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SocArXiv papers

  • Morality and religion in the assessment of academic youth from Subcarpathia Province in Poland
    What is good and evil? This is probably one of the most frequently asked questions in the history of human kind. Moral decisions can be very hard in particularly when people are just starting their adventure with an adult life, that is, in their early 20's. This report shows the moral condition of academic youth from one of the most religious regions in Poland. Therefore, the focus of this study was to show the relationship between religion and morality of young Poles. This article presents the results of a survey study conducted among 139 students of the University of Rzeszow attending the 2006/2007 academic year. The results showed that the morality of surveyed students seems to depend in a high degree on circumstances of situations (i.e., moderate moral relativism) rather than absolute norms. Moreover, the comparison of the results of this study with previous questionnaire research conducted at the same institution in mid-90's show that religion has smaller impact on moral choices of academic youth from Subcarpathia province. Importantly, this study shows that more students reported overall weaker role of religion in their lives than it was observed previously.
  • Exposure to Armed Conflict and Fertility in Sub-Saharan Africa, 2000-2017
    Changes in fertility patterns are hypothesized to be among the many second-order consequences of armed conflict, but expectations about the direction of such effects are theoretically ambiguous. Prior research, from a range of contexts, has also yielded inconsistent results. We contribute to this debate by using harmonized data and methods to examine the effects of exposure to conflict on preferred and realized fertility outcomes across a spatially and temporally extensive population. We use high-resolution georeferenced data from 25 sub-Saharan African countries, combining records of violent events from the Armed Conflict Location and Event Dataset with survey data on fertility goals and outcomes from the Demographic and Health Surveys (n=368,785 women aged 15-49 years). We employ a series of linear and logistic regression models to estimate the effects of exposure to conflict events within a 10-kilometer radius of respondents' communities on ideal family size and the probability of childbearing within the past 12 months. We find that exposure to armed conflict is significantly associated with reductions in both respondents' preferred family size and their probability of recent childbearing. Many of these effects are heterogeneous between demographic groups and across contexts, which suggests systematic differences in women's vulnerability and demographic responses to armed conflict. Additional analyses suggest that conflict-related fertility declines may be driven by delays or reductions in marriage. These results contribute generalizable evidence about the demographic effects of conflict and their underlying mechanisms and underline the importance of studying the second-order effects of violent conflict on vulnerable populations.
  • A more complete picture: Rural residents' relative support for seven forms of natural resource related economic development
    Understanding rural resident support for various forms of natural resource related economic development has been a common research topic in rural sociology. However, the vast majority of research has only evaluated support for one form of natural resource use at a time. The little research that has explored support for a wide variety of uses has found that residents are likely to support many of the suggested forms of development. We assessed rural resident support for seven forms of natural resource development: commercial logging, natural gas, mining, real estate, wind energy, tourism, and outdoor recreation. Using social exchange theory, this study examines the influence of perceived impacts of development, industry trust, and perceived industry power on general support for the seven forms of natural resource-related economic development using a fixed effects generalized linear model among a sample of residents of rural Pennsylvania communities. Additionally, we use mixed logit discreet choice modeling to evaluate the drivers of relative support, meaning a stated preference for one form of development over other possible options. The drivers of general support and relative support were similar, with trust in industry and impacts to quality of life emerging as the primary drivers of both.
  • Can inequalities in political participation explain health inequalities?
    Inequalities in health are pervasive and durable, but they are not uniform. To date, however, the drivers of these between-country patters in health inequalities remain largely unknown. In this analysis, we draw on data from 17 European countries to explore whether inequalities in political participation, that is, inequalities in voting by educational attainment, are correlated with health inequalities. Over and above a range of relevant confounders, such as GDP, income inequality, health spending, social protection spending, poverty rates, and smoking, greater inequalities in political participation remain correlated with higher health inequalities. If 'politicians and officials are under no compulsion to pay much heed to classes and groups of citizens that do not vote' then political inequalities could indirectly affect health through its impact on policy choices that determine who has access to the resources necessary for a healthy life. Inequalities in political participation, then, may well be one of the 'causes of the causes' of ill-health.
  • Talking Your Self Into It: How and When Accounts Shape Motivation for Action
    Following Mills (1940), several prominent sociologists have encouraged researchers to analyze actors' motive talk not as data on the subjective desires that move them to pursue particular ends, but as post hoc accounts oriented toward justifying actions already undertaken. Combining insights from hermeneutic theories of the self and pragmatist theories of action, we develop a theoretical position that challenges dichotomous assumptions about whether motive accounts reflect either justifications or motivations for action, instead illustrating how they can migrate from one status to the other over time. We develop this perspective through a comparative analysis of actors' involvements in two quite different careers of social action - religion and mixed martial arts -documenting both how and when justificatory talk about actors' motives for initiating a course of action at one point in time became formative of their subjective motivations for sustaining these same courses of action at another.
  • Climate Variability and Nutritional Security in Early Childhood: Findings from Sub-Saharan Africa
    Climatic variability has been shown to affect the underlying determinants of child malnutrition, including food availability, income, and patterns of disease transmission. Evidence of the overall effects of climatic changes on children's nutritional status nonetheless remains limited. This represents an important evidence gap given the negative and sometimes irreversible consequences of undernutrition during early childhood. We contribute to the emerging literature on this topic by estimating the effects of temperature and precipitation anomalies on the weight of children ages 0-59 months across 18 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. We find that precipitation anomalies have significant and non-linear effects on child weight, with sharp increases in thinness under dry conditions and minimal benefits to above-average precipitation. Our results further reveal that the negative effects of dry spells are significantly amplified by concurrent exposure to above-average temperatures. Tests for heterogeneous effects across sub-populations reveal modest but notable differences in the effects of changing precipitation and temperature by child sex, birth order, household socioeconomic status, and place of residence. Our results underscore the vulnerability of young children to climatic variability and its second-order economic and epidemiological effects, and highlight the corresponding need for interventions to mitigate these impacts.
  • Choosing Computing: How and Why Women Enter Computing Through Coding Bootcamps
    Current shortcomings of the pipeline and life course model, as well as negative tech culture discourse, underestimate the potential and resilience of women in computing. Women may be pushed out of computing in their youth, but they can come back--and they do. Using data from in-depth interviews with women graduates of coding bootcamps (accelerated programs that teach beginners digital skills), this study provides empirical data on how and why women enter computing later in life, often after having non-technical degrees and careers. This study finds that to successfully enter the computing workforce, women must arrive at three end states, which are often achieved via three transitions: "I can't code" to "I may code;" "I'm on another path" to "I want to code;" and "I can code" to "I do code." In addition, this study finds surprising evidence of women choosing to enter computing for better pay and work-life balance, in contrast to research that suggests women leave for these reasons. Rather than add to the extensive literature on why women leave, this article highlights how and why women enter computing and overcome the odds stacked against them.
