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SocArXiv papers

  • Evidence for that the origins of Shang Dynasty’s Oracle-bone Inscriptions could Ascend to Proto-Cuneiform
    Abstract: It is deference to other ancient scripts that oracle-bone inscriptions suddenly appeared in prehistorical China without any predecessors. How oralce-bone inscriptions had been created? and who created it? Those questions have been debated more than one hundred years. Proto-cuneiform is the earliest form of the cuneiform script, the earliest writing system attested in history. It emerged towards the end of the fourth millennium B.C. in ancient a region of Mesopotamia of West Asia. By comparing Sumerian proto-cuineform vs oracle-bone inscription, there are some common basic symbols could be found in both inscriptions. Those symbols had same or derivative meaning in both side. There are a lot of such symbols have been found in both side, they existed in both side simultaneously. It are sufficient and logically. Those evidences indicate that oracle-bone inscription could ascend to proto-cuineform and oracle-bone inscription did not origin in China . At same time the common basic symbol of both inscription could be used to re-explanation of the oracle-bone and help to understand the its real means.
  • A Dynamic, Multidimensional Approach to Knowledge Production
    Ryan Light & jimi adams. 2016. “A Dynamic, Multidimensional Approach to Knowledge Production.” Chapter 6 in Scott Frickel, Mathieu Albert & Barbara Prainsack (eds.) Chapter 6 in Investigating Interdisciplinary Collaboration: Theory and Practice across Disciplines, Rutgers University Press.
  • Terrorism and Social Movements; Wiley-Blackwell Companion to Social Movements, 2nd Edition
    In spite of a proliferation of empirical research, scholarship on terrorism remains theoretically fragmented and often inconclusive on even basic issues. In this chapter, we detail how terrorism can be incorporated into the social movements and collective action scholarships’ portfolio of research through a review of several of the most widely debated topics in current terrorism research: 1) how terrorism is defined; 2) dynamics of radicalization for individuals and groups; 3) intensity and targets of violence; 4) organizational diversification; and 5) the context of terrorist action. Taking a problem-centered approach, we detail how prior insights from scholarship on social movements and collective action can theoretically and substantively advance terrorism research.
  • Academic inbreeding and publication activities of Russian faculty
    The literature on the consequences of academic inbreeding shows ambiguous results: some papers show that inbreeding positively influences research productivity measured by the quantity and quality of publications, while others demonstrate the opposite effect. There are contradictory results both in the studies of different countries and within countries. This variety of results makes it impossible to transfer the findings from one academic system to another, and in Russia this problem has been under-explored. This paper focuses on the relationship between inbreeding and publication activity among Russian faculty. The research was conducted using the data from the ‘Monitoring of educational markets and organizations’ survey. The results show that there is no significant effect of academic inbreeding on publication productivity: no substantial and robust differences in publication activity between inbreds and non-inbred have been found. The paper finishes with the discussion of possible explanations inherent in the Russian academic system.
  • Limited Intersectional Approaches to Veteran and Former Prisoner Reintegration: Examining Gender Identity and Sexual Orientation
    Recent legal and policy changes within two prominent institutions, the military and criminal justice system, have profoundly altered the visibility – and subsequent rights – of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) service members and those currently incarcerated. Comparing these two institutions side-by-side illustrates how LGBT inequality mechanisms operate at both an individual and systemic level. Both the military and criminal justice system are total, hypermasculine institutions, both are socially concentrated experiences, both end with a changed relationship with the state, and both veterans and those formerly incarcerated have comparable challenges to reintegration upon returning to their communities. Intersectional analysis provides an apt tool to critically examine how reintegration processes differ for those identifying as LGBT. I examine ways in which existing literature is intersectional and highlight the lack of analyses about systems of power that amplify or moderate former prisoner re-entry and veteran transition for those identifying as LGBT. Finally, I discuss why there may be a lack of attention to intersectionality, and specifically to LGBT individuals, in the literature and address how an intersectional framework would contribute to both public policy and to expanding the existing literature on social inequality and stratification.
  • The Teotihuacan Anomaly: The Historical Trajectory of Urban Design in Ancient Central Mexico
  • Journal of the History of Economic Thought Preprints - Review of ​Antonio De Viti De Marco: A Story Worth Remembering​
    Review of a multi-media historical project to re-tell the story of Antonio De Viti De Marco, the Italian public finance theorist and political economist. The book and accompanying online resources, including a video, provide a richly textured story of De Viti De Marco's life and work.
  • Generations of Advantage. Multigenerational Correlations in Family Wealth
    Inequality in family wealth is high, yet we know little about how much and how wealth inequality is maintained across generations. We argue that a long-term perspective reflective of wealth’s cumulative nature is crucial to understand the extent and channels of wealth reproduction across generations. Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics that span nearly half a century, we show that a one decile increase in parents’ wealth position is associated with an increase of about 4 percentiles in their offspring’s wealth position in adulthood. We show that grandparental wealth is a unique predictor of grandchildren’s wealth, above and beyond the role of parental wealth, suggesting that a focus on only parent-child dyads understates the importance of family wealth lineages. Second, considering five channels of wealth transmission — gifts and bequests, education, marriage, homeownership, and business ownership — we find that most of the advantages arising from family wealth begin much earlier in the life-course than the common focus on bequests implies, even when we consider the wealth of grandparents. We also document the stark disadvantage of African-American households in terms of not only their wealth attainment but also their intergenerational wealth mobility compared to whites.
  • Organizational Time and Social Conflict
    Modeled after Donald Black’s Moral Time, a movement of organizational time is any change in organizational space. Organization takes three forms: inclusion, regulation, and distinction. Overorganization is an increase in an organization’s size (overinclusion), regulatory activity (overregulation), or subculture (overdistinction). Underorganization is a contraction in size (underinclusion), regulatory activity (underregulation), or subculture (underdistinction). Numerous examples show how conflict is a direct function of the movement of organizational time.
  • The Relative Circuity of Walkable and Drivable Urban Street Networks
    Circuity, the ratio of network distances to straight-line distances, is an important measure of urban street network structure and transportation efficiency. Circuity results from a circulation network’s configuration, planning, and underlying terrain. In turn, it impacts how humans use urban space for settlement and travel. Although past research has examined overall street network circuity, researchers have not studied the relative circuity of walkable versus drivable circulation networks. This study uses OpenStreetMap data to explore relative network circuity. We download walkable and drivable networks for 40 US cities using the OSMnx software, which we then use to simulate four million routes and analyze circuity to characterize network structure. We find that walking networks tend to allow for more direct routes than driving networks do in most cities: average driving circuity exceeds average walking circuity in all but four of the cities that exhibit statistically significant differences between network types. We discuss various reasons for this phenomenon, illustrated with case studies. Network circuity also varies substantially between different types of places. These findings underscore the value of using network-based distances and times rather than straight-line when studying urban travel and access. They also suggest the importance of differentiating between walkable and drivable circulation networks when modeling and characterizing urban street networks: although different modes’ networks overlap in any given city, their relative structure and performance vary in most cities.
  • Rationality, Perception, and the All-Seeing Eye
    Seeing—perception and vision—is implicitly the fundamental building block of the literature on rationality and cognition. Herbert Simon and Daniel Kahneman’s arguments against the omniscience of economic agents—and the concept of bounded rationality—depend critically on a particular view of the nature of perception and vision. We propose that this framework of rationality merely replaces economic omniscience with perceptual omniscience. We show how the cognitive and social sciences feature a pervasive but problematic meta-assumption that is characterized by an "all-seeing eye." We raise concerns about this assumption and discuss different ways in which the all-seeing eye manifests itself in existing research on (bounded) rationality. We first consider the centrality of vision and perception in Simon’s pioneering work. We then point to Kahneman’s work—particularly his article "Maps of Bounded Rationality"—to illustrate the pervasiveness of an all-seeing view of perception, as manifested in the extensive use of visual examples and illusions. Similar assumptions about perception can be found across a large literature in the cognitive sciences. The central problem is the present emphasis on inverse optics—the objective nature of objects and environments, e.g., size, contrast, and color. This framework ignores the nature of the organism and perceiver. We argue instead that reality is constructed and expressed, and we discuss the species-specificity of perception, as well as perception as a user interface. We draw on vision science as well as the arts to develop an alternative understanding of rationality in the cognitive and social sciences. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of our arguments for the rationality and decision-making literature in cognitive psychology and behavioral economics, along with suggesting some ways forward
  • A grounded theory for research synthesis of selected distance education literature
    The purpose of this investigation was twofold: 1) in conducting a research synthesis of distance education research studies using grounded theory methodology, this investigation derived a grounded theory from the distance education literature synthesized; and 2) in order to apply grounded theory for research synthesis, a procedure to coalesce grounded theory and research synthesis methods was developed.
  • Messing with the Attractiveness Algorithm: a Response to Queering Code/Space
    Responding to the collection of articles, “Queering Code/Space,” this article discusses how algorithms affect the production of online lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) spaces, namely online dating sites. The set of papers is well timed: lesbian bars have closed en masse across the US and many gay male bars have followed suit so that online spaces fill—or perhaps make—a gap in the social production of LGBTQ spaces. I draw on Cindi Katz’s idea of “messy” qualities of social reproduction and the necessity of “messing” with dominant narratives in order to think about the labor, experience, and project of queering code/space.
  • A Meta-synthesis of Qualitative Research about Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL) in Foreign Language Teaching
    The previous research indicates that technology plays an important role and has a great potential in foreign language teaching. It is also obvious that mobile assisted language learning (MALL) considerably affects learning process among foreign language learners. Thus, this current study aims to present a meta-synthesis of qualitative research results on the MALL published in high stakes academic journals especially in the last decade. Through electronic databases, the results of studies about MALL were identified and included in the study. After collecting the studies about MALL, thematic analysis was used and some of the themes were identified and analyzed in accordance with the data, respectively. It is expected that this study will not only help the target groups such as learners, lecturers and language policy makers to broaden their knowledge about technology in Turkey, but also result in an increased awareness of MALL.
  • A Standard for the Scholarly Citation of Archaeological Data
    How do archaeologists share their research data, if at all? We review what data are, according to current influential definitions, and previous work on the benefits, costs and norms of data sharing in the sciences broadly. To understand data sharing in archaeology, we present the results of three pilot studies: requests for data by email; review of data availability in published articles, and analysis of archaeological datasets deposited in repositories. We find that archaeologists are often willing to share, but discipline-wide sharing is patchy and ad hoc. Legislation and mandates are effective at increasing data-sharing, but editorial policies at journals lack adequate enforcement. Although most of data available at repositories are licensed to enable flexible reuse, only a small proportion of the data are stored in structured formats for easy reuse. We present some suggestions for improving the state of date sharing in archaeology, among these is a standard for citing data sets to ensure that researchers making their data publicly available receive appropriate credit.
