Papers

Papers on SocArXiv appear here as they are posted, with the latest first. This is intended both to show the latest papers and also to demonstrate the potential of our platform.


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SocArXiv papers

  • Lifestyle and Mental Health Disruptions During COVID-19
    COVID-19 has affected daily life in unprecedented ways. Using a longitudinal dataset linking biometric and survey data from several cohorts of young adults before and during the pandemic (N=685), we document large disruptions to physical activity, sleep, time use, and mental health. At the onset of the pandemic, average steps decline from 9,400 to 4,600 steps per day, sleep increases by about 25-30 minutes per night, time spent socializing declines by over half to less than 30 minutes, and screen time more than doubles to over 5 hours per day. The proportion of participants at risk of clinical depression increases to 65%, over twice the rate in the same population prior to the pandemic. Our analyses suggest that disruption to physical activity is a leading risk factor for depression during the pandemic. However, restoration of those habits--either naturally or through policy intervention--has limited impact on restoring mental well-being.
  • Metascience as a scientific social movement
    Emerging out of the "reproducibility crisis" in science, metascientists have become central players in debates about research integrity, scholarly communication, and science policy. The goal of this article is to introduce metascience to STS scholars, detail the scientific ideology that is apparent in its articles, strategy statements, and research projects, and discuss its institutional and intellectual future. Put simply, metascience is a scientific social movement that seeks to use the tools of science- especially, quantification and experimentation- to diagnose problems in research practice and improve efficiency. It draws together data scientists, experimental and statistical methodologists, and open science activists into a project with both intellectual and policy dimensions. Metascientists have been remarkably successful at winning grants, motivating news coverage, and changing policies at science agencies, journals, and universities. Moreover, metascience represents the apotheosis of several trends in research practice, scientific communication, and science governance including increased attention to methodological and statistical criticism of scientific practice, the promotion of "open science" by science funders and journals, the growing importance of both preprint and data repositories for scientific communication, and the new prominence of data scientists as research makes a turn toward Big Science.
  • A Discourse Network Analysis of 2020 Democratic Presidential Candidates' Education Policy
    This study aims to conduct a discourse network analysis of 2020 Democratic presidential candidates' education policy proposals. Given the far-reaching influence of presidential election on education policy, this study applies discourses network analysis to uncover education policy coalitions of the 2020 presidential candidates. The results suggest Joe Biden had the highest degree centrality, meaning his education policies were the same with or similar to many other candidates. Moreover, the Democratic candidates' proposed policies centered around school safety, universal pre-kindergarten programs, increased investment in school infrastructure, increased Title 1 funding, and free tuition and fees at 2- and 4-year public colleges. The findings provide timely insights into education policies over the 2020 presidential campaign.
  • Discourses of Death: Extracting the Semantic Structure of Lethal Violence with Machine Learning
    Violent deaths -- such as homicides and suicides -- can be a source of "senseless suffering.'' Forensic authorities use narratives to trace events surrounding these deaths both in a search for meaning and a desire to prevent them. We examine these narratives, drawing on summaries from over 300,000 violent deaths in the U.S. Our goal is to capture the latent themes and other semantic structures that undergird violent death and its surveillance. To do so, we introduce a flexible model for the analysis of topics ("discourse atoms''), where locations in a semantic embedding space map onto distributions over words. We use this model to extract a high-level, thematic description of discourses of violent death. We identify 225 topics, discussing several in detail including topics about drug paraphernalia, financial difficulties, erratic and impaired behavior, and uncertainty. Our results offer clues into themes surrounding violent death and its administrative surveillance, and our method offers a new way to computationally model discourse.
  • Bolstering the Board: Trustees are Academia's Best Hope for Reform
    Two conditions are needed to effect large-scale reforms in academia: a hierarchical, top-down system of governance that can enact sweeping changes, and for that system to be controlled or heavily influenced by those outside the system. Strong board governance provides both of those conditions. Most university boards, especially the public ones, were created by charters or statutes that placed the board fully in charge, and, remarkably, the boards legally retain much of their power. And yet, because of a variety of pressures and distortion, most boards have relinquished their rightful positions atop college and university governance.This report is intended to operate on two levels. One is to make the case for stronger board control. Such a hierarchical system, rather than the distributed shared governance system that exists now, is necessary to effect large-scale reform. Shared governance is a sacred cow that needs to be gored.The report also works on a more immediate, pragmatic level, providing many solutions that can be implemented individually to begin the process of reforming governance. In most situations, boards still have extensive legal authority. They merely need to exercise their existing authority to put the brakes on many of academia's excesses. Trustees
  • Family Demographic Processes and In-Work Poverty: A Systematic Review
    This article reviews ever published quantitative evidence on in-work poverty and family demographic processes in OECD and EU-28 countries. Despite the increasing attention to in-work poverty in Europe and beyond, a comprehensive and critical review on how family demographic processes shape in-work poverty risks is still missing. Our systematic review consists of two parts: First, we provide a quantitative review of results from cross-sectional analyses that estimate the association between in-work poverty and parental home leaving, cohabitation, parenthood, union formation, and union dissolution. This allows us to formulate tentative conclusions about whether and in which direction family demographic processes are associated with in-work poverty. Second, we perform a narrative review that pays special attention to research implementing longitudinal designs with household panel data and alternative operationalizations of pivotal variables. We discuss theoretical and methodological challenges for future studies linking in-work poverty and family demography.