  • Local exposure to inequality among the poor increases support for taxing the rich
    How does local economic inequality affect the preferences and behaviors of the poor? We present a placebo-controlled field experiment conducted in Soweto, South Africa, that randomly varies exposure to inequality in low socio-economic settings. We find that willingness to sign a petition that calls for higher taxes on the wealthy increases in the presence of a high-status car. To probe the generality of the experimental finding, we combine a representative geo-referenced survey with neighborhood-level census-derived measures of local inequality, a proxy for direct encounters with tangible reminders of economic inequality. Observationally, exposure to inequality among the poor is associated with an increase in support for taxing the wealthy.
  • The Performance of Islamic Banks during the 2008 Global Financial Crisis: Evidence from the Gulf Cooperation Council Countries
    Purpose - The purpose of this study is to analyze the profitability performance of Islamic banks of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) region during 2008 global financial crisis. Design/methodology/approach - Bank specific data are taken from the Bank Scope database and macroeconomic data are collected from International Financial Statistics. Using a panel data series of 30 banks for the period of 2005 to 2011, the study shows the evidence of structural break for the crisis year as well as the factors that impact the profitability of Islamic banks. Findings - The performance of GCC Islamic banks was significantly influenced during the crisis period by capital adequacy, credit risk, financial risk, operational efficiency, liquidity, bank size, gross domestic product, growth rate of money supply, bank sector development and inflation rate. The study also finds that there is a structural change before and after the global financial crisis. Originality/value - This is an original study that shows that the shariah compliant banks have performed better during the crisis and are not affected based on their internal performance records; rather, they have been affected indirectly from the macro shock due to the overall economic crisis.
  • Role of Integrity System, Internal Control System, and Leadership Practices on the Accountability Practices in the Public Sectors of Malaysia
    Purpose - This study assesses the status of current practices of accountability and its relationship with the practices of integrity system, internal control system, and leadership qualities in the public sector of Malaysia. Design/methodology/approach - This study collected primary data from 109 departments and agencies under 24 federal ministries in Malaysia. The data were analysed under descriptive statistics, ordinal regression, and structural equation modelling (SEM). Several diagnostic tests were conducted to check the validity and reliability of data and models, such as Cronbach alpha test, Kaiser-Meyer Olkin test, Shapiro Wilk test, Internal Consistency Reliability, Indicator Reliability, Convergent Validity, and Discriminant Validity, etc. Findings - The regression and SEM results show that the practices of integrity system and leadership quality had statistically significant positive relationship, but the practice of internal control system showed mixed relationship with the practices of accountability. Practical implications - The findings of the study will help the policy makers to ensure better accountability in the public sector in Malaysia and other countries. Originality/value - This is an original study based on primary data to examine the current practices of accountability and its relationship with the practices of integrity system, internal control system, and leadership qualities in the public sector of Malaysia.
  • DYNAMICS OF TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION, ENERGY CONSUMPTION, ENERGY PRICE AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN DENMARK
    This study investigates the dynamic relationships between technological innovation, consumption of energy, energy price and economic growth in Denmark during the period from 1970 until 2012, using multivariate setting to examine time-series data. The analysis employs the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach to co-integration in order to examine both the short and long run dynamics among the variables. Furthermore, the study uses the Granger procedure within the VAR framework to identify causality among the variables. The model used in this study is found to be sound, a diagnosis of the reliability of the model reached by testing normality, functional form, serial correlation, and heteroscedasticity, with stability of the model tested using a cumulative sum and cumulative sum square test, based on recursive regression residuals. The ARDL approach to co-integration reveals that real GDP growth positively influences energy consumption as well as significantly in both the short run and long run, while energy prices and technological innovation influence energy consumption negatively and significantly. The results ascertain that energy consumption and economic growth are independent of each other, and thus they support a neutral hypothesis for Denmark. Besides, both the technological innovation and energy prices are found to be Granger cause energy consumption. Therefore, the study suggests that Denmark should adopt conservative energy policy using technological innovation and energy prices as instruments to achieve energy security and protect the environment from pollution.
  • The Usage and Social Capital of Mobile Phones and their Effect on the Performance of Microenterprise: An Empirical Study
    The purpose of this study is to uncover the impacts of mobile phone use on the performance of micro-enterprises (MEs) in Bangladesh, a developing country where the total number of mobile subscriptions reached around 131.38 million by the end of June in 2016 with penetration rate of 81 percent. Data were collected from owners of MEs through face to face interview. A multivariate analysis and SPSS macro developed by Preacher and Hayes were used as statistical techniques to assess the effects of mobile phone use. Results of the study indicate that micro-enterprises which owners were using mobile phone were having significantly greater benefits and financial performance compared to counterparts. A significant direct relationship between mobile phone use, and social capital and ME"s financial and non-financial performances was found. A further investigation revealed that financial performance is also indirectly related to social capital and quality and enterprise processes, which are significantly influenced by mobile phone usage. Therefore social capital and non-financial business performances are involved in the mediational process between the financial performance of MEs and use of mobile phone. The novelty of this research lies in the establishment of, for the first time, high level statistical relationship between the use of mobile phone, its mediating factors and financial performance of MEs. The findings will assist micro-entrepreneurs and policy makers in taking right courses of action that make the implementation of this device more effective.
  • Tourism and environmental quality nexus: Further evidence from Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand
    The central aim of this study is to contribute to the encroachment of knowledge on impact of tourism on environmental pollution by CO2 emissions ASEAN-3 namely Malaysia, Thailand and Singapore during 1990-2014. The FMOLS results reveal that the impact of tourism variable on environmental pollution is significantly positive, while for Thailand and Singapore, it is found negative and statistically significant. Empirical findings suggest that sustainable economic development should be ensured by implementing prudent public policy, where tourism industry needs to be expanded further but fulfilment of its responsibility towards maintaining green and sustainable environment must be top most priority.
