicate this work using large national samples coupled with psychometrically sound measurement. The current study helps to fill this void in the literature using a national sample of American children. Our results reveal that preadolescent friendship dyads are robustly correlated on measures of general intelligence, and the effects withstand correction for potentially confounding variables.
  • Reconciling Intellectual and Personal Property
    Copyright law sets up an inevitable tension between the intellectual property of creators and the personal property of consumers — in other words, between copyrights and copies. For the better part of the last century, copyright law successfully mediated this tension through the principle of exhaustion — the notion that once a rights holder transfers a copy of a work to a new owner, its rights against that owner are diminished. Rather than an idiosyncratic carveout or exception, exhaustion is an inherent part of copyright law’s balance between the rights of creators and the rights of the public. Nonetheless, many rights holders and some courts see exhaustion as nothing more than a loophole or market inefficiency that allows consumers to make unauthorized uses of intellectual property rightly controlled by the copyright owner. Two developments threaten to curtail exhaustion and consumer interests. First, content owners have endeavored to eliminate the personal property interests of consumers, redefining the notion of ownership by characterizing their transactions with consumers as licenses. Second, the tangible copy is rapidly disappearing as copyright markets shift from the distribution of physical products to exchanges of networked information. In short, the equilibrium between personal and intellectual property that exhaustion enabled depends on doctrinal assumptions about the copyright marketplace that are quickly becoming outdated. By examining the basic functions of copy ownership, this Article will attempt to construct a notion of consumer property rights in digital media that acknowledges the shift away from tangible artifacts while preserving exhaustion’s central role in the intellectual property system.
  • What We Buy When We "Buy Now"
    Retailers such as Apple and Amazon market digital media to consumers using the familiar language of product ownership, including phrases like “buy now,” “own,” and “purchase.” Consumers may understandably associate such language with strong personal property rights. But the license agreements and terms of use associated with these transactions tell a different story. They explain that ebooks, mp3 albums, digital movies, games, and software are not sold, but merely licensed. The terms limit consumers' ability to resell, lend, transfer, and even retain possession of the digital media they acquire. Moreover, unlike physical media products, access to digital media is contingent — it depends on shifting business models, the success and failure of platforms, and often on the maintenance and availability of DRM authentication systems years after the consumer clicked “buy now.” This article presents the results of the first-ever empirical study of consumers' perceptions of the marketing language used by digital media retailers. We created a fictitious Internet retail site, surveyed a nationally representative sample of nearly 1300 online consumers, and analyzed their perceptions through the lens of false advertising and unfair and deceptive trade practices. The resulting data reveal a number of insights about how consumers understand and misunderstand digital transactions. A surprisingly high percentage of consumers believe that when they “buy now,” they acquire the same sorts of rights to use and transfer digital media goods that they enjoy for physical goods. The survey also strongly suggests that these rights matter to consumers. Consumers are willing to pay more for them and are more likely to acquire media through other means, both lawful and unlawful, in their absence. Our study suggests that a relatively simple and inexpensive intervention — adding a short notice to a digital product page that outlines consumer rights in straightforward language — is an effective means of significantly reducing consumers’ material misperceptions. Sales of digital media generate hundreds of billions in revenue, and some percentage of this revenue is based on deception. Presumably, if consumers knew of the limited bundle of rights they were acquiring, the market could drive down the price of digital media or generate competitive business models that offered a different set of rights. We thus turn to legal interventions, such as state false advertising law, the Lanham Act, and federal unfair and deceptive trade practice law as possible remedies for digital media deception. Because of impediments to suit, including arbitration clauses and basic economic disincentives for plaintiffs, we conclude that the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) could help align business practices with consumer perceptions. The FTC’s deep expertise in consumer disclosures, along with a series of investigations into companies that interfered with consumers’ use of media through digital rights management makes the agency a good fit for deceptions that result when we “buy now.”
  • Tattoos and IP Norms
    The U.S. tattoo industry generates billions of dollars in annual revenue. Like the music, film, and publishing industries, it derives value from the creation of new, original works of authorship. But unlike rights holders in those more traditional creative industries, tattoo artists rarely assert formal legal rights in disputes over copying or ownership of the works they create. Instead, tattooing is governed by a set of nuanced, overlapping, and occasionally contradictory social norms enforced through informal sanctions. And in contrast to other creative communities that rely on social norms because of the unavailability of formal intellectual property protection, the tattoo industry opts for self-governance despite the comfortable fit of its creative output within the protections of the Copyright Act. This Article relies on qualitative interview data drawn from more than a dozen face-to-face conversations with professionals in the tattoo industry. Based on those interviews, it offers a descriptive account of the social norms that have effectively displaced formal law within the tattoo community, provides a set of complementary cultural and economic explanations for the development of those norms, and outlines the broader implications of this research for intellectual property law and policy.
  • Digital Exhaustion
    As digital networks emerge as the dominant means of distributing copyrighted works, the first sale doctrine is increasingly marginalized. The limitations first sale places on the exclusive right of distribution are of little importance when the alienation and use of copies entails their reproduction. This fact of the modern copyright marketplace has led to calls for statutory clarification of digital first sale rights. Acknowledging the obstacles to legislative intervention, this Article argues that courts are equipped today to limit copyright exclusivity in order to enable copy owners to make traditionally lawful uses of their copies, including resale through secondary markets. We argue that first sale is not simply an isolated limitation on the distribution right. Instead, it is a component of a broader principle of copyright exhaustion that emerges from early case law preceding the Supreme Court’s foundational decision in Bobbs-Merrill v. Strauss. This context reveals a common law of copyright exhaustion that embraces a set of user privileges that includes not only alienation, but renewal, repair, adaptation, and preservation. Despite congressional recognition of exhaustion in sections 109 and 117 of the Copyright Act, this Article concludes that courts have ample room to apply and continue to develop common law rules that preserve the many benefits of the first sale doctrine in the digital marketplace.
  • Inter-ethnic Interaction, Strategic Bargaining Power, and the Dynamics of Cultural Norms: A Field Study in an Amazonian Population
    Ethnic groups are universal and unique to human societies. Such groups sometimes have norms of behavior that are adaptively linked to their social and ecological circumstances, and ethnic boundaries may function to protect that variation from erosion by inter-ethnic interaction. However, such interaction is often frequent and voluntary, suggesting that individuals may be able to strategically reduce its costs, allowing adaptive cultural variation to persist in spite of interaction with out-groups with different norms. We examine five mechanisms influencing the dynamics of ethnically-distinct cultural norms, each focused on strategic individual-level choices in inter-ethnic interaction: bargaining, interaction frequency-biased norm adoption, assortment on norms, success-biased inter-ethnic social learning, and childhood socialization. We use Bayesian item response models to analyze patterns of norm variation and inter-ethnic interaction in an ethnically-structured Amazonian population. We show that, among indigenous Matsigenka, inter-ethnic education with colonial Mestizos is more strongly associated with Mestizo-typical norms than is even extensive inter-ethnic experience in commerce and wage labor. Using ethnographic observations, we show that all five of the proposed mechanisms of norm adoption may contribute to this effect. However, of these mechanisms, we argue that changes in relative bargaining power are particularly important for ethnic minorities wishing to preserve distinctive norms while engaging in inter-ethnic interaction in domains such as education. If this mechanism proves applicable in a range of other ethnographic contexts, it would constitute one cogent explanation for when and why ethnically-structured cultural variation can either persist or erode given frequent, and often mutually beneficial, inter-ethnic interaction.
  • Priming human-computer interactions: Experimental evidence from economic development mobile surveys
    This paper investigates how citizens from developing countries vocalize controversial topics, combining the behavioral economics of development with human-computer interaction for potentially mutual benefit across fields. I examine a priming effort to understand how people decide to discuss controversial local subjects, using the human-computer interaction of people with their mobile phones to quantify how attracted people feel to alternative local political economy topics when randomly asked what they think about international aid. The treatment significantly impacted the likelihood of choosing to discuss sanitation, health, poverty, democracy, individual determination, pro-poor support, and happiness. However, the intervention does not affect subjectively ranked preferences. The proposed approach quantifies the attraction users feel to concepts based on human-computer interactions and this approach may be relevant for contexts beyond developing countries. Human-computer interaction approaches may help policy makers entrusted with the Sustainable Development Goals and other initiatives better understand the needs and desires of people in developing countries.
  • The Partial Deinstitutionalization of Affirmative Action in U.S. Higher Education, 1988-2014
    Race-conscious admissions policies are politically controversial yet pragmatically effective for improving access for people of color to selective U.S. colleges and universities. While the admissions policies of elite institutions get the most political, scholarly, and media attention, little is known about the use of affirmative action in admissions across the broader field of selective higher education. Based on analysis of longitudinal panel data of almost 1,000 selective status colleges and universities, we find a dramatic shift in stated organizational policy starting in the mid-1990s. In 1994, 60% of institutions publicly declared that they considered race in undergraduate admissions; by 2014, just 35% did. Yet there is substantial variation depending on schools’ status (competitiveness) and sector (public or private). Notably, race-conscious admissions remain the stated organizational policy of almost all of the most elite public and private institutions. The retreat from race-conscious admissions occurs largely among schools relatively lower in the status hierarchy: very competitive public institutions and competitive public and private institutions. These patterns are not explained by the implementation of state-level bans. The findings suggest that both the diversity imperative and the diffuse impact of the anti-affirmative action movement are not consistent across strata of American higher education.
  • The Impact of Restrictions on Farm Animal Housing on Egg Prices, Consumer Welfare, and Production in California
    New animal welfare policies on the horizon in many states have prompted debates about the cost of achieving happier hens and hogs. A recent policy change in California offers a unique opportunity to measure the economic repercussions of minimum space requirements for egg-laying hens. Using forecasting methods and structural break tests as applied to 16 years of monthly data on egg production and input prices, we find that by July 2016 both egg production and the number of egg-laying hens were about 35% lower than they would have been in the absence of the new regulations. Out-of-state eggs were able to compensate for falling California production until around the time of implementation of the new rules, at which point imports of eggs into California fell. For consumers, we estimate price impacts using panel structural break tests and difference-in-differences models as applied to five years of scanner data from the retail market for shell eggs in three California markets and three control markets. We find that the average price paid per dozen eggs was about 22% higher from December 2014 through September 2016 than it would have been in the absence of the hen housing restrictions. The price impact fell over time, from an initial impact of about 33% per dozen to about 9% over the last six months of the observed time horizon. These price increases correspond to welfare losses of at least $117 million for the three California markets over the observed time horizon. Our results suggest that because of the policy change, California consumers can expect to experience annual welfare losses of at least $25 million in future years from higher retail egg prices alone.
  • The metamathematics of Putnam's model-theoretic arguments
    Putnam famously attempted to use model theory to draw metaphysical conclusions. His Skolemisation argument sought to show metaphysical realists that their favourite theories have countable models. His permutation argument sought to show that they have permuted models. His constructivisation argument sought to show that any empirical evidence is compatible with the Axiom of Constructibility. Here, I examine the metamathematics of all three model-theoretic arguments, and I argue against Bays (2001, 2007) that Putnam is largely immune to metamathematical challenges. Philip Scowcroft has written a very useful review of this paper, on MathSciNet, MR2785345 (2012e:03005). Published in Erkenntnis 74.3: 321–49.
  • Teaching Foundational Data Skills in the Library
    In Databrarianship: The Academic Data Librarian in Theory and Practice, edited by Linda Kellam and Kristi Thompson. Chicago: Association of College and Research Libraries, 2015. Undergraduate students often struggle when asked to locate, evaluate, and use data in their research, and librarians have an opportunity to support them as they learn data literacy skills. Much of the literature on data librarianship in this area focuses on data reference services, but there is a lack of scholarship and guidance on how to translate data reference expertise into effective teaching strategies. In this chapter, the authors will bridge that gap between data reference and information literacy instruction.
  • Varieties of Militarism: Towards a Typology
    Militarism—a mercurial, endlessly contested concept—is experiencing a renaissance of sorts in many corners of the social science community. In critical security studies, the concept’s purview has become increasingly limited by an abiding theoretical and analytical focus on various practices of securitisation. We argue that there is a need to clarify the logic and stakes of different forms of militarism. Critical security scholars have provided valuable insights into the conditions of ‘exceptionalist militarism.’ However, if we accept that militarism and the production of security are co-constitutive, then we have every reason to consider different manifestations of militarism, their historical trajectories and their inter-relationships. To that end, we draw on the work of historical sociologists and articulate three more ideal types of militarism: nation-state militarism, civil society militarism, and neoliberal militarism. We suggest this typology can more adequately capture key transformations of militarism in the modern period as well as inform further research on the militarism-security nexus.
  • BOUNDARIES, BREACHES, AND BRIDGES: THE CASE OF CLIMATEGATE
    We examine the incident known as “Climategate” in which emails and other documents relating to climate scientists and their work were illegitimately accessed and posted to the Internet. The contents of the files prompted questions about the credibility of climate science and the legitimacy of some of the climate scientists’ practices. Multiple investigations unfolded to repair the boundary that had been breached. While exonerating the scientists of wrongdoing and endorsing the legitimacy of the consensus opinion, the investigating committees suggested revisions to some scientific practices. Despite this boundary repair work, the credibility and legitimacy of the scientific enterprise were not fully restored in the eyes of several stakeholders. We explore why this is the case, identify boundary bridging approaches to address these issues, and highlight policy implications.
  • Works citing Bendel and Hua on natural fecundability: a literature review on the origin of a falsified chart used in high school education in Japan
    This paper reports the results of a literature review on "An Estimate of the Natural Fecundability Ratio Curve" by Bendel and Hua (1978, Social Biology 25). The estimation of this work was the origin of a falsified chart on women's age-fertility profile that was featured in a high school health education material published in 2015 by the government of Japan. The author searched citation databases and collected 23 works citing the study. A review of the 23 works showed that biases and unreliability of the Bendel-Hua estimation had been pointed repeatedly. The results imply that the chart would be inappropriate for educational use, even if it were not falsified. Both the Japanese government and academics are responsible for the inappropriate chart being used without a comprehensive literature review to insure the reliability of scientific knowledge.
  • Hyperloops do not threaten the notion of an effective procedure
    This paper develops my (BJPS 2009) criticisms of the philosophical significance of a certain sort of infinitary computational process, a hyperloop. I start by considering whether hyperloops suggest that ‘effectively computable’ is vague (in some sense). I then consider and criticise two arguments by Hogarth, who maintains that hyperloops undermine the very idea of effective computability. I conclude that hyperloops, on their own, cannot threaten the notion of an effective procedure. Published in Lecture Notes in Computer Science 5635: 68–78.
  • Consumption Taxes and American Exceptionalism: An Anglo-World Comparative Perspective
    The United States today has the lowest ratio of consumption taxes to GDP among OECD countries, and it is also the only country that does not have a national sales tax or value-added tax. This American aversion to consumption taxes has commonly been attributed to the embrace of a strongly progressive income tax, perfected during World War I. A comparison of tax revenues across all levels of government, however, shows that the United States had much lower levels of consumption taxes (compared to GDP and to total taxes) than Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom as far back as 1902, even before the introduction of the income tax here. At the same time, American ability-to-pay taxes (including income and profit taxes, estate and inheritance duties, and corporate license and franchise fees) remained at the low end of the Anglo-world range until World War II. The most striking difference, though, is that local taxes (essentially equivalent to property taxes) were much higher here, taking around 50% or more of total American taxes until the Great Depression but accounting for only about 40% of total taxes in Canada and roughly 15% to 25% in the other three countries. In other words, American consumption taxes (raised by state and federal governments) were so low in the first third of the 20th century not because of the income tax, but because the American state was unusually reliant on local funding. It is only with the wide-spread property tax revolts of the early 1930s, together with the growth of the federal warfare state during the 1940s, that ability-to-pay taxes came to dominate the American tax system.
  • The gambler's fallacy fallacy (fallacy)
    The gambler's fallacy is the irrational belief that prior outcomes in a series of events affect the probability of a future outcome, even though the events in question are independent and identically distributed. In this paper, we argue that in the standard account of the gambler's fallacy, the gambler's fallacy fallacy can arise: The irrational belief that all beliefs pertaining to the probabilities of sequences of outcomes constitute the gambler's fallacy, when, in fact, they do not. Specifically, the odds of the probabilities of some sequences of outcomes can be epistemically rational in a given decision-making situation. Not only are such odds of probabilities of sequences of outcomes not the gambler's fallacy, but they can be implemented as a simple heuristic for avoiding the gambler's fallacy in risk-related decision-making. However, we have to be careful not to fall prey to a variant of the gambler's fallacy, the gambler's fallacy fallacy (fallacy), in which we do not calculate odds for the probabilities of sequences that matter, but rather simply believe that the raw probability for the occurrence of a sequence of outcomes is the probability for the last outcome in that sequence.
  • The origin of a chart indicating the likelihood of conception linearly declining with age: a literature survey
    A chart indicating the likelihood of conception linearly declining with age (86% for women aged 20–24, 78% for 25–29, 63% for 30–34, 52% for 35–39, 36% for 40–44, 5% for 45–49, and 0% for 50 and over) is widely used on Internet fertility sites and by medical professionals. Its origin has been unknown until now. Through a literature survey, the author found that two books had contributed to the making of the chart. Among the seven points on the curve, three are based on data that are not the likelihood of conception, while four are probably derived from oversimplified description of fecundability estimates for American Hutterite and Taiwanese women in the 1950s and 1960s. At least two professionals are responsible for the fabrication or falsification of data.
  • Blockchain for the people: Blockchain technology as the basis for a secure and reliable e-voting system
    Governments around the world have been trying to implement secure and reliable e-voting (location-independent, individualized voting over the Internet) for a long time, to no avail: E-voting remains fundamentally insecure. This can change with the blockchain technology, an open, transparent, and distributed digital ledger. However, blockchain-based e-voting will only work if the blockchain-based e-voting infrastructure is truly distributed and no one entity, not even the government, controls a majority of it.
  • Sow the wind, reap the whirlwind? Mobilization cascades in direct democratic initiatives
    Caveat emptor: I have retired this manuscript. I will not improve on it any more, and it will not be published in a peer-reviewed journal. This paper explores the possibility of mobilization cascades in direct democratic popular initiatives. A mobilization cascade is a salience-based mobilizing effect whereby one popular initiative has a positive mobilizing effect on a subsequent popular initiative that deals with with a similar policy issue. The existence of a mobilization cascade would imply that voters develop salience for and positive attitudes towards policy issues merely through direct-democratic exposure to those policy issues in the recent past. In order to explore the mobilization cascade, I analyze three popular initiative pairs from Switzerland from the years 2012, 2013 and 2014. In each year, two initiatives dealt with similar policy issues, and the second initiative in each pair was making more far-reaching demands. The results suggest that a mobilization cascade might exist, but that it is probably a weak effect.
  • AN OPEN SCIENCE ‘STATE OF THE ART’ FOR HONG KONG: MAKING OPEN RESEARCH DATA AVAILABLE TO SUPPORT HONG KONG’S INNOVATION POLICY
    Pre-print surveying policies and open science practices in Hong Kong, hopefully providing lessons on how best to make open research data available, and how that will support Hong Kong's innovation policy.
  • An Analytic Approach to Culture
    In this paper, I outline a general framework for cultural analysis that is consistent with an “analytic” approach to explanation in science, emphasizing the identification and specification of cultural phenomena within concrete interactive systems. These dynamic cultural causal systems (DCCSs) are subject to the heuristic discovery strategies of localization and decomposition. Culture is always located somewhere and every cultural phenomenon is always decomposable into its lower level component units. Decomposition does not imply reduction, as emergence of higher level phenomena from the interaction of persons, their relations, and processes of recombination, transmission, learning, and memory is allowed for. I show that such an approach can be useful for handling most of the “meta-phenomena” of interest to cultural analysts, inclusive of the most important one of all, which is concerned with processes of cultural genesis and change.
  • Drinking with and without fun: Female students’ accounts of pre-drinking and club-drinking
    Pre-drinking, also known as pre-partying, pre-gaming, and front- or pre-loading, is the intensive pair or group consumption of alcohol in a private home prior to going out for the night, with the intention of ensuring maximum levels of intoxication. It has emerged as a distinct component of heavy drinking practice among young adults approximately between the ages of 18-25. This paper examines reflective accounts of female students’ pre-drinking and club-drinking. It explores the experience of pre-drinking in the context of the overall drinking sequence undertaken throughout the evening in and the night out. It finds that pre-drinking has a specific purpose for young women in managing risk, as well as ensuring a shared level of intoxication in preparation for entry into public drinking spaces. Their accounts illustrate the performative nature of intoxication. Pre-drinking is highly directed, bounded, and ritualised. It was frequently, though not always, recounted as lacking in pleasure for these reasons. It was associated with preparation for entry to a particular kind of superpub or nightclub especially, where the emphasis was on further rapid alcohol consumption. Accounts of continued drinking in the nightclubs were dualistic, emphasising pleasure and disgust, along with risk and vulnerability. Risk was experienced as individualised, and the women had shared responsibility for guarding against risk from unsafe others in the nightclub environment. This coding of risk is supported by public health messages targeted at women drinkers and by the more general societal and drinks industry promoted representation of alcohol consumption as normal and abstinence as deviant, which students were critical of. One attraction of pre-drinking for female students was as a way of protecting and supporting female agency in conditions of generalised, individualised vulnerability.
  • In Status We Trust: A vignette experiment on socioeconomic status and reputation explaining interpersonal trust in peer-to-peer markets
    The increased popularity of peer-to-peer markets decentralizes distribution of resources, a process that can prove to be economically efficient. Yet, this also increases uncertainty about transactions, and therewith the size of the trust problem. Individual characteristics thus become more important in determining who obtains trust as a type of social capital. In light of this societal development, this study is concerned with socioeconomic status as part of the explanans for interpersonal trust. It is generally believed that higher status trustees are trusted more easily, for they are more vulnerable to social control and loss of reputation. Others argue that people with lower social status often have to rely on each other and are therefore socialized into acting trustworthy. We propose a novel method for examining interpersonal trust situation: a vignette experiment mimicking the reality of peer-to-peer market platforms. 626 respondents, recruited through Amazon’s Mechanical Turk, were asked to place trust in their preferable trustee based on the asking price, and seller’s characteristics. Conditional logistic regression models were estimated and we found that status increases perceived trustworthiness, and positively affects the trust premium for past trustworthy behavior. Strong reputation effects were found, sending out a warning of reputation cascading based on the cumulative advantage literature.
  • Osmotic Mobilization and Union Support during the "Long Protest Wave"
    Despite increasing interest in the impact of social movements that target private firms, we know little about the emergence of such movements. Social movement theory situates such emergence in the context of larger protest cycles but has not tested the idea. We theorize about the determinants of osmotic mobilization (social movement spillover that crosses the boundary of the fi rm) and how it should vary with the ideological overlap of the relevant actors and the opportunity structure that potential activists face inside the fi rm. We test our hypotheses by examining the relationship between levels of protest in American cities around issues like Civil Rights, the Vietnam War, and the women's movement; and subsequent support for labor-union organizing in those cities. We combine nationally representative data on protest events from 1960 to 1995 with data on every union-representation election held from 1965 to 1999. We find that greater levels of (lagged) protest activity are associated with greater union support; that such osmotic mobilization is greater when there is substantive overlap between the claims of the two parties; and that the extent of mobilization varies with the opportunity structure within private fi rms. We discuss the implications of ideological and interest overlap as a contingent factor in future research on the emergence of mobilization targeting private fi rms.
  • The Fiscal Impacts of Urban Sprawl: Evidence from U.S. County Areas
    This paper examines the fiscal impacts of urban development patterns in the United States. Previous studies have indicated that low-density, spatially expansive development patterns are costly to provide public services leading to higher per capita expenditures. However, theory would suggest alternate outcomes. These two possibilities are examined empirically using a panel dataset of U.S. county areas from 1982 to 2012 and a specification allowing for a potential non-linearity between development patterns and per capita expenditures. Estimates indicate that the spatial extent of urban development is the most important, suggesting that more compact development is less costly to provide public services. Increased density increases per capita expenditures suggesting "urban harshness"; however, the effects are quantitatively small.
  • Technology, Diversity, Web Accessibility, and ALA Accreditation Standards in MLIS
    Published in: The International Journal of Information Diversity and Inclusion. http://publish.lib.umd.edu/IJIDI/article/view/300 This paper discusses an interconnection between diversity and technology: web accessibility for all, including people with disabilities. Qualitative interviews were conducted with eight MLIS professors and two students or recent alumni. Findings showed attitudes regarding teaching web accessibility and recruitment of a diverse student body varied between professors who were familiar with web accessibility and those who were not. Participants who were familiar with web accessibility often thought it should be included within ALA Standards for Accreditation. Findings suggested that, in one school, incorporating diversity in their curriculum, including web accessibility, allowed recruitment of a more diverse student body and was furthering diversity-related curriculum content. At another school, a professor expressed concern about recruiting a diverse student body, particularly students with disabilities. The research suggests that stronger practices for teaching technology, teaching diversity, and recruiting diverse students could assist the field of LIS to further realize its inclusive goals.
  • Do Cities and Counties Attempt to Circumvent Changes in their Autonomy by Creating Special Districts?
    This study uses forty years of data from the US Census of Governments to examine the impact of changes in local autonomy on the creation of special districts, the most popular and fastest growing form of local government in the U.S. Using a fixed effects negative binomial regression specified at the urban county and MSA level, we find that restrictions of fiscal autonomy of cities is associated with creation of new special districts. The magnitude of this finding is amplified when limits on fiscal autonomy are paired with grants of functional autonomy. We find no analogous effects for county governments. These two findings are consistent with the circumvention argument made in the local autonomy literature.