  • Privacy after the Agile Turn
    Moving beyond algorithms and big data as starting points for discussions about privacy, the authors of Privacy After the Agile Turn focus our attention on the new modes of production of information systems. Specifically, they look at three shifts that have transformed most of the software industry: software is now delivered as services, software and hardware have moved into the cloud and software’s development is ever more agile. These shifts have altered the conditions for privacy governance, and rendered the typical mental models underlying regulatory frameworks for information systems out-of-date. After 'the agile turn', modularity in production processes creates new challenges for allocating regulatory responsibility. Privacy implications of software are harder to address due to the dynamic nature of services and feature development, which undercuts extant privacy regulation that assumes a clear beginning and end of production processes. And the data-driven nature of services, beyond the prospect of monetization, has become part of software development itself. With their focus on production, the authors manage to place known challenges to privacy in a new light and create new avenues for privacy research and practice.
  • 濫用される国際比較調査と日本の世論形成: International Fertility Decision-making Survey と少子化社会対策大綱
    Paper read at the 61st meeting of Japan Association for Mathematical Sociology. This paper criticizes International Fertility Decision-making Study (IFDMS) about its validity and comparability, mainly based on the Japanese version questionnaire.
  • Economic Inequality and Belief in Meritocracy in the United States
    How does the context of income inequality in which people live affect their belief in meritocracy, the ability to get ahead through hard work? One prominent recent study, Newman, Johnston, and Lown (2015), argues that, consistent with the conflict theory, exposure to higher levels of local income inequality lead lower-income people to become more likely to reject—and higher-income people to become more likely to accept—the dominant U.S. ideology of meritocracy. Here, we show that this conclusion is not supported by the study's own reported results and that even these results depend on pooling three different measures of meritocracy into a single analysis. We then demonstrate that analysis of a larger and more representative survey employing a single consistent measure of the dependent variable yields the opposite conclusion. Consistent with the relative power theory, among those with lower incomes, local contexts of greater inequality are associated with more widespread belief that people can get ahead if they are willing to work hard.
  • Open Data and the Danger of Sympathetic Magic
    This chapter provides a minimal normative framework for discussing the desired attributes of a published open dataset using Lakatos’ philosophy of science and the metaphor of sympathetic magic. When researchers publish their results, journals and granting agencies increasingly want datasets opened alongside. These datasets may vary in quality, reusability, and comprehensiveness. Yet, without a clear knowledge of how the research methodology and analysis affects the produc- tion of the “raw” data, any future attempts to reproduce analysis will produce the same “magical” results only by following the same steps. While the requirement for Open Data in government funded research can provide an excellent basis for fu- ture research, not all Open Data is created equal. Releasing the methods of analysis alongside a dataset of high quality will also allow for lower technical difficulties when reusing or remixing the data. Then data, collected once, may be reused in multiple projects for a significant research impact. And to some, we can show that data is, indeed, “magic.”
  • Implementation of a Novel Educational Course to Teach 3D Printing, Circuit Design, and Programming to PhD Candidates in Nigeria
    This paper aims to describe the need for a course that teaches open source principles, 3D printing, and programming to researchers in Africa. It also describes the implementation of the course in detail so that others may conduct similar programs. The primary goal of the “Open Labware: 3D Printing Your Own Lab Equipment” workshop organised by TReND in Africa (Teaching and Research in Natural Sciences for Development in Africa) is to help the development of local expertise and capabilities of researchers and teaching faculty in the area of Open Labware, capacitating participants to create their own scientific equipment, as well as repair existing ones.
  • Is Restorative Justice Conferencing Appropriate for Youth Offenders?
    While many studies on restorative justice conferencing (RJC) for youth offenders have shown favourable outcomes such as victim satisfaction and fairness, and offender accountability and perceived legitimacy, other studies have demonstrated more problematic outcomes in terms of mutual understanding, sincerity of apology and reoffending. Given the complexity of RJC as a concept and as a process, such ‘limits’ might be attributed to the capacity and characteristics of youth offenders. To date, however, there has been little examination of developmental, cognitive, or environmental impediments on the part of youth offenders in terms of achieving restorative outcomes in RJC. This paper discusses the potential impacts of limited developmental and cognitive capacities of youth offenders on the RJC process and outcomes.
  • Restorative Justice Conferencing as a ‘Holistic’ Process: Convenor Perspectives
    Restorative justice conferencing (RJC) has demonstrated strengths over traditional criminal justice approaches, including victim satisfaction and redress, and offender perceptions of legitimacy and fairness. However, less is known about how and why. This research examines conference convenor perspectives concerning how and why RJC ‘works’ in terms of such outcomes. The convenor perspective is a poorly investigated area in RJC research, despite the pivotal role that convenors play as ‘key’ participants in RJC practice. Based on semi-structured interviews with convenors involved in the Youth Justice Group Conferencing program in Victoria, findings highlight that not only face-to-face dialogue, but also preparation and follow-up play distinct and important roles in the outcomes of RJC. As preparation and follow-up phases are often dismissed or compromised in practice, this article suggests that RJC should be clearly articulated and implemented as a ‘holistic’ process that requires equal attention to all three phases.
  • Myths of restorative features in the Japanese justice system and society: the role of apology, compensation and confession, and application of reintegrative shaming
    Restorative justice (RJ) has experienced rapid growth. Along with its development, myths about RJ have emerged. Although several scholars have challenged these, two myths about restorative features in the Japanese justice system and society—(1) the role of apology, compensation and confession; and (2) the application of reintegrative shaming—arguably remain pervasive. In this paper, we aim to advance a critical analysis of these two ostensibly restorative features of the Japanese justice system and society. We argue that the reality is more nuanced. We conclude by analysing why these myths have emerged and what functions they have performed.
  • Current Debates over Restorative Justice: Concept, Definition and Practice
    Since its emergence, restorative justice (RJ) has attracted scholars, practitioners and policy-makers from around the world. At the same time, however, such popularity has also generated confusion and a lack of consensus on what is RJ. Different people have proposed different notions of what qualifies as RJ. This article aims to contribute to such an ongoing debate by providing an overall picture of RJ. In this commentary, consideration is given to three aspects of RJ: concept, definition and practice.
  • Co-option, Coercion and Compromise: Challenges of Restorative Justice in Victoria, Australia
    Restorative justice (RJ) encompasses a widely diverging set of practices whereby those most affected by crime are encouraged to meet, to discuss the effects of harms caused by one party to another, and to agree upon the best possible redress of harms when appropriate. In its inception in the late 1970s, RJ was conceptualized and developed as an alternative to formal criminal justice practices. Since this time, however, RJ has largely moved from being an alternative to criminal justice practices to an ‘alternative’ practice within criminal justice systems. This institutionalization has resulted in the significant growth of RJ practices, but has also resulted in RJ being used for criminal justice system goals that are at odds with the needs of victims or offenders. This paper examines the use of the Youth Justice Group Conferencing Program in Victoria, Australia. Drawing from interviews with conference conveners, our research highlights problems related to administrative ‘constraints’ and ‘co-options’ in conferencing in terms of referrals, preparation of conference participants, and victim participation. Following presentation of findings, we conclude with a discussion of implications for the use of RJ within a highly institutionalized setting.
  • Population Exchange and the Politics of Ethno-Religious Fear: the EU-Turkey Agreement on Syrian Refugees in Historical Perspective
    In March, the EU and Turkey reached an agreement in which all refugees who reach Greece through unauthorized means would be returned to Turkey. The deal is the latest effort to ‘stem the tide’ of refugees who have fled the Middle East. Yet this is not the first time negotiations between Europe and Turkey have resulted in an agreement to exchange problematic populations. As part of the negotiations ending WWI, Turkey and Europe agreed to an exchange of populations in which Christians in Turkey would be sent to Greece in exchange for Greece’s small population of Muslims. This project draws upon historical research and contemporary policy to compare the 2016 EU-Turkey Refugee Agreement and the 1923 Greco-Turkish population exchange. A comparative approach reveals the European response to this refugee crisis is not merely an echo of past sentiments, but the product of patterns of prejudice that have structured relationships between majority populations and religious minority and refugee populations, in Europe and Turkey alike.
  • Structural Property Losses from Tornadoes in Florida
    Property losses from tornadoes in Florida are estimated by combining a one-km spatial grid of structural values from the Department of Revenue's 2014 cadastral database with historical tornado events since 1950. There are 91,180 cells in the state with at least some structural value. Total and residential structural values total \$942 Billion and \$619 Billion, respectively. Over the period 1950 through 2015 there were 3,233 individual tornado reports in the state with a peak frequency during July. Property value exposed to tornadoes is estimated using a geometric model for the path. Annual statewide total and residential structural property exposure to tornadoes is estimated at \$171 Million and \$103 Million, respectively. Property exposure to tornadoes peaks in February although the number of tornadoes peaks in September. A regression model quantifies the relationship between actual losses since 2007 and exposures. A doubling of the residential exposure increases actual recorded losses by 26\% since 2007 and a doubling of non-residential exposure increases losses by 21\% controlling for changes over time. Randomization of the historical tornado paths provides alternative exposure scenarios that are used to determine the probability of extreme loss years. Results from the Monte Carlo algorithm indicate a 1\% chance that the annual loss will exceed \$430 Million and a .1\% chance that it will exceed \$1 Billion. These findings, and the procedure to obtain them, should help property insurance and reinsurance companies gauge their risk of losses and prioritize their management actions.
  • The role of ego in academic profile services: Comparing Google Scholar, ResearchGate, Mendeley, and ResearcherID
    Academic profiling services are a pervasive feature of scholarly life. Alberto Martín-Martín, Enrique Orduna-Malea and Emilio Delgado López-Cózar discuss the advantages and disadvantages of major profile platforms and look at the role of ego in how these services are built and used. Scholars validate these services by using them and should be aware that the portraits shown in these platforms depend to a great extent on the characteristics of the " mirrors " themselves.
  • Conscientious refusal, the requirement of justification, and the fetishisation of conscience in healthcare: a Polish perspective
    A dogma accepted in many ethical and legal frameworks is that the reasons that lie behind conscientious objection (CO) in healthcare cannot be evaluated or judged by anyone other than the objector herself, because conscience is individual, autonomous, and inaccessible to any outside evaluation. In this paper I argue that this view is mistaken: physicians have an obligation to reveal and explain their reasons for CO and that these reasons may be evaluated either ex ante or ex post. In arguing for my claims I refer mostly to the Polish context and I defend some novel claims that have not been analyzed extensively in the debates on CO. First, I introduce a moral threshold requirement: CO is justified only if the reasons behind a refusal are of moral nature and meet a certain threshold of importance. Second, I highlight the similarities between CO in healthcare and the regulations concerning military refusals, including an emerging practice of granting the right to selective CO status to professional soldiers, that places the burden of proof on a petitioner for CO status. My argument highlights the special status of refusing to kill human organism (military conflicts, abortion, assisted-suicide), and shows that certain other common forms of CO do not warrant accommodation (e.g. emergency contraception).