  • An Empirical Assessment of Employee Integrity in the Public Sector of Malaysia
    Purpose - Integrity is a critical issue as it could lead to failures in governance, fraud, inefficacy, corruption, as well as weak financial management particularly in the public sector. At present, the public sector is a matter of global concern due the constant cases of failures in governance, fraud, inefficacy, and corruption. As such, this sector has been pressurized to provide justification of the sources and usages of public resources and to improve their service performance as the public has the right to monitor the public sector management's transparency and efficacy. This study evaluates the state of present integrity practices among public sector employees from various Malaysian service schemes. Design/methodology/approach - Primary data were collected using a questionnaire survey approach with 194 heads of departments in the Malaysian federal ministries. The collection of data was according to the perspective of 13 factors in integrity practices using a five-point Likert scale. Factor analysis and descriptive statistics were utilized for data analysis. In addition, data reliability was checked by Cronbach's alpha test, data normality was examined by Skewness and Kurtosis tests, and data validity was tested by using Kaiser-Meyer Olkin test and Barlett's test. Findings - The findings show that 92.6% of the participants reported that they practised integrity within their departments. Nevertheless, the priority for these integrity factors varies according to the service schemes. In general, the departments of finance, audits, and administration had an above average integrity practice level however the practice of the accounting scheme is below the general average level. Practical/Policy implications - This findings of the study will help policy makers to take necessary steps to improve the practices of integrity in the public sector in order to create a more dependable and efficient public sector in Malaysia. Originality/value - This is an original study based on primary data that assesses the performance of practicing integrity in the public sector of Malaysia.
  • Climatic Changes and Vulnerability of Household Food Utilization in Malaysian East Coast Economic Region
    Sustainable food security at household level is one of the emerging issues for all nations. There are several factors such as social, economic, political, demographic, natural, and livelihood strategies that causes to the vulnerability of the status of household food security. Therefore examining the vulnerability of these factors is essential to identify the reason and recognize the most vulnerable communities. This study is an attempt to study on the vulnerability of the factors of household food utilization and its linkage with climatic changes in Malaysia. The study is based on primary data collected in the months of July - October, 2012 through a questionnaire survey on 460 low income households from East Coast Economic Region (ECER) in Malaysia. The samples were selected from E-Kasih poor household database, based on cluster random sampling technique. The study found that the vulnerability of the factors of household food utilization has increased statistically significantly over the last five years period due to difference between rural and city food quality, occurrences of natural disasters, incidences of mosquitoes, insects, pest, etc., and diseases like dengue, malaria, heat stretch, cold, skin disease, etc. This study suggests that the food security programs need to be integrated with climatic change adaptation programs to ensure more effective and sustainable household food security in future, especially among the poor and low income group.
  • Assessment of Accountability Practices in the Public Sector of Malaysia
    Ensuring accountability in the public sector is a very crucial issue as it could lead to failures in governance, fraud, inefficacy, corruption as well as weak financial management. This study evaluated the state of present accountability practices among public sector employees from various Malaysian service schemes. Primary data were collected, using a questionnaire survey approach with 194 heads of departments in the Malaysian federal ministries. Data was collected in accordance with the perspective of 12 factors in accountability practices, using a five-point Likert scale. Factor analysis and descriptive statistics were utilized for data analysis. In addition, data reliability was checked by Cronbach's alpha test; data normality was examined by Skewness and Kurtosis tests, and data validity was tested by using Kaiser-Meyer Olkin test and Barlett's test. The findings show that 94.9% of the participants reported that they practised accountability within their departments. Nevertheless, the priority for these accountability factors varied according to the service schemes. In general, the perceived accountability practice was the highest within the group of the administrative scheme and the lowest among the employees under the accounting scheme. Moreover, the perceived accountability practice of the audit scheme was below the general average level. This findings of the study would help policy makers to take necessary steps to improve the practices of accountability in the public sector for creating a more dependable and efficient public sector in Malaysia.
  • Dynamics of Japan's Industrial Production and CO2 Emissions: Causality, Long-Run Trend and Implication
    While CO2 emissions from the residential and commercial sectors of Japan have increased significantly since 1990 the country"s industrial emissions make up the largest share of those emissions. The historical CO2 emission performance data also indicate that the iron and steel, chemical, paper and pulp and cement were the top four largest industrial emitters, and these top four emitting industries contributed nearly two-third of the industrial sector"s total CO2 emission amount during 1990-2015. Evidently, any appropriate efforts or strategies guided by an empirical investigation like this are expected to help Japan"s industrial emitters move toward a more tolerable and less polluted carbon footprint, which is well-matched with the country"s commitment to Kyoto Protocol. This study is thus an effort to empirically investigate the causality and long-run trend/relationship between Japan"s industrial production and CO2 emissions and to propose some corporate environmental strategies using the econometric techniques of Vector Error Correction (VEC) and Granger causality. It found that there exists no Granger causality between Japan"s industrial production and CO2 emissions in any direction. But the VEC estimation reveals that an increase in Japan"s industrial production by 1% is associated with a 0.08% increase in the country"s CO2 emissions. It also reveals that any disequilibrium between Japan"s industrial production and CO2 emissions could take about 0.7 quarters for half of the error to be corrected for. The adjustment rate for Japan"s industrial production is found to be positive but quite slow at the rate of 0.08% per year. Since Japan"s CO2 emissions vis-a-vis its industrial production is found to have reached above the long-run equilibrium level, its industrial sector is expected to encounter with stricter government regulations requiring reduction of CO2 emissions to the targeted/equilibrium level in the future.
  • Resilience, Adaptation and Expected Support for Food Security among the Malaysian East Coast Poor Households
    Purpose: Sustainable food security at the household level is one of the emerging issues for all nations. It is expected that the patterns of household resilience factors and adaptation practices have a strong linkage with household food security. The aim of this study was to seek an effective technique of adaptation for food security and the required types of support for adaptation to food insecurity among the poor and low income households in Malaysia. Design/methodology/approach: This study was based on primary data that were collected in Jul-Oct 2012 through a questionnaire survey among 460 poor and low income households from the Pahang, Kelantan, and Terengganu states of Malaysia. The samples were selected from E-Kasih poor household database based on a two-stage cluster random sampling technique. The study considered household food security as household food availability and food accessibility, and ran ordinal regressions to find out the linkages of household food security with household resilience factors, adaptation practices, and expected support for adaptation to food security. Findings: The study concludes that several resilience factors and adaptation practices were statistically significant to household food security, and several external supports were statistically and significantly needed to ensure household food security. Therefore, to ensure sustainable household food security in Malaysia, the food security programs needs to be integrated with Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and climatic changes adaptation programs, and the involvement of relevant stakeholders are crucial. Originality/value: This study is a pioneer work based on primary data that empirically measured the linkages of household food security with household resilience factors, adaptation practices, and expected support for adaptation to food security in Malaysia. This study also discussed some issues related to the climate change linkage, which would help future climate change research. The findings of the study will be beneficial for all the stakeholders, including policy makers related to the food security and climate change adaptation.