  • Medical Worker Migration and Origin-Country Human Capital: Evidence from U.S. Visa Policy
    We exploit changes in U.S. visa policies for nurses to measure brain drain versus gain. Combining data on all migrant departures and postsecondary institutions in the Philippines, we show that nursing enrollment and graduation increased substantially in response to greater U.S. demand for nurses. The supply of nursing programs expanded to accommodate this increase. Nurse quality, measured by licensure exam pass rates, declined. Despite this, for each nurse migrant, 10 additional nurses were licensed. New nurses switched from other degree types, but graduated at higher rates than they would have otherwise, thus increasing the human capital stock in the Philippines.
  • Study of Prefixes in Old English, Old High German and Gothic
    In this paper, we explore the meaning(s) of the on- prefix in Old English its corresponding prefixes in Gothic and Old High German. To do so, we compare and analyze the uncompounded (without prefix) and compounded (with prefix) meanings of strong Verbs listed in the book 'Vergleichendes und etymologisches Worterbuch der germanischen starken Verben' (a dictionary of Germanic Verbs and their forms in its daughter languages) and put forward possible meanings of the prefix and their possible sources. We observed three major meaning clusters: 1) The prefix denoted a reversal or weakening of the original uncompounded meaning 2) The prefix denoted a the action being done in a face-to-face capacity, to either positive or negative effect 3) The prefix indicated a relationship between the action done and the doer of the action. These results enable an in-depth study of the prefixes that are derived from the original Proto-Germanic language.
  • Church Leaders' Responses to Science: Enthusiasm, Complexity and Uncertainty
    There has been a growing body of academic literature over the last ten years that has attempted to challenge the notion that science and religion are in conflict with each other (otherwise known as the 'conflict thesis'). One prominent voice in that discussion has been the theologian Ian Barbour and his four-fold typology on how science and religion relate to each other ('conflict', 'dialogue', 'integration' and 'independence). In this article, I reflect on Barbour's contribution to the field, as well as my inclusion of his framework in a survey I carried out on clergy attitudes to science. The fieldwork comprised a survey of over 1,000 UK church leaders and interviews with 20 senior church leaders. The key themes explored in the findings relate to the roles of enthusiasm, complexity and uncertainty in church leaders' conceptions of science and religion. The research included in this article (carried out during 2015-2018) was commissioned by the project 'Equipping Christian Leadership in an Age of Science'.
  • Building Enthusiasm and Overcoming 'Fear': Engaging with Christian Leaders in an Age of Science
    In popular culture the relationship between science and religion has often been portrayed as one of conflict. The impact of the conflict thesis can be observed in church leaders' hesitancy in talking about science and religion in the public domain. It was this finding that led Revd Professor David Wilkinson (cosmologist and theologian) and Professor Tom McLeish (physicist and Anglican lay reader) to form the project 'Equipping Christian Leadership in an Age of Science' funded by The Templeton World Charity Foundation. The data presented in this article (collected during 2014-2018) is derived from two discreet pieces of research. The first consisting of a survey of over 1,000 church leaders and interviews with 20 senior church leaders and, the second, with a strategic focus on ministerial training comprised of 12 interviews with church educationalists. This paper reflects on the findings from both pieces of research - covering topics such as church leaders' enthusiasm towards science, how church leaders view the relationship between science and religion and the role of compartmentalisation in ministerial training. The article is unique in providing sociological analysis on the relevant data and including a personal reflection by David Wilkinson - the project's director - on the implications of the research for ministerial training and science.
  • Explaining change and fostering accountability in digital environmental governance
    The web is terrain for environmental politics. Websites are the main way the public engages with the US federal government, yet the alteration or even wholesale removal of critical information is often entirely legal and done without the public's awareness. Relative to paper records, websites enable governments to shape public understanding in quick, scalable, and permissible ways. At the same time, website access and content changes leave digital traces that can be tracked by civil society in order to hold governments to account. We in the Environmental Data & Governance Initiative (EDGI) prototype five data visualization methods rooted in exploratory data analysis for documenting and explaining changes to government websites. As an illustration, we examine changes to a large sample of websites of US federal environmental agencies between 2016 and 2020. We show how: 1) the use of the term "climate change" decreased by an estimated 38%; 2) access to as much as 20% of the Environmental Protection Agency's website was removed; 3) these changes were made more to Cabinet agencies' websites and to highly visible pages, suggesting overt efforts to advance anti-science and deregulatory agendas. By formulating new methods to visualize and assess the alteration of websites, our study lays important groundwork for holding officials more accountable for their digital practices. Our methods enable researchers and watchdog groups alike to operate at the scale necessary to understand the breadth of impact a change of administration can have on the modern public face of the federal government.
  • Western ideological homogeneity in entrepreneurial finance research: Evidence from highly cited publications
    Entrepreneurs play crucial roles in global sustainable development, but limited financial resources constrain their performance and survival rate. Entrepreneurial finance discipline is, therefore, born to explore the connection between finance and entrepreneurship. Despite the global presence of entrepreneurship, the literature of entrepreneurial finance is suspected to be Western ideologically homogenous. Thus, the objective of this study is to examine the existence of Western ideological homogeneity in entrepreneurial finance literature. Employing the mindsponge mechanism and bibliometric analyses (Y-index and social structure), we analyze 412 highly cited publications extracted from Web of Science database and find Western ideological dominance as well as weak tolerance towards heterogeneity in the set of core ideologies of entrepreneurial finance. These results are consistent across author-, institution-, and country-levels, which reveals strong evidence for the existence of Western ideological homogeneity in the field. We recommend editors, reviewers, and authors to have proactive actions to diversify research topics and enhancing knowledge exchange to avoid the shortfalls of ideological homogeneity. Moreover, the synthesis of mindsponge mechanism and bibliometric analyses are suggested as a possible way to evaluate the state of ideological diversity in other scientific disciplines.