  • Teaching Foundational Data Skills in the Library
    In Databrarianship: The Academic Data Librarian in Theory and Practice, edited by Linda Kellam and Kristi Thompson. Chicago: Association of College and Research Libraries, 2015. Undergraduate students often struggle when asked to locate, evaluate, and use data in their research, and librarians have an opportunity to support them as they learn data literacy skills. Much of the literature on data librarianship in this area focuses on data reference services, but there is a lack of scholarship and guidance on how to translate data reference expertise into effective teaching strategies. In this chapter, the authors will bridge that gap between data reference and information literacy instruction.
  • Μονοπάτια αγώνα & έρευνας: πτυχές ερευνητικών μεθόδων εργατικής, αγωνιστικής και συμμετοχικής έρευνας δράσης.
    Συνήθως διαπιστώνεται μια μεγάλη απόσταση ανάμεσα στον αγώνα για τη χειραφέτηση της εργατικής τάξης και στην έρευνα που παράγεται στα πανεπιστημιακά πλαίσια. Ακόμα και αν, ως κοινωνική, η έρευνα έχει ως αντικείμενο τις συνθήκες εργασίας και ζωής της εργατικής τάξης, ο συνηθισμένος κανόνας είναι η αντικειμενοποίηση των υποκειμένων της τάξης, η εξουδετέρωση της κίνησης και της δράσης τους, η εξ-ουδετέρωση της δράσης και της κίνησης των ερευνητών, η απομάκρυνση ή δεοντική απαγόρευση της όποιας προοπτικής συνεργασίας, συν-έρευνας, ή κοινών συμφερόντων ερευνητών - ερευνώμενωνi. Στο άρθρο λοιπόν αυτό θα υπάρξει μια προσπάθεια για μια ενδεικτική επισκόπηση των μονοπατιών που συνδυάζουν την ερευνητική επιστημονική προσπάθεια με τον χειραφετητικό αγώνα.
  • Voting For a Cartel as a Sign of Cooperativeness
    This paper tests the hypothesis that a (partial) reason why cartels – costly non-binding price agreements – lead to higher prices in Bertrand Pricing Game-experiments could be because participants who form these kinds of agreements are more cooperative and pick higher numbers in general. To test this hypothesis we run an experiment where participants play two consecutive Bertrand oligopoly games: first a standard version without the opportunity to make price agreements; followed by a version where participants can vote, by majority, on whether to have a costly nonbinding agreement to pick the highest number. We find no statistically significant difference between the numbers picked in the first game by participants who vote for and against an agreement in the second game. We do confirm that having a price agreement leads to higher numbers being picked on average. Additionally we find that participants who vote for or against the price-agreement behave differently in response to the existence of the price agreement. In particular, participants who vote for a price agreement react more positively to the price agreement. The difference in numbers picked in the second game between situations with and without a price agreement is larger for participants who voted in favour of the agreement. Voters who voted for the price agreement are more cooperative than voters who voted against but only in situations where there is a price agreement.
  • Random? As if -- Spatial Interdependence and Instrumental Variables
    Instrumental variable (IV) methods are widely used to address endogeneity concerns in research using observational data. Yet, a specific kind of endogeneity -- spatial interdependence -- is regularly ignored in this research, threatening claims of causal identification. While researchers are increasingly aware of the consequences of unmodeled spatial interdependence, it seems less well-understood that this also affects instrumental variable analyses. We show that, as always, ignoring spatial interdependence results in biased and inconsistent estimates, even when instruments are randomly assigned. The extent of this bias increases when the instrument is also spatially distributed -- that is, not spatially randomly assigned -- which is the case for most widely-used instruments (such as rainfall, natural disasters, or economic shocks). This is also necessarily the case whenever researchers use instruments measured at a higher level of aggregation than the endogenous predictor -- e.g regionally- or globally-weighted averages. We demonstrate the extent of these biases both analytically and via Monte Carlo simulation, and discuss how they can be addressed using a simple estimation strategy. In short, instrumenting for both the endogenous predictor and spatial lag of the outcome (via 2SLS or GMM) recovers consistent estimates of the desired effects.
  • 2014. Review of Biosocial Becomings: Integrating Social and Biological Anthropology, by Tim Ingold and Gisli Pálsson (eds.). Anthropological Notebooks, 20(2): 173-175.
    2014. Review of Biosocial Becomings: Integrating Social and Biological Anthropology, by Tim Ingold and Gisli Pálsson (eds.). Anthropological Notebooks, 20(2): 173-175.
  • Large hydropower and legitimacy: A policy regime analysis, applied to Myanmar
  • Large hydropower and legitimacy: A policy regime analysis, applied to Myanmar
    Hydropower development in capacity-constrained countries can unfold through unsound policy arguments, narrow institutional and implementing arrangements, and ad hoc decision making processes. To derive insights for more legitimate policy making, we provide the first holistic account of Myanmar’s legitimation struggles over large hydropower, focusing on Myitsone, the country’s most controversial dam, during the period 2003–2011. Our analysis takes a policy regime perspective (specifically, a “political economic regime of provisioning” framework). Among our findings: (1) frequent use of non-rationally persuasive argument among contending actors; (2) a spiral of declining policy legitimacy, which is amplified by civil society mobilization, and halted by a 2011 decision to suspend Myitsone; (3) rejection of Myitsone but conditional acceptance of large hydropower among some elements of civil society. Opportunity and capability for more technically informed, inclusive discussion exists in Myanmar, but given hydropower’s complexities, urgently deserves to be augmented. Although Myitsone in Myanmar is an exceptional case, we offer three propositions to assess and improve policy legitimacy of hydropower.
  • Chronos advantage or disadvantage? The impact of cohort size on five areas social spending
    Chronos politics refers to the political mobilization of age groups and/or cohorts. In the popular media, commentators accuse Baby Boomers of using their large relative cohort size to force welfare states to shortchange smaller generations. Ironically, society used to be afraid that their disproportionate size would cause the Baby Boomers to be shortchanged. Our paper uses population and expenditure data on 24 countries to explore how the relative size of age groups affects expenditures in five areas of social spending: active labour market policies (ALMP), family, health, old age and unemployment. We find that, contrary to popular perceptions, per capita spending tends to lag behind demographic changes, resulting in shortages and windfalls for larger and smaller generations, respectively.
  • Spoken Language Teaching: What Do Teachers Believe in?
  • Spoken Language Teaching: What Do Teachers Believe in?
    This paper is a qualitative case study that aims to explore beliefs and practices of four English lecturers, by focusing on two components related to content knowledge of spoken language teaching, namely spoken forms (grammar and vocabulary), and interactional skills. It also aims to see how their held beliefs influence their teaching practices. To fulfil this purpose, four English lecturers teaching communicative English subject, contextualized in one polytechnic in Malaysia, were purposively selected as participants of the study. The data were gathered through interviews, non-participant classroom observation, as well as collection of relevant documents. The Atlas t.i. program was used to manage the data and thematic analysis was applied in data analysis. Generally, the findings indicate that the participants viewed the knowledge about spoken form as a relevant exposure to students, but it should not be the focal attention of the lesson. They also believed that interactional skills could be acquired through frequent speaking practices, and these beliefs are consistent with their teaching practices. The data also revealed some misconceptions about certain concepts in spoken language, and the teaching of the components in focus is found to be limited. This indicates a lack of depth content knowledge among the lecturers in these specific areas, hence recommendations for appropriate trainings and professional development programs are made to facilitate teachers to be more well-informed with their pedagogical decisions in classroom. In conclusion, this study illuminates the salient role of content knowledge among practicing teachers, as it potentially affects their teaching practices.
  • Racing through the Halls of Congress: The “Black Nod” as an Adaptive Strategy for Surviving in a Raced Institution
    Although there is an impressive body of research on the U.S. Congress, there has been limited discussion about the central role race plays in the organization of this political institution. While some scholars have documented Congress’ racist past, less is known about the present significance of race in the federal legislature. Throughout the day, African Americans routinely nod to one another in the halls of the Capitol, and consider the Black nod as a common cultural gesture. However, data from over sixty in-depth interviews suggest there is an additional layer of meaning to the Black nod in Congress. From the microlevel encounters, I observed and examined, I interpret the nod as more than a gesture that occurs in a matter of seconds between colleagues or even among perfect strangers in the halls of Congress. The Black nod encompasses and is shaped by labor organized along racial lines, a history of racial subordination, and powerful perceptions of race in the post-Civil-Rights era on the meso-, and macrolevels. Using this interpretive foundation, this article will show how the nod is an adaptive strategy of Black staffers that renders them visible in an environment where they feel socially invisible. The nod becomes an external expression of their racialized professional identity. I argue that the congressional workplace is a raced political institution and that the microlevel encounters I observed delineate and reproduce its racial boundaries. This article represents perhaps the first sociological study of Congress and provides an unprecedented view into its inner workings and the social dimensions that organize workplace relationships.
  • Standardizing Biases: Selection Devices and the Quantification of Race
    Racial inequality persists despite major advances in formal, legal racial equality. Scholars and policymakers argue that implicit bias and other forms of “new prejudice” combined with subjective organizational decision-making practices perpetuate racial inequality. The standardization of decision-making offers a potential solution, promising to eliminate the subjectivity that allows implicit bias to creep into consequential decisions. Drawing on research in science studies and law and society, we argue that standardization must be understood as a heterogeneous practice capable of producing very different outcomes depending on the details of the standard and the organizational infrastructure surrounding its use. We compare “selection devices” – simple quantified tools for making allocation decisions – in undergraduate admissions and child welfare to highlight the complex relationships between race and standardization. In particular, we suggest that actuarial standardization practices, including those adopted with the intention of reducing racial inequality, tend to reinforce an unequal status quo by reconfiguring mutable social structures into immutable individual risk factors, while non-actuarial practices lack the mechanical objectivity needed to stave off challenges of racial bias.
  • The White Working Class and Voter Turnout in US Presidential Elections, 2004—2016
    Through an analysis of the 2004, 2008, 2012, and 2016 Current Population Surveys, as well as the 2004 through 2016 General Social Surveys, this article investigates class differences and patterns of voter turnout for the last four US presidential elections. After developing some support for the claim that a surge of white working-class voters emerged in competitive states in 2016, a portrait of class differences on political matters among white non-Hispanic eligible voters between 2004 and 2016 is offered to consider the consequences of this compositional shift. These latter results are consistent with the claim that racial prejudice, anti-immigrant sentiment, concerns about economic security, and frustration with government responsiveness may have led many white working-class voters to support an outsider candidate who campaigned on these themes. However, these same results give no support to the related claim that the white working class changed its positions on these matters in response to the 2016 primary election campaign or in the months just before the general election.