  • A possible case of mycetoma in ancient Rome (Italy, 2nd-3rd centuries AD)
    Reports of historical individuals with mycetoma are anecdotal in the palaeopathology literature, particularly in more temperate areas of the world. This article details a probable case of mycetoma in Imperial-era Rome, Italy. Differential diagnoses of leprosy, erosive arthropathy, sarcoidosis, and mycoses are considered. Given the morphology and pattern of the lower leg lesions and the ecology of the disease, the authors conclude that mycetoma is the most likely explanation.
  • Challenging the techno-politics of anonymity: the case of cryptomarket users
    Anonymity is treated as a problem of governance that can be subject to technical resolution. We use the example of the darknet to critically examine this approach. We explore the background assumptions that have been made about anonymity as a quality of social life. We conceive of anonymity as a way of engaging and maintaining social relationships in an anonymous mode. We draw on a study of darknet ‘cryptomarket’ users who mainly use the darknet to buy and sell illicit drugs, discuss drug quality and share information on safe and effective use. We identify the personal satisfaction that comes from interacting anonymously online, the challenges this represents for maintaining trusted interactions and how they are overcome, and the combination of technology and action involved in maintaining anonymity. We argue that attempts to promote de-anonymising norms and technology are based on an erroneous understanding of what anonymity is.
  • Concepts of illicit drug quality among darknet market users: purity, embodied experience, craft and chemical knowledge
    Background Users of darknet markets refer to product quality as one of the motivations for buying drugs there, and vendors present quality as a selling point. However what users understand by quality and how they evaluate it is not clear. This paper investigates how users established and compared drug quality. Methods We used a two-stage method for investigating users' assessments. The user forum of a darknet market that we called 'Merkat' was analysed to develop emergent themes. Qualitative interviews with darknet users were conducted, then forum data was analysed again. To enhance the applicability of the findings, the forum was sampled for users who presented as dependent as well as recreational. Results Quality could mean reliability, purity, potency, and predictability of effect. We focused on the different kinds of knowledge users drew on to assess quality. These were: embodied; craft; and chemical. Conclusion. Users’ evaluations of quality depended on their experience, the purpose of use, and its context. Market forums are a case of indigenous harm reduction where users share advise and experiences and can be usefully engaged with on these terms.
  • Managing the carbon rift: Social metabolism, geoengineering and climate capitalism
    The idea that climate geoengineering could be used in conjunction to reducing greenhouse gas emissions to avoid catastrophic climate change has gained credence in both scientific and policy circles. Because of the inherent uncertainty about the risks involved, debates on the topic abound. Scientists agree that more research is needed on both the potential impacts of geoengineering on humans and ecosystems, and the governance mechanisms that would be the most appropriate for conducting field research and for eventual deployment. Despite an explosion of publications in the last decade or so, properly sociological analysis is still lacking. In this paper, I develop an approach to geoengineering based on metabolic rift theory to consider the broad political economic context in which geoengineering technologies are being developed. I argue first that the eventual recourse to such last resort approaches is a consequence of the ever expanding carbon rift created by capitalism and the growth imperative it entails. Second, we discuss how geoengineering technologies would likely be deployed within the context of the neoliberal climate policy regime that is currently in place and that relies heavily on carbon markets. I outline some of the foreseeable consequences of tying geoengineering to carbon markets on greenhouse gas emissions reduction and on the possibility of exerting democratic control over the technologies themselves.
  • Participated and Unparticipated Causes [and Forms] in Plotinus and Proclus
    Later Neoplatonism, especially as formulated in Proclus, is known for postulating a multiplication of entities between the traditional three Neoplatonic 'levels' of the One, Intellect, and Soul. At root is a basic distinction that Proclus employs between unparticipated and participated causes—for instance between the One-itself and henads; Intellect and particular intellects; and so on. Yet coming from those like Plotinus, the distinction may be a surprise: why posit the unparticipated, and what would the distinction add? On Plotinus' interpretation, and following a common conception of Platonic ontology, all participants of a given property only participate in one Form: any further distinction posited would be superfluous. In this paper I analyze the participation frameworks for both Plotinus and Proclus, focusing specifically on sensibles participating in Forms. I trace the difference to the ontological status of the participants in relation to the property they receive: for Plotinus, there is no distinct property in the participant that is ontologically separate from the intelligible Form; for Proclus, this is not enough—the participant must possess a distinct property apart from the intelligible Form, in order to account for the distinction of properties in one participant from another. This difference informs Proclus positing an extra 'unparticipated' cause.
  • Damascius on Causality
    [Presentation paper for the joint graduate workshop in ancient philosophy between HU Berlin and LMU Munich (MUSAPH). General overview of a chapter for my PhD thesis.] [As this is a thesis chapter in progress, any feedback or comments are welcome!]
  • Roma and Gypsy-Travellers in Europe: Modernity, Race, Space and Exclusion
    Chapter 1 Europe and its Internal Outsiders Chapter 2 Modernity, Space and the Outsider Chapter 3 The Gypsies Metamorphosed: Race, Racialization and Racial Action in Europe Chapter 4 Segregation of Roma and Gypsy-Travellers Chapter 5 The Law of the Land Chapter 6 A Panic in Perspective Chapter 7 Closed Spaces, Restricted Places Chapter 8 A ‘21st Century Racism’?
  • The Circle-Radii Analogy in Plotinus, Proclus, and Damascius, and Its Legacy
    In later Byzantine and Latin Christian works, divine causality would be commonly described using a geometrical motif: the relation of a circle’s center to the radii and circular line to describe God’s causality in relation to the plurality of creation. This imagery goes back to the pagan Neoplatonists, who employ it in their framework to describe the causality of their first principle, the One, in relation to the plurality of the Forms in Intellect. Given this, early-period Neoplatonists, like Plotinus, have a rather different view of the One’s causality compared to later Neoplatonists, like Proclus and Damascius: for Plotinus, the One directly produces Intellect; for later Neoplatonists, like Proclus and Damascius, the One indirectly produces Intellect through an intermediary. Given this, while the general analogy of the circle, radii, and center are the same for all of them, each figure has a different way of describing the analogy, which fits each one’s view of the One’s causality. This paper focuses particularly on Plotinus, Proclus, and Damascius and their description of the center’s relation and causality of the radii and circle, as part of the analogy to the One, in three particular passages: Plotinus’ Ennead VI.8.18, Proclus’ Commentary on Euclid’s Elements (154–155), and Damascius’ De Principiis I, 93–94. A brief survey will also be made on the sources of the metaphor in Aristotle and Alexander of Aphrodisias, as well as the legacy of the metaphor in Augustine, Eriugena, and Ps.-Dionysius. [Presentation for the Forschungsseminar Latinistik (Prof. Dr. Therese Fuhrer), 30.05.2017]
  • Justifying Unparticipated Causality in Proclus
    Proclus introduces the concept of the unparticipated (ἀμέθεκτον) (P1) among two other terms— the participated (P2) and participant (P3)—as the first principle (ἀρχή) of any given series of entities or Forms in his metaphysical structure. For instance, the unparticipated monad (P1), Soul, generates all individual, participated souls (P2), which in turn generate the attribute of life in their respective, participating bodies (P3). Proclus looks at (P2) as an efficient cause of (P3), where (P2) must be the attribute in actuality in relation to the attribute it brings about in (P3). At the outset, this suggests that (P2) is necessary and sufficient for (P3), which then implies a problem for positing (P1): if (P2) is doing the causal legwork for (P3), what role does (P1) play? One of Proclus’ main explanations is that (P1) is responsible for ‘unifying’ the multiple participated entities (P2), so that the commonality of the participated entities (P2) must go back to a separate source (P1). However, one could easily respond that this just amounts to a reversion to a priori Platonist principles for transcendent, separate Forms without providing a real justification for the necessity of (P1) as a cause. In my talk, I wish to elaborate on how Proclus thinks about (P1)’s type of causation in relation to (P2) and (P3), particularly showing why (P2) for Proclus is ultimately insufficient as an efficient cause compared to (P1) as the absolute first cause for a given series. [Early work on a PhD thesis chapter — presentation for the University of Edinburgh, July 16, 2017. Any comments or feedback are welcome!]
  • Population Processes and Establishment-level Racial Employment Segregation
    Racial segregation between American workplaces is greater today than it was a generation ago. This increase has happened alongside the declines in within-establishment occupational segregation on which most prior research has focused. We examine more than 40 years of longitudinal data on the racial employment composition of every large private-sector workplace in the United States and calculate decomposable Theil statistics of segregation to compare and contrast between-area, between-establishment, and within-establishment trends in racial employment segregation over time. We demonstrate that the increase in establishment segregation owes little to within-establishment processes but rather stems from the different birth and death rates of more- and less-homogeneous workplaces. Present research on employment segregation focuses intently on within-firm processes. By doing so, we may be overstating what progress has been made on employment integration and ignoring other avenues of intervention that may give greater leverage for further integrating firms.
  • Plotinus and Aristotle on the Simplicity of the Divine Intellect
    Aristotle and Plotinus both demonstrate the existence of a first principle as cause of the existence of all things. Aristotle puts forward that this first principle is a divine intellect which thinks on itself, and in being the highest being in complete actuality and without potentiality, it is also absolutely simple. Plotinus, on the other hand, sees reason to assert that the divine intellect can not be absolutely simple but a duality of some sort. Thus for Plotinus the first principle, as a cause of unity for all things, must be beyond the divine intellect and beyond being as an absolutely simple principle. Comparing Plotinus to Aristotle, Plotinus’ position appears odd at the outset given that he also holds to the divine intellect being completely in act and that it thinks on itself. Why thinking should be dual even when it is self-referential and unified in its activity is not apparent, and so Aristotle’s position seems the more coherent one. Yet, through an analysis of both positions, this dissertation proposes that Plotinus better accounts for the problem of self-intellection as requiring some form of distinction in thought while maintaining an identity between the subject and object of thought. If absolute simplicity is an essential attribute to being the first principle, Plotinus’ position is ultimately more consistent in positing a first principle beyond the divine intellect while also holding to a more coherent understanding of thinking with his understanding of divine intellect as a duality instead of an absolute simplicity. [MSc thesis for the University of Edinburgh, completed Aug. 14, 2013.] [This is an early work that I am interested to revise and update further, especially in light of recent papers on the issue in Plotinus. I welcome any feedback or comments.]
  • Proclus and Plotinus on Self-Constitution in the One
    In his commentary on Plato's Parmenides, Proclus critiques an unnamed predecessor for attributing self-constitution to the One, claiming that the notion necessitates duality in its subject. Proclus almost certainly has in mind Plotinus in Ennead VI.8.13-22, where the latter attributes self-causation and determination to the One. However in the latter context, Plotinus is rather attempting to show how the One's unity entails that it is the cause of such self-determinative activity manifested in Intellect (as in the earlier Enn. VI.8.1-7). One could conclude, as does John Dillon, that Proclus is giving up an unfair criticism of Plotinus. In this dissertation I offer some support for Proclus' critical stance with an analysis of both figures' positions, starting with a look at (1) self-constitution and its conceptual origin in self-motion; (2) Plotinus on the One's causality; (3) Proclus on the One's causality; and (4) an analysis of Enn. VI.8.13-14 in light of Proclus' critique. While it could be that Proclus takes little account for Plotinus' careful construction in the language of Enn. VI.8.13-22, still Proclus' critique hinges on a different view of causation for the One than Plotinus'. The different stance lies in the background for why Plotinus allows for self-constitution in the One, even if with metaphorical language, while for Proclus such language pertains only to the intermediate level below the One (with e.g. Being, between the One and Intellect) and not up to the One-itself. [MSc by Research thesis for University of Edinburgh, submitted Aug. 20, 2014.] [This is an early work that I am interested to revise and update further, especially in light of recent papers on the issue in Plotinus. I welcome any feedback or comments.]
  • When the World Around You Is Changing: Investigating the Influence of Alienation and Indifference on Voter Turnout
    This chapter investigates the amount of variability in individual turnout decisions over time and its dependence on the changing characteristics of political parties as one feature of the political context. Electoral participation in the German federal elections from 1994 to 2013 was characterized by inertia for most eligible voters. However, one reason for dynamics in turnout behavior is changes in individual alienation with regard to the political parties. When voters develop a more favorable view of the political parties than in the previous election in terms of the parties’ generalized evaluation or perceived competence, then they are motivated to switch from abstention to voting (and vice versa). But the political parties’ capacity to raise turnout rates is rather narrow compared to the influence of other determinants, such as the perceived duty to vote. Wuttke, Alexander (2017). "When the world around you is changing: Investigating the Influence of Alienation and Indifference on Voter Turnout", in: Schoen, Harald; Roßteutscher, Sigrid; Schmitt-Beck, Rüdiger; Weßels, Bernhard; Wolf, Christof (eds.): "Voters and Voting in Context", Oxford University Press.
  • Damascius on the One's causality as 'All Things' (ta panta)
    Damascius posits a split for the Neoplatonic first principle into two aspects, or entities: the Ineffable as the ‘true’ first principle, and the One as the first cause of all things, as in Proclus, but subordinated to the Ineffable. Behind this distinction is an essential shift in the One’s causality, both as a response to and critique of Proclus’ One. I look at De Principiis I, 2–4, and I, 92–94, in relation to Proclus, seeing how Damascius transforms the One as causally synonymous with 'all things' (τά πάντα). In doing so, I show that Damascius both retains Proclus' basic argument that the One does not directly pre-contain plurality, and that the One *indirectly* anticipates plurality by causing 'all things'. By holding these two stances, Damascius appears to lead a *via media* between a Plotinian and a Proclean view of the One. [Colloquium presentation (LMU Munich/MUSAPH, Jan. 17, 2017; Universität Bonn, Jan. 30, 2017; KU Leuven, Mar. 23, 2017) and conference presentation (NAAP, Edinburgh, Apr. 10, 2017) summarizing a basic argument of the final chapter of my PhD thesis. The attached PDF is from the KU Leuven presentation.]
  • Older adults and mobile technology: Factors that enhance and inhibit utilization in the context of behavioral health
  • Older adults and mobile technology: Factors that enhance and inhibit utilization in the context of behavioral health
    While numbers and proportions of older adults with behavioral health issues are expected to substantially increase, there is also a widening gap in available services for older adults. Mobile health interventions (mhealth) are a way to address existing barriers to treatment, provide frontline assessment and increase access to services for older adults. Due to perpetuated stereotypes, many assume that older adults do not utilize mobile technology nor will they accept a mHealth intervention. The purpose of this paper is to synthesize contemporary literature from information technology and healthcare regarding: (1) current mobile technology utilization by older adults, particularly in regards to health; (2) factors affecting older adult motivation to engage with mobile technology; and (3) older adult preferences for interacting with mobile technology. Findings reveal that significant proportions of older adults: already utilize mobile technology; are willing to engage in existing mobile interventions for health reasons; and have positive attitudes overall towards mobile technology. Finally, recommendations for optimizing mobile interventions to better suit older adults with behavioral health problems are reviewed.
  • Amazon, Medtronic, the OECD on Risk Analysis: Thesis on Transfer Pricing
    The mission of this thesis is to demonstrate the diverging adherence to contracts of the OECD and US in risk allocation for transfer pricing purposes as featured in BEPS Actions 8-10. The OECD adopts a principal of objective behavioral—non-agency—analysis of economic activity, which is impracticable and unworkable. The OECD denies that accurate legal contracts accurately delineate legal relationship. This implies an inherent fraud in corporate business management, which if true would be criminal in most countries—the OECD is implying everything in writing is a lie. The OECD denies the tax implications of principle-agent legal agency relationships as defined by contract law in its transfer pricing recommendations. On the other hand, the U.S. Tax Court still looks to the agency relationships between corporate entities. The U.S. Tax Court follows the correct approach. Corporate management can be divided between principle and agents. People usually think about management and shareholders, but there are also risk managers and asset managers that can be bifurcated. In terms of management, the bottom of the hierarchy is the managers of the factories. The capital fund managers or the shareholders have all the power—it will be taxed here not at the managers of the factories. The managers at the top of the hierarchy will get the highest level of remuneration. Reliance on contract is the only way that makes sense. Tax is based on legal—rather than equitable—matters. How would one tax equity? Two polar opposites define the alternative approaches to the proper appraisal of income for purposes of taxation for transfer pricing. On the one hand, the United States Tax Court has focused largely on contractual language and terms of agreement. On the other, hand the OECD through BEPS jurisdictions (most of the rest of the world where policies have been formulated) choose to analyze actual economic behavior and reality independent of the mere words chosen by the parties. Globalization and technology have greater importance in our daily lives every day. As technology and industrial processes grow every day, technology leads to greater globalization, and greater globalization of supply chains leads to more efficient and efficient technology. For example, years ago, heart problems would lead to death, but now small “battery” type instruments (pacemakers) can prevent heart attacks. The examples of the health benefits from technology are endless. As technology becomes greater and more efficient, globalization has also created supply chains and industrial production processes that are no longer local. As global supply chains increase in complexity, profits need to be properly allocated to certain jurisdictions for taxation purposes—to raise revenue support government functions for society’s benefit. This is a fundamental issue of international taxation. The leading principle for the allocation is the arm’s length principle, according to which related enterprises must charge prices that would have been charged in the open market. Although the principle’s goal aims at avoiding profit shifting, multinational enterprises for years used to shift profits to low tax jurisdictions to avoid taxes in high tax jurisdictions. In the early part of the 21st century increased to attention to these phenomena has lead to the OECD’s Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) project to combat this harmful tax competition. This is the most groundbreaking change to the international tax treaty framework since the 1920s—that was initially set up to facilitate cross-border trade. This BEPS project has led to fundamental proposals—as a type of model law—to change the international tax system.
  • Secularism and Fertility Worldwide
    This study hypothesizes a link between societal secularism and fertility. Using country-level data from multiple sources (N=181) and multilevel data from 55 countries in the World Values Survey (N=78,639), I document a strong negative relationship between societal secularism and both country-level and individual-level fertility. Secularism, even in small amounts, is associated with population stagnation or even decline, whereas highly religious countries have higher fertility. This country-level pattern is driven by more than aggregate lower fertility of individual nonreligious people. In fact, secularism is more closely linked to religious than nonreligious people’s fertility and appears to be a function of different cultural values related to gender and reproduction in more secular societies. Beyond its importance for the religious composition of the world population, the societal-level association between secularism and fertility is relevant to key fertility theories and may help account, in part, for below-replacement fertility.
  • Corporate elites and intercorporate networks
    Although systematic network analyses mapping the social organization of business power date only from the 1970s, scholars have explored the relations that link corporations and their directors into corporate elites and intercorporate networks for over a century.
  • Interlocking directorates and corporate networks
    This chapter provides an introduction to the literature on interlocking directorates and corporate networks. It first traces the historical roots of the field back to the early 20th century, when researchers on both sides of the Atlantic started expressing concern about the threat to democratic process posed by the emergent corporate form, the potential for collusion allowed by the growing practice of interlocking directorate, and the general concentration of power in the hands of large firms and banks. It then outlines the major theoretical approaches employed, that focus on the corporate network as a set of both interorganizational and interindividual relationships. Third, it summarizes the main findings on the cohesiveness of the corporate community, the hegemonic position of banks, and historical changes and longitudinal dynamics of the network. Finally, it discusses most recent debates on the globalization, the emergence of a European corporate network, and the decline and recomposition of the corporate community.
  • Omnivorousness as the Bridging of Cultural Holes: A Measurement Strategy
    Recent research and theory at the intersection of cultural sociology and network analysis has converged around the notion of cultural holes: patterns of cultural choice that position the person as a bridge not between other persons but between cultural worlds. This is an approach that promises to open up new vistas in our conceptualization of the relationship between social position and cultural taste, but which so far lacks operational grounding. In this paper, I draw on Breiger’s (1974) formalization of the idea of the duality of persons and groups along with classical formalizations of brokerage for sociometric networks (Burt 1992) to suggest that the “cultural ego network” of a typical survey respondent can be reconstructed from patterns of audience overlap among the cultural items that are chosen by each respondent. This leads to a formalization of the notion of omnivorousness as relatively low levels of clustering in the cultural network: namely, omnivorousness as cultural network efficiency. I show how this metric overcomes the difficulties that have plagued previous attempts to produce ordinal indicators of omnivorousness from simple counts of the number of cultural choices, while providing novel substantive (and sometime counter-intuitive) insights into the relationship between socio-demographic status markers and patterns of cultural choice in the contemporary United States.
  • Constructing climate capitalism: Corporate power and the global climate policy-planning network
    This paper analyses the corporate hegemonic structures of power underlying the project of climate capitalism. Its promoters present climate capitalism as an emerging regime of accumulation founded on carbon markets and the ecological modernization of production, that could replace the prevalent carboniferous capitalist regime and provide a deeply needed reduction of carbon emissions. I empirically map out the network of corporate-funded policy-planning organizations participating in climate capitalist knowledge production and mobilization to critically appraise the possibility of such a transition. I find that these policy-planning organizations are positioned to play a crucial role as intermediaries between regional and sectoral corporate interests, and that they crucially link between energy and financial firms. However, energy-finance linkages are sparse, and I also find a relatively thin network carried by a small number of individual capitalists from the fossil fuel and nuclear sectors. These findings cast doubt on the hypothesis that a strong climate capitalist bloc is emerging.
  • Constructing climate capitalism: corporate power and the global climate policy-planning network
  • Neoliberalism and the transnational capitalist class
    Although a literature on the transnational capitalist class (TCC) began to form in the 1970s, along with the first stirrings of neoliberal public policy, these intersecting phenomena have deeper lineages in elite capitalist networks, transnationalizing investment, and the interaction between the two. This chapter explores those lineages and interactions.
  • Schengen’s Excluded: Third Country Nationals and EU Citizenship Regimes on the Polish-German Border
    This article investigates how the supranational policies of European Union (EU) citizenship were experienced by “third country nationals” living as non-citizen residents in the transnational urban space of Słubice, Poland and Frankfurt(Oder), Germany—two cities separated only by the Polish-German border. With an emphasis on the implementation of the Schengen acquis—the EU’s common policies on cooperation in law enforcement, visas, and the management of its borders--this article begins with an examination of the ways in which third country nationals are categorized as a group separate from EU citizens. This article then explores how the everyday presence of the border between Słubice and Frankfurt(Oder) excluded third country nationals from the exercise of EU citizenship through practices that placed limits on their freedom of movement. Finally, this article describes how specific individuals responded to these limitations by strategically managing their visa and citizenship statuses. Because of the cities’ unique border location, the residents of Słubice/Frankfurt(Oder) demonstrate the development of unequal citizenship regimes for EU citizens and non-citizens, in which each group is extended differential access to the entitlements, privileges, and rights of citizenship. By exploring how third country nationals’ ability to exercise citizenship rights were structured and constrained by EU laws and regulations, this article documents the emergence of one instance of illiberality within the EU’s ostensibly neoliberal and democratic economic and political projects, and brings into sharp relief the central role the right to free movement plays in the exercise of full citizenship within the EU.
  • Transnational alternative policy groups in global civil society: Enablers of post-capitalist alternatives or carriers of NGOization?
    Since the 1970s, transnational alternative policy groups (TAPGs) have generated visions and strategies pointing to alternatives to capitalist globalization. However, TAPGs are also embedded in networks of intergovernmental organizations (IGOs) and foundations, and may thus be subject to NGOization. This paper examines two bodies of data relevant to this issue: (1) network data that highlight TAPGs’ links to major sources of funds as well as key IGOs; (2) reflections of TAPG protagonists gleaned from in-depth interviews conducted at these groups. While our network analysis is consistent with the NGOization narrative, and while our participants offered many narratives of their own in line with it, they also provided more nuanced accounts that begin to specify the contingencies mediating between, on the one hand, resort to formal organization and to working with IGOs and foundations, and on the other hand, descent into hegemonic incorporation. In a neoliberal political-economic environment, the future of counter-hegemonic politics hinges partly on our identifying how ‘preventative measures’ can be brought to bear on processes of NGOization.
  • Cultural Theory
    Contemporary cultural theory has acquired discipline-wide status as the only “subfield” within which quintessentially “theoretical” issues are widely discussed, while at the same time forming core parts of the research agenda. Cultural theory is also one of the few strands of modern theorizing that boasts having a “straight line” of succession stemming from the programmatic concerns that preoccupied the sociological classics. Cultural theory carries this status in spite of the fact that its central concept is a 20th century anthropological importation made prominent in Parsons’s functionalism. This an odd situation because culture seems to be an inherently functionalist concept, and yet functionalism is the theory that is accused of providing a misleading interpretation of the classics and, accordingly, the theory that contemporary “cultural” approaches use to define themselves against. In this chapter I argue that, in spite of the aforementioned pretensions, there is no straightforward conceptual link between modern cultural analysis and the work of the classics, precisely because the contention that the classics were budding cultural theorists is a convenient invention of functionalism in the first place. I close by suggesting that the “problems” of contemporary cultural theory, being problems inherited from functionalism, may only be soluble by abandoning the culture concept. Ironically enough the 19th century classics, especially Durkheim, and one 20th century “classic,” namely Bourdieu, provide a model of how to do social theory without a culture concept.