  • Collisions between Institutional and Populist Risk Imaginaries: the "dark side" of negative asymmetric thinking
    Expert knowledge informs the construction of public problems from gun violence to disease epidemics to climate change, and institutional actors draw on this knowledge to implement public policy to mitigate or repair the related harms. The expanding role of experts and institutions in managing risks has come at a time of declining public trust in institutions and a legitimacy crisis around expert knowledge. What happens when these tendencies collide? Previous scholarship has examined how disaster arises through failures of foresight, and how cultural-cognitive biases can prevent actors from seeing disasters coming. Less is known about the mobilization of resistance against risk management policies. This theoretical essay examines a particular category of that resistance: conspiracist discourse that frames risk as emanating primarily from perceived secret agendas of institutions and experts that explicitly claim to be acting in the public interest. This essay argues that conspiracy thinking can be best understood as rooted in a "populist risk imaginary," which is rooted in negative asymmetry, a cultural-cognitive bias that foregrounds the possibility of worst-case outcomes. Conspiracy discourse can be understood as the "dark side" of negative asymmetry, which is otherwise used by service-oriented professionals to sharpen their foresight in preempting future dangers.
  • Assessment of Management Commitment in Malaysian Public Sector
    At present, the public sector is a matter of global concern due to the constant cases of failures in governance, fraud, inefficacy, and corruption. Management commitment is a critical issue as lack of it could lead to failures in governance, fraud, inefficacy, corruption as well as weak financial management, particularly in the public sector. This study evaluated the state of present practices of management commitment among public sector employees from various Malaysian service schemes. Primary data were collected using a questionnaire survey approach with 194 heads of departments in the Malaysian federal ministries. The collection of data was in accordance with the perspective of 10 factors in management commitment practices, using a five-point Likert scale. Factor analysis and descriptive statistics were utilized for data analysis. In addition, data reliability was checked by Cronbach's alpha test, data normality was examined by Skewness and Kurtosis tests, and data validity was tested by using Kaiser-Meyer Olkin test and Barlett's test. The findings show that 97% of the participants reported that they practised management commitment within their departments. Nevertheless, the priority for these management commitment factors varied according to the service schemes. In general, management commitment practice was the highest within the groups that used the finance scheme and the lowest among the employees who were under the accounting and audit schemes. The result of the study will help policy makers to take necessary steps to improve the practices of management commitment in the public sector in order to create a more dependable and efficient public sector in Malaysia.
  • The Impacts of Environmental, Social, and Governance Factors on Firm Performance: Panel Study of Malaysian Companies
    Purpose - The ESG factor, which consists of environmental, social, and governance factors, represents the non-financial performance of a company. United Nations Principles for Responsible Investment (UN-PRI) invites investors to consider ESG issues when evaluating the performance of any company. Moreover, nowadays the contribution of corporations towards sustainable development is a major concern of investors, creditors, government, and other environmental agencies. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of ESG factors on the performance of Malaysian public limited companies in terms of profitability, firm value, and cost of capital. Design/methodology/approach - A total of 54 companies are selected from Bloomberg's ESG database that has complete ESG and financial data from 2010 to 2013. This study conducted panel data regressions such as the pooled OLS, fixed effect, and random effect. Findings - Based on the regression results, there is no significant relationship between individual and combined factors of ESG and firm profitability (i.e., ROE) as well as firm value (i.e., Tobin's Q). Moreover, individually, none of the factors of ESG is significant with the cost of capital (WACC), but the combined score of ESG positively and significantly influences the cost of capital (WACC) of a company. Practical implications - As this is a new study on Malaysia, the findings of this study will be useful to investors, SRI analysts, policy makers, and other related agencies. Originality/value - To the best of the authors' knowledge, this study is among the first empirical study to examine the impact of ESG factors on the performance of Malaysian public limited companies in terms of profitability, firm value, and cost of capital.
  • Integrating Religiosity into Fraud Triangle Theory: Empirical Findings from Enforcement Officers
    Recently, employee-fraud has drawn extensive attention due to huge amount of losses of various organizations. This study developed a new model of fraud risk by integrating new elements into a fraud triangle theory. This study simultaneously analyzed religiosity and the three elements of fraud risk factors of employee fraud committed by low and mid-level public officials. The data collected from 120 enforcement officers indicated that religiosity is negatively related to employee fraud. By contrast, all the three elements of fraud triangle theory, namely, pressure, opportunity, and rationalization, are positively related to employee fraud. These results imply that strong religiosity is crucial to mitigate employee fraud. To minimize employee fraud, the opportunity to commit such fraud should be reduced through strong internal control, reduction of negative rationalization, and employee financial pressure. This study contributes to the literature by introducing a new model on employee-fraud occurrence that is not extensively discussed, particularly in the context of local authority in developing countries.
  • Human Capital Accountability and Construct: Evidence from Islamic Microfinance Institutions in Malaysia
    To identify the human capital construct that significantly relates to the performance of Islamic organizations, this study obtained data from Islamic microfinance organizations in Malaysia using the survey questionnaire method. In addition, we interviewed renowned scholars in the fields of Islamic accounting and Shariah law. Consequently, this study proposes an extended model of human capital that is applicable to Islamic organizations. Apart from knowledge and competency, this study includes spiritual value as another construct of human capital in Islamic organizations. Knowledge includes ideas that are relevant to the accounting and auditing spectra, as well as Shariah principles and jurisprudence. By contrast, competency refers to the ability to innovate unique Shariah-compliant products that are rare and difficult to imitate. Meanwhile, spiritual values embrace the elements of "Siddiq," "Amanah," "Fathonah," and "Tabligh." This study affirms that knowledge, competency, and satisfaction are the most significant constructs of human capital that explain performance. Factor analysis indicates that spiritual value is embedded in and forms part of the human capital construct. Hence, spiritual value is a key element in company culture and contributes significantly to organizational success. This model can be a platform for human capital reporting in the relevant Islamic and conventional organizations.