  • A history of inequality: top incomes in Brazil, 1926/2014
    This paper uses income tax tabulations to estimate top income shares in Brazil over the long-run. Between 1926 and 2014, the concentration of income at the top remained very high, following a sine wave trend: top shares have ebbed and flowed over time, frequently in tandem with political and institutional disruptions. There is some evidence in favor of Williamson’s “missed levelling” hypothesis regarding the origins of Latin American exceptionally high levels of inequality, but the recent decline in inequality is cast in more dubious light, since top income shares remained quite stable since 2000 and the "tax-adjusted" Gini coefficient suggests a smaller and shorter, though still sizeable, decrease. I interpret the results in light of Brazil’s tumultuous political history and complement the analysis with international comparisons and a discussion of the role of institutions in shaping inequality.
  • Feeling Unequal: Social-Emotional Skills in the Reproduction of Social Class
    Sociological theory suggests that differential socialization in the management of emotions contributes to the reproduction of class. Although existing studies indicate that social-emotional skills are causally related to socio-economic outcomes, they have not tested whether differences in social-emotional skills mediate the intergenerational transmission of class. In this paper I test that hypothesis, using a method new to sociology that adjusts for co-varying mediators: sequential g-estimation. I find that a substantial proportion – 15 percent – of the association between class origins and destinations is mediated by social-emotional skills measured at age ten. In addition, whereas prior studies have used behaviors to measure social-emotional skills, I consider feelings about the self as well, and find that they too mediate class transmission. I argue that feelings of self-esteem and self-efficacy are an often-hidden mechanism by which class is reproduced.
  • The impact of political attitudes, religiosity, and values on attitudes towards nonprofit organizations
    Individual, micro-level attitudes towards nonprofit organizations (NPOs) can have many potential determinants. In this study, we explore the impact of three categories of potential determinants of attitudes towards NPOs: Political attitudes (the cultural integration vs. demarcation cleavage and the economic integration vs. demarcation cleavage); religiosity and spirituality; values (the survival vs. self-expression value dimension). Based on a representative survey in Switzerland, we estimate the impact of those factors for five different attitudinal dimensions and six different NPO types. The Bayesian model estimations show that all three categories of determinants have an impact, but a differential one: The effects are contingent on the dimensions of attitudes as well as on the types of NPOs.
  • Journal Scholar Metrics: building an Arts, Humanities, and Social Sciences journal ranking with Google Scholar data
    This paper describes the creation of “Journal Scholar Metrics” (JSM), a prototype web application that ranks journals in the areas of Arts, Humanities, and Social Sciences (AH&SS) on the basis of the citations their articles have received according to Google Scholar Metrics (GSM). To identify as many AH&SS journals as possible, a master list of 66,454 journals covered by various databases was developed. All AH&SS journals in that list were searched on GSM. Additionally, a series of keyword searches were carried out to identify journals covered by GSM which weren’t present in the master list. A total of 9,188 AH&SS journals with names written in Latin characters were found in the 2015 edition of GSM (which displays data about articles published between 2010 and 2014). Besides the journal-level indicators provided by GSM (H5-index and H5-median), several additional indicators were computed (H5-citations, H5-index and H5-citations without journal self-citations, and journal self-citation rate). Journals are displayed by subject categories and by country of publication. Quartiles were computed for each category, and journals in a category were further classified either as core (high affinity to the category) or related (partial affinity). A detail page for each journal is also available, displaying journal indicators, as well as a list of other databases were the journal is indexed.
  • Migration induced by sea-level rise could reshape the US population landscape
  • Migration Induced by Sea Level Rise could Reshape the US Population Landscape
    Many sea level rise assessments focus on populations presently inhabiting vulnerable coastal communities, but to date no studies have attempted to model the destinations of these potentially displaced persons. With millions of potential future migrants in heavily populated coastal communities, sea level rise scholarship focusing solely on coastal communities characterizes sea level rise as primarily a coastal issue, obscuring the potential impacts in landlocked communities created by sea level rise induced displacement. Here I address this issue by merging projected populations at-risk of sea level rise with migration systems simulations to project future destinations of sea level rise migrants in the United States (U.S.). I find that unmitigated sea level rise is expected to reshape the U.S. population distribution, potentially stressing landlocked areas unprepared to accommodate this wave of coastal migrants -- even after accounting for potential adaptation. These results provide the first glimpse of how climate change will reshape future population distributions and establishes a new foundation for modelling potential migration destinations from climate stressors in an era of global environmental change.
  • Sensorimotor Theory and the Problems of Consciousness
    The sensorimotor theory is an influential account of perception and phenomenal qualities that builds, in an empirically-supported way, on the basic claim that conscious experience is best construed as an attribute of the whole embodied agent’s skill-driven interactions with the environment. This paper, in addition to situating the theory as a response to certain well-known problems of consciousness, develops a sensorimotor account of why we are perceptually conscious rather than not.
  • How Do Indonesian Professional English Teachers Develop Their Pedagogical Competence in Teaching Implementation?
    This article aims to investigate what kinds of Professional Development (PD) activities done by Indonesian professional English teachers in developing their pedagogical competence dealing with teaching implementation as well as to identify how those activities contribute to their competence development. This qualitative study was done in two stages namely subjects selection and investigation on the subjects’ professional development for their pedagogical competence in teaching implementation. The criteria of subjects selection have reflected the four competences that professional teachers need to possess which include personal, social, pedagogical and professional competences. The data collection was done by using questionnaire, interview guide, observation sheet. This study involves four selected professional English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachers from Malang city, Malang Regency, and Batu town. The results show that PD activities done by the subjects include having discussion with colleagues, joining teacher association forum, attending seminars and workshops, taking courses, doing research, reading relevant sources, surfing the net,and doing team teaching. The ways how the subjects learn cover doing reflection, taking and giving feedback, discussing, broadening knowledge, researching, and problem solving. Referring to the limitation of this study, future researchers are recommended to do further study involving other aspects of pedagogical competence development, particularly the ones dealing with teaching preparation and evaluation on students learning.
  • To Err is Algorithm: Algorithmic fallibility and economic organisation
    Algorithmic decision-making systems based on artificial intelligence and machine learning are enabling unprecedented levels of personalisation, recommendation and matching. Unfortunately, these systems are fallible, and their failures have costs. I develop a formal model of algorithmic decision-making and its supervision to explore the trade- offs between more (algorithm-facilitated) beneficial deci- sions and more (algorithm-caused) costly errors. The model highlights the importance of algorithm accuracy and human supervision in high-stakes environments where the costs of error are high, and shows how decreasing returns to scale in algorithmic accuracy, increasing incentives to ’game’ popular algorithms, and cost inflation in human supervision might constrain optimal levels of algorithmic decision-making.
  • An (increasingly) visible college: Mapping and strengthening research and innovation networks with open data
    Innovation policymakers need timely, detailed data about scientific research trends and networks to monitor their evolution and put in place suitable strategies to support them. We have analysed the Gateway to Research, an open dataset about research funding and university-industry collaborations in the UK in a project to map innovation in Wales. We use supervised learning and Natural Language Processing to improve data coverage and measure activity in research topics, build a recommendation engine to identify new opportunities for collaboration in the Welsh innovation system, and present the results through interactive visualisations. Our results suggest that Wales is becoming more competitive in areas identified as strategic targets by Welsh Government, that its research ecosystem is geographically diversified, and that research collaborations tend to take place between organisations that are geographically close. The data sources and methods we have used in the project can help understand this system better, and support it more effectively.
  • The expansion and contraction of the journalistic field and American online citizen journalism, 2000–2012
  • Teaching English as an International/Lingua Franca or Mainstream Standard Language? Unheard Voices from the Classroom
    Over the last two decades there has been an upsurge in the voices among TESOL/applied linguistics scholars calling for the teaching of English as an International (EIL) and Lingua Franca (ELF) language as opposed to the mainstream Standard English (MSE). These calls seem to be rather theoretical than empirical intellectual debates among those scholars without taking on board the voices of English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers and learners themselves as stakeholders. Focusing on a Sudanese EFL context, the present study therefore duly aims at empirically contributing to this intellectual debate by involving those stakeholders in the debate and by offering a reconciliatory third way forward. The study attempts to address two main research questions: (i) what kind of English(es) do Sudanese EFL teachers and learners want to teach, learn and identify with? And (ii) how do they view EIL and ELF language and to what extent are they willing to teach and learn this variety in the classroom? The study adopted a qualitative interview-based methodology and thirteen EFL teachers and learners took part in the investigation by allowing face-to-face interviews. Results of data analysis showed that both teachers and learners reportedly prefer to teach, learn and identify with the mainstream Standard English. They also showed unawareness of EIL/ELF as an emerging and competing variety to the MSE. Teachers and learners also reported varied views towards the potentials of teaching and learning EIL/ELF in the classroom. The pedagogical implications and insights for TESOL research and pedagogy were discussed.
  • Teaching English as an International/Lingua Franca or Mainstream Standard Language? Unheard Voices from the Classroom
  • Behavioral Economists, Human-Computer Interactions and Research Transparency
    I model economists as being themselves behavioral, and not fully rational in how they implement their research. I characterize research results as a network graph of data analyses at the level of human-computer interactions that contain graph copies whenever the economist manifests behavioral shortcomings. Ethical and transparent research emerges as a unique graph. I allow researchers to hold themselves accountable with commitment devices that eliminate behavioral copies of research graphs. In so doing, I introduce a solution to the problem of the so-called garden of forking paths. Applications are based in economic theory and qualitative research for program evaluation design. The field of human-computer interaction has an important role to play in fostering research transparency in economics.
  • Learning English (and Arabic) in Malaysian Islamic Schools: Language Use and the Construction of Identities
  • Learning English (and Arabic) in Malaysian Islamic Schools: Language Use and the Construction of Identities
    The Malaysian schooling system celebrates the diversity of Malaysian ethnic groups by allowing different school types to co-exist since the independence of the Federation of Malaya (now Malaysia) from British colonial rule in 1957. Whilst ideologically young Malaysians can pick and choose where they want to learn, these schools are clustered around ethnicity, language and even religion. Only the majority national schools (or sekolah kebangsaan) reflect the diversity of the ideological Malaysian ‘race’ (or bangsa Malaysia). For national type schools (or sekolah jenis kebangsaan), these are almost exclusively subscribed by Tamil speaking students who are mostly Indians or by Mandarin speaking students who are mostly Chinese. The focus of this empirical paper is on a final school type, national religious schools (or sekolah kebangsaan agama), that represents the religious ideology of the Malaysian majority race, the Malay-Muslims. These are primary and secondary ‘Islamic schools’ that place heavy emphasis on Islamic education often through the medium of Arabic, for the Malay-Muslim majority in Malaysia. This paper focuses on the lived experiences of 30 first year university undergraduates who completed five to six years of secondary education in national religious schools. Data were collected from periodic focus group discussions and also written narrative ‘reflections’ of their Islamic school days with three cohorts of selected undergraduates from March 2016 to May 2017 at two university campuses in northern Malaysia. The stories they shared draw attention to how English, and to an extent Arabic language, influenced their school-based learning experiences and constructed their identities.