  • The implementation of the random survival forests in conflict management data: An examination of power sharing and third party mediation in post-conflict countries
    Time-to-event analysis is a common occurrence in political science. In recent years, there has been an increased usage of machine learning methods in quantitative political science research. This article advocates for the implementation of machine learning duration models to assist in a sound model selection process. We provide a brief introduction to the random survival forest (RSF) algorithm and contrast it to a popular predecessor, the Cox proportional hazards model. We implement both methods for simulated time-to-event data and the Power-Sharing Event Dataset (PSED) to assist researchers in evaluating the merits of machine learning duration models. We provide evidence of significantly higher survival probabilities for peace agreements with 3rd party mediated design and implementation. We also detect increased survival probabilities for peace agreements that incorporate territorial power-sharing and avoid multiple rebel party signatories. Further, the RSF provides a novel approach for ranking of peace agreement criteria importance in predicting peace agreement duration. Our findings justify the robust interpretability and competitive performance of the random survival forest algorithm in numerous circumstances, in addition to promoting a diverse, holistic model-selection process for time-to-event political science data.
  • A Computational Approach to Homans Social Exchange Theory
    How does society work? How do groups emerge within society? What are the effects of emotions and memory on our everyday actions? George Homans, like us, had a perspective on what society is, except that he was a sociologist. Homans theory, which is an exchange theory, is based on a few propositions about the fundamental actions of individuals, and how values, memory, and expectations affect their behavior. In this paper, our main interest and purpose are to find out whether these propositions can satisfy our conception of society and generate essential properties of it computationally. To do so, Based on Homans' prepositions, we provide the opportunity for each agent to exchange with other agents. That is, each agent transacts with familiar agents based on his previous history with them and transacts with newly found agents through exploration. One novelty of our work is the investigation of implications of the base theory while covering its flaws with minimal intervention; flaws which are inevitable in a non-mathematical theory. The importance of our work is that we have scrutinized the consequences of an actual sociological theory. At the end of our investigation, we propose another proposition to Homans theory, which makes the theory more appealing, and we discuss other possible directions for further research.
  • Assessing the Impacts of "Infodemic" on Social Well-Being and Health Preparedness of Indian Communities during COVID-19 Pandemic through WhatsApp groups study
    The present study is an attempt to understand the propagation of health-related fake news in India during COVID-19 pandemic in diversely distributed WhatsApp groups comprising uneven groups of members. Ten different WhatsApp groups were selected covering demographic and socio-economic profile and ten most important health-related fake news were studied. Different fake news circulation paths like forward, react, multi-forward, reference etc. were analyzed for different groups. It was observed that older generations (boomers) were more susceptible towards fake news and they tended to distribute the fake news in different groups. Male boomers actively circulate pseudo-science information whereas female boomers distribute faith-based information in the WhatsApp group. It was found that the Gen X as well as Millennials played a role as the first recipients or first responders but primarily most of the forwards were attributed to the Boomers of both genders. Levels of education, social media influence or ignorance, technology access, age, gender and understanding played a major role in the distribution and propagation of fake information during times of COVID. It can be also inferred that easy availability of data and devices, lack of understanding of the game of social media and unscientific baggage of age old beliefs were some factors for over -dependence and reliance on fake news.
  • The role of youth networks in advancing the Sustainable Development Goals during the COVID-19 pandemic
    From countries closing their borders, to ventilator "piracy" and accusations of conspiracy, the COVID-19 pandemic has significantly impacted traditional international relations. Youth networks have emerged as powerful tools for people-to-people diplomacy among countries. For instance, young bioengineers have developed 3D-printed personal protective equipment and ventilators to serve as inexpensive supplies to combat the malignancies of the disease. In complement, volunteer groups have developed solutions to patient care of especially vulnerable populations such as those displaced in refugee camps. This work discusses the impact of these initiatives in public diplomacy and how they are advancing the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals during the pandemic.
  • The COVID-19 Coping Study: A longitudinal mixed-methods study of mental health and well-being among older US adults during the COVID-19 pandemic
    Objective To describe the methodology and baseline cohort characteristics of the COVID-19 Coping Study, a longitudinal mixed-methods study of US adults aged >=55. Methods Participants were recruited through online multi-frame non-probability sampling in April and May, 2020. The baseline questionnaire focused on the effects of COVID-19 on daily life and mental health. Monthly follow-ups will be conducted for one year. Findings In total, 6,938 adults participated across all 50 US states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico (mean [SD] age: 67.3 [7.9]; 64% female). Two in three adults reported leaving home only for essential purposes in the past week (population-weighted proportion: 69%; 95% CI: 68%-71%). One-quarter of older adults in work before the pandemic reported reduced work hours or income (25%; 95% CI: 22%-27%). One in three screened positive for depression (32%; 95% CI: 30%-34%) and anxiety (29%; 95% CI: 28%-31%). Conclusions We observed substantial self-reported effects of COVID-19 on daily life and prevalent mental health symptoms in this cohort. Policy Implications Data may inform policies to support mental health and well-being among older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • MOBILISE Data report: online surveys. Wave 1
    The MOBILISE project examines why some people respond to discontent by protesting, others by migrating while yet others stay immobile. It focuses on four countries that have seen outmigration and protest in recent year (Ukraine, Poland, Morocco and Argentina) and migrants from these countries who live in Germany, the United Kingdom and Spain. Migrants were surveyed online and recruited into the sample through Facebook advertising. MOBILISE also conducted online surveys of the national populations of Argentina and Ukraine. This report explains why MOBILISE choose to recruit the sample through Facebook advertisements and provides detailed information on the set-up of the sampling. It also present an overview of the effectiveness of this method, in terms of costs, reach and bias, and of issues encountered. We find that sampling through Facebook advertisements is a cost-effective way to obtaining a large sample. The method seems particularly effective in reaching recent migrants and reaching migrants from small communities. There is some indication of a bias in gender, education and political interest. The papers ends with recommendations on the use of this approach for future surveys.