  • Waqf as a Tool for Rendering Social Welfare Services in the Social Entrepreneurship Context
    The concept of Islamic entrepreneurship centers on ensuring community well-being as the priority, which is one of the important objectives (Maqasid) of the Islamic Shari'ah. Historically, waqf played a significant role in the Islamic economic system, particularly in rendering exemplary welfare services in the areas of healthcare, education, social welfare, environmental, and other community-based programs. However, only a few success stories in recent history have institutionally utilized the properties of waqf under proper management to achieve its substantial objectives. This study uses the literature review as basis to analyze the reasons behind the successful utilization of waqf as an effective tool to ensure social welfare services in the past, as well as how this model can be replicated by considering current contexts. This study will assist Islamic value-centric entrepreneurs, regulatory authorities, investors, and researchers to gain an overall insight into the potentials of waqf as a tool for rendering commendable social welfare services.
  • Practices of Corporate Integrity and Accountability of Non-Profit Organizations in Malaysia
    Purpose - This paper aims to examine the five dimensions of Corporate Integrity Systems and their effects on accountability outcomes of Non-Profit Organizations (NPOs). Design/methodology/approach - Data were collected from 550 survey conducted among NPOs in Malaysia registered under Registrar of Society. Regression analysis was conducted to examine the relationships between five dimensions corporate integrity systems and accountability outcomes. Findings - The findings revealed that all five dimensions of corporate integrity systems (compliance, policies and rules, organizational culture, leadership, ethics training and education, and whistle-blowing) significantly contribute to positive accountability outcomes of NPOs. Practical implications - In order for NPOs to deliver greater accountability outcomes to their stakeholders, serious emphasis on corporate integrity systems is vital. Originality/value - To the best of the authors" knowledge, this study is among the first empirical study to examine the role of corporate integrity system dimensions and accountability outcomes in the case of NPOs in Malaysia.
  • Does Job Satisfaction, Fair Treatment, and Cooperativeness Influence the Whistleblowing Practice in Malaysian Government Linked Companies?
    Purpose: Whistleblowing is an important factor in preventing corruption and fraud in organizations. There is a law to promote whistleblowing practices, but the negative subsequent effect of whistleblowing demotivates the reporting of unethical behaviours. Thus, it is important to identify the factors that motivate an employee to exercise whistleblowing in an organization. Therefore, this study aims to examine whether the personal factor of job satisfaction and organizational factors such as fair treatment as well as cooperativeness contribute to the whistleblowing practice in an organization. Design/methodology/approach: This study collected primary data based on a questionnaire survey from 73 respondents of the seven top most GLCs in Malaysia. The data are analyzed using descriptive statistics, factor analysis, and cross-sectional regression. Findings: The findings of the study reveal that only fair treatment is statistically significant and positively related to the whistleblowing practice. The findings imply that if employees perceive that the organization provides fair treatment in terms of career advancement, awards, training, performance appraisal, job assignment, and pay increases, they would tend to report wrongdoing activities to protect the image of the organization. Practical implications: The findings of the study will help the policy makers to ensure better working environment and accountability in the public sector of Malaysia and other similar countries. Originality/value: This is an original study based on primary data to examine the current practices of whistleblowing and its relationship with the practices of job satisfaction, fair treatment, and cooperativeness in the government linked companies of Malaysia.
  • Climatic Changes and Vulnerability of Household Food Accessibility: A Study on Malaysian East Coast Economic Region
    Purpose: Sustainable food security at the household level is one of the emerging issues for all nations. Several factors such as social, economic, political, demographic, natural, and livelihood strategies cause vulnerability in the status of household food security. This study is an attempt to examine the vulnerability of the factors of household food accessibility and its linkage with the climatic changes in Malaysia. Design/methodology/approach: The study is based on primary data collected in the months of July - October, 2012 through a questionnaire survey on 460 low-income households from the East Coast Economic Region (ECER) in Malaysia. The samples were selected from E-Kasih poor household database, based on the cluster random sampling technique. The questionnaire uses a five-point Likert scale, and the data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and ANOVA F statistics for Chi-Square Two Sample Test. Findings: The study finds that the vulnerability of the factors of household food accessibility has increased statistically and significantly over the last five years in Malaysia, whereas the contributions of climatic factors are low on these changes. This study suggests that the food security programs in Malaysia need to be integrated with the climatic change adaptation programs to ensure more effective and sustainable household food security in the future. Originality/value: This study is an original work based on primary data that empirically measures the vulnerability of the factors of household food accessibility, one of the important dimensions of household food security, and its linkage with climatic changes.
  • The Islamic Shariah Principles for Investment in Stock Market
    Due to chronic financial crises experienced during last several decades repeatedly and a failure to protect investors" rights as a result, the world is looking for an alternative form of stock market for quite some time so that interests of all relevant stakeholders can be safeguarded. At the same time, from the perspectives of devout Muslims, the current form of stock market restricts a Muslim to make investments in the market due to unsatisfying several provisions from the Islamic law, known as shariah. This study provides the criteria under which conditions the Islamic shariah permits making investments in the stock market. Hand in hand with that primary discussion, it has been eluded briefly why the Islamic shariah principles offer a better alternative against conventional practices of the stock market.
  • Do Climate Changes Lead to Income Inequality? Empirical Study on the Farming Community in Malaysia
    Changes in climatic factors have different impacts on different social groups. But the farmers are considered to be the most vulnerable group because of their direct and indirect dependency on climatic factors. This study aims to understand the nature of socioeconomic impacts of climatic changes on the farmers in Malaysia. A questionnaire survey was conducted on a sample of 198 paddy farmers in the Integrated Agricultural Development Area at North-West Selangor of Malaysia in 2009. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, ordinal scale and percentile. The study reveals that climatic changes have adverse impacts on agricultural productivity, profitability, income equality, employment, farmer's health, and government subsidy policy. The Kuznets ratio and Gini coefficient indicate that there is highly unequal distribution of income. Climatic changes are contributing to the widening of this income gap, because poor farmers are affected more by the adverse effects of climatic changes. The current government subsidy policy is not found appropriate and adequate to support and encourage the farmers to adequately adapt to the climatic changes and to reduce the inequality among the farming community. The paper ends up with recommending some policy guidelines to counter adverse effects of climate change on income of paddy farmers in Malaysia.