  • Reading Comprehension Difficulties among EFL Learners: The Case of First and Second Year Students at Yarmouk University in Jordan
    This paper discusses English as a foreign language (EFL) reading comprehension difficulties faced by students at a university in Jordan. Data were collected using questionnaires which were distributed to 200 students at Yarmouk University. The questionnaire consists of two parts: the first part contains demographic information about the participants and the second part includes two sections: the students’ preferences and the students’ reading difficulties. The findings reveal that the respondents are motivated to learn as they are in dire need for acquiring English. However, they face several problems in the reading process, such as ambiguous words, unfamiliar vocabulary, and limited available time to cognitively process the text. The findings of this study may be useful to policy makers in Jordan to improve the leaners’ reading experience.
  • Reading Comprehension Difficulties among EFL Learners: The Case of First and Second -Year Students at Yarmouk University in Jordan
  • The Phonotactic Adaptation of English Loanwords in Arabic
  • A Developmental Paradigm for English Language Instruction at Preparatory Year Programs
  • The Phonotactic Adaptation of English Loanwords in Arabic
    The phonological modifications made to English loanwords in Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) have come as a response to cope with the phonetic and phonological constraints in MSA sound system. These adaptations of loanword pronunciation clearly reflect the areas and effects of phonetic and phonological interference between the two languages in contact. For this purpose, over than 300 of English words borrowed by MSA are analyzed. At the syllabic and prosodic level, mechanisms like cluster simplification, syllabic consonant conversion, gemination, etc. are found at work and by far systematic in MSA borrowings. Generally, it has been found that most of the regular adaptations at syllable level such as declusterization, syllabic consonant conversion, consonant lengthening and vocalic glide insertion, are motivated by linguistic constraints inherited in the phonological system of MSA rather than by extra-linguistic motivations
  • A Developmental Paradigm for English Language Instruction at Preparatory Year Programs
    Preparatory Year Programs (PYP) at Saudi universities are meant to narrow the gap between high school and tertiary education. Improving English language proficiency and skills among newly admitted university students is also a major objective of these programs. However, PYP programs do not achieve much outside the ordinary to set students on the road to the university. In particular, low-level English language proficiency and poor language skills are still apparent among most PYP students. Hence, this study is an attempt to conceptualize some of the challenges and obstacles faced by both English as a foreign language(EFL) teachers and students at the PYP program at a Saudi university. The study then develops a paradigm that can improve EFL practices and pedagogies within similar PYP programs. A number of 48 EFL teachers within the PYP program participated in the study, and then challenges were categorized into six subcategories relevant to the context of the study. Teacher participants' feedback was formulated into a developmental paradigm. The study used a questionnaire with open-ended questions. Results were analyzed using a qualitative descriptive research method. Findings of the study can be implemented by policymakers and educators within PYP programs.
  • A Meta-synthesis of Qualitative Research about Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL) in Foreign Language Teaching
  • English for Specific Purposes: A Study Investigating the Mismatch between the “Cutting Edge” Course Book and the Needs of Prince Sultan Air Base Students
  • English for Specific Purposes: A Study Investigating the Mismatch between the “Cutting Edge” Course Book and the Needs of Prince Sultan Air Base Students
    Needs analysis is generally believed to be important in an English for Specific Purposes (ESP) context because it enables practitioners and material writers to find out about their learners’ needs. Thus, the main research question focuses on the perceived English language needs of the learners at Prince Sultan Air Base (PSAB), and the study involves an investigation into the mismatch between the Cutting Edge course book and the needs of PSAB students. A total of 70 students from different technical sections at Prince Sultan Air Base (PSAB), Saudi Arabia participated in the study. Two types of data collection methods were used in this study: quantitative (questionnaire) and qualitative (interviews). The results obtained reveal that the current course book being used at PSAB does not meet their needs because the activities provided are not relevant to the specific context of their field, which is mainly military and aviation. Finding and adapting a textbook that is clearly linked to these students’ needs and to the course objectives is suggested as one possible solution. In the context of PSAB, data from the interviews and surveys shows the need to assess the content of the course book in relation to the needs of the learners. It also indicates the strong demand of the students for supplementary materials that provide linguistic input to match their needs. Finally, offering supplementary materials and content-based instructions for those students would help to bridge the gap between language training and practical performance needs in real situations.
  • Arabic-English Parallel Corpus: A New Resource for Translation Training and Language Teaching
  • Arabic-English Parallel Corpus: A New Resource for Translation Training and Language Teaching
    Parallel corpora can be defined as collections of aligned, translated texts of two or more languages. They play a major role in translation and contrastive studies, and are also becoming popular in translation training and language teaching, with the advent of the data-driven learning (DDL) approach. Despite their significance, however, Arabic seems to lack a satisfactory general-use parallel corpus resource. The literature describes few Arabic–English parallel corpora, and these few are usually inaccurate and/or expensive. Some are small in size, while others are restricted in terms of genre, failing to meet the requirements of many academics and researchers. This paper describes an ongoing project at the College of Languages and Translation, King Saud University, to compile a 10-million-word Arabic–English parallel corpus to be used as a resource for translation training and language teaching. The bidirectional corpus can be used to compare translated and source language and identify differences. The corpus has been manually verified at different stages, including translation, text segmentation, alignment, and file preparation; it is available as full-text in XML format and through a user-friendly web interface that provides a concordancer to support bilingual search queries and several filtering options.
  • The Effect of L2 Exposure Environment on Nnests’ Teaching Skills and Beliefs about EFL Learning Beyond the Class
    The study aims at investigating the effect of second language (L2) exposure environment on NNESTs’ teaching skills and beliefs about EFL learning beyond the classroom. This is a survey for non-native English speaking teachers (NNESTs) of Indonesian Senior High Schools ( or in Indonesian terms ‘SMA’) from different L2 environments, namely: 1) urban-region exposure environment schools (n=40), and 2) rural-region exposure environment schools (n=40). There were two instruments used in the present study, i.e. 1) observation scaling checklist, and 2) questionnaire. The observation scaling checklist was used for assessing the respondents’ performance when they were teaching in class. Meanwhile, the questionnaire using a four-point Likert scale was used to elicit data. The researchers used a series of independent t-test to analyze the data. The result reveals that: 1) there is a significant difference between teaching skills of NNESTs from the urban region schools and those of NNESTs from rural region schools, t (78)= 19.499, p=0.000; and 2) there is a significant difference between beliefs about English as a foreign language (EFL learning beyond the classroom of the NNESTs from urban region schools and those of NNESTs from rural region schools, t (78)= - 4.925, p=0.000
  • The Effect of L2 Exposure Environment on Nnests’ Teaching Skills and Beliefs about EFL Learning Beyond the Class
  • An Experimental Study of the Effect of Student Teams Achievement Divisions (STAD) on Vocabulary Learning of EFL Adult Learners
  • An Experimental Study of the Effect of Student Teams Achievement Divisions (STAD) on Vocabulary Learning of EFL Adult Learners
    Student Teams Achievement Divisions (STAD) has been considered as an important cooperative learning strategy in progressive pedagogy. A number of studies have supported the use of STAD in different subject areas and in different socio-cultural contexts. However, it is still an under-researched area in countries like Saudi Arabia where English is taught as a Foreign Language. This quasi-experimental study was conducted in Unaizah Community College, Saudi Arabia. Both the experimental group and the control group were tested on 2000-word vocabulary test. A vocabulary test was prepared and administered by the researchers at the beginning of the experiment as a pre-test. The experimental group was taught with Student Teams Achievement Divisions (STAD) strategy whereas the control group was taught with traditional whole-class instruction method. The treatment was carried out for two weeks. At the end of the experiment, the same vocabulary test was re-administered as a post-test. Independent samples t-test was used to analyze the data using SPSS 21. Results showed that there was a significant difference between the experimental group and the control group in favor of the experimental group (p= 0.002 < 0.05).
  • The Effectiveness of Using Films in the EFL Classroom: A Case Study Conducted at an International University in Thailand
  • The Effectiveness of Using Films in the EFL Classroom: A Case Study Conducted at an International University in Thailand
    Films have always been seen as an entertainment and its power since birth has had strong impact on people’s lives. Today, films are no longer thought of as simple entertainment media but rather educational tools as well. Globalization has contributed greatly to the availability of English-language films and that enriches the source of English learning material dramatically. This research paper explores the effect of using English films in English as foreign language (EFL) classroom. It reveals the effect on developing students’ motivation, comprehension as well as communication skills. The study was carried out on a sample of two groups: an experimental group using films alongside their course book and a control group taught in a conventional way. The participants were classified as pre-intermediate level. The findings of this study have shown that those in the experimental group significantly outperformed their control group counterpart in terms of motivation and language production. Also, this study offers pedagogical implications for EFL teachers to use films in their classrooms to enhance students’ listening and speaking skills which as a result improved students’ learning.
  • Examining Text Coherence in Graduate Students of English Argumentative Writing: Case Study
    This study aims at examining the writing skills of a group of Indonesian graduate students of English. A particular attention has been focused on the coherence of their production of argumentative texts. Employing a discourse analytical case study, three texts written by three Master’s degree students of the English language education at a local university in Central Java, Indonesia, were analyzed. Coherence and cohesion is inextricable in which both are crucial in academic writing as to achieve a makes-sense text. Therefore, it is an urgent need to look at the writing competency of students as they are at graduate level, majoring in the English language education. The texts produced by the students were scrutinized through the lens of micro- and macro-level coherence (Thornburry, 2005). From this theory, cohesion is involved in micro level coherence. The findings indicate that the students show a bit weakness on achieving coherent texts due to lack of optimization of cohesive devices especially conjunctions to create interconnectedness of the whole sentences in the texts.