  • Measurement without Clear Incentives to Improve: The Impacts of the Higg Facility Environmental Module (FEM) on Apparel Factory Practices and Performance
    Poor environmental and social practices are common across the apparel industry. Over the past 30 years, Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs) have steadily pressured buyers to make sustainability improvements in their supply chains. Yet, literally billions of dollars, and many attempts at new environmental standards, codes, monitoring, and capacity building programs have failed to drive significant progress in environmental performance. Against this pessimistic backdrop, an 11-year old initiative--the Sustainable Apparel Coalition (SAC)--has developed the leading strategy to drive sustainability within the global apparel industry. Its major initiative has been the Higg Index: a suite of six data tools. The Facility Environment Module (FEM), now in version 3.0, is the annual assessment of an apparel facility's environmental management capabilities, procedures, and plans. This report is the output of a four-year analysis of the implementation and effectiveness of the FEM v2.0. This report analyzes whether the standards, measurement, verification, and learning processes advanced through the FEM improve the environmental performance of the apparel industry. The study covers quantitative data analysis of all FEM v2.0 data, a survey of a select sample of facilities, and case studies of eight facilities in Bangladesh and China. Our overall conclusion is that the FEM is having foundational, but not transformative impacts as it still lacks critical incentives to change factory practices. If factories were to receive more or fewer orders based on their FEM score, there might be sufficient internal incentives for improvement. Yet this internal mechanism is only likely to be successful if there is external transparency and accountability.
  • Book Review: Hajnal, Zoltan L. Dangerously Divided: How Race and Class Shape Winning and Losing in American Politics
    A review of Zoltan Hajnal's book Dangerously Divided.
  • The illusion of responsiveness: Evidence from minimum wage laws
    To what extent does policy respond to changes in mass policy preferences in U.S. states? Current approaches fail to quantify dynamic (i.e. temporal) responsiveness because they lack meaningful, comparable scales or repeated measures on attitudes and policy. We overcome this issue by measuring minimum wage preferences and policies on the same cardinal scale combining novel and secondary public opinion data (N = 17,619). Relying on multilevel regression and poststratification, we estimate Americans' minimum wage preferences and compare them to observed policies in each state from 2013 to 2019. Fixed- effects regressions demonstrate that, on average, policy very closely tracked changes in preferences, but the size of policy bias remained relatively stable. Minimum wage laws were consistently \$1.75-\$2.25 below citizens' mean preference.
  • When and how does volunteering influence wages? Evidence from Panel Data
    Volunteering is an activity in which individuals work for free to benefit others; however, research has also focused on the benefits volunteers themselves might experience. We add to the literature by focusing on how not only volunteering itself has an impact on wages but how the intensity, duration and timing of volunteering also have an effect on these. In addition, we distinguish between the effects on volunteers in the same job and when changing a job, and test the role of social capital. Using German data from the Socio-Economic Panel, we find that current volunteering has positive effects on wages in a fixed effects wage regression, especially if individuals volunteer with low to medium intensity. The duration of volunteering does not increase wages. However, based on the dummy impact function, we find that volunteering increases wages almost immediately and that this effect remains fairly constant over time. We find no indication that reverse causality drives this effect. Furthermore, we show that the wage benefits of volunteering are realized only through job changes, not on-the-job wage progression. With regard to job changers, we show that social capital accumulation through volunteering is one reason explaining the observed wage effects.
  • Soziale Netzwerke Langzeitarbeitsloser und die Aufnahme einer Erwerbstatigkeit
    (English below) Dieser Beitrag geht der Frage nach, ob die sozialen Netzwerke von Arbeitslosen deren Chancen zur Aufnahme einer Erwerbstatigkeit positiv beeinflussen. Ausgehend von in der aktuellen Literatur diskutierten Wirkmechanismen werden mehrere Hypothesen zu unterschiedlichen Aspekten des Netzwerks aufgestellt. Es wird angenommen, dass Arbeitslose umso eher in Arbeit kommen, je grosser der Umfang ihrer (starken und schwachen) sozialen Beziehungen ist, je mehr Kontakt zu Erwerbstatigen sie haben und je mehr Ressourcen ihr Netzwerk enthalt. Auf Basis des Panels ,,Arbeitsmarkt und soziale Sicherung" mit dem Schwerpunktmodul zu sozialem Kapital werden diese Hypothesen anhand einer Fixed-Effects Panelregression getestet. Wird fur alle zeitkonstanten so-wie fur einschlagige zeitvariante Variablen kontrolliert, erweisen sich schwache Beziehungen, gemessen als aktive Mitgliedschaften in freiwilligen Vereinigungen, sowie der Umfang nicht unmittelbar auf die Stellensuche bezogener sozialer Ressourcen als bedeutsam fur die Arbeitsmarktchancen. Der Beitrag endet mit einer Diskussion dieser Befunde. This paper examines whether the social networks of unemployed people have a positive impact on their re-employment chances. Hypotheses are derived from the literature, concerning different aspects of the network. We hypothesize that the more (strong and weak) social ties, the more em-ployed friends the unemployed have and the more resources there are in their network, the higher their chances for re-employment. We use data from the Panel Study "Labour Market and Social Security" (Panel "Arbeitsmarkt und soziale Sicherung"), where comprehensive information on the unemployed persons' networks is available. We use fixed-effects regression to control for observed time-variant and unobserved time-invariant confounders. We find weak ties in the form of active memberships in voluntary organisations as well as network resources that are not directly related to job search to be significantly related to re-employment. The implications of this finding are discussed.