  • Rhythm-making, halfway ethnographies and ‘city heartbeats’
    This paper explores the issue of temporality in undertaking ethnographic fieldwork, drawing on research that examined urban automated management, wherein software is used to automatically regulate traffic flow in a city. In this case, the study addressed: 1) polyrhythmia at different scales produced by algorithms, technology, management and urban life, and; 2) the process of organizing multiple timelines to tune the ‘heartbeat’ of the city. Time is a resource for coordination and regulation, as well as for making sense of actions and experience. Being increasingly dispersed, and black-boxed in a multiplicity of processes affecting and configuring the way the past, present and future are perfomed and lived, time also represents a new object of concern for the ethnographic investigation of algorithmic management. I argue that ethnography allows us to understand the material organizing of dispersed and heterogeneous temporalities while also intersecting with such temporalities. Drawing on Guattari and Deleuze’s concept of ‘refrain’ and from Lefebvre’s ‘rhythmanalysis’, I introduce the concepts of rhythm-making and halfway ethnography with the purpose of accounting for the manufacturing of multiple temporalities and for the time-boundedness that links ethnographic practice and the technological, organizational, and cultural ‘heartbeats’ of fieldwork. This approach intends to temporally and spatially reposition organizational ethnography, offering analytical tools to study new contemporary entanglements of ethnographic practice and data.
  • Do Millennials care about NPOs? Intergenerational differences in attitudes towards nonprofit organizations
    Attitudes within society towards different types of NPOs are not fixed over time. In this paper, we explore one potential source of attitudinal change: intergenerational differences. An exploratory cluster analysis based on survey data from Switzerland indicates that intergenerational differences in attitudes towards NPOs probably do exist in some instances, and these differences partly fit the popular narrative of the Millennials generation, Generation X, and the Babyboomer generation. Importantly, however, these differences do not indicate that intergenerational effects amount to an erosion of attitudes towards NPOs. Millennials, therefore, probably care about NPOs about as much as previous generations, but they might be doing so in slightly different ways compared to previous generations.
  • Neoplatonism, The Response on Gnostic and Manichean ctiticism of Platonism
    Gnosticism and Manichaeism took some of Plato's ideas and shape them into their dualistic credo, thus setting off a storm of protest by the Neoplatonists who condemned Gnostic distortion of the teachings of Plato. Plotinus believed that the teachings of Gnostics were horrible because hey apparently followed the teachings of Plato and had some compatible views on the origin and nature of the cosmos with Platonism, but "Gnostic myth" actually twisted Plato's original teachings, and ultimately turned against him. Neoplatonists had a generally cheerful and optimistic view of the world as opposed to the Gnostics who despised it. Evil does not exist, it is just a "lack or deficit of Goodness" according to Neoplatonism. The only source of evil for Neoplatonists is being in the state of distance from the One, as a result of turning to the excessive material pleasures downwards and not toward superior spiritual reality upwards. Augustine became Neoplatonist in indirect way, and we know that Neoplatonistic texts helped in his transition to Christianity. He used the Platonic writings to attack Manichaeism, a sect which he once belonged. He came across Neoplatonic works of Plotinus and Ambrose written in Latin that helped him to change his Manichaean way of thinking about good and evil. Augustine said that Manichaean God is not true God because He is vulnerable to evil, stating that a true God is omnipotent and can't be affected in any way. After Augustine encountered Neoplatonic teachings he called Manichean teachings extremely simplified, pointing out that people are not found in every life situation torn between just two alternatives: good and evil, since people have multiple, complex and complicated desires and needs. According to Augustine we do not have two substances in us that are in war with each other, light and darkness, good and evil, but the problem is in our will that longs for a multitude of things that we want, of which only some are good. In this way he formulated his doctrine of good and evil influenced by Neoplatonism which was completely different from the dualistic approach we find in Gnosticim and Manichaeism.
  • Pierre Bourdieu as Cognitive Sociologist
    It is now well established that Pierre Bourdieu’s work can be interpreted as a form of cognitive sociology. Yet, given that the term “cognitive” has a variety of meanings, the question of where Bourdieu’s project of cognitive sociology fits into other cognitively grounded approaches in the social sciences remains open. In this chapter, I argue that if Bourdieu is to be considered a cognitive theorist, then there is only one way in which we can interpret his conception of cognition, and that is as a form of embodied cognition. I distinguish different senses of the term embodiment and specify how they show up in Bourdieu’s work. I discuss two broad sets of empirical phenomena---the “hard” and “soft” embodiment of culture---that have recently been identified and argue that their discovery represents a vindication of the prescience and extant promise of Bourdieu’s version of cognitive sociology. I close by providing indications how we can further an empirically grounded version of Bourdieu’s cognitive sociology today.
  • Baldermath: A design-based research approach to developing a game for student work analysis
    Games can help teachers develop and practice important skills. Can integrating student work analysis into a game help participants focus on, attend to details, and make sense of student work?
  • Climate capitalism and the global corporate elite network
    This paper explores the political involvement of transnational corporations and their directors in elaborating the project of ‘climate capitalism’ advanced to address climate change. Climate capitalism seeks to redirect investments from fossil energy to renewable energy generation, so as to foster an ecological modernization of production and reduce GHG emissions. I use social network analysis to assess the potential for climate capitalism, as a project of a section of the corporate elite, to replace the current ‘carboniferous capitalist’ regime. Corporate-funded climate and environmental policy groups (CEPGs) constitute major venues for the corporate elite to assemble and plan their response to the climate crisis. By mapping out the network of board-level interlocks between CEPGs and the largest transnational corporations, I first find that certain CEPGs are centrally located among the global intercorporate network, and thus well positioned to promote climate capitalism among the corporate elite. Second, I delineate a climate capitalist inner circle that includes the individual members of the corporate community who arguably are able to exert the greatest power to shape climate capitalism. However, many of them, close to the oil and nuclear sectors, may support a long-term transition away from fossil fuels, incompatible with avoiding dangerous climatic warming.
  • Performing Solidarity: Whiteness and Status-seeking in the Non-Aligned World
    The 1955 Afro-Asian Summit at Bandung is regarded as a pivot in the formation of Third World-ism and of coloured solidarity against Western colonialism and global white supremacy. But while this anti-imperialist spirit was no doubt present at Bandung, so were many other spirits, including those of Cold War realpolitik. We consider the different meanings of Bandung by examining the critical role Yugoslavia played in the rise of the Non-Aligned Movement in years that followed the summit. Drawing on primary historical documents, we show that Yugoslav leaders consistently failed to appreciate the racism of the international society and their own racialised privilege in it. They did appreciate, however, that performing solidarity with the decolonised and decolonising nations would bring major status rewards to Yugoslavia in the context of the East-West showdown. That self-consciously anti-imperialist and anti-colonial positions can be thickly enveloped in white ignorance suggests the need for more critical International Relations analyses of race, racism and racialised international hierarchies.
  • The Path of the Law Review: How Inter-field Ties Contribute to Institutional Emergence and Buffer against Change
    Early neoinstitutional scholarship tended to assume institutional reproduction, while more recent accounts privilege situations in which alternative models from outside an organizational environment or delegitimizing criticism from within precipitate institutional change. We know little about institutions that persist despite such change conditions. Recent advances in sociological field theory suggest that inter-field ties contribute to institutional change but ignore how such ties may reinforce institutions. Extending both approaches, I integrate self-reinforcing mechanisms from path-dependence scholarship into field theory. I elucidate my framework with an analysis of the student-edited, student-reviewed law review. Despite sustained criticisms from those who publish in them and despite its anomalous position relative to the dominant peer-reviewed journal practices of other disciplines, the student-edited law review remains a bedrock institution of law schools and legal scholarship. My analysis covers the law review’s entire institutional history, from prior to the first law review’s emergence in 1875 to its current state. I combine qualitative historical analyses of law reviews and legal scholarship with quantitative analyses of law-review structures and field contestation. I argue that self-reinforcing mechanisms evident in law review’s ties to related fields – legal practice, law schools, the university, and legal journals – have buffered it against change.
  • Embedding post-capitalist alternatives? The global network of alternative knowledge production and mobilization
    Since the 1970s, transnational alternative policy groups (TAPGs) have emerged as a component of global civil society, generating visions and strategies for a ‘globalization from below’ that points toward post-capitalist alternatives. This study proceeds from a neo-Gramscian understanding that hegemonic think tanks and TAPGs are embedded in opposing historical blocs, as they develop and deploy knowledge with the intent to make their respective blocs more coherent and effective. Here, we map the global network of TAPGs and kindred international groups – alternative media, social movement organizations, and international NGOs – in order to discern more specifically how TAPGs are embedded in a larger formation. In this era of capitalist globalization, are TAPGs, like their hegemonic counterparts, positioned as ‘brokers’, bridging across geographic spaces (e.g. North-South) and movement domains to foster the convergence across difference that is taken as a criterial attribute of a counter-hegemonic historical bloc? Our network analysis suggests that transnational alternative policy groups are well placed to participate in the transformation of the democratic globalization network from a gelatinous and unselfconscious state, into an historical bloc capable of collective action toward an alternative global order. However, this general finding must be qualified in two respects. On the one hand, there are gaps in the bloc, having to do with the representation and integration of regions and movement domains, and with the salience of post-capitalism as a unifying social vision. On the other hand, our architectonic network analysis does not reveal what the various relations and mediations in which TAPGs are active agents actually mean in concrete practice. There is a need both for closer analysis of the specific kinds of relations that link transnational alternative policy groups to other international actors, including intergovernmental organizations and funding foundations, and for field work that explores the actual practices of these groups, in situ.
  • ELK: An Online, Role-Playing Game to Better Elicit Learner Knowledge
    Teachers that elicit learner knowledge at the beginning of new units are more aware of student preconceptions and reasoning. Teachers who understand student preconcep- tions are able better to anticipate misconceptions and help students assimilate new knowledge. However, many pre-service and in-service teachers neither collect student ideas nor know how to do so. For my thesis, I have designed and implemented Eliciting Learner Knowledge (ELK), an online, role-playing game for pre-service teachers. While playing ELK, users experiment and learn skills and strategies for gathering students ideas. The game has been iteratively user tested during Teaching System Lab’s Dine and Play sessions and implemented in MIT’s 11.125 Introduction to Education class.
  • Deception Declassified: The Social Organisation of Cover Storying in a Secret Intelligence Operation
    This article asks why and how governments keep secrets from publics, journalists and politicians using the strategy of ‘cover storying’. To develop a theory of cover storying, insights are drawn from political sociologies of state secrecy and from recent sociological examinations of secrecy and deception in organisations. This theory is illustrated by analysing Cobra Mist, a secretive and deceptive Anglo-American Cold War intelligence operation. Examining recently declassified documents, this article develops a framework for the analysis of five interrelated narrative conditions that shape social processes of cover storying: correspondence; plausibility; accountability; constraint; and durability. In conclusion this article reflects on the broader implications of this analysis for contemporary state and organisational theories and understandings of secrecy.
  • In-home firearm access among US adolescents and the role of religious subculture: Results from a nationally representative study
  • Neighborhood Change, One Pint at a Time: The Impact of Local Characteristics on Craft Breweries
    Cities have recognized the local impact of small craft breweries, altering municipal codes to make it easier to establish breweries as anchor points of economic development and revitalization. However, we do not know the extent to which these strategies impact change at the neighborhood scale across the U.S. In this chapter, we examine the relationship between the growth and locations of craft breweries and the incidence of neighborhood change. We rely on a unique data set of geocoded brewery locations that tracks openings and closings from 2004 to the present. Using measures of neighborhood change often found in the gentrification literature, we develop statistical models of census tract demographic and employment data to determine the extent to which brewery locations are associated with social and demographic shifts since 2000. The strongest predictor of whether a craft brewery opened in 2013 or later in a neighborhood was the presence of a prior brewery. We do not find evidence entirely consistent with the common narrative of a link between gentrification and craft brewing, but we do find a link between an influx of lower-to-middle income urban creatives and the introduction of a craft brewery. We advocate for urban planners to recognize the importance of craft breweries in neighborhood revitalization while also protecting residents from potential displacement.
  • Journal of the History of Economic Thought preprints - Harry Helson’s Adaptation-Level Theory, Happiness Treadmills, and Behavioral Economics
    Psychologist Harry Helson [1898-1977] developed Adaptation-Level (AL) theory during the 1930s-70s, while economics was being refined through ordinalism and expected utility theory. This essay accounts for the process of transmission of AL theory from psychophysics, to behavioral psychology and eventually economics. It explains how the concept of adaptation reflectance, originally intended to explain color vision, developed into an experimental approach that caught the attention of both psychologists and economists working on welfare analysis and behavioral research. It also argues that the history of AL theory – so far absent from narratives about economics and psychology – is worth exploring in order to gain a better understanding of the relationship between the two disciplines.
  • Law enforcement against rural wild dumps in Romania – Satu Mare County case study
    International audience The paper examines the closure effects of wild dumps in order to start a better waste management in rural areas.
  • Trends in Wisconsin Imprisonment 2000-2014: Net Growth by Offense Group and Admission Types
    This report examines the mix of offenses and admission types for prison admissions, prison releases, and numbers in prison 2000-2014. Wisconsin imprisonment rates declined slightly after the mid-2000s, but have risen since 2014. A detailed investigation of patterns of movement into and out of prison by offense and admission type (new sentence vs. revocation) shows that the decline after 2007 was small and the seeds of the rebound after 2012 in incarceration were present in the earlier trends. A steep decline in prison admissions for drug sentences and a decline in prison admissions for revocations after 2007 masked continuing slow rises in imprisonment from new commitments for other offenses, especially rape and murder. After 2012, a rise in revocations across offense groups and a rise in new commitments for drug offenses and several other categories of offenses led to a rise in the total imprisonment rate. The patterns by offense and admission type suggest that changes in violent crime rates and in sentence lengths within offense category play relatively little role in these trends. Total imprisonment trends are products of complex processes affecting different groups differently. Policy recommendations emphasize the drug war, sex offenders, and revocations for technical violations as the areas having the largest numerical impact on trends in imprisonment in Wisconsin. An appendix gives additional details about offenses and admission types. The report itself includes seven color graphs which show trends in imprisonment by offense and category of admission and the appendix includes another 22 color graphs that show the trends for each offense and the offense trends by admission type. The graphs attached to the report are printed two to a page. Alternate files include a separate copy of just the graphs printed one to a page for improved legibility, a copy of the text with no graphs and a shorter version without the appendix. Update 6/12/17 corrects an incorrect sentence about the proportion of rape offenders who entered on a revocation; includes two new graphs, one on the admission status of those in prison and admitted to prison by offense and another showing the offense mix of those in prison and admitted to prison; and adds tables to the appendix. An available spreadsheet provides the frequency data that are the basis of the graphs and tables.
  • Narcissism Over Ideology: Revealed versus Stated Terrorist Preferences
    What preferences motivate the severity of terrorist attacks? I investigate how Boko Haram terrorists adjust their fatalities when unexpectedly deprived of public attention, relative to Al Shabaab terrorists, that were not deprived of public attention. Losing public attention raises the severity of terrorism: Boko Haram terrorist fatalities surged following the rebasing of Nigeria’s economy, which catapulted the country into Africa’s largest and the top twenty-five worldwide. The largest spike in Boko Haram terrorist fatalities occurred in the wake of the Nigerian Ebola health crisis. Although Boko Haram claims an anti-education sentiment, their fatalities do not actually differ significantly from Al Shabaab fatalities during the Nigerian national basic education examination. Overall, terrorists consider well-being changes as threats that have more validity than the persuasiveness of their own claimed ideologies. Terrorist groups do not significantly vary the severity of their attacks during Ramadan. Emphasizing revealed preferences may undermine terrorist credibility and recruitment.
  • How Troubling is our Inheritance - A review of genetics and race in the social sciences
    This article addresses the argument that there is variation between races in the biological basis for social behavior. The article uses Nicholas Wade’s popular book, *A Troublesome Inheritance*, as the point of departure for a discussion of attendant issues, including the extent to which human races can be definitively demarcated biologically, the extent to which genetics is related to contemporary definitions of race, and the role of natural selection as a possible mechanism for change in modern societies. My critical review of the theory and evidence for an evolutionary view of racial determinism finds that genetics does not explain the relative status and well-being of today’s racially identified groups or their broader societies.
  • How Troubling Is Our Inheritance? A Review of Genetics and Race in the Social Sciences
  • Law enforcement against rural wild dumps in Romania – Satu Mare County case study
  • Centurions in the Roman Legion: Computer Simulation and Complex Systems
    The Centurion was a key figure of Roman warfare over a span of several centuries. However, their real role in battle is still a matter of discussion. Historical sources suggest that their impact in the efficiency of the Roman battle line was highly disproportionate to their individual actions, considering their low numbers. In the past decades a number of authors have proposed different descriptive models to explain their relevance, highlighting factors such as an improvement on unit cohesion or high levels of aggressiveness, which made them lead the charges against the enemy. However, the lack of a quantitative framework does not allow to compare and test these working hypotheses. This paper suggests an innovative methodological approach to explore the problem, based on computer simulation. An Agent-Based Model of roman legions is used as a virtual laboratory, where different hypotheses are tested under varying scenarios. Results suggest that the resilience of formations to combat stress increase exponentially if they contain just a small percentage of homogeneously distributed warriors with higher psychological resistance. Additionally, the model also shows how the lethality of the entire formation is reinforced when this selected group is located at the first line of the formation, even if individually they are not more aggressive or skilled than the average. The interpretation of the simulated patterns in terms of Roman warfare suggest that the multiple roles of the centurions observed in the sources were not caused by changes in tactics or values, but can be strictly explained by an increase in their experience and overall combat performance.
  • This is Fucking Class War: Voices from the 2012 Québec Student Strike
    The spring and summer of 2012 saw the emergence of a massive social movement in Québec, centered around—but growing beyond—a student strike. The strike was called in opposition to a 75 per cent increase in university tuition fees announced by Québec’s Liberal government under then-Premier, Jean Charest. From February 2012 until the following September, the streets of Montreal, Québec City and other towns in the province were alive with demonstrations and protest actions. Students walked out of class and stayed out, picketing their academic institutions and even holding barricades against police intervention; over 3,000 people were arrested over the course of those few months, new repressive laws were introduced and resisted, and solidarity between groups and across sectors was built and tested. The aim of this book is both to provide a glimpse into the lived experience of this social movement for the benefit of those who were not a part of it, and to uncover some of the lessons that can be garnered from a reflexive look back at the movement. It brings together contributions by students and non-students, academics, parents, activists, anarchists, artists, and others, most of which were written as the mass mobilizations began to subside in the fall of 2012. The book is meant to be accessible to a wide audience, including those without previous knowledge of the 2012 strike or the Québec context. It is our hope that the information and ideas shared in the chapters that follow will inspire and inform reflection and future social movement action in Québec and elsewhere. The book can also be found online at thisisclasswar.info.
  • A Framework for Critical-Empiricist Research in Political Communication
    Empirical research on political communication can play an important role in informing debates about the democratic value of various political communication processes. However, the degree to which political communication researchers can live up to this task depends on how systematically they relate their empirical investigations to concerns formulated in normative conceptions of democracy. In this paper, I present a framework for the empirical normative analysis of political communication. Based on the two core research procedures of normative assessment and empirical validation, it provides a model of the relations between normative and empirical research and a template for the empirical study of normatively relevant aspects of political communication. The paper systematizes the relations between normative theory and empirical reality, and discusses the two core procedures for empirical researchers to productively bridge the two. The framework is supposed to foster systematic exchanges between empirical studies of political communication and normative democratic theory and clarify the contribution of empirical studies to democratic theory, practice, and reform. It also implicates additional justification for greater use of controlled experimental research and cross-context comparative studies.
  • Nation-building, industrialisation, and spectacle: Political functions of Gujarat’s Narmada pipeline project
    Since 2000 the Indian state of Gujarat has been working to construct a state-wide water grid to connect 75% of its approximately 60 million urban and rural residents to drinking water sourced from the controversial Sardar Sarovar Dam on the Narmada River. This project represents a massive undertaking – it is billed as the largest drinking water project in the world – and is part of a broader predilection toward large, concrete-heavy supply-side solutions to water insecurity across present-day India. This paper tracks the claims and narratives used to promote the project, the political context in which it has emerged, the purposes it serves and, following Ferguson (1990), the functioning of the discursive-bureaucratic 'machine' of which it is a product. The dam’s reinvention as the solution to Gujarat’s drinking water shortfall – increasingly for cities and Special Industrial Regions – reflects a concern with attracting and retaining foreign investment through the creation of so-called 'world-class' infrastructure. At the same time, this reinvention has contributed to a project of nation-building, while remaining cloaked in a discourse of technological neutrality. The heavy infrastructure renders visible Gujarat’s commitment to 'development' even when that promise has yet to be realised for many, while the promise of Narmada water gives Gujarat’s leaders political capital with favoured investors and political supporters. In conclusion, I suggest that the success of infrastructure mega-projects as a political tool is not intrinsically tied to their ability to achieve their technical and social objectives. Instead, the 'spectacle' of ambitious infrastructural development projects may well yield political gains that outweigh, for a time, the real-world costs of their inequity and unsustainability.
  • In-Home Firearm Access among US Adolescents and the Role of Religious Subculture: Results from a Nationally Representative Study
    Religious participation is linked to numerous positive safety outcomes for adolescents. Scant attention, however, has been paid to associations between religious participation and safety risks among adolescents. Using data from Add Health (N = 18,449), a nationally representative school-based sample of US adolescents, this study examines the relationship between adolescents’ religious affiliation and easy access to firearms at home. Regression analyses adjust for complex sampling design and compare easy firearm access at home among conservative Protestant adolescents to adolescent firearm access in other religious traditions. Conservative Protestant adolescents have a substantially greater likelihood of easy access to a gun at home compared to adolescents of all other major religious traditions in the United States. Recognizing differences in adolescent firearm access between subcultural groups can help public health interventions more effectively identify and address the needs of vulnerable populations. The paper’s conclusion considers suggestions for effective policy and programmatic initiatives.
  • Who Wants to Run? How the Devaluing of Political Office Drives Polarization
    My book manuscript argues that U.S. legislatures have become increasingly polarized and dysfunctional in part because of how difficult running for and holding office is. Combining theoretical and empirical evidence, I show how voters are forced to elect extremists because moderates don't run for office, and I document how the rising costs of running for office, and the falling benefits of holding office, have deterred moderates from running.
  • Waking Yourself Up: The Liberatory Potential of Critical University Studies
    Critical university studies courses can provide students with a context in which to learn not only about the concealed workings and hidden curriculum of the university, but more than that a liberatory space in which to find voice in shaping their own futures. This paper explores the liberatory potential of critical university studies through a conversation between a faculty member who designed and taught an interdisciplinary general education course on higher education and a student who was enrolled in the course the first time it was offered. The conversation explores the course’s pedagogy as both professor and student contemplate the ways in which contemporary higher education may limit the horizons of first-generation students and the ways in which critical university studies can open up possibilities and provide students with a sense of self-efficacy.
  • Baldermath: A design-based research approach to developing a game for student work analysis, NCTM conference 2017
    Games can help teachers develop and practice important skills. We examined the question of how might we design a game to initiate high quality student work analysis?
  • Fictional Characters Outside Fiction: “Being” as a Fictional Character in Heidegger’s Being and Time
    Can non-fiction present fictional characters? This is the main question of this paper. In reading Martin Heidegger’s Being and Time (1927), the readers construct a figure in their mind of a persona about whom all the philosophical reflections are discussed. Heidegger presents Dasein as a ‘particular being’ that characterizes all the features of human existence. Heidegger did not want to define and explain ‘being’, but he aimed at presenting a ‘sense of being’ in the form of characterizing the philosophical reflections he was presenting. After discussing how it can be claimed that Dasein can be considered a ‘fictional character’ in the absence of a ‘plot,’ the present article explains the main aspects through which a ‘fictional character’ is constructed, or figured out, in readers’ mind. It tries, also, to show how and why Heidegger resorts to this technique of fictional characterization in this highly influential philosophical book. The article specifies four main personality models, that help construct Dasein as a ‘fictional character’ in the reader’s mind. These personality models are: being-in-world, being-in-time, living-by-activity, and living-to-an-end. By ascribing such personality models to Dasein, Heidegger managed to present in his work a character that can be easily remembered all the time Being and Time is mentioned.
  • Morpho-Syntactic Complexity in the Translation of the Seven Suspended Odes
    This paper attempts at bringing a new degree of precision into the analysis of the translation problems encountered in Arberry’s Translation of the Seven Suspended Odes, i.e. morpho-syntactic complexity. Because the pair of languages under investigation is genetically and thus typologically different, it calls into question how to tackle complexity in morphology and syntax in translation. The paper brings into focus Arabic inflections which indicate ‘emphasis, duality and gender’, and how they may be properly approached. Additionally, the syntactic constituents of Cognate Accusative Object, Causative Object, Accusative of State and Substitute are examined in Arabic and how they can be overcome in translation. Evidence from the Holy Quran has been adduced for illustration and elucidation purposes as necessity demands. Last but not least, pleonasm and paronomasia have been linguistically pulled apart, to be followed by an approach to grappling with such phenomena in translation. Some strategies have been referred to, or devised in cases of the above constituents and the like.
  • Regenesis: Lawrence and a Re-Evaluation of the Genesis story
    The sterility of twentieth century society fostered nostalgia for the values of the past and a renewed interest in classical mythology. For D. H. Lawrence (1885 –1930), myth became one of the most important elements in both his fictional and non fictional works. Taking well-known examples, he reinterpreted them as an illustration of his own personal vision. This article is limited to a study of three major fictional works: The Rainbow, Women in Love and The Virgin and The Gypsy and attempts to analyse them in the light of the Genesis myth. It hinges on the hypothesis that Lawrence, by condemning orthodox religious beliefs, formulated his own creation myth: his regenesis. He attempted to expose the false ideals of conventional society, which had for centuries destroyed man’s natural intuition, by a re-examination of the Genesis myth. By using an analytical approach, this article aims to answer several provocative questions. Firstly, how far did Lawrence succeed in undermining conventional authority? Secondly, how successful was he in formulating his philosophy of regenesis? Thirdly, to what extent can this philosophy be seen as an answer to the problems of the age?