  • Examining Text Coherence in Graduate Students of English Argumentative Writing: Case Study
  • The Use and Evaluation of Vocabulary Learning Strategies among Sudanese EFL Learners
    The learning of new vocabulary as a part of English for Foreign Language (EFL) teaching and learning has not been investigated thoroughly because its effectiveness has been questioned by various researchers in the past. However, in recent years, various studies have shown that proper strategies in acquiring new words could be one of the keys to effective language learning among EFL learners. This study investigates how Sudanese EFL learners at Khartoum University, Sudan use and evaluate vocabulary learning strategies (VLSs). The three selected categories of vocabulary learning strategies - metacognitive, discovery, and consolidation - were chosen according to taxonomies proposed by Al-Fuhaid (2004), Schmitt (1997) and Nation (2001). These VLSs were then evaluated using Han’s Information Processing Theory and Craik and Lockhart’s Depth of Processing Theory (1972) to meet the two objectives of this study. The first objective was to examine the most frequently used VLSs employing a set questionnaire designed to elicit the necessary data. The second objective was to evaluate the usefulness of each of these VLSs by conducting in-depth interviews with the respondents. The results showed that metacognitive strategies were the most frequently used VLS among the three. In-depth interview data revealed that respondents evaluated all three VLS positively and considered them very useful in acquiring as well as understanding words. These findings suggest that language learners in Sudan should be taught vocabulary enhancing techniques while language instructors should use and teach these VLS to learners explicitly.
  • The Use and Evaluation of Vocabulary Learning Strategies among Sudanese EFL Learners
  • 修復的少年司法の批判的分析―オーストラリアを事例として― (Critical Analysis of Restorative Juvenile Justice: Case Study on Australia)
    本稿は以下の構成からなる。まず初めに、オーストラリアにおける修復的少年司法の実践に焦点を当てる。ここでは、オーストラリアにおける修復的少年司法の始まりおよび発展の歴史に関して簡単に触れた後、現在の実務状況および少年司法内への制度化によって生じた弊害に関して論じる。続いて、オーストラリアにおける修復的少年司法の有効性を扱った研究、特に Reintegrative Shaming ExperimentとSouth Australia Juvenile Justiceに着目する。これらの結果の分析を踏まえた上で、オーストラリアにおける修復的(少年)司法研究の今後の方向性について論じる。最後に、以上の批判的分析をもとに、日本への視座に関して言及する。
  • Myths of restorative features in the Japanese justice system and society: the role of apology, compensation and confession, and application of reintegrative shaming
  • Co-option, coercion and compromise: challenges of restorative justice in Victoria, Australia
  • Firm Turnover and the Return of Racial Establishment Segregation
    Racial segregation between American workplaces is greater today than it was a generation ago. This increase has happened alongside the declines in within-establishment occupational segregation on which most prior research has focused. We examine more than 40 years of longitudinal data on the racial employment composition of every large private-sector workplace in the United States to calculate between-area, between-establishment, and within-establishment trends in racial employment segregation over time. We demonstrate that the return of racial establishment segregation owes little to within-establishment processes but rather stems from differences in the turnover rates of more- and less-homogeneous workplaces. Present research on employment segregation focuses intently on within-firm processes. By doing so, we may be overstating what progress has been made on employment integration and ignoring other avenues of intervention that may give greater leverage for further integrating firms.
  • Risky recombinations: Institutional gatekeeping in the innovation process
    Theories of innovation and technical change posit that inventions that combine knowledge across technology domains have greater impact than inventions drawn from a single domain. The evidence for this claim comes mostly from research on patented inventions and ignores failed patent applications. We draw on insights from research into institutional gatekeeping to theorize that, to be granted, patent applications that span technological domains must have higher quality than otherwise-comparable, narrower applications. Using data on failed and successful patent applications, we estimate an integrated, two-stage model that accounts for this differential selection. We find that more domain-spanning patent applications are less likely to be approved, and that controlling for this differential selection reduces the estimated effect of knowledge recombination on innovative impact by about half. By conceptualizing the patent-approval process as a form of institutional gatekeeping, this paper highlights the institutional underpinnings of and constraints on the innovation process.
  • The Limits of Income Inequality: Public Support for Social Policy across Rich Democracies
    Given increases in income inequality across rich democracies since the 1980s, we expect public opinion to favor a stronger social policy role of the state as a corrective measure. A basic theory of democracy suggests that public opinion and redistributive social policies are reciprocally causal, therefore, lack of negative public reaction suggests that the public are satisfied with increasing inequality if their preferences did not help it grow in the first place. Theories of welfare state institutions and different trajectories of inequality suggest that the link between opinion and inequality depends on context. Drawing on theories of attitude formation, we use predictive modeling adjusting for the causes of public support for social policy to (a) test for public responsiveness to inequality; and (b) compare how this differs by institutional context. Our analyses use ISSP and WID data between 1980 and 2006. In liberal contexts where inequality expanded monumentally since the 1970s (mostly English-speaking countries), increasing inequality predicts higher support for state provision of social policy. In the coordinated and universalist contexts of Europe, increasing inequality predicts less support for state provision of social policy. The results suggest that the public in liberal societies – which had higher levels of inequality to begin with – reach their limits of inequality, reacting negatively; whereas in coordinated and universalist societies – starting out with comparatively lower inequality levels – they move positively with inequality, suggesting welcome cuts to the redistributive social welfare state.
  • “It could turn ugly”: Selective Disclosure of Attitudes in Political Discussion Networks
    This article documents individuals selectively disclosing their political attitudes and discusses the consequences of these communication patterns for social influence and the democratic process. Using a large, diverse sample of U.S. resident adults, we ask under which conditions do people reveal their political preferences versus keeping them close to the vest. We find Americans are more likely to share their opinions with friends and family rather than co-workers and they are more likely to share their opinions on more salient topics. More importantly, they withhold their political attitudes specifically from those with whom they disagree in an attempt to avoid conflict. This produces the experience of highly homogeneous social contexts, in which only liberal or conservative views are voiced, while dissent remains silent, and oftentimes goes unacknowledged. This experience is not the result of homogeneous social contexts but the appearance of them. Paradoxically, the mechanism of selective disclosure, whose goal is to prevent conflict at the micro-level, might lead to the perception of greater division in the larger society.
  • The Surprising Link Between Education and Fatal Police Shooting Rates in the U.S., 2013-2016
    This study analyzes county-level fatal police shooting rates from 2013 to 2016. Lasso regression, elastic net regression, cross-validated stepwise selection, all-subsets regression, partial least squares regression, as well as relative importance analysis are used to assess the best predictive models. The most surprising and robust finding is that standardized test scores for English/Language Arts (ELA) are negatively associated with rates of fatal police shootings across multiple geographical levels of aggregation, net of crime and other socioeconomic controls. The findings suggest that deadly encounters between civilians and police officers are more likely to occur in impoverished regions with high rates of violent crime, more police per capita, and low average verbal ability. In addition, fatal police shootings rates tend to be lower in more segregated areas with larger Black populations and higher in areas with larger Hispanic populations.
  • Towards a Zero Tolerance on Gender Bias in the Moroccan EFL Textbooks: Innovation or Deterioration?
  • Towards a Zero Tolerance on Gender Bias in the Moroccan EFL Textbooks: Innovation or Deterioration?
    Gender discriminatory discourses and practices have been a worldwide concern. The present paper addresses a major feature of gender depiction in the Moroccan English as a Foreign Language (EFL) textbooks officially approved by the Ministry of Education and compulsory for high school students. Adopting a feminist theoretical approach, the study has quantitatively and qualitatively processed the gendered dialogues along with the related illustrations embedded in four EFL Moroccan textbooks, in addition to the gender roles assumed throughout different contexts (occupational/family roles, interests, activities). The textbooks were selected on the basis of their common themes and the different publication dates, starting from 1990 to 2005. The main aim is to see whether the English textbook designers adopt a gender-based approach as a preliminary initiative for pedagogical innovation, or they implicitly and explicitly use them to disseminate discriminatory discourses. The study reveals that women’s positive representation is persistently deteriorated in the Moroccan EFL textbooks. This stands against all steps towards pedagogical innovation and reinforces the traditional gender ideology. It suggests the urgent need for more pedagogical improvement at the level of gender representation in the Moroccan EFL textbooks. More importantly, is the need for all teacher training centres to prepare new teacher generations ready to use sexist texts constructively. The results’ implication is instrumental to the learning materials’ revision. It is also useful for all English language practitioners, textbook designers, and pedagogical experts addressing the challenge of adopting a gender-based approach as a way to open all avenues for pedagogical innovation.
  • The Complexity of Textual Borrowing in Learning English As a Foreign Language
    Exploring the notion of ownership of text and learning was potential to understand the question of textual borrowing. However, this relationship remained under-explored. This study would address two key research questions: (1) How did learners of English as a foreign language paraphrase texts and (2) How were their attitudes towards plagiarism. Data were drawn from texts produced by undergraduate students of English Department in reading comprehension classes. Two stages of analyses were carried out. Firstly description of quality of paraphrasing the texts by the learners were presented and distributed. Secondly, the learners’ attitudes towards plagiarism were described. These analyses were used as starting point to interpret the student plagiarism. Findings and discussion revealed that 20% of the learners’ works were 100% unique. They agreed to say that plagiarizing was as bad as stealing an exam and that plagiarism impoverished the investigative spirit. The rest were plagiarized ranging from 5% up to 24%. They said that sometimes they felt tempted to plagiarize because so many other students were doing it. They argued sometimes they copied a sentence or two just to become inspired for further writing. Pedagogically, it implies that since paraphrasing is using one’s own words to express someone else's ideas, students should be encouraged to cite a source accurately and define unfamiliar words instead of being punished. They need to change any words or phrases that match the original so closely. The ideas and meaning of the original source must be maintained and words must be their own.
  • The Complexity of Textual Borrowing in Learning English As a Foreign Language
  • Jordanian Female Ninth-Grade Students' Attitudes towards Using Questioning Strategies in Critical Reading
    Students’ attitudes towards questioning strategies play an important role for its implementation success or failure. This study aims to investigate the students’ attitudes towards questioning strategies of critical reading skills among Jordanian female ninth-grade students in Al Qaser Directorate of Education. A semi-structured interview instrument was used to assess students’ attitudes. Data were collected from students at three public schools located in Qaser, Karak, Jordan. A total of 85 students participated in this present study. The sample which includes interviewees was 15 students. Overall, students showed favorable attitudes towards questioning strategies. However, some students faced some challenges by using these strategies e.g. self- questioning strategy. In light of these results, several recommendations were suggested to the Ministry of Education, English teachers and other researchers. The researcher also suggested that further research should be carried out on other school levels for boys and girls in order to support or refute the results of this study.