  • Covid-19 et communication de crise. Focus linguistique sur les tweets francophones de Belgique
    The Covid-19 health crisis of 2020 strongly affected the international community. Especially during the lockdown period, social media were widely used for information and emotion sharing. This article aims to keep a material trace of these crisis communication trends. To reach this aim, we applied quantitative and qualitative methods on a corpus of 100,000 tweets we collected in the French-speaking part of Belgium. The corpus is divided into three sub-groups: citizens, politicians and the media. We first present the corpus collection and the methodology we followed. We also look at the lexical creativity that resulted from the crisis and the lockdown situation. We then propose a semantic approach of the themes that emerged from the crisis tweets and which highlight citizens' concerns. Finally, we depict the personalities related to the crisis, by focusing on their communication and on the image they portray to the public.
  • Qualitative theory testing by deductive design and pattern matching analysis
    This methodological note describes a qualitative design suitable for testing theories and theoretical models, using a deductive procedure and the pattern matching analysis technique. In this approach the researcher formulates a set of theory-based propositions and compares them with the empirically observed outcomes.
  • Uber was spricht die Politische Theorie? Eine Netzwerkanalyse der Zeitschrift fur Politische Theorie (2010-2019)
    The article examines the terms and concepts discussed in the first decade of the publication of the Zeitschrift fur Politische Theorie (ZPTh). For this purpose, the keywords of all research articles have been collected and edited in order to conduct a network analysis. The analysis focuses on the reconstruction of the discursive field of political theory. Two central results were identified: First, the keyword network forms an almost completely connected network, which, however, 'frays' at the discursive margins and sub-discourses emerge. Second, the keywords 'democracy' and 'freedom' are particularly central to the network and form the core of the political theory debate. Nevertheless, discussions of populism and post-structuralist approaches are also found in the network, thus demonstrating the emergence of new concepts and themes. The political theory debate in the ZPTh thus partially exhibits a center-periphery structure and at the same time illustrates a high degree of pluralism in German-based political theory. The article contributes to self-reflection and understanding in the field of political theory and offers first empirical insights into the state of research and publication of German-based political theory.
  • The predicting abilities of social trust and good governance on economic crisis duration
    In this paper, we uncover the relationships among social trust, corruption and the duration of economic crises. Our theoretical foundation is based on a collection of studies from different academic fields, especially political science, sociology and economics. We corroborate our arguments with both descriptive analysis and regression analysis of secondary data. Our dataset includes 11,364 observations distributed across 211 countries. The quantitative findings show that social trust is correlated with the duration of economic crises. Connecting our theoretical stance with the empirical evidence, we propose several possible explanations for the findings and provide both theoretical and practical implications.
  • Diverging Disparities: Race, Parental Income, and Children's Math Scores, 1960-2009
    In recent decades, the Black-White test score disparity has decreased, while the test score disparity between children of high- versus low-income parents has increased. This study focuses on a comparison that has, to date, fallen between the separate literatures on these diverging trends - Black and White students whose parents have similarly low, middle, or high incomes (i.e., same-income or race-within-income). To do so, I draw on three nationally representative datasets on ninth or tenth graders, covering the period from 1960 to 2009, all of which contain information on students' math test scores. I find that math test score disparities between Black and White students with same-income parents are to Blacks' disadvantage. Although these disparities have decreased since 1960, in 2009, they remain substantively large, statistically significant, and largest between children of the highest income parents. Further, family and school characteristics that scholars commonly use to explain test score disparities by race or by income have accounted for markedly decreasing shares of race-within-income disparities over time. The study integrates the literatures on test score disparities by race and by income with needed attention to race's historical and continued structural influence, net of parental income, on students' educational experiences and test score outcomes.