  • Co-habitality in Translation: The Comparative Case of Collocations
    The Present paper examines the nature of collocations in Arabic and English as a frequent multi-word item in both languages. The aim of this research is to illustrate the semantic and syntactic nature of collocations and these linguistic features’ effect on translation in both Arabic and English. The supportive examples showcase the problems that might arise in the translation process and their reflection on the quality of translation and level of competence of Arab translators. The findings have shown that collocations are not open to any word, as they co-habit with a limited range of words, which is the real translation crisis for the translator. These findings were supported by a proposed lexicographical model for collocation translation, which could improve the way Arab translators transfer English and Arabic collocations when encountered during the translation process.
  • Translation and Arabicization Methods of English Scientific and Technical Terms into Arabic
    Due to linguistic differences among languages, rendering new concepts embodied in new terms has always been a challenging issue in translation. English has become the medium of science and technology. Therefore, it has dominance over other languages of the world. Technical terms and concepts are translated mainly from English to other languages such as the Arabic language. Because of the foreignness and unfamiliarity of these terms in Arabic, the Arabic Language Academyمجمع اللغة العربية[majma’ al-lughati al-arabiyah] has always endeavoured to coin native terms in order to domesticate and naturalizeforeign terminology into Arabic. To accomplish this goal, translation strategies, as well as Arabic word-formation techniques such as derivation and composition have been employed by the academy. Among Arabicization methods isoutright phonetic borrowing of the English term via transliteration into Arabic sounds and characters. Another form of borrowing is calque (loan translation). This translation and Arabicization method has also been used by the academy in its terminology work. The aim of this research is to identify strategies of translation and Arabicization used by the academy in its terminology work. Accordingly, a descriptive and comparative analysis of ten English scientific and technical terms with their translational and Arabicized equivalents were analyzed and discussed. These terms were translated and Arabicized by the Arabic Language Academy of Cairo (Cairo ALA), which adopted various translation and Arabicization approaches to introduce and assimilate these terms into Arabic. Translation methods included borrowing (loan word), loan translation (calque) and literal translation (word-for-word). Arabicization methods included outright phonetic borrowing, loan translation, derivation, and composition. Findings suggested that Cairo ALA has appropriately applied methods of translation, as well as techniques of Arabicization in its efforts to delimit the foreignness of English terms. Accordingly, these terms were properly domesticated into Arabic.
  • Reflection of Translation Theory in Teaching Practical Translation: Legal Translation as Case Analysis
    This paper discusses the applicability of translation theory in teaching practical translation. It examines the Chinese translation of an English legal judgment “Attorney General v Lee Kwong-kut and Attorney General v Lo Chak-man and another”(Hong Kong Public Law Reports, 1993) by the Privy Council. It combines the source-text analysis with translation strategies from the perspective of semantics, syntax and register, in order to discuss how theories can be applied in real-life legal translation setting. The source text contains distinctive examples of legalese, convoluted sentence structure and honorific addresses specific to Anglo legal context. The Chinese translation is challenging as to how to cope with the linguistic and cultural differences, and most significantly, how to carry over the central meanings while retaining the equivalent effect and the authenticity of a legal judgment. Furthermore, this paper is based on the author’s teaching experiences, and will refer to the syllabuses and curriculum design of the “Programme Intended Learning Outcomes” and the “Course Intended Learning Outcomes”. It demonstrates the applicable value of translation theory, and how practical translation can be taught with theoretical explanation and vice versa.Translation bases on practice, all kinds of theories area guideline to be applied.
  • Jamaica Kincaid’s Lucy as a Narrative of Exile and Identity
    Jamaica Kincaid's novel Lucy is an artist novel whose eponymous protagonist breaks away from such forces as colonial and patriarchal mores, which eventually contributes to her construction of her own hybrid identity and inaugurates her maturity. This struggle is established perfectly well through Lucy’s apparent resistance to the constraints primarily imposed on her race and gender at home by both her mother and the Eurocentric society on the one hand and the androcentric and racist society she encounters in diaspora on the other hand. Surprisingly enough, Lucy, who is chastened towards the end of the book, creates her rite of passage towards development and independence through her valiant efforts to overcome such confines at any cost. The aim of the present article is to analyse from a postcolonial perspective the protagonist’s quest for identity in diaspora, the obstacles she overcomes to do so and to what extent she is affected by her new culture. This is manifested through intertwining discussions of androcentrism, colonial and postcolonial rebellion with questions of identity, hybridity, diaspora and cultural displacement.
  • Relationships of the Self: An Analysis of Murphy
    The paper explores the notions of selfhood and the state of fragmentation as a way of exposing human paradoxes. This selfhood is revealed to be essentially fragmented. The complexities of actual self-experience in the modernist period have fragmented and fractured Man, who is overwhelmed with a sense of nothingness, non-connectiveness, and disengagement. This condition is what Samuel Becket tries to convey in Murphy (2000). The aim of this paper is to study the layers of self that are operating in the novel through Murphy’s fragmented social and inner selves. Beckett parodies the traditional artistic and novelistic interest in human action. His novel, Murphy, undermines the characters’ actions, and its language exposes the essential absurdity of its social subject. The construction of the self is seen in terms of the language used, the descriptive judgment of which is ultimately rendered meaningless.The disconnection between the mental and physical realms leads eventually to the creation of the isolated and alienated self
  • Western Feminism or Return to Authentic Islam? Jordanian Women in Faqir’s Pillars of Salt and My Name is Salma
    This paper focuses on the violence against Jordanian women through Fadia Faqir’s novels, Pillars of Salt and My Name is Salma. These novels question cultural conventions that tolerate men’s oppression and killing of women in the name of the family’s honour in most Arab countries. The analysis of the two novels illustrates how Faqir’s opposition to women’s subordination and victimisation in the name of Islam stems from her interest in going back to authentic teachings of Islam with regard to women, rather than Western feminist theories. In addition, the similarity between Orientalist misrepresentation of women’s status in Islam and patriarchal misinterpretation of the Holy Qura’n and Prophet Muhammad’s Sunnah to subordinate women is explored and examined from the postcolonial feminist critical perspective. This paper highlights feminist contribution to raising awareness about violence against women in some Arab countries through literature.
  • Racism, Feminism and Language in Zora Neale Hurston’s Their Eyes Were Watching God
    Their Eyes Were Watching God by Zora Neale Hurston has received mixed reviews over Hurston’s treatment of African Americans’ struggle. Her African American male contemporaries saw her novel as an oversimplification of racial issues. Nevertheless, a closer reading of her book proves otherwise. This paper explores her powerful, albeit subtle, portrayal of the desperation imposed not only on her race, but on her gender as well. Hurston masterfully represents racial and gender issues without resorting to the anger and hostility that appear in the works of most of her contemporary African American male writers such as Richard Wright. Hurston’s characterization of the female protagonist, her skin-color, and even the language she uses, allows her to draw an accurate image of the African American woman in the early 1900s. Her choice of the African American dialect grants Janie Crawford a voice of her own despite society’s constant attempts to silence her. Focusing on the context and Hurston’s narrative and language, this paper aims at asserting that Their Eyes Were Watching God is not merely a tragic love story; it is a skilful representation of race, gender and class issues in America at that period of time.
  • Bans and Boundaries: The Arab Layman in Zakaria Tamer’s Sour Grapes
    Social diseases, incompetent governments and the effeminate existence of the Arab person are recurrent themes in Zakaria Tamer’s Sour Grapes (2000). Set in a fictitious Syrian neighbourhood, the stories of the collection Sour Grapes identify the bans and boundaries burdening contemporary Arab life. By presenting the unusual and the nonsensical, Tamer highlights not only the socio-political and economic problems but the impact of the various social customs and inaccurate interpretations of religious teachings on gender roles and on all that burdens the sheer existence of the Arab individual. The novelist does not name a figure or a regime but compels his reader to question the quality of existence in a working class Arab neighbourhood. Written in (2000), the collection foresees the inevitability of an Arab uprising, which was to take place ten years later. Unlike the stereotypical observations of many orientalists, Tamer’s Sour Grapes takes his readers through the narrow alleys of Queiq, introducing them to the Arab layman. Through the characters’ defiance or their commitment to the social bans and religious prohibitions, Tamer discloses the deep crisis in the Arab social fabric. Through textual analysis and the explanation of inherited bans and boundaries, this paper highlights Tamer’s clever use of the ridiculous to demonstrate how dictators are instated in most aspects of Arab life. This paper looks deeply into some of Tamer’s short stories to explain what lies between the lines and the ideas behind Tamer’s depiction of the bizarre and the peculiar to demonstrate how the powerful people in an Arab society thrive at the expense of the simple Arab person and his culture.
  • Bans and Boundaries: The Arab Layman in Zakaria Tamer’s Sour Grapes
  • The Unruly, the Mut(ilat)ed, the Ailing: Corporeality as a Space of Subversion in J. M. Coetzee’s Fiction
    This paper addresses corporeality as a space of subversion to hegemonic discourses in J. M. Coetzee’s fiction. The body is not only elusive to representation but it is also entrusted with a certain degree of authority that allows it to contravene the systems of normalization imposed by dominant discourse. The paper tends to appropriate poststructuralism and postcolonialism as its main theoretical grid to argue that corporeality in Coetzee’s novels is deployed as a fluid construct that offers a space of interaction between subjectivities beyond the rigid contours of discursive representation. In Dusklands, the clear-cut demarcations erect between the Self and the Other often blur and disintegrate while facing the permeability and extensiveness of the body. In Waiting for the Barbarians and Foe, however, the mutilated and silenced body of the Other is presented as a space of resistance to the Empire’s attempts to inscribe its statement of powerviolently. It is only the diseased body of Mrs. Curren, in Age of Iron, which transforms into an intersubjective space of reciprocity between Self and Other that is capable of overcoming the fixed barriers between subjects. Being an active site of contestation between subjectivities, the textual construction of corporeality in Coetzee's aforementioned novels offers creative opportunities of becoming and grants an imaginative understanding of otherness outside the limits of the logic of binarism encapsulated in colonial and imperialist discourses.
  • Gender Stereotypes in Fantasy Fairy Tales: Cinderella
    This paper explores gender stereotypes and culture depicted in three different versions of Cinderella children textbooks. The researcher has limited the study of fairy tales to Cinderella, the western version that she grew up reading it, and two other eastern versions: The Egyptian Cinderella and The Korean Cinderella. The characteristics of all versions represent different ethnics and cultural backgrounds. Findings that are based on discourse analysis show that the criteria of beauty and stereotype vary among all of the three versions of Cinderella children textbooks. That variation is based on the perspective of the culture represented in each one of the stories. Some valuable educational implications to limit the stereotypical gender misconceptions in children literature are presented to both parents and teachers.
  • How flexible are careers in the anticipated life courses of young people
    Bridging literature which addresses the work-family interface and the changing nature of careers, this study examines, from a life course perspective, the extent to which, and why, young people anticipate careers as ‘flexible’. Drawing on 123 interviews with men and women engaged in different post-secondary education pathways in Australia, the study draws attention to the role of gender and to some extent class in shaping careers in a network of social relations. Three dimensions of flexible careers are examined: temporal, that is, through imagined possibilities in various stages of early adulthood; structural, including opportunities and constraints afforded by different industry sectors and workplaces; and relational, in terms of household-level role negotiations. The findings revealed that women continue to adapt their career goals to accommodate care, but that both men’s and women’s careers are shaped by contingencies including household income, home ownership, access to flexible work and ideological expectations of market/family work roles. These contextual dynamics directly impact on decisions in the present. The study underscores the need for an expanded research focus on work and care from a life course perspective in order to promote career flexibility in ways that align with young people’s broader aspirations for gender equality.
  • Made in America? Immigrant Occupational Mobility in First Half of the Twentieth Century
    Assimilation research largely assumes that Southern and Eastern European immigrants achieved assimilation due to job ladders within manufacturing firms in the first half of the twentieth century. But this literature has never tested these claims and often acknowledges that little is known about whether Italians and Slavs experienced upward mobility. Did manufacturing allow for the upward advancement among European-origin groups? Using unique datasets containing employment histories in three manufacturing companies – A.M. Byers Company, Pullman-Standard Manufacturing, and Ford Motor Company - between 1900 and 1950, this article is the first to analyze occupational mobility within factories among European-origin groups. Results suggest that organizational structures within firms through the formation of internal labor markets did little to counter or prevent other forces that kept migrants from achieving upward mobility. Migrants ended their careers within firms where they began – positions at the bottom of the occupational hierarchy – which runs contrary to assimilation research.
  • Racial Arithmetic: Ethnoracial Politics in a Relational Key
    Societies invested in the quantification of race are rarely, if ever, free of racial arithmetic, the practice of using statistics to legitimate and justify political decisions along categories of race and ethnicity. Despite this, scholars have tended to focus on the production rather than the use of ethnoracial statistics. This paper argues that the study of racial arithmetic—an understudied feature of contemporary politics—requires a relational approach. To illustrate the purchase of this approach, this paper presents an analysis of Chicago’s most recent bout of aldermanic redistricting. In this case, racial arithmetic rested on the ubiquitous juxtaposition of “Latino” and “Black” demographics, as captured in the 2010 census. By casting Black and Latino political power as a zero-sum game, this juxtaposition helped longstanding white overrepresentation on the City Council escape public scrutiny.
  • Senses of Wonder
    Recent sustainability education theorists have identified a gap in the research literature regarding sensory entanglement and wonder in sustainability education. Sensory entanglement and wonder are requisite because they bring valuable shifts supporting a more critical and transformative kind of sustainability education by (1) awakening a compassionate connection with the living world, (2) nurturing alternative epistemologies, (3) providing a strengthening function for sustainability educators and their co-learners, for stamina and ongoing engagement, and (4) generating sustainability agency and an active and authentic hope to sustain a sense of the possible in the midst of the dire. This article focuses on how awakening the senses to foster a sense of wonder can nurture grounded, authentic, active hope and agency in sustainability education. It is authored collaboratively by sixteen graduate course participants and faculty co-researchers who discuss interrelated theories pointing to a need to foster senses of wonder in sustainability education. The researchers work in research teams to explore experiential and sense-based hope- and agency-building curricula. Findings include activities and reflections across the five senses as well as with the sixth sense, intuition. Sensing, listening, intimate observing, imagining, feeling, entangling, and wondering can shift unsustainability epistemologies and transform human and cultural engagement. The sense of sound can be immersive and resonant, lending learners to relational and multispecies sensing. Scent can catalyze wonder and inspire experiential, holistic growth and integration of time. Savoring in the sense of taste can extend learners from survival to joy, offering opportunities for mindfulness that can connect cultural and biocultural mutualisms and collaborative sustainability agencies. Pattern sensing for similarity using the visual sense of wonder can support connected knowing and ecological vision. The sense of touch can offer a continuous and mutual comfort and belonging. Visual pattern and texture scavenger hunts can cultivate these sustainability sense capacities. The sixth sense, intuition, opens learners to imaginative, transformative, and connective ways of knowing as place and planet, stimulating hope-giving, integrative sustainability agencies.
  • Translating Figurative Proverbs from Two Syrian Novels:Muftaraq al-MaṭarbyYūsuf al-Maḥmūd and Anājīl al-Xarāb by NaufalNayouf
    This paper studies the possibilities of translating a few figurative proverbs, mainly metaphorical, in the two Syrian novels Muftaraq al-MaṭarbyYūsuf al-Maḥmūd and Anājīl al-Xarāb by NaufalNayouf. It also showcases how to translate proverbs with phonic features such as alliteration, assonance and rhyme. This is done by taking examples from the aforementioned novels and examining these formal features before and after translating the selected proverbs. This research also reviews a few scholarly approaches to the translation of culture-bound items, metaphor and proverbs. It then focuses on implementing Toury’s view on translating metaphor and shows how many proverbs have preserved metaphor, alliteration, assonance and rhyme in the target language (TL), and how many proverbs have lost these stylistic devices in the TL.
  • Childlessness and Assisted Reproduction in Europe
    This report summarizes key findings of Work Package 4 of the research project "Families and Societies," which focused on the areas of childlessness and assisted reproductive technology (ART). We summarize trends, predictors on the macro- and the micro-level as well as narratives pertaining to childlessness. We also synthesize the central findings with respect to ART, showing the prevalence of ART usage across Europe, variation in the regulation of ART, and consequences of the proliferation of ART. These findings provide the strong foundation for policy recommendations, in addition to providing evidence of the impact that the Work Package has already had.
  • Summary Analysis of the 2017 GitHub Open Source Survey
    This report is a high-level summary analysis of the 2017 GitHub Open Source Survey dataset, presenting frequency counts, proportions, and frequency or proportion bar plots for every question asked in the survey. This report was generated from a Jupyter notebook that can be found on OSF at the DOI link below.
  • A Theory of War
    A Theory of War and Violence (First section) Thomas Scheff, G. Reginald Daniel, and Joseph Loe-Sterphone, Dept of Sociology, UCSB (9260 words total) Abstract: It is possible that war in modern societies is largely driven by emotions, but in a way that is almost completely hidden. Modernity individualizes the self and tends to ignore emotions. As a result, conflict can be caused by sequences in which the total hiding of humiliation leads to vengeance. This essay outlines a theory of the social-emotional world implied in the work of C. H. Cooley and others. Cooley’s concept of the “looking-glass self” can be used as antidote to the assumptions of modernity: the basic self is social and emotional: selves are based on “living in the mind” of others, with a result of feeling either pride of shame. Cooley discusses shame at some length, unlike most approaches, which tend to hide it. This essay proposes that the complete hiding of shame can lead to feedback loops (spirals) with no natural limit: shame about shame and anger is only the first step. Emotion backlogs can feed back when emotional experiences are completely hidden: avoiding all pain can lead to limitless spirals. These ideas may help explain the role of France in causing WWI, and Hitler’s rise to power in Germany. To the extent that these propositions are true, the part played by emotions and especially shame in causing wars need to be further studied. “...if a whole nation were to feel ashamed it would be like a lion recoiling in order to spring.” Karl Marx (1975, p. 200)
  • I Don’t Make Objects, I Make Projects: Selling Things and Selling Selves in Contemporary Artmaking
    Gerber, Alison and Clayton Childress. 2017. “I Don’t Make Objects, I Make Projects: Selling Things and Selling Selves in Contemporary Artmaking.” Cultural Sociology 11(2):234–54.
  • Using "Teacher Moments" as an Online Practice Space for Parent-Teacher Conference Simulation in Preservice Teacher Education
    The aim of this thesis is to investigate and improve the suitability of Teacher Moments as an online practice space for parent-teacher conference simulation in preservice teacher education. We evaluate Teacher Moments by means of a playtest conducted with students of a preservice education class for undergraduates in the Scheller Teacher Education Program (STEP) at MIT. We set out to answer 3 research questions. 1) How do users perceive the authenticity of parent-teacher conference simulations in Teacher Moments? 2) How do students’ reflections relate to the learning objectives after completing a parent-teacher conference simulation in Teacher Moments? 3) How do new users perceive the ease of use of Teacher Moments interface? Most of the preservice teachers in our study felt the simulation experience was authentic and the user interface was easy to use. The main themes we identified in the students’ reflections and class debrief were aligned with the simulation learning objectives.
  • Expectativas y percepciones de padres de familia y docentes sobre las funciones sociales y educativas de la educación media
    Resumen Este documento presenta los resultados de analizar las expectativas y percepciones que padres de familia y docentes tienen sobre las funciones sociales y educativas de la educación media. Para tal fin, se conformaron 32 grupos focales en los departamentos de Sucre y Antioquia en el 2015. Padres de familia y docentes mencionan que la educación media debe preparar a los estudiantes para ingresar al mercado de trabajo, aunque también afirman que los debe formar para el ingreso a la educación superior. De ahí la importancia de que exista un balance entre las competencias generales y las laborales. Cuestionan también la duración de dos años de la educación media. Consideran que la duración debería ser de tres años, pues dos años no son suficientes para que los estudiantes puedan tomar decisiones sobre su vida adulta. Algunos participantes en los grupos focales abogan por que la educación media esté más articulada con la educación superior mediante cursos que puedan ser ofrecidos por instituciones de educación superior y, posteriormente, reconocidos como parte del programa que cursen los estudiantes una vez ingresen a la educación superior. Abstract This paper shows the results derived from the analysis done over parents’ and teachers’ expectations and perceptions on the social and educative functions of upper-secondary education. To this end, 32 focus groups were done in Sucre and Antioquia Departments in 2015. Parents and teachers say that upper-secondary education has the function of preparing students for the labor market, albeit it provides students with skills to access higher education. Consequentially, it is important that there exists a balance between generic and labor-oriented market skills. Parents and teachers consider that the length of upper-secondary education should be three years, since two years are not enough in order students to make decisions over their life as adults. Some participants in the focus groups mention that upper-secondary education should be more articulated with higher education by means of courses offered by higher education institutions. These courses could be recognized as part of bachelor program when students finally access higher education.
  • Statistical and Perceived Diversity and Their Impacts on Neighborhood Social Cohesion in Germany, France and the Netherlands
    The question whether ethnic diversity is associated with declining social cohesion has produced much controversy. We maintain that more attention must be paid to cognitive mechanisms to move the debate ahead. Using survey data from 938 localities in Germany, France, and the Netherlands, we explore a crucial individual-level mechanism: perceptions of diversity. We not only consider perceptions of the amount, but also of the qualitative nature of diversity. By asking about various qualitative aspects of diversity, we test the cognitive salience of three explanations that have been proposed in the literature for negative diversity effects: out-group biases, asymmetric preferences and coordination problems. We show that all three mechanisms matter. Perceptions both mediate statistical diversity effects, and have important explanatory power of their own. Moreover, we are able to address the question to what extend the relationship of perceived diversity and neighborhood social cohesion varies across policy contexts. Based on assumptions in the literature about positive impacts of inclusive and culturally pluralist immigrant integration policy approaches, we hypothesize that ethno-cultural diversity is less negatively related to neighborhood social cohesion in more inclusive policy contexts. Our results provide partial support for this hypothesis as perceived diversity has a significantly stronger negative impact on neighborhood cohesion in Germany. Copyright Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016 Social cohesion, Social capital, Ethnic diversity, Immigration, Intergroup relations, Community erosion,
  • Statistical and Perceived Diversity and Their Impacts on Neighborhood Social Cohesion in Germany, France and the Netherlands
    The question whether ethnic diversity is associated with declining social cohesion has produced much controversy. We maintain that more attention must be paid to cognitive mechanisms to move the debate ahead. Using survey data from 938 localities in Germany, France, and the Netherlands, we explore a crucial individual-level mechanism: perceptions of diversity. We not only consider perceptions of the amount, but also of the qualitative nature of diversity. By asking about various qualitative aspects of diversity, we test the cognitive salience of three explanations that have been proposed in the literature for negative diversity effects: out-group biases, asymmetric preferences and coordination problems. We show that all three mechanisms matter. Perceptions both mediate statistical diversity effects, and have important explanatory power of their own. Moreover, we are able to address the question to what extend the relationship of perceived diversity and neighborhood social cohesion varies across policy contexts. Based on assumptions in the literature about positive impacts of inclusive and culturally pluralist immigrant integration policy approaches, we hypothesize that ethno-cultural diversity is less negatively related to neighborhood social cohesion in more inclusive policy contexts. Our results provide partial support for this hypothesis as perceived diversity has a significantly stronger negative impact on neighborhood cohesion in Germany.
  • Relational Diversity and Neighbourhood Cohesion. Unpacking Variety, Balance and In-Group Size
    Ethnic diversity is typically measured by the well-known Hirschman-Herfindahl Index. This paper discusses the merits of an alternative approach, which is in our view better suited to tease out why and how ethnic diversity matters. The approach consists of two elements. First, all existing diversity indices are non-relational. From the viewpoint of theoretical accounts that attribute negative diversity effects to in-group favoritism and out-group threat, it should however matter whether, given a certain level of overall diversity, an individual belongs to a minority group or to the dominant majority. We therefore decompose diversity by distinguishing the in-group share from the diversity of ethnic out-groups. Second, we show how generalized entropy measures can be used to test which of diversity’s two basic dimensions matters most: the variety of groups, or the unequal distribution (balance) of the population over groups. These measures allow us to test different theoretical explanations against each other, because they imply different expectations regarding the effects of in-group size, out-group variety, and balance. We apply these ideas in an analysis of various social cohesion measures across 55 German localities and show that both in-group size and out-group diversity matter. For the native majority as well as for persons of immigration background, the variety component of diversity seems to be more decisive than has formerly been acknowledged. These findings provide little support for group threat and in-group favoritism as the decisive mechanisms behind negative diversity effects, and are most in line with the predictions of theories that emphasize coordination problems, asymmetric preferences, and network closure.
  • Income Advantages of Poorly-Qualified Immigrant Minorities. Why School Dropouts of Turkish Origin Earn More in Germany
    We investigate an often overlooked implication of the signaling model of statistical discrimination: if immigrant minorities' educational qualifications carry less signaling power, poorly-qualified minority members should experience positive statistical discrimination. We argue that the lower signaling power stems from disadvantages associated with insufficient language skills and lack of supportive parental resources, which prevent minority students from achieving those educational qualifications that would reflect their high motivation and ambition. Yet, if education counts less, so does its lack. Using data from the German Microcensus, we compare log hourly personal income of 1.5th and 2nd generation Spätaussiedler and persons of Turkish origin to that of native Germans. Using (semi-parametric) generalized additive models, we find solid support for our claim that poorly-qualified persons of Turkish origin experience income advantages; they frequently work in jobs for which they are underqualified. Once different frequencies of over- and undereducation are taken into account, no ethnic differences in educational returns remain. Our results extend to other comparable immigrant groups in Germany.