  • Jordanian Female Ninth-Grade Students' Attitudes towards Using Questioning Strategies in Critical Reading
  • Teachers’ Perspectives of the use of CLT in ELT Classrooms: A Case of Soran District of Northern Iraq
    This mixed-method study aims at exploring Iraqi English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachers’ attitudes towards Communicative Language Teaching (CLT). The study was conducted in Soran town, in the northern part of Iraq. The participants of the study were 58 EFL teachers from secondary and high school classrooms. In the first phase, a five-point Likert-scale questionnaire was administered (Karavas-Doukas, 1996) to examine the participants’ attitudes towards CLT principles: “place/importance of grammar, group/pair work, quality and quantity of error correction, the role of the teacher in the classroom, the role and contribution of learners in the learning process.” The second phase of the study was qualitative and consisted of semi-structured interviews to examine the reasons behind the implementation of CLT in terms of the factors that hinder and encourage the implementation of CLT in the Iraqi setting. The results of the quantitative analysis revealed that the teachers held overall positive attitudes towards the use of CLT. The findings of the interview phase concluded that the main factors that cause the failure and success of the implementation of CLT in Iraq can be categorized under four headings: educational factors, teacher factors, student factors, and CLT factors. The results of the study suggest that the educational system and the teachers’ communicative competence are essential to promote the employment of CLT in Iraqi EFL classrooms.
  • Teachers’ Perspectives of the use of CLT in ELT Classrooms: A Case of Soran District of Northern Iraq
  • The Effects of Formative Assessment on Algerian Secondary School Pupils’ Text Comprehension
  • The Effects of Formative Assessment on Algerian Secondary School Pupils’ Text Comprehension
    Formative assessment has proved its potential in improving the learning outcomes of EFL learners. However, its use is quite restricted in the Algerian secondary school. Thus, instead of playing a formative role, the assessment found in the Algerian EFL classroom is of a summative nature. Accordingly, the purpose behind the current research is to shed light on the importance of formative assessment in the teaching and learning processes by highlighting its effect on text comprehension, as the latter may be an obstacle to effective language learning and academic achievement among Algerian secondary school pupils. To reach this end, the present research attempts to investigate the impact of formative assessment on pupils’ text comprehension as well as their achievement and attitudes through answering the following research questions: (1) how does formative assessment develop pupils’ text comprehension? (2) What changes can the experiment bring in terms of students’ achievements and attitudes towards text comprehension? This research is based on a quasi-experimental design delivered to sixteen third year secondary school pupils as the latter are required to sit for the ‘Baccalaureate’ exam in which text comprehension is of crucial importance. A pretest, a posttest, an intervention which lasted five weeks and a questionnaire were used to find out the impact of formative assessment on the development of pupil’s text comprehension. The results obtained showed a significant progress in pupils’ outcomes in the four language competences: grammatical, textual, functional and sociolinguistic and namely in grammatical and textual competences. Therefore, it is strongly recommended that formative assessment should be an integral part of the teaching process.
  • Strategies and Predictors of EFL Listening Comprehension
  • Strategies and Predictors of EFL Listening Comprehension
    The purpose of this study is to compare the efficiency of two methods for teaching listening comprehension – the cognitive strategy-based instruction method (CSBM) and the metacognitive strategy-based instruction method (MetSBM). Additionally, this study aims to evaluate the way in which three co-variables – vocabulary knowledge (VK), word recognition (WR) and working memory (WM) – contribute to individual differences in listening comprehension. The subjects of this study, 44 female students studying on an English programme at the University of Sharjah in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), were placed in two groups and taught a range of listening comprehension strategies, in accordance with the MetSBM and the mainstream CSBM. Seven pre- and post-tests were used (a listening comprehension test (LCT), vocabulary knowledge tests (VKK1 and VKK2), the Metacognitive Awareness Listening Questionnaire (MALQ), an Aural Word Recognition test (AWR), an Orthographic Word Recognition test (OWR), a Working Memory Span test (WMS). This study considers three questions: (1) Is metacognitive teaching likely to lead to higher listening comprehension scores than the teaching of cognitive strategies, (2) Are students in the control group likely to develop metacogntive strategies on their own, and (3) Are there other variables that are likely to contribute to listening comprehension. The results suggest that the MetSBM is more effective in teaching and learning how to listen for comprehension than the CSBM. In addition, other variables – OWR, AWR, and WM contribute to listening comprehension. A number of recommendations to teachers, material developers, and researchers are provided. The present study contributes to the field of listening comprehension in an Arab context (a so far an unmapped territory). It equips English teachers with feasible ways of teaching EFL listening comprehension more efficiently.
  • Problems of Pre-service Teachers during the Practicum: An Analysis of Written Reflections and Mentor Feedback
  • Problems of Pre-service Teachers during the Practicum: An Analysis of Written Reflections and Mentor Feedback
    Knowledge of pre-service teachers’ problems during the practicum is supremely important to the design and implementation of an effective field experience. Based on this, the current study aimed to explore the most frequent problems of a cohort of English as foreign language (EFL) beginning teachers (n = 60) enrolled in a training program. Results of an in-depth content analysis of post-lesson written reflections (n = 1511), mentor feedback (n = 1624) and end-of-each-practicum reports (n = 337) reveal 23 frequent problems with teaching methodology, class control and time management as the top concerns. Results also indicate that trainees’ development seems to go through five distinct stages. These findings offer for the first time an insight into the most pressing needs of Moroccan EFL pre-service teachers. Interpretations of the results and recommendations are discussed in relation to the context of the study.
  • Vocabulary Teaching and Learning Principles in Classroom Practices
  • Vocabulary Teaching and Learning Principles in Classroom Practices
    Vocabulary teaching and learning principles assist in providing effective teaching and learning methods, in accordance with the learners’ proficiency level. However, studies that looked into the relevancy of those principles are rather limited. Thus, this study focuses on finding the common practices of vocabulary teaching and learning principles in the classroom. Interviews involving three experts were done to determine their vocabulary teaching and learning principles application in their teaching. Based on the data analysed using Atlas t.i, out of ten Vocabulary Teaching and Learning Principles, only eight were practiced by the participants. The findings revealed that these experts, even though practice the principles, the approaches were varied. Finally, the data points to the need for future studies on the importance of having good vocabulary instructions in teaching and learning vocabulary.
  • Students’ Attitudes towards Cambridge Unlock Workbook: English Intermediate I Level at Birzeit University
  • Students’ Attitudes towards Cambridge Unlock Workbook: English Intermediate I Level at Birzeit University
    The purpose of this study is to investigate the attitudes of English Intermediate I students at Birzeit University (BZU) towards Cambridge Unlock online homework. It also aims at evaluating the effectiveness of the online activities, from the students’ perspective, in regard to their in-class language learning skills; reading, writing, listening, speaking, and vocabulary building. The sample for this study is 200 undergraduate students at BZU who were placed at English Intermediate I level. A questionnaire was given to the students during the second month of their second semester. The overall results of the students’ responses showed inconclusive attitude towards online homework. Only 22.5% of the students thought it was more helpful than traditional homework. While an average of 66% of students’ responses showed that the online homework was beneficial to their in-class language skills activities; reading, vocabulary, and listening; an average of 48% only stated that it was effective in improving their writing skills. In addition, the written comments on the online program provided by a total of 141 students showed a negative attitude towards the online homework program with only 20% who stated that it was beneficial to their language learning.
  • The Resurfacing of Arabic Qaf [q] in the Speech of Young Ammani Females: A Sociolinguistic Study
  • The Resurfacing of Arabic Qaf [q] in the Speech of Young Ammani Females: A Sociolinguistic Study
    The main objective of this study is to explore the factors that affect the absence of the glottal stop [ʔ] and as a result, the resurfacing of the standard Arabic Qaf variable [q], in certain lexical items of young Ammani females who associate themselves with the Jordanian Arabic madani ('urban') dialect of which [ʔ] is a predominant feature. In particular, the study explores why this absence occurs from the perspectives of the speakers themselves in relation to their own language choices. Empirical data are collected through the use of a closed questionnaire and a focus group discussion. The findings reveal that one of the major factors for the resurfacing of [q] is related to the influence of family dialect and social networks and not because the target words are of a religious or formal origin, as once they might have been attested in the speech of older generations.
  • Attachment Theory in Relation to Literacy/Reading Acquisition for Immigrants, Refugees, and the Disenfranchised
  • Attachment Theory in Relation to Literacy/Reading Acquisition for Immigrants, Refugees, and the Disenfranchised
    The increase in immigrant, refugee and disenfranchised children in education is growing exponentially, and therefore, causing a demand for understanding the reasons that marginalized children are struggling to succeed within the current educational system. One response to this academic quandary is, as the research suggests, that attachment to the caregiver is a vital platform for all child development and learning Bowlby (1958). Another proposition is that attachment theory premises can be used to identify if and how attachment to a parent impacts attachment to literature and literacy development, which directly affects academic achievement. The association between attachment to the caregiver and a child’s attachment to literature among Anglo-Germanic groups (Van Ijzendoorn, 1996) has been studied, and the results demonstrate a direct correlation between the rapport with the caregiver and literacy acquisition and reading readiness. The link between attachment and literacy/reading acquisition as a cognitive phenomenon has not yet been studied among children that comprise immigrant, refugee, and disenfranchised children, and therefore, is the hypothetical imperative for recommended research.
  • Presupposition: A Semantic or Pragmatic Phenomenon?
  • Presupposition: A Semantic or Pragmatic Phenomenon?
    There has been debate among linguists with regards to the semantic view and the pragmatic view of presupposition. Some scholars believe that presupposition is purely semantic and others believe that it is purely pragmatic. The present paper contributes to the ongoing debate and exposes the different ways presupposition was approached by linguists. The paper also tries to attend to (i) what semantics is and what pragmatics is in a unified theory of meaning and (ii) the possibility to outline a semantic account of presupposition without having recourse to pragmatics and vice versa. The paper advocates Gazdar’s analysis, a pragmatic analysis, as the safest grounds on which a working grammar of presupposition could be outlined. It shows how semantic accounts are inadequate to deal with the projection problem. Finally, the paper states explicitly that the increasingly puzzling theoretical status of presupposition seems to confirm the philosophical contention that not any fact can be translated into words.
  • Exophoric and Endophoric Awareness
  • Exophoric and Endophoric Awareness
    This research aims to shed light on the impact of exophoric and endophoric instruction on the comprehension (decoding) skills, writing (encoding skills), and linguistic awareness of English as Foreign Language learners. In this line, a mixed qualitative quantitative approach was conducted over a period of fifteen weeks on sixty English major students enrolled in their first year at the Lebanese University, fifth branch. The sixty participants were divided into two groups (30 experimental) that benefited from instruction on exophoric and endophoric relations and (30 control) that did not have the opportunity to study referents in the designated period of the research. The participants sat for a reading and writing pretest at the beginning of the study; and they sat again for the same reading and writing assessment at the end of the study. The results of the pre and post tests for both groups were analyzed via SPSS program and findings were as follows: hypothesis one stating that students who are aware of endophoric and exophoric relations are likely to achieve better results in decoding a text than are their peers who receive no referential instruction, was accepted with significant findings. Hypothesis two stating that students who are aware of endophoric and exophoric relations are likely to perform better in writing than their peers who receive no referential instruction , was accepted with significant findings. Hypothesis three stating that, students who learn endophoric exophoric relations become aware of referents and their linguistic function, was also asserted with significant findings. The study answered the research questions can endophoric and exophoric awareness influence the reading comprehension and writing structure of English as foreign language learners? Does instruction on referents boost learners’ awareness on the linguistic function of endophoric and exphoric relations? Recommendations for teachers, learners, curriculum designers, and future research have been incorporated.