  • In Search of the Roots of American Inequality Exceptionalism: An Analysis Based on Luxembourg Income Study (LIS) Data
    Earlier work has established that the US has exceptionally high inequality of disposable household income (i.e., income after accounting for taxes and transfers). There is a debate whether it is due to an unusually high inequality of market (pre-tax-pre- transfer) income or to weak redistribution. In this paper, we look more deeply at market income inequality, focusing on its main component - labor income - across a group of 24 OECD countries. We disaggregate the working-age population into household types, defined by the number and gender of the household's earners and the partnership and parenting status of its members. We conclude that within-group inequality of labor incomes in the US is, in almost all groups, high by OECD standards. The roots of US inequality exceptionalism are not to be found in an unusual demographic composition, nor in unusually high or low mean incomes of some demographic groups, but in pervasive high inequality within each of these groups. (Stone Center on Socio-Economic Inequality Working Paper)
  • The Wage Curve Across the Wealth Distribution
    This paper studies the relationship between wage and unemployment rate across the wealth distribution. Using microdata from Norway covering the entire Norwegian population of residents between 2000 and 2015, we introduce four novel findings on this relationship. First, the share of unemployed individuals belonging to the bottom decile of the gross wealth distribution is tenfold larger than the share belonging to the top decile (34% and 3.2%). Second, the former moves in a specular manner to the latter. Third, the negative slope of the wage curve is confirmed. Fourth, the wage-to-unemployment ratio increases monotonically with gross wealth, and decreases monotonically with net wealth for negative values of net wealth. (Stone Center on Socio-Economic Inequality Working Paper)
  • Analysis of spatial networks from bipartite projections using the R backbone package
    Spatial networks can be difficult to measure. Bipartite projections offer a potential solution by indirectly inferring a network from data that is easier to collect. They are now used in many subfields of geography, and are among the most common ways to measure the world city network, where intercity links are inferred from firm co-location patterns. However, spatial bipartite projections are difficult to analyze because the links in these networks are weighted, and larger weights do not necessarily indicate stronger or more important connections. Methods for extracting the backbone of bipartite projections offer a solution by using statistical models for identifying the links that have statistically significant weights. In this paper, we introduce the open-source backbone R package, which implements several backbone models, and demonstrate its key features by using it to measure a world city network.
  • Review Essay on Charles Kadushin 2012. Understanding Social Networks: Theories, Concepts, and Findings.
    Understanding Social Networks by Charles Kadushin provides an accessible introduction to must-know ideas of social networks. In this review essay, I outline some important topics of Kadushin's text. In addition, I connect the original analysis to literature recently published and from other disciplines. I hope this essay can benefit potential readers on their journey to understanding social networks.
  • Maintaining contact with blue-green spaces during the COVID-19 pandemic associated with positive mental health
    There is growing evidence that exposure to the natural world (blue-green spaces) has potential benefits for mental health and well-being. The COVID-19 pandemic and the measures adopted to control it provide a natural experiment to investigate the links between nature exposure and mental health under extreme conditions. Using a survey distributed online and based on 6,080 responses, we tested three hypotheses: (1) people will show different levels of symptoms of depression and anxiety depending on the level of lockdown (severity) and ability to maintain contact with outdoor spaces; and (2) where access to outdoor public spaces was restricted, those with access to private outdoor spaces (2a) or even a green-blue nature view (2b) will show fewer symptoms of depression and anxiety and a more positive mood. Lockdown severity significantly affected mental health, while contact with nature helped people to cope with these impacts. The buffering effect of nature was especially relevant for those under strict lockdowns. People perceived that nature helped them to cope with lockdown measures; and emotions were more positive among individuals with accessible outdoor spaces and blue-green elements in their views. These findings can help decision-makers in developing potential future lockdown measures to mitigate the negative impacts, helping people to be more resilient and maintain better mental health.
  • Transport Mode Choice for Commuting: Evidence from India
    Using the first ever available information in Census of India 2011, covering 640 sub-national units (districts) in India, we analyze the correlates of modes of transport used by non-agricultural workers at the regional level covering both rural and urban areas. Providing a holistic picture from the perspective policy and academic perspective, we bring out some key stylized facts. Further, using the Seemingly Unrelated Regression (SUR) estimation, we model the transport mode choice for commuting by the workers in the context of rural and urban India, and further extend it based on distinction in motorized and non-motorized transport modes. We find that urbanization level, population size and density along with education attainment and worker's sex ratio (gender ratio among workers), age (elderly) and land use mix play very important role in regional pattern in transport mode choice for commuting. These results highlight the dire need for proper development of transport infrastructure and understanding its various dimensions from socio-economic, demographic and spatial point of view in the context of developing countries.
  • Perceptions of Inequality During the Coronavirus Outbreak
    It is known that Americans' preferences for redistribution are generally not very elastic in relation to their perceptions of inequality. Even localized crises such as Hurricane Katrina that lay bare existing inequalities in society seem to do little to nothing in moving public opinion on this matter. However, the coronavirus pandemic presents a new opportunity for social scientists and policy experts to test whether large-scale national crises can lead to changes in people's opinions. What is the impact of a crisis of this proportion on Americans' attitudes towards inequality? More specifically, is there an "added value" to being informed about class inequalities in the context of the coronavirus outbreak compared to being informed about such inequalities in general terms without reference to this extraordinary event? This study answers these questions using an online experiment that manipulates the information respondents receive prior to answering survey questions. I find that receiving information about class inequalities specifically in relation to the outbreak tends to be much more effective in moving people's opinions compared to receiving that information in a way that does not directly relate it to coronavirus. This suggests that attitudes can be moved by something as widespread and salient as the pandemic.
  • Changing service settings for the environment: How to reduce negative environmental impacts without sacrificing tourist satisfaction
    This article reports on a quasi-experimental study in which the use of emissions-intensive, water hungry thick cotton serviettes at hotel breakfast buffets was reduced by 95% by changing the default to recycled paper serviettes. The outcome is better for the environment, reduced costs for the hotel and does not influence guest satisfaction.