  • Hydrology and the Imperial Vision of Bois de Boulogne
    Bois de Boulogne was a key urban design effort of Second Empire France. This essay surveys the landscape of the park with particular attention to water; social practices that engendered the use of water, and social practices which water enabled. The hydrology of the site – the grand lake, streams, and waterfalls – is a statement and demonstration of imperial mastery and sensibility. Nearly half of the project budget was devoted to hydraulics and, in the opening years, more than 15% of the municipal water supply was diverted to the park; all of which supported a statusladen array of features attractive to elites of the Second Empire and Third Republic.
  • Replication in Social Science
  • Replication in Social Science
    Across the medical and social sciences, new discussions about replication have been transforming research practices. Sociologists, however, have been largely absent from these discussions. The goals of this review are to introduce sociologists to these developments, synthesize insights from science studies about replication in general, and detail the specific issues regarding replication that occur in sociology. The first half of the article argues that a sociologically sophisticated understanding of replication must take into account both the ways that replication rules and conventions evolved within an epistemic culture and how those cultures are shaped by specific research challenges. The second half outlines the four main dimensions of replicability in quantitative sociology- verifiability, robustness, repeatability, and generalizability- and discusses the specific ambiguities of interpretation that can arise in each. We conclude by advocating some commonsense changes to promote replication while acknowledging the epistemic diversity of our field.
  • Interpretive Asymmetry, Retrospective Inquiry and the Explication of Action in an Incident of Friendly Fire
    In this article, we examine a controversial friendly fire incident that took place during the early stages of the Iraq war. Our focus is on how a cockpit video of the incident was used post facto in a military inquiry to arrive at an understanding of the actions of the pilots involved. We shall concentrate specifically on a series of interpretive difficulties that highlighted the problematic status of the video as evidence and explore what their resolution might tell us about military practice, and the place of friendly fire within it more broadly.
  • Beasts of Prey or Rational Animals? Private Governance in Brazil's Jogo do Bicho
    This work presents a rational choice account for the jogo do bicho ('animal game'), possibly the largest illegal lottery game in the world. Over 120 years, the jogo do bicho has grown into a multimillion-dollar business and exerted a significant impact on the Brazilian society. The lottery has been a major sponsor of the Carnival Parade in Rio de Janeiro, which is among the world's most famous popular festivals, and it has remained an important driver of state corruption in the country. This work investigates the institutions that have caused the jogo do bicho's notable growth and long-term survival outside the boundaries of the Brazilian law. It also explains the emergence of the informal rules that govern the game as well as their enforcement mechanisms. Keywords: Brazil; criminal organisations; gambling; jogo do bicho; private governance JEL Codes: D72, K42, P26, P37, Z00 DOI: https://doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/GYDNB BibTeX entry: @misc{freire2017jogodobicho, title={{Beasts of Prey or Rational Animals? Private Governance in Brazil's \emph{Jogo do Bicho}}}, howpublished = {\url{https://doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/GYDNB}}, publisher={SocArXiv}, author={Freire, Danilo}, year={2017}, month={Mar} }
  • Apports des prospections non destructives a la connaissance du quartier artisanal antique de l'Essarte, Epomanduodurum, commune de Mathay, Doubs
    The Essarté workshop area, dating to the Classical period, is situated in the town of Mathay (Doubs). Excavated in the 1980s and 90s, it has been interpreted as an area specializing in ceramics production. This study of this area takes place in the context of an ongoing, broader project focused on the ancient town of Mandeure-Mathay (Epomanduodurum) and its surroundings, currently conducted within the framework of a PCR (collective research project). To undertake a more detailed study of the Essarté area fieldwalking surveys were carried out in 2006 and a synthesis of previous excavations, based on the available documentation, was completed in 2009. Geophysical surveys were conducted in 2009 and 2010. In addition, a LiDAR survey of Mandeure-Mathay and its surroundings realized in 2009 included the Essarté area. This paper contextualizes the data provided by excavations and aerial surveys carried in the 1980s and 90s by integrating it with the data obtained through the magnetometry survey – providing additional information on sub-surface features - and the data obtained through fieldwalking and LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) surveys - used to characterize the micro-topography of the terrain surface and associated materials in detail. This new study, in addition to adding details to the existing picture of the Essarté area, demonstrates that this locale was used as a burial area prior to the Roman phase of the site
  • Visions of Substance: 3D Imaging in Mediterranean Archaeology
    With the advent of low-cost and easy to use 3D imaging tools, the discipline of archaeology is on the cusp of a major change in how we document, study, and publish archaeological contexts. While there are a growing number of volumes dedicated to this subject, Visions of Substance: 3D Imaging in Mediterranean Archaeology represents an accessible and conversational introduction to the theory and practice of 3D imaging techniques in a Mediterranean and European context.
  • Three Dimensional Field Recording in Archaeology: An Example from Gabii
    “What is the future of 3D modeling in archaeology? At present, the 3D image is useful for illustrating artifacts and - in some cases - presenting archaeological and architectural relationships, but it has yet to prove itself as an essential basis for analysis or as a robust medium for communicating robust archaeological description. Will 3D visualization become more than just another method for providing illustrations for archaeological arguments?” This paper uses the experience of the Gabii Project to address these questions.
  • An Experiment in Using Visual Attention Metrics to Think About Experience and Design Choices in Past Places
    The influence of the visual properties of a built space or landscape on the behaviors of people within them, and the manipulation of these visual properties to cue or constrain behaviors are subjects of longstanding archaeological interest. Advances in cognitive neurosciences and a suite of improved computational modeling tools, combined with the proliferation of detailed 3D models of archaeological complexes and landscapes, offer an opportunity for new approaches to these topics based on models of low level perceptual cues and visual attention. The approach described here takes aim at the question of where people will look, rather than simply what is visible, with the goal of investigating the intentions of designers of spaces, and visual aspects of the experience of a place. In simple terms, our approach involves placing detailed 3D models of built spaces or landscapes into a digital environment. An individual then virtually walks through the space and what is visible at each moment is recorded in the form of a video stream, which may be broken down into a sequence of scenes. This set of scenes is then analyzed using software that calculates and maps the visual saliency of each scene and the path of focuses of attention (FOA) over time. This set of saliency maps, raw images, and FOA paths provide the basis for further interpretation. This paper presents an initial experiment to illustrate the approach, carried out in the eastern passage at Knowth, one of the main mounds in the Brú na Bóinne in Ireland.
  • Interpretation at the Controller’s Edge: Designing Graphical User Interfaces for the Digital Publication of the Excavations at Gabii (Italy)
  • Interpretation at the Controller’s Edge: Designing Graphical User Interfaces for the digital publication of the excavations at Gabii (Italy)
    This paper discusses the authors’ approach to designing an interface for the Gabii Project’s digital volumes that attempts to fuse elements of traditional synthetic publications and site reports with rich digital datasets. Archaeology, and classical archaeology in particular, has long engaged with questions of the formation and lived experience of towns and cities. Such studies might draw on evidence of local topography, the arrangement of the built environment, and the placement of architectural details, monuments and inscriptions (e.g. Johnson and Millett 2012). Fundamental to the continued development of these studies is the growing body of evidence emerging from new excavations. Digital techniques for recording evidence “on the ground,” notably SFM (structure from motion aka close range photogrammetry) for the creation of detailed 3D models and for scene-level modeling in 3D have advanced rapidly in recent years. These parallel developments have opened the door for approaches to the study of the creation and experience of urban space driven by a combination of scene-level reconstruction models (van Roode et al. 2012, Paliou et al. 2011, Paliou 2013) explicitly combined with detailed SFM or scanning based 3D models representing stratigraphic evidence. It is essential to understand the subtle but crucial impact of the design of the user interface on the interpretation of these models. In this paper we focus on the impact of design choices for the user interface, and make connections between design choices and the broader discourse in archaeological theory surrounding the practice of the creation and consumption of archaeological knowledge. As a case in point we take the prototype interface being developed within the Gabii Project for the publication of the Tincu House. In discussing our own evolving practices in engagement with the archaeological record created at Gabii, we highlight some of the challenges of undertaking theoretically-situated user interface design, and their implications for the publication and study of archaeological materials.
  • Airborne Laserscanning in Archaeology: Maturing Methods and Democratizing Applications
    Archaeologists have been using airborne laserscanning (ALS) for over a decade in projects ranging from heritage management schemes for postindustrial uplands in the UK or statemanaged forests in Germany to research on cities now obscured by tropical jungle canopy in Central Mexico. The basic methods for the analysis and interpretation of this data have matured considerably and data is increasing available. Building on this increasing accessibility and an established basic methodology, archaeologists are addressing a growing variety of ground conditions and research and heritage management objectives through this technology. With this diversification comes the need to adapt the basic methods used to new landscapes and types of archaeological remains, and to integrate the practice of working with ALS with diverse fieldwork and research practices.
  • Church Theft, Insecurity, and Community Justice: The Reality of Source-End Regulation of the Market for Illicit Bolivian Cultural Objects
    In 2012 two men were lynched in Bolivia, first because there is an illicit market for Bolivian cultural objects, and second because a small, poor community turned to desperate measures to protect themselves from that illicit market due to the failings of national and international regulation. This paper is a case study of the reality of source-end regulation of an international criminal market in a developing country. I will discuss what is known about thefts from Bolivian churches, the international market for items stolen from these churches, and how such thefts are meant to be prevented on-the ground. Following this, I will present lynching in Bolivia as the most severe community response to the issues created by local politics, ineffectual policing, unenforceable laws, and a history of oppressive racism. I will conclude with a discussion of what we can reasonably hope to accomplish with source-end regulation.
  • Displacement, deforestation, and drugs: antiquities trafficking and the narcotics support economies of Guatemala
    The possible connection between the illicit traffic in antiquities and the illicit trafficking of narcotics is often discussed but poorly understood. It is clear that many of the primary centers of narcotics cultivation and transport have also experienced endemic looting of archaeological sites (e.g., Afghanistan, the Andes, Central America, and Southeast Asia) and many of the primary cen- tres for narcotics demand are also considered to be the demand end of the illicit antiquities market (e.g., the United States, Europe). The susceptibility of the market in illicit cultural objects to money laundering has been established (Bowman 2008; Brodie 1999, 2009; De Sanctis 2013; Christ and von Selle 2012; Mackenzie 2011; Ulph 2011). Of those organized trafficking groups involved in a diversified portfolio of illicit activities, most are dealing in drugs as well as other commodities (Mackenzie 2002: 2). The market prices obtained for antiq- uities seem too high for such organizations to ignore. It “makes sense” that organized criminal groups involved in drug trafficking would also engage in antiquities trafficking when it was convenient. Yet, for the most part, assertions that these two illicit markets are connected during sourcing, transit, or sale remain speculative at best. In this chapter I will present a preliminary evaluation of existing evidence for the connection between antiquities trafficking and narcotics trafficking in Central America, particularly through the Petén department of the Republic of Guatemala, the heartland of the ancient Maya. I will begin with an overview of what is known about the historic structure of Central American antiquities looting and trafficking networks. Two phases of semi-organized and organized looting in the region are identified, the shift occurring due to changes in regu- lation and enforcement. This is followed by a discussion of the rise of narcotics trafficking in the region as it relates to post-conflict land distribution: a situ- ation that brings both narcotics traffickers and the victims of their support economies closer and closer to archaeological sites. I will then present two preliminary case studies of archaeological sites exploited, at least in part, as a result of the activities of narcotics cartels. I will conclude with a short assess- ment of what evidence exists for antiquities being looted and moved by nar- cotics traffickers and what realistic connections appear to exist between these two illicit networks.
  • Publication as Preservation: A Remote Maya Site in the Early 20th Century
    In the late 1800s interest in the Ancient Maya underwent the complicated transition from speculative musings to what modern scholars consider to be systematic archaeological inquiry. During this transformation, Maya archaeology was largely colonized, in a sense, by the American academic empire. Excavation was undertaken to further a structured concept of science and to solidify the idea of archaeology as an institutionalized discipline. The results of archaeological fieldwork on remote sites were not easily independently verified due to the constraints of the forbidding landscape and the vastness of this largely untapped resource. The known character of a particular scholar was considered to be a sufficient recommendation as to the quality of his textual archaeological record. This dependence on text resulted in a number of factual mistakes that have been repeated in publications and museum displays up to the present day. During this period in the development of the discipline, I assert that archaeological publication, not site stabilisation, was regarded as a sufficient means by which a remote site could be effectively ‘preserved’. As a case study I will discuss early 20th century excavations within an early Classic Maya mortuary structure at the site of Holmul, Guatemala. In this extreme case, a report supposedly started by Raymond Edwin Merwin, the only archaeologist who had worked at this remote Maya city, was ‘completed’ after his untimely death by another scholar, George C. Vaillant, who had never visited the site. Due to the perceived notability of Merwin’s role in driving Maya archaeology into the realm of systematic science, Vaillant felt that the information he published was reliable and, indeed, required as the location of Holmul would effectively prevent archaeological work from being conducted there for nearly a century.
  • Archaeology and Autonomies: The Legal Framework of Heritage Management in a New Bolivia
    The 2009 Bolivian Constitution significantly changed the structure of the state and paved the way for the creation of regional, local, and even indigenous autonomies. These autonomies are charged with the management of archaeological sites and museums within their territory. This article answers the question of who currently owns the Bolivian past, it stems from concerns raised at the 2011 renewal hearing of the Memorandum of Understanding preventing the import of illicit Bolivian antiquities into the United States. By combining an analysis of recent legal changes related to the creation of the autonomies and a short discussion of a notable case study of local management of a Bolivian archaeological site, this article offers a basic summary of the legal framework in which Bolivian archaeology and heritage management functions and some preliminary recommendations for governments and professionals wishing to work with Bolivian authorities at the state and local level.
  • Archaeology and Autonomies: The Legal Framework of Heritage Management in a New Bolivia
  • Crime, Controversy and the Comments Section: Discussing archaeological looting, trafficking, and the illicit antiquities trade online
    In this article we will discuss the challenges involved in presenting the looting of archaeological sites and the illicit trade in cultural property to the interested public. We will contrast our experiences of building two popular illicit antiquities-focused blogs (Things You Can’t Take Back and Anonymous Swiss Collector) with the process of developing an informative academic website on the same topic (Trafficking Culture). We will discuss our motivations for starting these blogs, our struggles with the tone of the popular discourse on this topic, and our inability to escape our own emotions; why we have moved away from illicit antiquities blogging in the past year and why we are coming back. Finally, having learned from our mistakes, we will make recommendations to others wishing to engage with the public about sensitive issues via social media.
  • Reality and Practicality: Challenges to Effective Cultural Property Policy on the Ground in Latin America
  • Reality and Practicality: Challenges to Effective Cultural Property Policy on the Ground in Latin America
    Although on-the-ground preservation and policing is a major component of our international efforts to prevent the looting and trafficking of antiquities, the expectation placed on source countries may be beyond their capacity. This dependence on developing world infrastructure and policing may challenge our ability to effectively regulate this illicit trade. Using case studies generated from fieldwork in Belize and Bolivia, this paper discusses a number of these challenges to effective policy and offers some suggestions for future regulatory development.
  • Museums, collectors, and value manipulation: tax fraud through donation of antiquities
    Purpose To discuss the key aspects of the international trade in antiquities and the practice of philanthropic donation of object to museums that allow for certain types of tax deduction manipulation using a case of tax deduction manipulation from Australia and a case of tax fraud from the United States as examples. Design/methodology/approach Two thoroughly researched case studies are presented which illustrate the particular features of current and past antiquities donation incentivization schemes which leave them open to manipulation and fraud. Findings The valuation of antiquities is subjective and problematic and the operations of both the antiquities market and the museums sector are traditionally opaque. Because of this tax incentivisation of antiquities donations, is susceptible to fraud. Originality/value This paper presents the mechanisms of the antiquities market and museum world to an audience that is not familiar with it. It then clearly demonstrates how the traditional practices of this world can be manipulated for the purposes of tax fraud. Two useful case studies are presented and one of these case studies has never been academically published before, despite it being the cause for a change in Australian tax law.
  • Museums, collectors, and value manipulation: tax fraud through donation of antiquities
  • Illicit Cultural Property from Latin America: Looting, Trafficking, and Sale
    This chapter will provide a broad overview of the the , smuggling, and illegal sale of cultural objects from Latin America. First, I will describe the two categories of Latin American cultural property covered by this chapter (pre-Conquest artefacts, colonial sacred art), and then consider the form and functioning of the illicit trade in Latin American antiquities. I will discuss the on-the-ground devastation of the historic trade in looted Latin American objects and present a model of a historic antiquities trafficking network. is will be illustrated by two case studies: the the and trafficking of a large Maya sculpture from the site of Machaquilá, Guatemala, and of the Church of Challapampa, Peru. Thee paper will close with a brief recommendation and an outline of the various outside forces that appear to play a significant role in the continued looting and trafficking of Latin American cultural objects. Among these important forces to consider are deforestation, human migration, the narcotics trade, local and regional instability, community insecurity, poverty, globalization, and developmental disparities. If reducing the illicit trade in Latin American cultural property is our goal, then all current and future policy must address these issues.
  • Collectors on illicit collecting: Higher loyalties and other techniques of neutralization in the unlawful collecting of rare and precious orchids and antiquities
  • Collectors on illicit collecting: Higher loyalties and other techniques of neutralization in the unlawful collecting of rare and precious orchids and antiquities
    Trafficking natural objects and trafficking cultural objects have been treated separately both in regulatory policy and in criminological discussion. The former is generally taken to be ‘wildlife crime’ while the latter has come to be considered under the auspices of a debate on ‘illicit art and antiquities’. In this article we study the narrative discourse of high-end collectors of orchids and antiquities. The illicit parts of these global trades are subject to this analytical divide between wildlife trafficking and art trafficking, and this has resulted in quite different regulatory structures for each of these markets. However, the trafficking routines, the types and levels of harm involved, and the supply–demand dynamics in the trafficking of orchids and antiquities are actually quite similar, and in this study we find those structural similarities reflected in substantial common ground in the way collectors talk about their role in each market. Collectors of rare and precious orchids and antiquities valorize their participation in markets that are known to be in quite considerable degree illicit, appealing to ‘higher loyalties’ such as preservation, appreciation of aesthetic beauty and cultural edification. These higher loyalties, along with other techniques of neutralization, deplete the force of law as a guide to appropriate action. We propose that the appeal to higher loyalties is difficult to categorize as a technique of neutralization in this study as it appears to be a motivational explanation for the collectors involved. The other classic techniques of neutralization are deflective, guilt and critique reducing narrative mechanisms, while higher loyalties drives illicit behaviour in collecting markets for orchids and antiquities in ways that go significantly beyond the normal definition of neutralization.
  • The Global Traffic in Looted Cultural Objects
    The looting, trafficking, and illicit sale of cultural objects is a form of transnational crime with significant social and legal dimensions that call into question competing ideas of ownership and value, as well as how we define organized crime, white collar crime, and crimes of the powerful. The looting of cultural objects from archaeological and heritage sites is inherently destructive and is almost always illegal. However, through a complex smuggling chain which depends on lack of import/export regulation standardization in transit and opaque business practices at market, stolen cultural objects are able to be passed onto the international market in large quantities and at little risk to market actors.
  • The cultural capitalists: Notes on the ongoing reconfiguration of trafficking culture in Asia
    Most analysis of the international flows of the illicit art market has described a global situation in which a postcolonial legacy of acquisition and collection exploits cultural heritage by pulling it westwards towards major international trade nodes in the USA and Europe. As the locus of consumptive global economic power shifts, however, these traditional flows are pulled in other directions: notably for the present commentary, towards and within Asia.
  • Trafficking Cultural Objects and Human Rights
    Since the end of the second world war, international cultural heritage protection law and its domestic legal components have proceeded in their development in tandem with the development of international human rights laws and norms. A core tension in human rights thinking is evident also in debates about the right to cultural property: the potential for conflict between the right to cultural self–determination by one group and attempts to develop and promulgate human rights standards with universalising ambitions. This is reflected in cultural property ownership debates, where cultural heritage may be considered by some people as the common heritage of humankind and thus to some extent owned by us all, while others would see it as more properly owned by members of a more restricted group, or perhaps communally as tangible items of a certain culture. So there is a universalism vs particularism debate about the right to own, possess or otherwise enjoy, worship or value cultural objects just as there is the same debate on a much wider scale about universalism vs particularism in human rights in general. As with that wider debate, where universalism has been criticised for being a veil for the global transfer of western liberal capitalist values (e.g. Woodiwiss 2005), so too in the cultural property debate the construction of the idea of ‘the world’s cultural heritage’ has tended to represent in practice a view that favours the idea of the ‘encyclopaedic’ Western model of the museum, thus suggesting an ideal where material cultural heritage is stored in cultural repositories around the world rather than leaving (or reinstating) it to its country of origin or to a community thought to have the closest historical, cultural or religious connection to it. This view is fiercely opposed by those who consider this to be, in effect, an attempted justification of the forcible extraction of this particular resource from the developing world. They prefer to define and delineate cultural property rights in terms of ‘the property of a culture’ rather than as ‘property which is cultural’ insofar as the latter might represent a contemporary reflection of the values and views of the global art market rather than the communities and cultures whose heritage is at stake. In international legislation aimed at cultural property protection there is some ambivalence around these views, with the preambles of the governing conventions tending to strike a diplomatic balance between recognising important cultural artefacts as the particular interests of cultural groups, states or ‘all peoples’, while also approving of some of the effects of the worldwide diffusion of cultural heritage, most of which is due to the mechanics of the art market.
  • How Black are Lakisha and Jamal? Racial Perceptions from Names Used in Correspondence Audit Studies
    Online correspondence audit studies have emerged as the primary method to examine racial discrimination. Although audits use distinctive names to signal race, few studies scientifically examine data regarding the perception of race from names. Different names treated as black or white may be perceived in heterogeneous ways. I conduct a survey experiment that asks respondents to identify the race they associate with a series of names. I alter the first names given to each respondent and inclusion of last names. Names more commonly given by highly educated black mothers (e.g., Jalen and Nia) are less likely to be perceived as black than names given by less educated black mothers (e.g., DaShawn and Tanisha). The results suggest that a large body of social science evidence on racial discrimination operates under a misguided assumption that all black names are alike and the findings from correspondence audits are likely sensitive to name selection.
  • Enhancing Big Data in the Social Sciences with Crowdsourcing: Data Augmentation Practices, Techniques, and Opportunities
    The importance of big data is a contested topic among social scientists. Proponents claim it will fuel a research revolution, but skeptics challenge it as unreliably measured and decontextualized, with limited utility for accurately answering social science research questions. We argue that social scientists need effective tools to quantify big data’s measurement error and expand the contextual information associated with it. Standard research efforts in many fields already pursue these goals through data augmentation, the systematic assessment of measurement against known quantities and expansion of extant data by adding new information. Traditionally, these tasks are accomplished using trained research assistants or specialized algorithms. However, such approaches may not be scalable to big data or appease its skeptics. We consider a third alternative that may increase the validity and value of big data: data augmentation with online crowdsourcing. We present three empirical cases to illustrate the strengths and limits of crowdsourcing for academic research, with a particular eye to how they can be applied to data augmentation tasks that will accelerate acceptance of big data among social scientists. The cases use Amazon Mechanical Turk to (1) verify automated coding of the academic discipline of dissertation committee members, (2) link online product pages to a book database, and (3) gather data on mental health resources at colleges. In light of these cases, we consider the costs and benefits of augmenting big data with crowdsourcing marketplaces and provide guidelines on best practices. We also offer a standardized reporting template that will enhance reproducibility.
  • Launching Innovation in Schools in Review
    All around the world, school systems are working towards more ambitious teaching and learning in classrooms—moving away from passive lecture, worksheets, and recitation and towards innovations in active, student-centered, technology-mediated learning. Better student learning depends on better teacher learning; school systems need to dramatically increase the quantity and quality of learning opportunities for educators within the system. Online and blended courses and experiences will play a crucial role in making this dramatic increase possible. The Microsoft in Education MOOCs represent an important experiment in using online resources to create new learning opportunities for school leaders looking to take the helm of transformational change in schools.
  • ¿Qué es una constitución fiscal?
    La norma constitucional puede ser entendida desde una perspectiva eminentemente formal – que es la manera en que la tradición positivista mexicana lo ha hecho – o en un sentido más amplio: así formal como material. Para algunos autores mexicanos como Terán y Arteaga la constitución es un conjunto de normas, dispuestas sistemáticamente con el propósito de organizar al Estado; pero como bien sabemos, no es sólo la característica de organizar los poderes del estado y otorgar una esfera mínima de inviolabilidad al ciudadano. La norma constitucional constituye y funda, además de mandar, permitir, castigar, prohibir, disponer y regular. La Constitución en este sentido más amplio – formal y material – es objeto de una polisemia; múltiples significados. En cuanto al aspecto fiscal, una forma de entenderla es procurando un equilibrio entre los recursos que el Estado obtiene por medio de las diversas aportaciones económicas que recibe por parte de los contribuyentes y los servicios que proporciona a la ciudadanía.
  • Professional Competition in Global Tax Reform: Transparency in Global Wealth Chains
    In the wake of the Great Recession, international corporate taxation has risen to the top of the global political agenda. With states seeking to shore up national fiscal systems, the OECD/G20 Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) project has emerged as the key response in this regard. Among 15 action points, Action 13 on corporate tax transparency has been particularly prominent. By shaping the feasibility of corporate tax strategies and the information resources available to national tax authorities, the Action 13 policy recommendations will fundamentally reconfigure the context of corporate tax behaviour and global wealth chains, i.e. strategies and structures for wealth creation and protection in the global economy. How did these new critical rules come about? Unfortunately, little is known about the micro-level process, dynamics and actors of the BEPS project. This paper provides an original case study of the changing international tax system and the regulatory context of global wealth chains, based on an investigation of the professionals engaged in global tax reform. Drawing on observations, interviews and sequence analysis of professional careers, it studies the dynamics of the professional policy environment and identifies distinct career and knowledge trends. The paper shows that professional competition for prestige and knowledge played a central role in the complex, transnational policy process. Operating within a technical policy environment, far removed from high-level politics, professionals seeking to make their mark on new standards for corporate tax transparency mobilised expertise and network capital, shaping what could be discussed, the criteria for accepted arguments, and who was listened to in the policy process, thus critically affecting the final policy outcomes.