  • Innovation Risk and Sustainable Competitive Advantages: Empirical Assessment of Government-Linked Companies in Malaysia
    This study attempts to assess the present level of innovation status among Malaysian Government-Linked Companies (GLCs). A set of questionnaire was distributed among 134 managers and executives from these GLCs to collect the primary data for this study. The perspectives of executives were collected based on ten factors of innovation practices utilizing the five-point Likert scales. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the data while the reliability and validity were tested using the Cronbach's alpha test and the Skewness and Kurtosis test, respectively. Factor analysis was used to test the data consistency. The findings revealed the 82.8% of the respondents were agreeable to their firms' emphasis on the factors of innovation. However, it was found that GLCs that were owned by the federal government placed more focus on innovation compared to the GLCs that were state-owned. This study reveals that overall the Malaysian GLCs should enhance their innovation practices by placing more focus on being engaged in the adoption of innovative designs at work, the reengineering of business processes, innovative pricing, market distribution and promotional methods, enhancing customer satisfaction by importing innovative warranty and maintenance systems, as well as by importing innovative claim clearing processes and methods, and the adoption of innovative order management and follow-up systems.
  • Empirical Assessment of Good Governance in the Public Sector of Malaysia
    To improve the trust of citizens and delivery of services, employing good governance principles in the public sector is very crucial. Despite efforts to improve service delivery, criticisms and complains toward public services remain evident. This study aims to assess the status of good governance practices in the public sector of Malaysia. Primary data were collected from the responses of 109 department heads under 24 federal ministries to a survey questionnaire. Respondent perception of good governance practices was measured using a seven-point Likert scale and analyzed by descriptive statistics and path measurement modeling. Standard diagnostic tests were also conducted to check the reliability of the data and model. Results indicated that nine factors were significant in the measurement of good governance practices. However, very few people in the public sector of Malaysia practice fraud control, which is at the lowest intensity. Among the service groups, the engineer group practiced good governance at the highest level, whereas the health service group practiced good governance at the lowest level. Therefore, still there are scopes available to improve good governance systems to become more reliable and efficient public sector in Malaysia. Findings of the study will help policy makers improve the efficiency of the public sector of Malaysia and other countries.
  • Market Orientation for Better Accountability of Government-Linked Companies
    This study assesses the status of the current level of market orientation among the Government-Linked Companies (GLCs) in Malaysia. This study collected primary data based on a set of questionnaire survey among 134 executives and managers of GLCs in Malaysia. The data were collected based on opinions of the ten factors of market orientation practices by using the five-point Likert scale. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics. On an average, 86.6% of the respondents agreed that they focus on these factors of market orientation. The federal owned GLCs place more emphasis on market orientation than the state owned GLCs. This study suggests improving the practices of market orientation of GLCs in Malaysia by emphasizing on providing close attention to after-sales service, responding rapidly to the threats of competitive actions, regularly discussing the competitors' strengths and strategies by top management, and freely communicating successful and unsuccessful customer experiences across all business functions. It is suggested that Malaysian GLCs should serious invest in market orientation to deliver higher accountability outcomes.
  • The Impacts of Climatic and Non-climatic Factors on Household Food Security: Study on Malaysian East Coast Poor
    Sustainable food security at household level is a national concern in many countries. The reasons for household food insecurity include social, economic, political, and personal factors as well as climatic changes and its outcomes. This research aims at finding out the linkage of the factors of climatic changes, non-climatic factors and household resiliencies with the level of household food security among the poor and low income households in Malaysia. This study is based on primary data that were collected in Jul-Oct 2012 through a questionnaire survey on 460 poor and low income households from the Pahang, Kelantan, and Terengganu States of Malaysia. The sample was selected from E-Kasih poor household database based on cluster random sampling technique. Initially the study measures household food security according to the USAID-HFIA model, and ran ordinal regressions under the logit and probit models. This study finds that household food insecurity is not only linked with social and economic factors, but also significantly linked with the climatic factors. Therefore, the food security programs need to be integrated with the adaption programs for climatic change.
  • The Effect of Scale, Technique, Composition and Trade Openness on Energy Demand: Fresh Evidence from Malaysia
    The aim of this paper utilizes an energy demand model to investigate the impact of trade openness on energy consumption by incorporating scale and technique, composition and urbanization effects in the case of Malaysia. The study covers the sample period of 1970-2011 using quarter frequency data. We applied the bounds testing approach in the presence of structural breaks to examine the long run relationship between the variables. The VECM Granger causality is used to detect the direction of causality between the variables. Our findings indicate that growth effect (scale and technique effect) has a positive (negative) impact on energy consumption whereas composition effect stimulates energy demand in Malaysia.. Energy consumption is positively influenced by both from openness and urbanization. This study opens new policy insights for policy making authorities to articulate a comprehensive energy and trade policy to sustain economic growth and improve the environmental quality of Malaysia.
  • Entrepreneurial Orientation for Sustainable Competitive Advantage and Risk Management: Evidence from Government-Linked Companies in Malaysia
    This study is an attempt to assess the status of the current level of entrepreneurial orientation among the Government-Linked Companies (GLCs) in Malaysia. This study collected primary data based on a set of questionnaire survey among 134 executives and managers of GLCs in Malaysia. The data were collected based on opinions of the seven factors of entrepreneurial orientation practices by using the five-point Likert scale. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Further, the reliability of the data was tested using Cronbach's alpha test, the validity of the data was tested by checking the normality test through skewness and kurtosis, and the consistency of the data was tested using factor analysis. On an average, 70.9% of the respondents agreed that they focus on these factors of entrepreneurial orientation. The federal owned GLCs place more emphasis on entrepreneurial orientation than the state owned GLCs. This study suggests improving the practices of entrepreneurial orientation of GLCs in Malaysia by emphasizing on recognizing individual risk takers for their willingness to champion new projects, whether it eventually turns out to be successful or not, encouraging employees to take calculated risks with new ideas, considering the term "risk taker" as a positive attribute for people in the organization, and supporting many small and experimental projects by realizing that some will undoubtedly fail.
  • Organizational Learning Orientation and Sustainable Competitive Advantage: Towards More Accountable Government-Linked Companies
    Government-Linked Companies (GLCs) are expected to show competitive performance in order to reflect the accountability of taxpayers' money. Therefore, this study is an attempt to assess the status of the current level of organizational learning orientation among the Government-Linked Companies (GLCs) in Malaysia. This study collected primary data based on a set of questionnaire survey among 134 executives and managers of GLCs in Malaysia. The data were collected based on opinions of the ten factors of organizational learning practices by using the five-point Likert scale. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Further, the reliability of the data was tested using Cronbach's alpha test, the validity of the data was tested by checking the normality test through skewness and kurtosis, and the consistency of the data was tested using factor analysis. On an average, 74.6% of the respondents agreed that they focus on these factors of organizational learning. The federal owned GLCs place more emphasis on organizational learning than the state owned GLCs. This study suggests improving the practices of organizational learning within the GLCs in Malaysia by emphasizing on the consideration that employee learning is an investment rather than an expense, employees should view themselves as partners in charting the direction of the organization, employees should not be afraid of critically reflecting on the shared assumptions about the ways of managing the organization, and by analyzing unsuccessful organizational endeavours and communicating the lessons learned widely among the employees.