  • Public Opinion and the Politics of Environmental Inequality: The Problem of Color-Blind Environmental Racism
    This study describes American public opinion on environmental inequality--i.e. the social stratification of environmental hazards and amenities. Research shows that Black, Indigenous, Hispanic, and poor communities are more likely to be exposed to environmental hazards (e.g. pollution), have lower access to environmental amenities (e.g. parks), and are materially harmed by these inequalities (e.g. effects of lead exposure). Existing explanations of environmental inequality formation ignore the role of public opinion, consistent with broader theoretical turns in sociological theory. This omission exists even though there is substantial empirical evidence that public opinion about the distribution of resources is a crucial factor in the reproduction of inequality. Results of a novel national survey (n = 1000) show that Americans poorly understand environmental inequality, often view inequalities as fair, but are tentatively supportive of a range of key policy tools. Further analyses reveal that Americans understand environmental inequality through what I term "color-blind environmental racism." Broadly, this study demonstrates the importance of incorporating public opinion into theories of environmental inequality, deepens our understanding of how racial ideology sustains environmental inequality, and helps to explain resistance to policy reform on this long-standing social problem.
  • Cultivating Common Good: A Call for Transformative Science to renew the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP)
    This paper calls for transformative science to catalyze the needed change in the agricultural sector. It sheds light on the current dysfunctional system of resource allocation of the CAP and its poor economic, ecological and social outcomes. While the disparity between the desired outcomes and the reality is undisputed within research, former reforms have resulted in little change of the CAP. However, there is now a window of opportunity for real change with the transitional phase of the CAP, the shock event of the Coronavirus pandemic as a magnifying glass for underlying systemic problems and the proclamation of the European Green Deal, in particular the Farm-to-Fork-Strategy. The current system is impoverishing our biodiversity, soils, health and rural socio-economic tissue. To break this downward spiral, the authors suggest allocating resources according to the common good that a farm produces. To design change, this article assigns a major role to transformative science and lays out starting points and missions for further research.
  • The potential influence of machine learning and data science on the future of economics: Overview of highly-cited research
    This working paper provides an overview of the potential influence of machine learning and data science on economics as a field. The findings presented are drawn from highly cited research which was identified based on Google Scholar searches. For each of the articles reviewed, this working paper covers what is likely to change and what is likely to remain unchanged in economics due to the emergence and increasing influence of machine learning and data science methods.
  • Estimating The Impact of Vice-Presidential Candidates on the 2020 General Election
    We conducted a survey experiment to estimate how potential Democratic nominees for Vice President (Elizabeth Warren, Kamala Harris, Stacey Abrams, Susan Rice, Tammy Duckworth, Keisha Lance Bottoms, Tammy Baldwin, and Val Demings) can be expected to be evaluated in the context of the 2020 general election. To do so, we randomly assigned survey respondents information about the candidates using vignettes that distill the dominant narratives (both pro- and con-) surrounding the candidate. We show that the vignettes tend to equalize favorability ratings across candidates, though in general the lesser-known candidates do not fully catch up to the more well-known candidates. In the control condition emulating standard polling methodologies, the candidates viewed most favorably are Warren and Harris, with 46/100 average favorability, followed by Abrams at 43, and the remainder at 42 or below. In the treatment condition where respondents have been exposed to information, the candidates viewed most favorably are Harris (46), Warren (45), and Bottoms (45), followed by Duckworth, Rice, and Abrams, all at 44. While we fail to find statistically significant effects of the vignettes on reported vote intention, the results for vote intention substantively agree with those for favorability.
  • Social capital and mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic
    COVID-19 pandemic is affecting mental health and wellbeing across populations. The continued burden of psychosocial stressors in different contexts necessitates multipronged interventions that address mental health problems and associated disparities. Global evidence suggests that social capital plays a critical role in determining mental health outcomes in communities, which can be leveraged for improving mental health in COVID-19. As communities with better social capital is likely to have a lower burden of mental disorders, it is necessary to assess potential measures to use social capital for mental health promotion in vulnerable populations. The existing forms of social capital may provide social support within and between communities that are critically affected by COVID-19. Alongside faster recovery from socioeconomic challenges, social capital interventions may strengthen the social determinants of mental health and empower communities to alleviate the psychosocial consequences of this pandemic.
  • The Potential to Infer the Historical Pattern of Cultural Macroevolution as illustrated by the Western North American Indian societies
    Phylogenetic analyses increasingly take centre-stage in our understanding of the processes shaping patterns of cultural diversity, and cultural evolution over time. Just as biologists explain the origins and maintenance of trait differences among organisms using phylogenetic methods, so anthropologists studying cultural macroevolutionary processes use phylogenetic methods to uncover the history of human populations and the dynamics of culturally transmitted traits. In this paper we revisit concerns with the validity of these methods. Specifically, we use simulations to reveal how properties of the sample (size, missing data), properties of the tree (tree shape), and properties of the traits (rate of change, number of variants, horizontal transmission) might influence the inferences that can be drawn about trait distributions across a given phylogeny, and the power to discern alternative histories. We demonstrate this approach using Western North American Indian dataset societies and show a high rate of Type I and Type II errors contingent on properties of the traits, of the tree shape, and less so of the sample size. While some results may be particular to our simulations, we offer these tools to address some persistent perils in existing cultural macroevolutionary research, and chart outstanding challenges to future work.