  • Digital food activism: Values, expertise and modes of action
    New information and communication technologies (ICTs) increasingly enable social action and civic organisation, on both local and global scales. Ranging from social media platforms such as Facebook and Twitter, to mobile apps such as Buycott, and to data sharing wiki platforms and hacktivist projects, the activist landscape is rapidly shifting, collapsing geographic boundaries to form new issue publics and fast, sometimes mercurial, collective action. Within these emerging digital platforms for activism, food-related consumer action is gaining new contours and publics. In this paper, we explore the emerging field of digital food activism. Focusing on three case studies – a mobile app, a wiki platform, and an online-centric activist organization – we examine how activist–ICT interactions generate new knowledges and practices in relation to consumer-based food activism. Specifically, we critically analyse how consumer activists and social entrepreneurs use ICTs to facilitate new or alternative forms of engagement with food, and how ICTs, in turn, shape possibilities for action. Bridging anthropology and science and technology studies, our paper develops new understandings of alternative food networks, social movements, activist leadership, and expertise in the digital age.
  • Methodological advances in cross-national research: Multilevel challenges and solutions
    Since its inception, the European Sociological Review has encouraged ‘cross-national comparative work which concentrates on or includes European societies’ (Mayer et al. 1985). Although our focus is not merely on papers of a cross-national nature, we have published a considerable number of such studies. Another aim of ESR is to further the more general development of sociology by publishing theoretical and methodological articles where these have a direct relevance for sociological research. A recent example of a prominent methodological study in ESR was the article by Mood (2010), which has—judging from the nearly 300 citations it has already received in SSCI-listed journals alone—had considerable impact on the way logistic regression is practiced (or not) in contemporary social science research.
  • Library of Babel
    It's a good dang story.
  • Baldermath: A DesignBased Research Approach to Developing a Game for Student Work Analysis
    In this study, we use design-based research methods to develop a game to aid instructors in creating high-quality LASW opportunities for prospective teachers. Games have the potential to provide a situated, action-oriented, embodied experience where teachers can take the “projective identity” of students or other teachers (Gee, 2003). In addition, games can trigger emotional and psychological responses that spark empathy and perspective taking (Boltz et al., 2015). Actions and choices that players make in the game are “pleasantly frustrating” and playful (Gee, 2003). This embodied experience within a game can help teachers to develop empathy for students’ perspective and approximate desirable practices around LASW.
  • A Human-Computer Interaction Approach for Integrity in Economics
    Emerging data science platforms using simplified and automated user interfaces can help research become significantly more transparent and ethical. By depending on standard human-generated code, many statistical software programs commonly used in economics and the social sciences inadvertently rely on the human willpower of scientists, and inspite of an assumed invincibility, such individuals are nearly necessarily prone to errors and research integrity compromises, as is increasingly clear. Removing the vast majority of arbitrary and subjective data judgments, including the generation of code, from researcher control would free behavioural and social scientists from human limitations. Automating the text annotations that accompany data visualizations in figures and diagrams using emerging natural language processing tools can also free scientists from overconfidence or the temptation to embellish findings. Scientific communities across economics as well as other social science fields should embrace such systems to enhance the integrity and transparency of the next-generation of research.
  • The Contact Hypothesis Revisited
    This paper evaluates the state of contact hypothesis research from a policy perspective. Building on Pettigrew and Tropp’s (2006) influential meta-analysis, we assemble all intergroup contact studies that feature random assignment and delayed outcome measures, of which there are 27 in total, nearly two-thirds of which were published following the original review. We find the evidence from this updated dataset to be consistent with Pettigrew and Tropp’s (2006) conclusion that contact “typically reduces prejudice." At the same time, our meta-analysis suggests that contact’s effects vary, with interventions directed at ethnic or racial prejudice generating substantially weaker effects. Moreover, our inventory of relevant studies reveals important gaps, most notably the absence of studies addressing adults’ racial or ethnic prejudice, an important limitation for both theory and policy. We also call attention to the lack of research that systematically investigates the scope conditions suggested by Allport (1954) under which contact is most influential. We conclude that these gaps in contact research must be addressed empirically before this hypothesis can reliably guide policy.
  • Causal Interaction and Effect Modification: Same Model, Different Concepts
    Social scientists use the concept of interactions to study effect dependency. Such analyses can be conducted using standard regression models. However, an interaction analysis may represent either a causal interaction or effect modification. Under causal interaction, the analyst is interested in whether two treatments have differing effects when both are administered. Under effect modification, the analysts investigates whether the effect of a single treatment varies across levels of a baseline covariate. Importantly, the identification assumptions for these two types of analysis are very different. In this paper, we clarify the difference between these two types of interaction analysis. We demonstrate that this distinction is mostly ignored in the political science literature. We conclude with a review of several applications.
  • On the Positive Relationship between Breastfeeding & Intelligence
    A wealth of literature has examined the association between breastfeeding and the development of cognitive abilities in childhood. In particular, at least some evidence exists suggesting that breastfed children (as opposed to formula fed children) perform better on measures of general intelligence later in life. While a correlation appears to be present, fewer observational studies have included appropriate adjustment for potentially confounding variables; maternal intelligence, maternal education, and cognitive stimulation provided by mothers being chief among them. As a result, we analyze a large national sample of American respondents in order to test the association between breastfeeding and intelligence during childhood and adolescence using multiple intelligence tests and controlling for a range of key covariates. Our results suggest that the correlation between breastfeeding and intelligence is statistically significant and robust, yet of substantively minor impact.
  • Victims and Villains: Racial/ethnic Differences in News Portrayal of individuals with Mental Illness Killed by Police
    WORKING PAPER This paper examines racial/ethnic differences in how 301 individuals with mental illness killed by police during 2015 and 2016 were portrayed in news reports. Qualitative content analysis indicates that frames that construct individuals as being victims of mental illness were most common in news reports about Whites, while African-Americans were most likely to be portrayed as victims of police actions. Graphic content was also much more prevalent in news reports about African-Americans, serving as a visceral reminder of the actions of police. For news reports about African-Americans, 22% included graphic content, versus 6% of news reports about Whites and 13% of news reports about Hispanics. Hispanics were most likely to be portrayed as 'villains' through discussions of substance use, criminal records, and expressions of support for police. Drawing from literature examining the media construction of crime through a lens of 'villains' versus 'victims', this paper explores implications of racial/ethnic differences in news coverage of individuals with mental illness killed by police.
  • Exit, Cohesion, and Consensus: Social Psychological Moderators of Consensus among Adolescent Peer Groups
  • Divergent discourse between protests and counter-protests: #BlackLivesMatter and #AllLivesMatter
    Since the shooting of Black teenager Michael Brown by White police officer Darren Wilson in Ferguson, Missouri, the protest hashtag #BlackLivesMatter has amplified critiques of extrajudicial killings of Black Americans. In response to #BlackLivesMatter, other Twitter users have adopted #AllLivesMatter, a counter-protest hashtag whose content argues that equal attention should be given to all lives regardless of race. Through a multi-level analysis of over 860,000 tweets, we study how these protests and counter-protests diverge by quantifying aspects of their discourse. We find that #AllLivesMatter facilitates opposition between #BlackLivesMatter and hashtags such as #PoliceLivesMatter and #BlueLivesMatter in such a way that historically echoes the tension between Black protesters and law enforcement. In addition, we show that a significant portion of #AllLivesMatter use stems from hijacking by #BlackLivesMatter advocates. Beyond simply injecting #AllLivesMatter with #BlackLivesMatter content, these hijackers use the hashtag to directly confront the counter-protest notion of "All lives matter." Our findings suggest that Black Lives Matter movement was able to grow, exhibit diverse conversations, and avoid derailment on social media by making discussion of counter-protest opinions a central topic of #AllLivesMatter, rather than the movement itself.
  • An archaeology of domestic life in early byzantine Gortyna: stratigraphy, pots and contexts
    Ceramic finds from the Byzantine Quarter near the Pythion in Gortyna (Crete) are primarily linked to domestic spaces, particularly during the 7th and 8th century. Specific contexts gave the opportunity to investigate the use life of pottery in such domestic spaces, within the changes that happen both in the quarter and in the city as a whole. Submitted for publication in the proceedings volume of the LRCW5 conference (Alexandria, 2014).
  • Land grab / data grab
    Developments in the area of ‘precision agriculture’ are creating new data points (about flows, soils, pests, climate) that agricultural technology providers ‘grab,’ aggregate, compute, and/or sell. Food producers now churn out food and, increasingly, data. ‘Land grabs’ on the horizon in the global south are bound up with the dynamics of data production and grabbing, although researchers have not, as yet, revealed enough about the people and projects caught up in this new arena. Against this backdrop, this paper examines some of the key issues taking shape, while highlighting new frontiers for research and introducing a concept of ‘data sovereignty,’ which food sovereignty practitioners (and others) need to consider.
  • Getting it Right or Being Top Rank: Games in Citizen Science
    The use of games in citizen science is growing, but can create tension as gaming and science can be seen as incompatible areas of activity. For example, the motivations for winning a game and scientific pursuit of knowledge may be seen as contrary. Over a one-year period, we conducted a virtual ethnographic study of the public forums of two online citizen science projects, Foldit and Galazy Zoo. The first where gaming is an explicit design feature and the second where it is not. The aim was to give a nuanced view of how participants topicalize and respond to tensions between gaming and science. Thematic analysis of discussion forum posts suggests that participants in the two projects respond differently to the tension. By unpacking participant responses to the tension between games and science, our study highlights that citizen science projects using games are not just about fun. To enrol and retain volunteers, our findings suggest that they must also recognize and manage the implicit normative scientific ideals that participants bring with them to a project.
  • Perspective Coordination: Empathy and Information Asymmetries
    Information asymmetries are reinterpreted as fundamentally uncoordinated perspectives or mismatched coordinate systems driven by inadequate empathy. Agents view phenomena through different lenses, using coordinate systems that affect how agents view the same phenomena. Since there is no one correct reference point in the economic environment, information is neither necessary nor sufficient to resolve asymmetries. Information travelling between agents is only understood in terms of its objective meaning if the coordinate system is maintained during the transmission process, which occurs in an equilibrium communication path that is conveniently unique. In this setting, empathy via coordinated perspectives is a general explanation for lessened information asymmetries. I close the paper with simple applications that contextualize the model.
  • “Elder Brother Tobacco”: Traditional Nicotiana Snuff Use among the Contemporary Tzeltal and Tzotzil Maya of Highland Chiapas, Mexico - PREPRINT
    In Tzotzil and Tzeltal Maya communities throughout the highlands of Chiapas in southeastern Mexico, a potent oral snuff composed of fresh tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) and slaked lime (calcium hydroxide) is used in a wide range of therapeutic, ritual, and protective contexts. The use of this tobacco snuff—referred to in Tzotzil Maya as “angel” (anjel), “elder brother” (bankilal), “great old man” (muk’ta mol), or simply “tobacco” (moy)—appears to date back to the Classic Maya, and represents continuity in Mayan tobacco culture spanning more than a thousand years. Despite the central importance of this plant in highland Maya medicine and ritual, its use has not previously been documented in any systematic manner. Accordingly, this chapter seeks to present a comprehensive overview of traditional highland Maya tobacco culture among the contemporary Tzotzil and Tzeltal Maya of highland Chiapas, exploring the cultural significance in this quintessentially Amerindian plant in the domains of ethnomedicine, ritual, folklore, and mythology.
  • Causal effects of the timing of life course events: age at retirement and subsequent health
    In this paper we combine the extensive literature on the analysis of life course trajectories as sequences with the literature on causal inference, and propose a new matching approach to investigate the causal effect of the timing of life course events on subsequent outcomes. Our matching approach takes into account pre-event confounders that are both time-independent and time-dependent, as well as life course trajectories. After matching, treated and control individuals can be compared using standard statistical tests or regression models. We apply our approach to the study of the consequences of the age at retirement on subsequent health outcomes, using a unique dataset from Swedish administrative registers. Once selectivity in the timing of retirement is taken into account, effects on hospitalization are small, while early retirement has negative effects on survival. Our approach also allows for heterogeneous treatment effects. We show that the effects of early retirement differ according to pre-retirement income, with higher income individuals tending to benefit from early retirement, while the opposite is true for individuals with lower income.
  • Will a highly developed society be able to secure population replacement?
    In a highly developed society, economic and social changes often lead to a low total fertility rate (TFR). The low TFR has obviously negative impacts on quality of life of individuals as well as society as a whole, and it could lead to societal decline. Widening of a gap between early beginning of sexual activities and late reproduction start of individuals is a phenomenon specific to humans, not observed in apes, other mammals or other species. We believe that this gap significantly impacts the TFR, while not only economic but also social and cultural aspects like ethics, morals, and religions are important to reverse the low TFR. We contemplate social, moral and economic actions that could reduce this gap. This could also have many positive effects on personal health, satisfaction, and ensure population replacement.
  • The cultural evolution of shamanism
    Shamans, including medicine-men, mediums, and the prophets of religious movements, recur across human societies. Shamanism also existed among nearly all documented hunter-gatherers, likely characterized the religious lives of many ancestral humans, and is often proposed by anthropologists to be the “first profession”, representing the first institutionalized division of labor beyond age and sex. This paper proposes a cultural evolutionary theory to explain why shamanism consistently develops, and in particular, (1) why shamanic traditions exhibit recurrent features around the world, (2) why shamanism professionalizes early, often in the absence of other specialization, and (3) how shifting social conditions affect the form or existence of shamanism. According to this theory, shamanism is a set of traditions developed through cultural evolution that adapts to people’s intuitions to convince observers that a practitioner can influence otherwise unpredictable, significant events. The shaman does this by ostensibly transforming during initiation and trance, violating folk-intuitions of humanness to assure group-members that he or she can interact with the invisible forces that control uncertain outcomes. Entry requirements for becoming a shaman persist because the practitioner’s credibility depends on them “transforming”. This contrasts with dealing with problems that have identifiable solutions (like building a canoe), where credibility hinges on showing results and outsiders can invade the jurisdiction by producing the outcome. Shamanism is an ancient human institution that recurs because of the capacity of cultural evolution to produce practices adapted to innate psychological tendencies.
  • The Effects of In Utero Exposure to the 1918 Influenza Pandemic on Family Formation
    A growing literature ties in utero conditions to life course outcomes, including education, earnings, and adult health and mortality. A smaller literature has begun to examine the intergenerational impacts of in utero conditions. A link between these two literatures—the impacts of in utero conditions on family formation—has had few examinations but offers a potential set of mechanisms for the intergenerational reach of early conditions. This paper draws from the 1960 US Decennial Census to examine whether exposed individuals had different family formation patterns than adjacent unexposed cohorts. The findings suggest small overall effects on marriage rates, number of children, and several measures of “type” of spouse for men, but moderate effects for women. The findings also show that exposed individuals have spouses with lower schooling than unexposed counterparts, this effect is particularly large for women, and it increases the likelihood of marrying spouses with very low levels of schooling.
  • Being a ‘citizen’ in the smart city: Up and down the scaffold of smart citizen participation
    This paper critically appraises citizens’ participation in the smart city. Reacting to critiques that the smart city is overly technocratic and instrumental, companies and cities have reframed their initiatives as ‘citizen-centric’. However, what ‘citizen-centric’ means in practice is rarely articulated. We draw on and extend Sherry Arnstein’s seminal work on participation in planning and renewal programmes to create the ‘Scaffold of Smart Citizen Participation’ – a conceptual tool to unpack the diverse ways in which the smart city frames citizens. We then use this scaffold to measure smart citizen inclusion, participation, and empowerment in smart city initiatives in Dublin, Ireland. Our analysis illustrates how most ‘citizen-centric’ smart city initiatives are rooted in stewardship, civic paternalism, and a neoliberal conception of citizenship that prioritizes consumption choice and individual autonomy within a framework of state and corporate defined constraints that prioritize market-led solutions to urban issues, rather than being grounded in civil, social and political rights and the common good. We conclude that significant normative work is required to rethink ‘smart citizens’ and ‘smart citizenship’ and to remake smart cities if they are to truly become ‘citizen-centric’.
  • Opioid Deaths by Race in the United States, 2000–2015
    The opioid-related mortality rate in the United States more than tripled between 2000 and 2015. However, there were stark differences in the trend for the non-Hispanic black and non-Hispanic white populations. In this paper we assess differences in opioid deaths by race. We analyze patterns and trends in multiple cause-of-death data to gain a better understanding of how deaths differ by race and what has contributed to changes over time. The trend in race-specific opioid death rates over 2000–2015 can be divided into two periods: 2000–2010 and 2010–2015. The increase in 2000–2010 was more substantial for the white population and was driven by prescription painkillers. Since 2010, the rates of opioid-mortality increase for both the white and black populations have been similar and largely due to heroin and fentanyl-type opioids. For the white population, death rates due to heroin and fentanyl-type drugs decrease with age, but for the black population, the opposite is true. In addition, the number of deaths that involve more than one opioid drug has increased over time, with the rate of increase coinciding with the overall rate of increase in opioid deaths.
  • Operating Anew: Queering GIS with Good Enough Software
    In the last decade, conversations around queering of GIScience emerged. Drawing on literature from feminist and queer critical GIS with special attention to the under-examined political economy of GIS, I suggest that the critical project of queering all of GIS, both GIScience and GISystems, requires not just recognition of the labor and lives of queers and research in geographies of sexualities. Based upon a queer feminist political economic critique and evidenced in my teaching critical GIS at two elite liberal arts colleges, I argue that “status quo” between ESRI and geography as a field must be interrupted. Extending a critical GIS focus beyond data structures and data ethics, I argue that geographic researchers and instructors have a responsibility in queering our choice and production of software, algorithms, and code alike. I call this production and choice of democratic, accessible, and useful software by, for, and about the needs of its users good enough software. Instead, I argue that “status quo” between ESRI and geography as a field must be interrupted.
  • Alchemical symbols on Stećak tombstones and their meaning
    In order to truly be able to understand the phenomenology of Stećak tombstones in its total complexity, the Stećak primarily needs to be viewed through philosophy (Neoplatonism), theology (Cataphatic and Apophatic theology) and through the practice of theurgy and alchemy (work on stone and metal). It is very difficult to understand the symbols on Stećak tombstones without the essential knowledge of the basic principles and philosophy of Neoplatonism and Hermeticism, so even the most dedicated researchers of Bosnian Middle Ages observed Stečak symbols only as a decorative motifs denying the tombstones' enormous amount of "philosophical and spiritual content" that greatly can help in the study of the religious character of the Bosnian Church in the Middle Ages. To understand the meaning of many symbols of alchemy and theurgy on Stećak tombstones, a researcher of Bosnian medieval spirituality has to relate himself with one world in which mystery and spirituality are central. For example alchemical imagination constantly reminds us that opposing forces in nature have to unite thus forming a special relationships in a way that through their unification the mysterious "third" occurs (Alchemical "Egg","Philosopher's Stone", "Tree of Life") that transcends an ordinary existence.
  • Plato's spirituality (The Eternal Soul and the "Real" World)
    Mixture of philosophy and religion defines Plato's tradition of spirituality known as Platonism. The view of God as a First Principle or Supreme Good rather than a person is based on platonistic doctrine that anything that have personality is changeable and belongs to Lower Realm, while God is an eternal principle who emanates unchangeable untelligible Forms in the Upper Realm. According to Plato, ascent to heaven from the„cave“ or world of shadows could happen only after the conversion of inverted soul through "intellectual vision" or "ascetic paradigm". The very concept of spirituality in the West as we know it today comes from Plato and it is still an integral part of all three monotheistic religions today . In the „Republic“ we learn about Allegory of the Cave; in „Meno“ Theory of the Recollection; in „Phaedo“ Theory of the Immortality of the Soul; in „Phaedrus“ Theory of Division and the Fall of the Soul; and finally in „Symposium“ we learn about doctrine of Platonic Love.
  • Neoplatonic "Tree of Life" (Arbor Porphyriana: A diagram of logic and mystical theology
    In several versions of „Introduction to Aristotle's Categories“ („The Isagoge“) we find very intriguing diagram of the "Tree of Porphyry". This diagram is closely linked with the square of opposition (logical square), natural tree with vegetative ornaments and the anthropomorphic figure. Porphyry took over Aristotle's division into five predicables (quinque praedicabilia) and defined them through five classes (species, genus, differentia, propria, accidentia) and from them he created scala praedicamentalis (Arbor Porphyriana). The Neoplatonic-Aristotelianism of Porphyry influenced the return of interest in Aristotle's logic in the Middle Ages through translations of Boethius and Al-Farabi. Their works of logic were the basis for the study of many topics, especially those related to theology. Later diagrams with the natural tree and human figure (syndesmos) are found in the 13th century in "Tractatus" („Summulae Logicales“) written by Peter of Spain under different names such as: Tree of Love, Tree of Life, Tree of Science, Tree of Knowledge etc. Christian mysticism (Mystical theology), Islamic mysticism (Sufism) and Jewish mysticism (Kabbalah) was deeply influenced by Neoplatonic philosophy and within these mystical traditions we find different variations of the diagram aswell. Under the influence of the concept of Neoplatonic procession and reversion, mystic should be simultaneously involved in both Cataphatic and Apophatic theology to truly understand God. In other words, a spiritual person has to oscillate between affirming claims about the Tree of Life (the Being) and negation of those same claims to be able to have real knowledge of God.
  • Founded by Faith: Social Entrepreneurship as a Bridge Between Religion and Work
    Social entrepreneurship is an increasingly prevalent subcategory of entrepreneurship that is being used to tackle some of society’s most intractable problems. However, it is unclear what motivates individuals to become social entrepreneurs. In a partially-inductive, exploratory study, we examine what drives entrepreneurs to found social ventures. We find that social entrepreneurs often express a common motivation: an aspiration to integrate their religious beliefs and work. Our findings are used to construct a process model that describes how entrepreneurs progressed through five phases: desire, disenchantment, epiphany, bridging, and enlightenment. In doing so, entrepreneurs created social ventures, which served to unite their faith and work.
  • Terrorism and Social Movements; Wiley-Blackwell Companion to Social Movements, 2nd Edition
    In spite of a proliferation of empirical research, scholarship on terrorism remains theoretically fragmented and often inconclusive on even basic issues. In this chapter, we detail how terrorism can be incorporated into the social movements and collective action scholarships’ portfolio of research through a review of several of the most widely debated topics in current terrorism research: 1) how terrorism is defined; 2) dynamics of radicalization for individuals and groups; 3) intensity and targets of violence; 4) organizational diversification; and 5) the context of terrorist action. Taking a problem-centered approach, we detail how prior insights from scholarship on social movements and collective action can theoretically and substantively advance terrorism research.
  • The mutual specification of genres and audiences: Reflective two-mode centralities in person-to-culture data
    Recent developments at the intersection of cultural sociology and network theory suggest that the relations between persons and the cultural forms they consume can be productively analyzed using conceptual resources and methods adapted from network analysis. In this paper I seek to contribute to this developing line of thinking on the culture-networks link as it pertains to the sociology of taste. I present a general analytic and measurement framework useful for rethinking traditional survey (or population) based data on individuals and their cultural choices as a “two mode” persons X genres network. The proposed methodological tools allow me to develop a set of “reflective” metrics useful for ranking both persons and genres in terms of the pattern of choices and audience composition embedded in the cultural network. The empirical analysis shows that these metrics have both face and criterion validity, allowing us to extract useful information that would remain out of reach of standard quantitative strategies. I close by outlining the analytic and substantive implications of the approach.
  • The Tied Migrant Employment Penalty: Public Perceptions of Military Spouses Seeking Work
    People who move to support the employment prospects of their spouses are tied migrants, and military spouses experience tied migration repeatedly: active duty military personnel move about once every two years, twice as often as civilian families. This frequent geographical disruption directly affects the career trajectories of military spouses. Previous research established military spouses experience worse employment outcomes than their civilian peers, but less is known about the specific characteristics that lead to this difference. Do military spouses have worse employment outcomes because of being a tied migrant, or is there a separate effect because of their status as a military spouse? This article analyzes original data from a factorial vignette survey in which respondents evaluated fictitious job applicant profiles. Results suggest (1) Military spouses receive a premium as job applicants, they are evaluated as more warm, competent, reliable, and social, but receive lower evaluations on perceived longevity; (2) Military spouses with a stable geographic history are evaluated higher than civilians, but that premium switches to a penalty for military spouses with a history of moving frequently, in which case they are evaluated more harshly than civilians who have moved frequently; and (3) Neither tied migration nor military spouse status influence starting salary offers. As many careers require employees to move as part of their training or to seek advancement opportunities, understanding the employment-related challenges and opportunities military spouses face can lead to implications that may affect other tied migrants.