  • Climatic Changes, Government Interventions, and Paddy Production: An Empirical Study of the Muda Irrigation Area in Malaysia
    The Muda Irrigation Area is one of the main paddy production areas in Malaysia. Various efforts and approaches through government interventions have been implemented to ensure the continuity of paddy production in this area. However, there are different factors that have negative impacts on paddy production including climatic factors. Therefore, with the direct components of production such as land, labor, and technology, this study uses climatic factors and government intervention to examine the influence of these factors of production on the paddy production in this area. Based on the time series data from 1981 to 2010, this study conducted the multiple log linear Ordinary Least Square (OLS) regression by considering the Cobb-Douglas production function model. The major units of production, such as land, labor, and technology, have a statistically positive relationship with paddy production. Among the climatic variables, rainfall and the number of rainy days show a statistically significant and positive relationship but temperature shows a negative relationship with paddy production. The factors of external intervention such as government subsidies and market forces also show a statistically significant and positive relationship with paddy production. To ensure the improvement of paddy production as well as to minimize the effects of climatic change, government intervention should be continued in Malaysia.
  • economic growth; CO2 emissions; population growth; energy consumption; Environmental Kuznets Curve, Brazil, China, India, Indonesia
    This study examines the impacts of income, energy consumption and population growth on CO2 emissions by employing an annual time series data for the period 1970-2012 for India, Indonesia, China, and Brazil. The study used the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) bounds test approach considering both the linear and non-linear assumptions for related time series data for the top CO2 emitter emerging countries in both the short run and long run. The results show that CO2 emissions have increased statistically significantly with increases in income and energy consumption in all four countries. While the relationship between CO2 emissions and population growth was found to be statistically significant for India and Brazil, it has been statistically insignificant for China and Indonesia in both the short run and long run. Also, empirical observations from the testing of environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis imply that in the cases of Brazil, China and Indonesia, CO2 emissions will decrease over the time when income increases. So based on the EKC findings, it can be argued that these three countries should not take any actions or policies, which might have conservative impacts on income, in order to reduce their CO2 emissions. But in the case of India, where CO2 emissions and income were found to have a positive relationship, an increase in income over the time will not reduce CO2 emissions in the country.
  • Climate change and food security of the Malaysian east coast poor: A Path modeling approach
    This research aims at examining the direct and indirect impacts of climatic changes as well as the effects of non-climatic factors on household food security in Malaysia. The study is based on primary data collected in the months of July - October, 2012 through a questionnaire survey on 460 low income households from East Coast Economic Region (ECER) of the country. The samples were selected from E-Kasih poor household database, based on cluster random sampling technique. The statistical estimation was done through two-stage formative path measurement model by using nonparametric bootstrap procedure under Smart PLS. This study finds that household food insecurity ECER - Malaysia is not only related to social and economic factors, but also statistically significantly linked to the direct and indirect impacts of climatic factors. The policy implications of the study suggest that design of food security programs must be integrated with climatic change adaptation programs. The government and other relevant agencies should jointly develop appropriate policies for poverty alleviation, household level food security, and adaptation with climatic changes in Malaysia.
  • Resistance as Sacrifice: Towards an Ascetic Antiracism
    Often described as an outcome, inequality is better understood as a social process -- a function of how institutions are structured and reproduced, and the ways people act and interact within them across time. Racialized inequality persists because it is enacted moment to moment, context to context -- and it can be ended should those who currently perpetuate it commit themselves to playing a different role instead. This essay makes three core contributions: first, it highlights a disturbing parity between the people who are most rhetorically committed to ending racialized inequality and those who are most responsible for its persistence. Next, it explores the origin of this paradox - how it is that ostensibly antiracist intentions are transmuted into 'benevolently racist' actions. Finally, it presents an alternative approach to mitigating racialized inequality, one which more effectively challenges the self-oriented and extractive logics undergirding systemic racism: rather than expropriating blame to others, or else adopting introspective and psychologized approaches to fundamentally social problems, those sincerely committed to antiracism can take concrete steps in the real world - actions which require no legislation or coercion of naysayers, just a willingness to personally make sacrifices for the sake of racial justice.
  • Waterfront Toronto: Privacy or Piracy?
    Toronto's Portlands neighborhood is the target of an enormous redevelopment effort that will infuse smart-city technologies into the urban morphology. The quasi-governmental Waterfront Toronto agency has partnered with the Alphabet subsidiary company Sidewalk Labs to plan and build out the neighborhood, essentially from the ground up, and embedded it with sophisticated technologies. The redevelopment plan details a digital layer made up of sensors that will collect and process locational information, tracking movement and usage patterns. Yet the project has been mired in controversy, mainly because of questions about data ownership and management. While there will be the amassing of an unfathomable amount of data, it is not clear who will control it and how it will be processed and used. Critics of the project have pointed out that the potential value of the data is enormous and if a private company has exclusive domain over it, that company could decide to sell it at will. Securely storing citizen's data is another problem. This paper provides a description of the popular newspaper accounts of the Waterfront Toronto Project. It discusses how the project and redevelopment authority came to be, how Alphabet be-came the primary partner, the redevelopment vision, and controversy that has engulfed this smart-city project.
  • Self-nudging and the citizen choice architect
    This article argues that nudges can often be turned into self-nudges: empowering interventions that enable people to design and structure their own decision environments--that is, to act as citizen choice architects. Self-nudging applies insights from behavioral science in a way that is practicable and cost-effective but that sidesteps concerns about paternalism or manipulation. It can potentially expand the scope of application of behavioral insights from the public to the personal sphere (e.g., homes, offices, families). It provides a tool for reducing failures of self-control and enhancing personal autonomy. Specifically, self-nudging can mean designing one's proximate choice architecture to alleviate the effects of self-control problems, engaging in education to understand the nature and causes of self-control problems, and employing simple educational nudges to improve goal attainment in various domains. It can even mean self-paternalistic interventions such as winnowing down one's choice set by, for instance, removing options. Policy makers could promote self-nudging by sharing knowledge about nudges and how they work. The ultimate goal of enabling citizens to become choice architects is to enable efficient self-governance and the self-determined arbitration of conflicts between mutually exclusive goals and preferences within the individual.