  • Spatial distributive justice and crime in the covid-19 pandemic
    Nationally, small area (LSOAs) were ranked by recorded crime rate and grouped into deciles for May 2020 relative to previous five Mays. Decile rate changes relative to expected from previous five years. Key findings: * Previously high-crime areas saw the largest crime declines. * Previously-low-crime rate areas experienced crime increases. * Urban centres saw the greatest crime drops in absolute (but not necessarily relative) terms. * Public order crime increases likely reflect breaches - or perceived breaches - of lockdown rules. Some crime increases, including drugs and weapon offences, may reflect changes in police activity
  • MERITOCRACY OR REPUTATION? HOW UNIVERSITY RANKINGS MATTER
    University rankings have gained prominence in tandem with the global race towards excellence and as part of the growing expectation of rational, scientific evaluation of performance across a range of institutional sectors and human activity. While their omnipresence is acknowledged, empirically we know less about whether and how rankings matter in higher education outcomes. Do university rankings, predicated on universalistic standards and shared metrics of quality, function meritocratically to level the impact of long-established reputations? We address this question by analyzing the extent to which changes in the position of UK universities in ranking tables, beyond existing reputations, impact on their strategic goal of international student recruitment. We draw upon an ad hoc dataset merging aggregate (university) level indicators of ranking performance and reputation with indicators of other institutional characteristics and international student numbers. Our findings show that recruitment of international students is primarily determined by perceptions of university reputation, socially mediated and sedimented over the long term, rather than universities' yearly updated ranking positions. We conclude that while improving rankings does not necessarily change universities' recruitment outcomes, they are nevertheless consequential for universities and students as strategic actors investing in rankings as purpose and identity.
  • Post-Conflict Memory as Performative Justice
    This article proposes a novel theoretical paradigm of memory as performative justice in post-conflict settings. Large-scale conflicts provoke concerns for justice and make a major impact on collective memories. While memories often play a supportive role in justice processes, they can also arise in reaction to their perceived shortcomings. This is particularly the case when the scope of tragedies, in victims' views, exceeds the possibilities or traditional justice mechanisms. Memories, hence, arise as a form of justice that has a performative character: they enact justice by virtue of remembering itself.
  • Italianite rhodiote et metissage africain dans Sang mele d'Albert Russo
    Etude de la thematique du metissage dans le roman d'Albert Russo, avec une analyse de la presence italienne dans les personnels et le contexte de la fiction, celle-ci etant situee dans le Katanga de l'ere coloniale a l'epoque de la Seconde guerre mondiale. L'ecrivain fait partie des immigres rhodiotes de nationalite italienne avant la guerre, immigres ou refugies au Congo Belge. Study of the theme of crossbreeding in the novel by Albert Russo, with an analysis of the Italian presence in the personnel and context of the fiction, the latter being situated in Katanga from the colonial era to the time of the Second World War. The writer is one of the pre-war Rhodiot immigrants of Italian nationality, immigrants or refugees in the Belgian Congo.
  • A Basic Introduction to Messy Structures and Generative Models
    While networks have been the standard mathematical representation for detailed arrangements of relations in society, the simplicity of the representation limits what information can be preserved in the abstraction, and subsequently, what can be mathematically analyzed. In this paper, we introduce a more rigorous and flexible abstraction for representing arrangements of relations in society, the Messy Structure. After introducing the representational form and theoretically justifying it, we introduce some basic generative procedures for creating Messy Structures with "hierarchical" properties.
  • Cancel Columbus! Patient Zero of the White Supremacist Plague
    Imagine a world where every human being treats every other human being like a human being Why is that so hard to imagine?
  • Mapping the Middle: Using Text Analysis to Evaluate How World Culture Shapes the Saliency and Framing of LGBT Issues in Domestic Media Coverage
    Existing scholarship demonstrates that world culture influences a range of domestic outcomes. Such studies, however, rarely discuss clear mechanisms undergirding these processes - resulting in an opaque understanding of how world cultural models shape national publics. To address this gap, I center a commonly theorized mechanism: media visibility. Using text analysis, I evaluate how exposure to world cultural models via pro- and anti-LGBT transnational actors influences the saliency and framing of LGBT coverage using an original dataset of 221,236 LGBT-related newspaper articles from 120 countries between 1991-2017. Findings reveal that as LGBT rights become legitimized on the world stage, this is associated with a generalized increase in the saliency of LGBT issues and a greater portrayal of LGBT issues with a positive, rights-oriented frame. Countries highly embedded within anti-LGBT networks suppress issue coverage but, when it is covered, frame LGBT communities as threats to the family, nation, and children. This study contributes to our understanding of world culture by: 1) mapping out a mechanism by which world culture socializes national audiences; and 2) utilizing a contested issue to highlight how growing illiberalism offers competing interpretations of world cultural models that may either advance rights or validate and animate existing animus.
  • Queering the World Society: Global Norms, Rival Transnational Networks, and the Contested Case of LGBT Rights
    As the world society is increasingly populated by illiberal actors, is it possible the mechanisms once used to explain compliance with liberal normative standards are now influential in explaining defiance to them? I investigate this question by examining how integration into the world society via rival pro- and anti-LGBT networks influences the expansion and contraction of LGBT rights from 1990-2018. Through extensive original data, I use time series, cross-sectional and multinomial models to showcase how global LGBT norms can spur defiance and backlash - not just compliance. Moreover, the relative strength of these rival networks is associated with policy changes in alignment with that networks' preferences. This study contributes to our understanding of the changing international system by revealing how illiberal actors simultaneously co-opt and subvert the mechanisms built by the liberal world society to advance illiberal outcomes.