  • The stories of social entrepreneurship: Narrative discourse and social enterprise resource acquisition
    Social entrepreneurship is a phenomenon of increasing significance. A key challenge for social ventures is resource acquisition. However, how social entrepreneurs gather the resources necessary to grow their organizations is not clear. The focus of this study is how narratives are used to acquire social venture resources. This topic is examined using a multi-study, inductive, theory-building design based on 121 interviews, observation, and archival data. In Study 1, I interview 75 entrepreneurs, investors, and ancillary participants in the social enterprise sector. In Study 2, I construct case studies of eight technology-focused social ventures. Evidence from this study is used to construct a framework explaining how differences in entrepreneurs’ narrative tactics and characteristics are associated with differences in their resource acquisition success. Specifically, from Study 1 I develop a typology of social enterprise narratives, identify three narrative-types (personal, social-good, and business), and show that they possess unique elements. Evidence from Study 2 suggests that the three narrative-types serve as the building blocks for communication with external stakeholders. These findings contribute to three literatures that formed the basis of the study – social entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial resource acquisition, and organizational narrative theory – and have implications for work on competing organizational logics. They also produce several practical implications for social entrepreneurs.
  • The Role of Family in Initiating Police-Public Encounters: Demographic Differences and Fatal Consequences
    WORKING PAPER This paper examines 1,312 police-public encounters that resulted in the fatal shooting of civilians between January 1, 2015 and December 31, 2016. Data published by The Washington Post is merged with data collected by the author regarding how fatal police-public encounters were initiated. Multinomial logistic regression and adjusted predictive probabilities indicate that African-Americans killed by police are approximately half as likely to have police contact due to a family member or friend calling 911 than Whites. Individuals with mental illness killed by police are very unlikely to have contact initiated by police. Furthermore, logistic regression and adjusted predictive probabilities indicate that that how contact was initiated matters: there is a lower probability of police using only lethal force when a family member or friend initiates contact. The implications of the results for both understanding police use of force as well as police relations with minority communities are discussed.
  • Three Models of Ethnographic Transparency: Naming Places, Naming People, and Sharing Data
    Ethnographic research consists of multiple methodological approaches, including short- and/or long-term participant observation, interviews, photographs, videos, and group field work, to name a few. Yet, it is commonly practiced as a solitary endeavor and primary data is not often subject to scholarly scrutiny. In this paper, I highlight three models that scholars have used to make ethnographic methods more transparent: naming the places they studied, naming the people they met, and sharing data. In doing so, this paper makes several contributions. Theoretically, it situates varied decisions regarding ethnographic transparency as part of the tools in ethnographers’ methodological toolkit. Researchers make these decisions strategically, depending on the content and context of their work. Empirically, it synthesizes these varied approaches, and highlights their advantages and disadvantages. Finally, it contributes to ongoing debates regarding who ethnographers should be accountable to—our subjects, other scholars, and/or ourselves.
  • Stigmatizing Media Coverage of Persons with Mental Illness Killed by Police
    WORKING PAPER This paper examines the prevalence and types of stigmatizing language and frames in news reports about persons with mental illness killed by police. A sample of 301 online news reports was content analyzed, of which 132 reports contributed to 231 examples of stigmatizing language or frames. Analysis indicates that the construction of stigma in these news reports does not always adhere to existing frameworks for identifying stigmatizing frames. Furthermore, stigmatization that is implicit, and often seemingly innocuous, is far more pervasive than overt and explicit forms of stigmatization. To the author's knowledge this study is the first to examine media stigmatization of persons with mental illness killed by police as well as explore stigmatizing frames regarding suicide by cop. Implications of the findings for de-stigmatization efforts are explored.
  • Sherd weight: a new look at the numbers
    Weight of single ceramic sherds from archaeological contexts has a log-normal distribution. This property can be used for a purely quantitative statistical analysis of contexts. Rather than focusing on the economic and social value of ceramics, quantification is used to evaluate depositional histories and verify or improve archaeological interpretation.
  • From the accidental to articulated smart city: The creation and work of ‘Smart Dublin’
    While there is a relatively extensive literature concerning the nature of smart cities in general, the roles of corporate actors in their production, and the development and deployment of specific smart city technologies, to date there have been relatively few studies that have examined the situated practices as to how the smart city as a whole unfolds in specific places. In this paper, we chart the smart city ecosystem in Dublin, Ireland, and examine how the four city authorities have actively collaborated to progressively frame and mobilise an articulated vision of Dublin as a smart city. In particular, we focus on the work of ‘Smart Dublin’, a shared unit established to coordinate, manage and promote Dublin’s smart city initiatives. We argue that Smart Dublin has on the one hand sought to corral smart city initiatives within a common framework, and on the other has acted to boost the city-region’s smart city activities, especially with respect to economic development. Our analysis highlights the value of undertaking a holistic mapping of a smart city in formation, and the role of political and administrative geographies and specialist smart city units in shaping that formation.
  • Dictatorial Rule and Sexual Politics in Argentina: The Case of the Frente de Liberación Homosexual, 1967–1976
  • Dictatorial Rule and Sexual Politics in Argentina: The Case of the Frente de Liberación Homosexual, 1967-1976
    The Frente de Liberacio´n Homosexual (FLH, 1967–1976) was the first political movement of homosexual men in Argentina. Despite its short life span, this organization set the ground for futuredevelopments.TheFLHemergedinthecontextofincreasingauthoritarianismratherthanbeingtheresultof a transition to democracy. The relationship with homophobic Peronists and left-wing traditions was, para-doxically, crucial for the emergence of the FLH. Most homosexual activists came from the Left, and they understood homosexual liberation as one aspect of the struggle against capitalism. These activists werehighly critical of anticapitalist politics as it existed in Argentina at the time, but they also actively sought tobecome allies of the expanding New Left during the period. Eventually, however, the 1976–1983 military dictatorship made all forms of dissidence impossible, and the FLH had to dissolve.
  • Differences in STI knowledge accuracy and STI/HIV testing among a random sample of college students: A secondary survey analysis
    Objective: This study aimed to describe STI knowledge accuracy and STI/HIV testing service use in college students. Participants: A random sample of 991 university students aged 18-24, enrolled at a major public university, participated in this study in February 2009. Methods: Students took a survey designed by researchers in college health promotion and sexual health. Survey responses were examined for differences in STI knowledge accuracy, and demographic and behavioral predispositions to getting an STI or HIV test. Results: STI knowledge and testing service use differed significantly by gender, race, sexual orientation, STI/HIV testing history, and being sexually active in the past year. Conclusions: These findings can inform health communication campaigns of specific populations to target by providing identifiable sub-groups lacking STI knowledge and not using testing services.
  • MOOCs and Crowdsourcing: Massive Courses and Massive Resources
    Premised upon the observation that MOOC and crowdsourcing phenomena share several important characteristics, including IT mediation, large-scale human participation, and varying levels of openness to participants, this work systematizes a comparison of MOOC and crowdsourcing phenomena along these salient dimensions. In doing so, we learn that both domains share further common traits, including similarities in IT structures, knowledge generating capabilities, presence of intermediary service providers, and techniques designed to attract and maintain participant activity. Stemming directly from this analysis, we discuss new directions for future research in both fields and draw out actionable implications for practitioners and researchers in both domains. First Monday, Volume 20, Issue 12, December 2015
  • Next Generation Crowdsourcing for Collective Intelligence
    New techniques leveraging IT-mediated crowds such as Crowdsensing, Situated Crowdsourcing, Spatial Crowdsourcing, and Wearables Crowdsourcing have now materially emerged. These techniques, here termed next generation Crowdsourcing, serve to extend Crowdsourcing efforts beyond the heretofore dominant desktop computing paradigm. Employing new configurations of hardware, software, and people, these techniques represent new forms of organization for IT-mediated crowds (Prpić et al 2015; 2015b, 2015c, 2015d, Prpić & Shukla 2013; 2014; 2016). However, it is not known how these new techniques change the processes and outcomes of IT-mediated crowds for Collective Intelligence purposes? The aim of this exploratory work is to begin to answer this question. The work ensues by outlining the relevant findings of the first generation Crowdsourcing paradigm, before reviewing the emerging literature pertaining to the new generation of Crowdsourcing techniques. Premised on this review, a collectively exhaustive and mutually exclusive typology is formed, organizing the next generation Crowdsourcing techniques along two salient dimensions common to all first generation Crowdsourcing techniques. As a result, this work situates the next generation Crowdsourcing techniques within the extant Crowdsourcing literature, and identifies new research avenues stemming directly from the analysis. Prpić, J. (2016). Next Generation Crowdsourcing for Collective Intelligence. Collective Intelligence Conference, 2016. Stern School of Business, NYU.
  • Human capital or signaling? Differences in skills distributions and the labor market disadvantage of less-educated adults across 21 countries
    Less-educated adults bear the highest risk of labor market marginalization in all advanced economies, but the extent of their disadvantage differs considerably across countries. Exploiting unique data on the actual skills of adults from PIAAC 2011/12, we examine two prominent explanations for this cross-country variation. Human capital theory suggests that the marginalization of less-educated individuals reflects a lack of skills. The signaling explanation emphasizes the role of educational credentials as easy-to-observe proxies for skills and productivity. It suggests that the skills distribution of educational groups can affect their labor market position beyond any individual-level effect of skills by influencing the signaling value or “skills transparency” of educational credentials. Applying a two-step regression approach to a sample of 48,033 adults in 21 countries, we find support for both explanations. Consistent with human capital theory, literacy and numeracy skills are positively related to occupational status at the individual level and partly account for cross-national differences in the labor market disadvantage of less-educated adults. Yet, cross-country variation remains considerable even after controlling for skills and further key observables. Consistent with the signaling account, country-level regressions show that the remaining variation is related to two direct measures of skills transparency: the aggregate skills differential between less- and intermediate-educated adults and the internal homogeneity of these groups. We also find that the labor market disadvantage of less-educated adults increases with the vocational orientation of secondary education, presumably reflecting individual- and aggregate-level effects of occupation-specific skills, which were not assessed in PIAAC.
  • From Economic to Social Regulation: How the Deregulatory Moment Strengthened Economists’ Policy Position
    The deregulatory moment of the late 1970s increased the policy influence of economics in the United States by linking the efforts of two distinct communities of economists: a systems analytic group and an industrial organization (I/O) group. The systems analytic group, which used cost-benefit analysis to improve government decision-making, had considerable success in the 1960s and helped create offices of economists throughout the executive branch, but was losing momentum by 1970. The I/O group was, by the mid-1970s, working from the White House to reduce economic regulation—eliminating price and entry controls across a range of industries—but its ability to act was limited. After 1975, the I/O group increasingly focused on social regulation—rules meant to improve health, environmental, or safety conditions—and pushed for cost-benefit/cost-effectiveness analysis of such regulations. In the process, its efforts became linked with the legacy of systems analysis, leading to legal requirements for cost-benefit analysis of regulation and the expansion of executive-branch offices oriented toward economics—changes which opened doors to the future exchange of ideas between academia and the policy domain.
  • The (in)security of smart cities: vulnerabilities, risks, mitigation and prevention
    In this paper we examine the current state of play with regards to the security of smart city initiatives. Smart city technologies are promoted as an effective way to counter and manage uncertainty and urban risks through the effective and efficient delivery of services, yet paradoxically they create new vulnerabilities and threats, including making city infrastructure and services insecure, brittle, and open to extended forms of criminal activity. This paradox has largely been ignored or underestimated by commercial and governmental interests or tackled through a technically-mediated mitigation approach. We identify five forms of vulnerabilities with respect to smart city technologies, detail the present extent of cyberattacks on networked infrastructure and services, and present a number of illustrative examples. We then adopt a normative approach to explore existing mitigation strategies, suggesting a wider set of systemic interventions (including security-by-design, remedial security patching and replacement, formation of core security and computer emergency response teams, a change in procurement procedures, and continuing professional development). We discuss how this approach might be enacted and enforced through market-led and regulation/management measures, and examine a more radical preventative approach to security.
  • Connecting Online Work and Online Education at Scale
    Education is one of the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDG) of the United Nations. Considerable interest has been displayed in online education at scale, a new arising concept to realize this goal. Yet connecting online education to real jobs is still a challenge. This CHI workshop bridges this gap by bringing together groups and insights from related work at HCOMP, CSCW, and Learning at Scale. The workshop aims at providing opportunities for groups not yet in the focus of online education, exemplified by students who have not have equal access to higher education, compared to typical students in MOOCs.The focus is on theoretical and empirical connections between online education and job opportunities which can reduce the financial gap, by providing students with an income during their studies. The workshop explores the technological analogue of the concept of ‘apprenticeship’, long established in the European Union, and education research [2]. This allows students to do useful work as an apprentice during their studies. This workshop tackles such questions by bringing together participants from industry (e.g., platforms similar to Upwork, Amazon Mechanical Turk); education, psychology, and MOOCs (e.g., attendees of AERA, EDM, AIED, Learning at Scale); crowdsourcing and collaborative work (e.g., attendees of CHI, CSCW, NIPS, AAAI’s HCOMP). Krause, M., Hall, M., Williams, J. J., Paritosh, P., Prpić, J., & Caton, S. (2016, May). Connecting Online Work and Online Education at Scale. In Proceedings of the 2016 CHI Conference Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems (pp. 3536-3541). ACM.
  • The Indus Texts: A Symbol Dictionary
    The dictionary is expected to be an evolving compilation, with further versions incorporating new symbols based on progress in interpreting the texts. Check the preprint's publicly accessible project area for the latest version of the dictionary.
  • Crowd Capital in Governance Contexts
    To begin to understand the implications of the implementation of IT-­mediated Crowds for Politics and Policy purposes, this research builds the first-­known dataset of IT-­mediated Crowd applications currently in use in the governance context. Using Crowd Capital theory and governance theory as frameworks to organize our data collection, we undertake an exploratory data analysis of some fundamental factors defining this emerging field. Specific factors outlined and discussed include the type of actors implementing IT mediated Crowds in the governance context, the global geographic distribution of the applications, and the nature of the Crowd derived resources being generated for governance purposes. The findings from our dataset of 209 on-­going endeavours indicates that a wide-­diversity of actors are engaging IT-mediated Crowds in the governance context, both jointly and severally, that these endeavours can be found to exist on all continents, and that said actors are generating Crowd-derived resources in at least ten distinct governance sectors. We discuss the ramifications of these and our other findings in comparison to the research literature on the private-­sector use of IT-­mediated Crowds, while highlighting some unique future research opportunities stemming from our work. Prpić, J., & Shukla, P. (2014). Crowd Capital in Governance Contexts. Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford - IPP 2014 - Crowdsourcing for Politics and Policy.
  • A Computational Model of Crowds for Collective Intelligence
    In this work, we present a high-level computational model of IT-mediated crowds for collective intelligence. We introduce the Crowd Capital perspective as an organizational level model of collective intelligence generation from IT-mediated crowds, and specify a computational system including agents, forms of IT, and organizational knowledge. Prpić, J., Jackson, P., & Nguyen, T. (2014). A Computational Model of Crowds for Collective Intelligence. Collective Intelligence 2014. MIT Center for Collective Intelligence.
  • The Effect of the Academic Attainment of ESL Teachers on Evaluation of ESL Learners’ Errors: Educational Degree-Based Study
  • The Indus Texts: A Bundle Measure of Grain and a Stereotyped Number
    A symbol in the Indus texts that occurs frequently next to the symbol of the `handspan' anthropomorphic measure is interpreted as an ideogram for `harvested grain' based on its iconic form, taken to depict a series of heaps of grains. This has a direct visual parallel in a determinative in contemporaneous Egyptian hieroglyphics that was used to assist in the reading of a phonetically spelt word for `food'. The combination of the `harvested grain' symbol with the `handspan' anthropomorphic measure is read as a picto-phrase that conveyed the sense `measure of harvested grain'. A pictogram of seven line strokes that often occurs interchangeably with the `harvested grain' symbol in the corpus is proposed to represent a stereotyped expression `the seven'. The expression is interpreted as the representation of a collection of `seven grains' following an ancient system of classification of food-grains into groups of seven attested in the Vedic literature and later. This correspondence is argued to demonstrate a certain continuity of practices in the agricultural-ritual domain between the Indus tradition and the Vedic. The results of this paper provide further evidence that the Indus texts involved a type of picture-writing that did not encode spoken language. The results also support the position that some symbols in the Indus texts which resemble numeral strokes likely represented stereotyped entities rather than literal numeral phrases.
  • The Effect of the Academic Attainment of ESL Teachers on Evaluation of ESL Learners’ Errors: Educational Degree-Based Study
    This paper analyzes reactions and evaluations of 70 participants, native and non-native speakers of English to 32 errors written by learners of English as a second language, ESL. It investigates the effect of the academic attainment of ESL teachers on the evaluation of ESL error seriousness. The educational attainment of teachers, both native and non-native, include the B.A., M.A., and Ph.D. degrees. Participants in the study include 34 non-native Palestinian ESL teachers, 26 English native speaking ESL teachers, and 10 English native speakers who are not teachers. Errors in this study are taken from compositions written by Arab-Palestinian students. Eight error categories including prepositions, concord, word order, plural, pronouns, spelling, vocabulary, and verb form are used. Four correct sentences are also included. All participants for the study had to underline errors and evaluate them by indicating the points from 0-5 they would deduct for each error; 5 indicates very serious errors; 0 is for error-free sentences; “1” is for errors which can easily be excused; “2”, “3”, and “4” are means to show intermediate degrees of seriousness. Results of the study show that the three academic groups differ in their evaluation of errors. Whereas the Ph.D. groups are the most lenient, the M.A. groups are the least tolerant. The non-teachers are the most tolerant of all groups.
  • The Fundamentals of Policy Crowdsourcing
    What is the state of the research on crowdsourcing for policymaking? This article begins to answer this question by collecting, categorizing, and situating an extensive body of the extant research investigating policy crowdsourcing, within a new framework built on fundamental typologies from each field. We first define seven universal characteristics of the three general crowdsourcing techniques (virtual labor markets, tournament crowdsourcing, open collaboration), to examine the relative tradeoffs of each modality. We then compare these three types of crowdsourcing to the different stages of the policy cycle, in order to situate the literature spanning both domains. We finally discuss research trends in crowdsourcing for public policy and highlight the research gaps and overlaps in the literature. Prpić, J., Taeihagh, A., & Melton, J. (2015). The Fundamentals of Policy Crowdsourcing. Policy & Internet, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 340-361.
  • How To Work A Crowd: Developing Crowd Capital Through Crowdsourcing
    Traditionally, the term ‘crowd’ was used almost exclusively in the context of people who self organized around a common purpose, emotion, or experience. Today, however, firms often refer to crowds in discussions of how collections of individuals can be engaged for organizational purposes. Crowdsourcing– defined here as the use of information technologies to outsource business responsibilities to crowds–—can now significantly influence a firm’s ability to leverage previously unattainable resources to build competitive advantage. Nonetheless, many managers are hesitant to consider crowdsourcing because they do not understand how its various types can add value to the firm. In response, we explain what crowdsourcing is, the advantages it offers, and how firms can pursue crowdsourcing. We begin by formulating a crowdsourcing typology and show how its four categories–—crowd voting, micro-task, idea, and solution crowdsourcing —can help firms develop ‘crowd capital,’ an organizational-level resource harnessed from the crowd. We then present a three-step process model for generating crowd capital. Step one includes important considerations that shape how a crowd is to be constructed. Step two outlines the capabilities firms need to develop to acquire and assimilate resources (e.g., knowledge, labor, funds) from the crowd. Step three outlines key decision areas that executives need to address to effectively engage crowds. Prpić, J., Shukla, P.P., Kietzmann, J.H., & McCarthy, I.P. (2015). How to Work a Crowd: Developing Crowd Capital Through Crowdsourcing. Business Horizons, Volume 58, Issue 1, Pages 77-85.
  • Crowdsourcing the Policy Cycle
    Crowdsourcing is beginning to be used for policymaking. The “wisdom of crowds” [Surowiecki 2005], and crowdsourcing [Brabham 2008], are seen as new avenues that can shape all kinds of policy, from transportation policy [Nash 2009] to urban planning [Seltzer and Mahmoudi 2013], to climate policy (http://climatecolab.org). In general, many have high expectations for positive outcomes with crowdsourcing, and based on both anecdotal and empirical evidence, some of these expectations seem justified [Majchrzak and Malhotra 2013]. Yet, to our knowledge, research has yet to emerge that unpacks the different forms of crowdsourcing in light of each stage of the well established policy cycle. This work addresses this research gap, and in doing so brings increased nuance to the application of crowdsourcing techniques for policymaking. Prpić, J., Taeihagh, A., & Melton, J. (2014). Crowdsourcing the Policy Cycle. Collective Intelligence 2014, MIT Center for Collective Intelligence.
  • Accounting for Purposive Social Action
    This paper articulates a sociological approach to analyzing individual choices. I discuss sociological roadblocks to economic thinking, namely disagreements about preference formation, social influence, and the importance of group-level phenomena. I show that these ideas can be integrated into an individual choice modeling approach based on the assumption that individuals maximize the "morality" or "rightness" of a choice in a particular context, rather than its rational utility. I suggest that scholars place explicit constraints on the analysis itself, rather than on the cognition of the actors being analyzed, which allows for truly scientific, endogenous models of individual choice that maintain analytical rigor. I conclude by elaborating several tools for methodological implementation of the model.
  • Evidence for Non-Linguistic Symbol Structures in the Indus Texts
    The Indus Civilization (2600-1900 BCE) produced brief written texts that represent the earliest evidence of writing in South Asia. Numerous studies on the texts and many attempts at decipherment have not established if the texts encoded a spoken language or exploited a system of non-linguistic symbols. This paper identifies symbols in the texts that bear graphic resemblance to anthropomorphic units of measurement amenable to pictorial interpretation. The symbols are interpreted as ideograms of objects that may have functioned as capacity measures. The occurrences of a `grain stalk'-like pictogram next to some of these symbols allowed the combinations to be read as non-linguistic expressions that pictorially conveyed the sense `measure [of] grain'. Another symbol in the corpus is identified as the representation of the finger-millet grain (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.) based on a correspondence between its striking pictorial form and the characteristic shape of the head of the finger-millet grass. The symbol's frequent combination with one of the anthropomorphic measures is read as the expression `measure [of] finger-millet grain'. A further three-symbol combination involving `grain stalk'-like symbols is interpreted ideographically as `triply-twisted stalk', an expression for `rope'. The nature of the symbols, their referents, and the manner of construction of `picto-phrases' demonstrate that the Indus texts included elements of a symbol system that did not encode spoken language.
  • Ego-Centered Cognitive Social Structures of Close Personal Networks in the United States
    Social network analysis is increasingly important in the social and behavioral sciences and has been employed to study a host of inter- and intra-personal social processes. One of the challenges researchers face in this area, however, is balancing the trade-offs between different modes of network measurement and study design. At one end of the spectrum, entirely ego-centered network designs facilitate access to a large, generalizable sample of the population but often lack details on the underlying network structure that embed each respondent. At the other end, whole-network designs offer fine details about the network structure but are costly and suffer from generalizability limitations. In this paper, we employ an ego-centered network sampling design that strikes a balance between these two cases by leveraging how individuals perceive their social worlds vis-a-vis respondent reports of their alter-alter ties. We describe a large sample of close personal networks where respondents informed on their perceptions of the ties between their alters on multiple types of relations. Specifically, we characterize the distribution of network statistics (size, density, and multiplexity) for over a thousand individual ego-centered cognitive networks drawn from a representative sample of the U.S. population. To our knowledge this is the first study to characterize the distribution of mental maps vis-a-vis perceived alter-alter relationships in this large of a sample of respondents involved in close personal networks. In doing so, we more clearly shed light on how Americans perceive the structure of their social worlds and provide an empirical case study in what we characterize as ego-centered cognitive social structures.
  • Central bank planning? Unconventional monetary policy and the price of bending the yield curve
    Central banks have long used their position as the monopoly issuers of reserves to ‘fix’ a crucial price in the economy, namely the short-term, interbank interest rate. They have also increasingly used communication to ‘fix’ market actors’ expectations of future rates of interest, inflation, and growth. Aware of the proximity of these practices to a form of (financial) central planning, central banks used to restrict their interventions to the short end of the yield curve, insisting that longer-term interest rates constituted aggregators of decentralised knowledge and information, best determined by market forces. By embracing forward guidance and quantitative easing to target long-term rates, central banks have purposefully crossed that line. This paper uses the conceptual toolkit of the literature on social studies of finance and central banking to come to grips with the implications of that decision for the theory and practice of macroeconomic governability. Three arguments are advanced. First, Keynesian fiscal demand management and monetary inflation targeting represent separate ideal types of macroeconomic state agency, the former operating in a hydraulic, the latter in a strategic and performative manner. Second, while consistent with the post-1980s expansion of the temporal reach of monetary policy into the future, large-scale asset purchases nevertheless mark a structural break – the return of hydraulic macroeconomic state agency, refashioned for a financialised economy. Third, central bank planning has a deep theoretical lineage in general-equilibrium macroeconomics. The case of the European Central Bank serves to illustrate these arguments.
  • Normative Beliefs about Money in Families: Balancing Togetherness, Autonomy, and Equality
    Using original data from a nationally representative vignette-survey experiment (n = 3,986), this study investigated norms about income sharing within families. Respondents were asked to select a preferred income allocation strategy for a fictional couple with varied circumstances. Findings showed that despite differences in fictional couples’ marital and parental statuses, the majority of respondents indicated all couples should ideally pursue some level of autonomy within their relationships. Respondents also believed higher-earning partners ought to hold back a greater absolute value of their income, potentially reproducing unequal labor market conditions within families. When women were presented as the primary earner, the ideal level of withholding income was slightly larger in magnitude than when men were shown as the primary earner. Findings challenge the notion that marriage distinctively establishes a unitary family interest and suggest normative support for women’s self-determination in lieu of a push for gender equality.