  • The similarities between Hapi and Hebo(He Bo )
    the pronunciation of Hebo(He Bo ) is similar to the Nile god- Hapi(Hep), and Hebo(He Bo ) resembles Hapi in its functions and character. From hieroglyph, we can conclude that Hebo(He Bo ) is Hapi in China. Besides, animals as well as humans have been drowned in the river as sacrifices, including young women destined to become the god's wives, so this resembles the bride of the Nile. So from the above, we can get a hypothesis that Hebo(He Bo ) is probably Hapi with Chinese characteristic.
  • Digital Disinformation and Communalism in Bangladesh
    Traditional society of Bangladesh has been enduring explicit transformation. Individuals' increasing income, flourishing consumer culture, and security in social life as a cumulative force smooths the scope of modern global amenities to come in and grow up amid this changing society. Of them, new age digital communication is vital one. Digital media is encompassing people's everyday life. Process of acquiring information has also changed remarkably: instead of searching to get one, people now struggle to look for reliable information due to ample information. Cyberspace becomes the cornucopia of fluid information that often baffles the surfers by providing distorted information. Bangladesh has been experiencing digital media-initiated disinformation from the beginning of 2010s. Interest groups are playing with digital disinformation conjoining religious sentiment. As a result, incidents of assault on religious minorities based on digital (dis)information have become frequent. Considering the importance of digital disinformation instigating communalism in Bangladesh, this study explores the nature of contemporary digital communalism and violence on religious minorities. It has been seen that beyond mere religious sentimentalism and sensationalism, historical and political along with several other factors significantly contribute to these atrocities.
  • Archival Circulation on the Web: The Vine-Tweets Dataset
    At Ethics and Archiving the Web, a conference convened in March 2018 at the New Museum in New York City, a group of artists, archivists, activists and researchers met to critically examine the ethical implications of our ability to collect and archive content from the web. In a session focused on the ethics of digital folklore, Frances Corry asked the audience to consider, "What's the right way to shut down a social networking site?"
  • Engagement with State and Local Government
    This handbook Is intended be a resource for both those who are providing data (government agency leaders) and those internal or external to those organizations who are requesting data for analytics projects particularly at the state or local level. Over the past 20 years, there has been a recognition that government administrative data (criminal justice schools, employment, human services, education, revenue) is an important resource for building evidence--from conducting rigorous evaluation to providing key descriptive analyses to improve quality, monitor caseloads, understand population composition (Commmission on Evidence-based Policymaking 2017).
  • Bringing the polls to the people: How electoral access encourages turnout but shapes political inequality
    Attempts to increase electoral access are generally seen as unambiguously desirable in new democracies. While these policies can increase the size of the electorate, they may also carry costs through changing electorate composition, by differentially enfranchising those who are highly sensitive to costs. Using new administrative data from South Africa and a difference-in-differences design, I show that a 15 year, large scale, expansion of access to voting stations increased national turnout by between 2.3 and 4.7 percentage points. In the context of a natural quasi-experiment, I then use 39,000 survey respondents geo-referenced to their nearest voting station to document that those of high socioeconomic status, and those who are older, are much more sensitive to electoral access than others. This may affect electorate composition in favor of those already economically or politically powerful, who also happen to be more opposed to redistributive public policies and have particular partisan preferences.
  • The Promise and Pitfalls of Conflict Prediction: Evidence from Colombia and Indonesia
    Policymakers can take actions to prevent local conflict before it begins, if such violence can be accurately predicted. We examine the two countries with the richest available sub-national data: Colombia and Indonesia. We assemble two decades one fine- grained violence data by type, alongside hundreds of annual risk factors. We predict violence one year ahead with a range of machine learning techniques. Models reliably identify persistent, high-violence hot spots. Violence is not simply autoregressive, as detailed histories of disaggregated violence perform best. Rich socio-economic data also substitute well for these histories. Even with such unusually rich data, however, the models poorly predict new outbreaks or escalations of violence. \Best case" scenarios with panel data fall short of workable early-warning systems.
  • Rediscovering the 1%: Theory-Laden Knowledge Infrastructures and the Stylized Facts of Inequality
    What is the relationship between theory and observation in the social sciences? This article advances a sociological reformulation of the "theory-ladenness" of data. Drawing on insights from the history and sociology of science, I argue that knowledge infrastructures, not just individual experts' perceptions, are theory-laden. This conceptual framework helps to explain why scholars missed the rise of top incomes in the 1980s and 1990s. In the 2000s, newly-analyzed tax data revealed that top incomes had begun a dramatic upward climb in the early 1980s, summarized as the rise of "the 1%." This article explains why it took two decades for this increase to become salient. I show how mid-20th century economic theory shaped the assembly of two knowledge infrastructures for identifying stylized facts about income inequality, both of which were incapable of tracking top incomes. Macroeconomists focused on labor's share of national income, but ignored the distribution of income between individuals. Labor economists drew on newly- available survey data to explain wage disparities. By relying on surveys, these scholars filtered top incomes out of view: surveys top-coded high incomes and thus were incapable of detecting the rise of the 1%. Studies of top incomes that relied on income tax data fell by the wayside, creating the conditions under which experts, policymakers, and the public alike could be surprised by the rise of the 1%. Knowledge infrastructures are laden with past theories; in turn, these infrastructures shape the production of new theories and new ways of understanding contemporary social problems.
  • Leaving Home, Entering Institutions: Implications for Home-Leaving in the Transition to Adulthood
    The departure from the parental home is an important milestone in the transition to adulthood. However, studies of the timing, prevalence, and nature of home-leaving do not generally incorporate the full range of experiences that young adults increasingly face--such as military service and incarceration. With the growing prevalence and uneven distribution of these institutional experiences, consideration of the role these institutions play in the home-leaving transition becomes increasingly important to our understanding of this life event. This study uses life table analysis of the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to compare estimates of the timing and cumulative risk of first home-leaving by age 27 using conventional and institution-inclusive definitions of home-leaving. I find that the institution-inclusive definition of home-leaving yields earlier and higher overall risks of first home-leaving by age 27 and that there is meaningful racial/ethnic variation in the types of transitions young adults make when they leave the parental home for the first time.