  • Exit, cohesion, and consensus: social psychological moderators of consensus among adolescent peer groups
    Virtually all social diffusion work relies on a common formal basis, which predicts that consensus will develop among a connected population as the result of diffusion. In spite of the popularity of social diffusion models that predict consensus, few empirical studies examine consensus, or a clustering of attitudes, directly. Those that do either focus on the coordinating role of strict hierarchies, or on the results of online experiments, and do not consider how consensus occurs among groups in situ. This study uses longitudinal data on adolescent social networks to show how meso-level social structures, such as informal peer groups, moderate the process of consensus formation. Using a novel method for controlling for selection into a group, I find that centralized peer groups, meaning groups with clear leaders, have very low levels of consensus, while cohesive peer groups, meaning groups where more ties hold the members of the group together, have very high levels of consensus. This finding is robust to two different measures of cohesion and consensus. This suggests that consensus occurs either through central leaders’ enforcement or through diffusion of attitudes, but that central leaders have limited ability to enforce when people can leave the group easily.
  • Secular but not Superficial: An Overlooked Nonreligious/Nonspiritual Identity
    Since Durkheim’s characterization of the sacred and profane as “antagonistic rivals,” the strict dichotomy has been framed in such a way that “being religious” evokes images of a life filled with profound meaning and value, while “being secular” evokes images of a meaningless, self-centered, superficial life, often characterized by materialistic consumerism and the cold, heartless environment of corporate greed. Consequently, to identify as “neither religious nor spiritual” runs the risk of being stigmatized as superficial, untrustworthy, and immoral. Conflicts and confusions encountered in the process of negotiating a nonreligious/nonspiritual identity, caused by the ambiguous nature of religious language, were explored through qualitative interviews with 14 ex-ministers and 1 atheist minister—individuals for whom supernaturalist religion had formed the central core of identity, but who have deconverted and no longer hold supernatural beliefs. The cognitive linguistics approach of Frame Semantics was applied to the process of “oppositional identity work” to examine why certain identity labels are avoided or embraced due to considerations of the cognitive frames evoked by those labels. Through the constant comparative method of grounded theory, a host of useful theoretical concepts emerged from the data. Several impediments to the construction of a “secular but not superficial” identity were identified, and a framework of new theoretical concepts developed to make sense of them: sense disparity, frame disparity, identity misfire, foiled identity, sense conflation, and conflated frames. Several consequences arising from these impediments were explored: (1) consequences of sense conflation and conflated frames for the study of religion; (2) consequences of conflated frames for religious terminology; and (3) consequences of the negation of conflated frames for those who identify as not religious, not spiritual, or not Christian. Additionally, four types of oppositional identity work were identified and analyzed: (1) avoidance identity work, (2) dissonant identity work, (3) adaptive identity work, and (4) alternative identity work. Finally, the concept of conflated frames was applied to suggest a new interpretation of the classic Weberian disenchantment narrative.
  • How Consciousness Creates Reality
    The present text is a very abridged version of a book I wrote out of the desire to examine the structure of our reality from a standpoint unbiased by established teachings, be they academic- scientific, popular- esoteric, or religious in nature. We will begin with seemingly simple interactions in our daily lives, examine how they originate on a deeper level, come to understand the essentials of consciousness, and finally recognize that we create our reality in its entirety. In the course of this quest, we will uncover little-heeded paths to accessing our subconscious, other individuals, and that which can be understood by the term "God". And the solution to the classical problem of free will constitutes the gist of the concepts thus revealed.
  • “Elder Brother Tobacco”: Traditional Nicotiana Snuff Use among the Contemporary Tzeltal and Tzotzil Maya of Highland Chiapas, Mexico
    Ethnographic study of traditional tobacco (Nicotiana) use among the Tzeltal and Tzotzil Maya of Highland Chiapas, Mexico
  • Youtube Yinzers: Stancetaking and the performance of 'Pittsburghese'
    Work on dialect performance and enregisterment has shown that when dialects are performed it is often through the enactment or indexing of particular enregistered characterological figures and personae. I expand this view by showing that one linguistic feature of “Pittsburghese” is used to create stances that are enregistered along with the characterological figures in this vernacular variety of English. Falling question intonation (FQI) is a common feature of the White Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania variety. I analyze its use in a series of videos posted on YouTube® entitled Greg and Donny. The series depicts conversations among the two eponymous characters and their friends in Johnstown, Pennsylvania. LQI is used by them to take stances that serve to mock the addressee while simultaneously aligning with them, a stance that is typical of working class Pittsburghers. Stance is thus crucial for understanding both the enregistered figures and the use of LQI in Western Pennsylvania.
  • NOVEL METRICS FOR LEARNING: LONG TERM RETENTION AS A SOCIO-ECONOMIC- INDEPENDENT AND SCHOOL COMPLETION AS A DEPENDENT METRIC.
    Efficacy of a system of education depends on whether it reaches the entire population and whether its quality is acceptable, independent of the factors that limit its spread. We derive here novel metrics for each. The triad of students, teachers and curriculum could be assessed by measuring long term retention in school children by a recall method, which was independent of socioeconomic status, school grades and gender but depends on the subject. The test also revealed that those who are not good at cramming could exhibit good retention though the conventional tests fail to identify them. The socio–economic dependence is seen specifically with school dropouts, where parental income plays a decisive role. This economic influence on education follows a hierarchy of consumption wherein education itself is a commodity of variable preference in the hierarchy of commodities. It is possible to extend the current methodology to encompass the teachers and curriculum also into a quantifiable metric that helps render examinations as an aid to learning rather than as a threat as commonly perceived.
  • Privacy after the Agile Turn
    The objective of this paper is to explore how recent paradigmatic transformations in the production of digital functionality are changing the conditions for privacy governance. We are motivated by the lack of scholarship that focuses on these transformations and attends to how they matter to privacy. The introduction of information systems in different spheres of societal activity continues to spark privacy issues. But for those that are trying to understand the issues and come up with solutions, what is our mental model of how information systems and digital functionality are produced? Is privacy research and policy sufficiently informed by the predominant modes of software production? This paper originates from the realization that this may not sufficiently be the case, at least for its authors.
  • Comments on Conceptualizing and Measuring the Exchange of Beauty and Status
    Note: This is a working paper of a comment that is forthcoming in the American Sociological Review (expected August 2017) In this comment, I identify two methodological issues in McClintock’s (2014) article on beauty exchange. First, McClintock’s difference models, which find no evidence of exchange, are poor measures of exchange that fail to account for important confounders and rely upon an overly narrow conceptualization of exchange. Second, McClintock codes her log-linear models to find a difference in the effect of men and women’s beauty in exchange rather than the total effect of women’s beauty, which is both statistically significant and substantively large. The code (but not the data) to reproduce this analysis, as well as my own output, is also available at: https://github.com/AaronGullickson/beautyexchange
  • The Experience of Discrimination in Contemporary America: Results from a Nationally Representative Sample of Adults
    A large body of social science research is devoted to understanding the causes and correlates of discrimination. Comparatively less effort has been aimed at providing a general prevalence estimate of discrimination using a nationally representative sample. The current study is intended to offer such an estimate using a large sample of American respondents (n = 14,793) while also exploring perceptions regarding why respondents felt they were discriminated against. The results provide a broad estimate of self-reported discrimination experiences—an event that was only reported by about one-quarter of all sample members—across racial and ethnic categories.
  • Gender Conventions, Sexual Self-Efficacy, and Sexual Frequency
    Some studies suggest that gender conventions increase couples’ sexual frequency by enacting sexual scripts tied to heterosexuality. Other studies suggest gender egalitarianism increases sexual intimacy by enhancing communication in couples. We tested these competing hypotheses by examining the underlying processes that link gender attitudes to sexual activity. We also examined the association between gender egalitarian attitudes and women’s and men’s sexual self-efficacy and examined how sexual self-efficacy in turn shapes gendered patterns of sexual initiation and sexual frequency. An actor-partner interdependence model based on data from the National Couples Survey provided support for both perspectives. Women’s gender egalitarian attitudes decreased couples’ sexual frequency by negatively affecting men’s sexual control, but gender egalitarian attitudes surrounding the scripting of sexual activity among women were positively associated with sexual frequency. Moreover, egalitarian attitudes about domestic roles were positively associated with partner communication which in turn enhanced partners’ sexual self-efficacy and sexual frequency. Yet, while sexual self-efficacy was positively associated with sexual frequency for men it was negatively associated for women. The findings show that whereas gender conventional attitudes increase sex through male empowerment and female disenfranchisement, egalitarian beliefs lead to greater sexual intimacy – not only more sex, but also mutual partner decision-making.
  • Structural Property Losses from Tornadoes in Florida
    The probability of extreme property losses from tornadoes in Florida is estimated from a one-km grid of structural property values in 2014 and data on historical tornado events since 1950. Property value exposed to tornadoes across the state since 1950 is estimated using a geometric model for the historical paths. A regression model is used to quantify the relationship between actual losses since 2007 and exposures. Randomization of the historical tornado paths provides alternative exposure scenarios that are subsequently used to determine the probability of extreme loss years. The method indicates a 1% chance that the annual loss will exceed 430 million dollars and a .1% chance that it will exceed 1 billion dollars.
  • congressbr: An R Package for Analysing Data from Brazil's Chamber of Deputies and Federal Senate
    In this research note, we introduce congressbr, an R package for retrieving data from the Brazilian houses of legislature. The package contains easy-to-use functions that allow researchers to query the Application Programming Interfaces of the Chamber of Deputies and the Federal Senate, perform cleaning data operations, and store information in a format convenient for future analyses. We outline the main features of the package and demonstrate its use with some practical examples.
  • Pre-Election Mobilization and Electoral Outcome in Authoritarian Regimes
    Does pre-election protest have an effect on the outcomes of authoritarian elections? Electoral authoritarian regimes use elections to consolidate their power and claim democratic legitimacy. Nonetheless, on some occasions authoritarian incumbents lose elections despite their advantages and a democratic breakthrough is achieved. I propose that pre-election protest contributes to such election results. Existing scholarship focuses primarily on the effectiveness of post-election upheavals, but the effects of pre-election protest are still theoretically and empirically understudied. This paper proposes a theory for why pre-election contention has an independent effect on incumbent defeat of authoritarian regimes and democratization. I present empirical support for the association between pre-election protest activities, incumbent defeat, and democratization using data from 190 elections across 65 countries with non-democratic regimes. The findings of this analysis have important implications for studies of social movements, authoritarian politics, and democratization.
  • “Service Programmes” on Jordanian Radio: Understanding Broadcaster Persona through an Interdisciplinary Analysis of Language and Performance
    My ESRC-funded doctoral research explores linguistic practice on Jordanian radio today. The main conclusion of my research is that details of Arabic use in the radio setting have significant implications for the kind of audiences addressed – that is, who is included as a legitimate or “validated” listener – and the way members of the public can participate in radio discourse – this latter in particularly through call- ins, which are a frequent feature of Jordanian radio programming more generally. This paper looks at one type of programmes present on many contemporary Jordanian radio stations: the so-called “service programmes,” "barāmiž ḳadamātiyya," in which listeners call the station and speak live on the air in order to request assistance or mediation with local authorities in resolution of an issue – such as a damaged road, a broken water pipe, et cetera. It compares two popular service programmes: Barnāmiž al-wakīl, hosted by Muhammad al-Wakeel, and Wasaṭ al- balad, hosted by Hani al-Badri. It argues that, in order to properly appreciate the differences between the two programmes, an interdisciplinary approach to the data is required. This has raised certain methodological issues for my work, but on the other hand allowed me to explore new theoretical pathways and contribute new insights to scholarship on both contemporary Arabic language use, and Middle Eastern media.
  • Geoprivacy
    Location is uniquely sensitive in terms of the kinds of things that it reveals about us as individuals and the ways in which those disclosures are made. This chapter examines the ways in which the rapid proliferation and resulting pervasiveness of spatial media are radically reconfiguring norms and expectations around locational privacy. Existing definitions of locational are individualistic, emphasizing a negatively defined rights oriented approach to privacy – for example, the right to not have one’s location monitored. Privacy, however, is being relocated from the individual to the network, where privacy violations and harms increasingly occur beyond the site of the individual. Encompassing more than solely location, a broadened concept of ‘geoprivacy’ must account for the emergent complex of potential privacy harms and violations that may arise from a number of nascent realities of living in a spatial big data present: i) from the spatial-media enabled pervasive capture and repurposing of individuals’ personal spatial-relational and spatio-temporal data; ii) from the ways in which individuals cast digital footprints as they move across the numerous sensor networks of smart cities; iii) from the circulation and analytics of these data, which position individuals as spatially vulnerable in various and unprecedented ways; and, iv) from the inability of individuals to control highly personal flows of spatial information about themselves in networked device and data ecologies.
  • RACING THROUGH THE HALLS OF CONGRESS
    Although there is an impressive body of research on the U.S. Congress, there has been limited discussion about the central role race plays in the organization of this political institution. While some scholars have documented Congress’ racist past, less is known about the present significance of race in the federal legislature. Throughout the day, African Americans routinely nod to one another in the halls of the Capitol, and consider the Black nod as a common cultural gesture. However, data from over sixty in-depth interviews suggest there is an additional layer of meaning to the Black nod in Congress. From the microlevel encounters, I observed and examined, I interpret the nod as more than a gesture that occurs in a matter of seconds between colleagues or even among perfect strangers in the halls of Congress. The Black nod encompasses and is shaped by labor organized along racial lines, a history of racial subordination, and powerful perceptions of race in the post-Civil-Rights era on the meso-, and macrolevels. Using this interpretive foundation, this article will show how the nod is an adaptive strategy of Black staffers that renders them visible in an environment where they feel socially invisible. The nod becomes an external expression of their racialized professional identity. I argue that the congressional workplace is a raced political institution and that the microlevel encounters I observed delineate and reproduce its racial boundaries. This article represents perhaps the first sociological study of Congress and provides an unprecedented view into its inner workings and the social dimensions that organize workplace relationships.
  • The Hunt for Red Flags: Human Resource Perspectives on Internet-based Job Candidate Screening
    This study uses qualitative interviews with 31 human resource professionals to examine how they weigh the usefulness as well as the discriminatory potential of evaluating job candidates based on information obtained from the Internet. Results show that most HR professionals value social media and online search data, though some question its accuracy and usefulness. The majority recognize that because online information emphasizes personal and ascribed traits, it can potentially result in hiring discrimination. They use four strategies to cope with this discriminatory potential. Two strategies downplay the importance of online information by constructing it as the responsibility of individual job candidates and its role in hiring as marginal. Two other tactics involve guarding against discrimination, but in individualized and rather passive and post-hoc ways. Findings contribute to our knowledge of the organizational and labor market dynamics that contribute to inequality in the face of exogenous technological change and field-level uncertainty.
  • Digital Spatialities
    This chapter identifies and provides an overview of conceptual and theoretical approaches to understanding the relationship between digital media, society, and space. Beginning with the historical context of map:territory relationships, geographers have always understood technologies – and most recently digital media - as central to the production of space. Contemporary theoretical and conceptual frameworks for engaging the role and status of digital media in the production of spatiality (or socio-spatial relationships) include hybrid spaces, digital shadows and augmented realities, code/space, mediated spatialities, and atmospheres.
  • Understanding Popularity, Reputation, and Social Influence in the Twitter Society
    The pervasive presence of online media in our society has transferred a significant part of political deliberation to online forums and social networking sites. This article examines popularity, reputation, and social influence on Twitter using large-scale digital traces from 2009 to 2016. We process network information on more than 40 million users, calculating new global measures of reputation that build on the D-core decomposition and the bow-tie structure of the Twitter follower network. We integrate our measurements of popularity, reputation, and social influence to evaluate what keeps users active, what makes them more popular, and what determines their influence. We find that there is a range of values in which the risk of a user becoming inactive grows with popularity and reputation. Popularity in Twitter resembles a proportional growth process that is faster in its strongly connected component, and that can be accelerated by reputation when users are already popular. We find that social influence on Twitter is mainly related to popularity rather than reputation, but that this growth of influence with popularity is sublinear. The explanatory and predictive power of our method shows that global network metrics are better predictors of inactivity and social influence, calling for analyses that go beyond local metrics like the number of followers.
  • OSMnx: A Python package to work with graph-theoretic OpenStreetMap street networks
    This is a peer-reviewed marker paper for the OSMnx software repository.
  • Case Reports and Open Source Work Products in PAR
  • Cost, Confidence, and College Choice
    How are high school students’ beliefs about college costs related to their postsecondary enrollment decisions? Through an analysis of the base-­year and available follow‑up waves of the High School Longitudinal Study of 2009, this article offers three primary findings for a nationally representative sample. First, consistent with substantial prior research, ninth grade students, on average, believe that a four-­year college degree at a public university in their state is substantially more expensive than the true costs indicate. Second, the students most likely to attend college in the year after high school graduation are, on average, those students who over-­estimate the true costs. Third, the students who express the most confidence in their own estimates of costs are the students least likely to enter college immediately after high school, either at a four-­year college or at any other type of institution. In combination, these results imply a perverse policy recommendation: to boost college attendance, the nation should increase tuition and fees while eroding the confidence of high school students that they understand how much college will cost. Because no reasonable analyst of college choices would recommend such a reckless policy intervention, the results of this article demonstrate how much additional work is needed to collect and analyze newer forms of data that can enable deeper modeling of students’ beliefs and the consequences of their variation for subsequent choices.
  • Analiza relacji głosów na ogólnomiejskie projekty w stosunku do głosów rejonowych we Wrocławskim Budżecie Obywatelskim
    Celem niniejszej pracy jest uzyskanie odpowiedzi na pytania związane z relacjami między głosami na projekty rejonowe a ogólnomiejskie we Wrocławskim budżecie obywatelskim: czy zwycięską strategią działania jest wspieranie przez głosy rejonowe projektów ogólnomiejskich - czy odwrotnie? A może nie zachodzi żadne powiązanie? Jak wygląda wpływ głosów pojedynczych - w tym przypadku rozumianych jako głosy oddane tylko na projekty ogólnomiejskie.
  • Annotated Work Instructions
    This is an open-source project about creating documented work processes in organizations whose officials are unwilling to promulgate implementable procedures. This is a project of Center for Public Administrators, http://www.PubAdmin.org
  • THE ROLE OF SECTARIANISM IN THE ALLOCATION OF PUBLIC EXPENDITURE IN POSTWAR LEBANON
  • Case Reports and Open Source Work Products in PAR
    (This is the submitted version of an article that was subsequently published in Public Administration Review.) Public Administration journals should publish two types of professional literature that are not research: * Case Reports - As in medical journals, a description by a practitioner of a situation she encountered, what she did about it, and the results. * Open Source Work Products - Practitioners' work products, such as procedures, position descriptions or statements of work, that are shared publicly, so that any interested person can contribute improvements.
  • Measuring the Complexity of Urban Form and Design
    Complex systems have become a popular lens for conceptualizing cities, and complexity has substantial implications for urban performance and resilience. This paper develops a typology of methods and measures for assessing the complexity of the built form at the scale of urban design. It extends quantitative methods from urban planning, network science, ecosystems studies, fractal geometry, and information theory to the physical urban form and the analysis of qualitative human experience. Metrics at multiple scales are scattered throughout these bodies of literature and have useful applications in analyzing the complexity that both evolves and results from local planning and design processes. The typology developed here applies to empirical research of multiple neighborhood types and design standards and it includes temporal, visual, spatial, fractal, and network-analytic measures of the urban form.
  • Dynamic Existence
    Everything is in motion. "Inertness" arises from (approximative) repetition, that is, through rotation or an alternation that delineates a focus of consciousness. This focus of consciousness, in turn, must also move/alternate (the two differ only in continuity). If its alternation seems to go too far - physically, psychically or intellectually - it reaches into the subconscious. In this way, interconnection is established by the alternation of the focus of consciousness. Therefore, in a world in which everything is interconnected, all focuses must reciprocally transition into each other. "Reality" is a common "goal", a focus which all participants can switch into and which is conscious to them as such, as a potential one. Its "degree of reality" is the probability of its fully becoming conscious (or more simply: its current degree of consciousness). Thus, a reality is created when all participants increase its probability or, respectively, their consciousness of it.
  • Early Maternal Employment and Children’s Vocabulary and Inductive Reasoning Ability: A Dynamic Approach
    This study investigates the relationship between early maternal employment history and children’s vocabulary and inductive reasoning ability at age 5, drawing on longitudinal information on 2,200 children from the Growing Up in Scotland data. Prior research rarely addresses dynamics in maternal employment and the methodological ramifications of time-variant confounding. The present study proposes various measures to capture duration, timing, and stability of early maternal employment and uses inverse probability of treatment weighting to control for time-variant confounders that may partially mediate the effect of maternal employment on cognitive scores. The findings suggest only modest differences in the above ability measures between children with similar observed covariate history but who have been exposed to very different patterns of early maternal employment.
  • Not Everyone is Xenophobic in South Africa
    Objective: Show that South Africa is not uniquely xenophobic. Methods: Regression analysis of SASAS 2013. Results: There are clear patterns who tends to be more xenophobic: people in vulnerable positions, and people who have less contact with foreigners. These patterns reflect those found in other countries. Conclusion: South Africa is not uniquely xenophobic. This is a brief summary of research prepared for "Reflecting on 10 Years of South African Xenophobic Violence" workshop at the University of the Witwatersrand, 15 March 2017.
  • Did Einstein really say that? Testing content versus context in the cultural selection of quotations
    We experimentally investigated the influence of context-based biases, such as prestige and popularity, on the preferences for quotations. Participants were presented with random quotes associated to famous or unknown authors (experiment one), or with random quotes presented as popular, i.e. chosen by many previous participants, or unpopular (experiment two). To exclude effects related to the content of the quotations, all participants were subsequently presented with the same quotations, again associated to famous and unknown authors (experiment three), or presented as popular or unpopular (experiment four). Overall, our results showed the context-based biases had no (in case of prestige and conformity), or limited (in case of popularity), effect in determining participants’ choices. Quotations preferred for their content were preferred in general, despite the contextual cues to which they were associated. We conclude discussing how our results fit with the well-known phenomenon of the spread and success (especially digital) of misattributed quotations, and we draw some more general implications for cultural evolution research.
  • The development of an fMRI protocol to investigate vmPFC network topology underlying the generalization of behavioral control
    Experiencing behavioral control over stress can have long lasting and generalizing effects. The controllability of a physical threat, for example, affects the processing of subsequent social stress. Animal research has shown that the vmPFC plays a critical role in behavioral control and orchestrating subcortical responses. However, translational research on these neural systems in humans is sparse and we therefore aimed to develop a paradigm to test the generalization effect of behavioral control on vmPFC functioning. A pilot study was performed in which subjects (n=18) were first randomly assigned to one of two versions of a signal detection task, where feedback was either paired with a controllable or an uncontrollable mild shock. Subsequently, subjects underwent a social evaluative threat fMRI paradigm to measure their response to the anticipation of speaking in public. The analyses tested whether the controllability manipulation influenced behavioral and physiological responses and vmPFC network topology. Results showed that overall subjects were faster to respond to potential shock trials in the signal detection task, and there was a trend significant difference between the controllable or uncontrollable group. No significant differences between the two groups were observed on other behavioral or physiological responses. fMRI results showed higher vmPFC efficiency in the controllable threat group at baseline and recovery but similar to the uncontrollable group during speech anticipation. The current report establishes the feasibility of the protocol and adequately-powered follow-up research is needed to further evaluate the generalization effect on the behavioral, physiological and neural level.
  • The determinants of and barriers to critical consumption: a study of Addiopizzo
    ‘Addiopizzo’ (Goodbye protection money) is a grassroots anti-mafia movement based in Palermo that stresses the individual consumer's responsibility for maintaining the Sicilian mafia's pizzo system. If you purchase products from a business that pays the pizzo you are indirectly supporting the mafia. By encouraging Palermitans to buy from ‘pizzo-free’ businesses, Addiopizzo uses the purchasing power of the consumer to fight organised crime. The community of ‘pizzo-free’ businesses is small but steadily growing whilst the number of critical consumers pledging to buy their products appears to have peaked. This article aims to investigate the reasons why consumers may be reluctant to support ‘pizzo-free’ businesses by asking those who have already made public their decision to do so. Whilst critical consumers cannot fully explain why the majority of Palermo's citizens continue to tolerate the pizzo system their attitudes towards them do highlight differences that may help to account for wider non-participation in Addiopizzo's campaign.
  • Computational Reproducibility in Archaeological Research: Basic Principles and a Case Study of Their Implementation
    The use of computers and complex software is pervasive in archaeology, yet their role in the analytical pipeline is rarely exposed for other researchers to inspect or reuse. This limits the progress of archaeology because researchers cannot easily reproduce each other's work to verify or extend it. Four general principles of reproducible research that have emerged in other fields are presented. An archaeological case study is described that shows how each principle can be implemented using freely available software. The costs and benefits of implementing reproducible research are assessed. The primary benefit, of sharing data in particular, is increased impact via an increased number of citations. The primary cost is the additional time required to enhance reproducibility, although the exact amount is difficult to quantify.
  • Good to be Disliked? Exploring the Relationship Between Disapproval of Organizations and Job Satisfaction in the French Context.
    Previous research has found that a positive relationship exists between favorable perception of a firm and employees’ job satisfaction: the more positively an organization is perceived, the happier are its workers. However, the current literature has overlooked the consequences of a negative corporate image, or disapproval of organizations. Building on the concept of organizational identification and the social identity literature, we fill in this gap and counterintuitively argue that employees are more likely to identify and align with their organizations when it faces illegitimate criticism. We test our hypotheses on a large-scale survey collected in France and find that perception of disapproval of an organization has indeed an adverse effect on job satisfaction. However, if employees perceive criticism as illegitimate, job satisfaction is positively impacted. This study suggests the existence of micro-level social identity reactions in case of unjustified disapprobation: employees stick together and hold the line against criticism, strengthening the collective identity and adding positive emotional value to the work experience.
  • The Future for Cosmopolitan Social Democracy