  • Non-Verbal Predicate in English: Evidence from Iraqi Nominal Sentences
    The fact that Iraqi nominal sentences are expressed without a verbal element has led the author to examine the status of the copula (be) in English. The aim is to reach at an explanation as to why Iraqi does not use a copula while English does. Explanation of this sort is significant because it has some direct implications on English language teaching and translation in Iraq. Using inductive method of reasoning, it has been established that tracing grammatical properties such as tense and agreement may lead to find-out the reason behind this cross-linguistic variation and subsequently reach at a generalization that maybe applicable to other languages. The latter is an issue that remains open for further research. While placing the discussion within the parameters of the Government and Binding (GB) theory, the author concluded the reason as non-verbal predication in Iraqi, unlike English, can support a combination of these grammatical properties and thus rendering the need for a copula redundant.
  • English As a Medium of Instruction and the Endangerment of Arabic literacy: The Case of the United Arab Emirates
    Due to the rapid spread of globalization and the attendant ‘global English,’ the need for English is often accepted without much thought being given to native languages. Indeed, this is the current situation in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), with English encroaching into all areas of society, and especially forcefully into the education sector, where English as a medium of instruction (EMI) is on the rise. At the same time, Arabic literacy, the ability to read and write in the language, is declining among UAE youth. Using a mixed-methods design, a study was conducted to gain insights into the use of Arabic by Emirati university students. The study examines how Emirati youth use their native language (i.e., Arabic) in their daily lives, their perception of their own reading and writing skills in Arabic vis-à-vis in English language, and the extent to which they can demonstrate their literacy skills in Arabic. Clear evidence emerged showing that while Arabic as a dialect continues to be spoken and used on a daily basis, Arabic literacy is unquestionably losing ground. This paper concludes with a call for a language policy in the UAE that will give Arabic its due in schools and wider society.
  • We’ve been dancing in the shadows for far too long
    The true Buddha is silent, were the words told to me on numerous occasions by a wise Hungarian professor. How true these words were only began to resonate when I realized that the louder I spoke the less observant the audience. The weight in performance, in aptitude in a manner unnoticed has the advantage that the less noticeable one is as a threat to whatever, a job position or as an adversary the freer one is to continue with one’s task. With the advent of the millennium, like a silent ninja India struck the world with its capabilities with respect to information technology. No one saw us coming and now in NASA, 36% or almost 4 out of 10 scientists are Indians. (See. articleshow/2853178.cms). Here we are seventeen years later stronger than ever:
  • Insurgent Counterpublics: an Origin of 2016-2017 South Korean Presidential Impeachment Mobilizations
    This study introduces a meaningful origin of a large-scale mobilization pressuring for the presidential impeachment in 2017 in South Korea. One of the earliest analysis (Nan Kim 2017) on the presidential impeachment mobilization focuses on roles of symbols, which catalyzed building greater solidarity amongst activists and lay-citizens, originating from a shipsink tragedy of Sewol in 2014. In fact, many social movement literatures have profiled episodes based on ‘factors’, failing to provide composite temporal-spatial perspective. I aim to overcome the extant limitation of the scholarship with logic of social sequence, which is a relatively novel network analysis technique, and present not only an episode but also ‘stream’ of contention. I have collected substantive amount of library, interview, and survey data to develop a sequentially emergent network structure taking account of three key actors (i.e., ‘lay-citizens’, liminal counterpublic group, and rank-in-file labor unionists). Indeed, a seed of wide-range solidarity in South Korean civil society had already formed in 2008-2011 and continued to play a key role in the subsequent stream of contention. I approach this history with refined conceptualization of ‘counterpublics’, which is an emergent entity containing multiple identities. A liminal counterpublic group was formed in 2011 when Hope Bus campaigns were organized by activists from various civil society sectors (temporary workers’, peace, environment, LGBTQ, and artistic movements) and this group provided movement infrastructures for ensuing mobilizations even until now in 2017. Furthermore, the notion of solidarity building and artistic tactics expanded through emerging network structure to other entities including Korean Confederation of Trade Unions (KCTU), which had been deemed to be ‘compromising’ to Hegemony ever since the late-1990s. Indeed KCTU turned to play a central role in a large-scale mobilization in 2015 encompassing wide-ranged voices of civil society, and the theme of this campaign repeated in the 2016-2017 presidential impeachment mobilization
  • Pierre Bourdieu as Cognitive Sociologist
    It is now well established that Pierre Bourdieu’s work can be interpreted as a form of cognitive sociology. Yet, given that the term “cognitive” has a variety of meanings, the question of where Bourdieu’s project of cognitive sociology fits into other cognitively grounded approaches in the social sciences remains open. In this chapter, I argue that if Bourdieu is to be considered a cognitive theorist, then there is only one way in which we can interpret his conception of cognition, and that is as a form of embodied cognition. I distinguish different senses of the term embodiment and specify how they show up in Bourdieu’s work. I discuss two broad sets of empirical phenomena---the “hard” and “soft” embodiment of culture---that have recently been identified and argue that their discovery represents a vindication of the prescience and extant promise of Bourdieu’s version of cognitive sociology. I close by providing indications how we can further an empirically grounded version of Bourdieu’s cognitive sociology today.
  • Simulated Probabilistic Population Estimation
    One can estimate population sizes from random nonunique identifier variables such as birthdates or first names. Banks and Pandiani (2001) developed an efficient method of estimating population from the number of birthdates, and extended that to estimating overlaps of two populations. Banks and Pandiani took advantage of the (almost) uniform distribution of birthdates using the coupon-collector model in probability. This paper develops an alternative method from simulated data and extends the method to nonuniform distributions, such as names. The appendix provides applicable R code.
  • A Relational Event Approach to Modeling Behavioral Dynamics
    This chapter provides an introduction to the analysis of relational event data (i.e., actions, interactions, or other events involving multiple actors that occur over time) within the R/statnet platform. We begin by reviewing the basics of relational event modeling, with an emphasis on models with piecewise constant hazards. We then discuss estimation for dyadic and more general relational event models using the relevent package, with an emphasis on hands-on applications of the methods and interpretation of results. Statnet is a collection of packages for the R statistical computing system that supports the representation, manipulation, visualization, modeling, simulation, and analysis of relational data. Statnet packages are contributed by a team of volunteer developers, and are made freely available under the GNU Public License. These packages are written for the R statistical computing environment, and can be used with any computing platform that supports R (including Windows, Linux, and Mac)."
  • Assisted Reproductive Technology in Europe: Usage and Regulation in the Context of Cross-Border Reproductive Care
    This chapter reviews assisted reproductive technologies (ART) usage and policies across European countries, and scrutinizes emerging issues related to cross-border reproductive care (or “reproductive tourism”). Although Europe is currently the largest market for ART, the extent of usage varies widely across countries, largely because of differences in the laws, the affordability, the types of reimbursement, and the norms surrounding childbearing and conception. Since 2009, the regulation of ART has been expanding in Europe, and all countries now have some form of ART legislation. Countries where the treatments are completely covered by national health plans have the highest level of ART utilization. Being in a legal marriage or a stable union is often a prerequisite for access to ART. Currently, only half of European countries allow single women to use ART, and even fewer grant access to lesbian women. Surrogate motherhood is strictly prohibited in many countries in Europe, and where it is allowed, strong restrictions against commercial surrogacy are in place. While restrictive national legislation can be easily circumvented by crossing national boundaries for ART treatments, questions of equity of access have been raised, as not all prospective parents can afford to travel for treatment.
  • Development and Implementation of a Mainstreaming Process to Transition Students from Self-Contained Special Education into General Education Placements
    One challenge presented to special educators is transitioning students out of special education self-contained settings and into the general education classroom. This challenge is compounded by there being an abundance of quality data that to guide placement into the special education classroom, but relatively sparse data exist to support transition out of special education back into the general education population. There are even fewer data demonstrating effective transitions of students out of self-contained classroom environments. To support special educators in these transitions, I developed a set of tools specifically to guide qualified students back into general education. These tools include a \textit{Mainstreaming Decision Tree} to identify candidate students and elucidate successful placement in general education. Identified candidate students then enter a 7-step transenvironmental programming process called a \textit{Mainstreaming Pipeline} to guide them through the process of being selected as a candidate, selection of general education classroom, data collection, and finally how to make the final transition out of special education self-contained placements. In the 2015-2016 school year, I undertook a limited implementation of these transenvironmental programming tools and facilitated the transition of 10 of 20 identified candidate students from self-contained academic special education classrooms into general education placements. In the 2016-2017 school year, this pilot implementation was extended to include 4 schools. Sixteen (16) of 53 identified candidate students from self-contained academic special education classrooms were able to transition into general education placements. In an extension of the model district-wide, 9 of 26 identified students from behavior/SEL unit classrooms, and 9 of 9 identified students from Life Skills/SID unit classrooms were successfully transitioned into a general education with part-time special education placement. A high percentage of the remaining candidates received \textgreater50\% of their day in general education classrooms and/or were placed in less restrictive self-contained classrooms. Overall, 54\% of identified candidate students were able to access a less restrictive environment as defined by IDEA
  • 3D printing Jurassic Park: Copyright law, cultural institutions, and makerspaces
    Matthew Rimmer (2016) '3D printing Jurassic Park: Copyright law, cultural institutions, and makerspaces' Pandora's Box, 2016, pp. 1-12. 3D printing is a field of technology, which enabled the manufacturing of physical objects from three-dimensional digital models. The discipline of copyright law has been challenged and disrupted by the emergence of 3D printing and additive manufacturing. 3D Printing poses questions about the subject matter protected under copyright law. Copyright law provides for exclusive economic and moral rights in respect of cultural works – such as literary works, artistic works, musical works, dramatic works, as well as other subject matter like radio and television broadcasts, sound recordings, and published editions. Copyright law demands a threshold requirement of originality. There have been sometimes issues about the interaction between copyright law and designs law in respect of works of artistic craftsmanship. In addition, 3D printing has raised larger questions about copyright infringement. There has been significant debate over the scope of copyright exceptions – such as the defence of fair dealing, and exceptions for cultural institutions. Moreover, there has been debate over the operation of digital copyright measures in respect of 3D printing. The takedown and notice system has affected services and sites, which enable the sharing of 3D printing designs. Technological protection measures – digital locks – have also raised challenges for 3D printing. The long duration of copyright protection in Australia and the United States has also raised issues in respect of 3D printing. There has been great public policy interest into how copyright law will address and accommodate the disruptive technologies of 3D Printing. As a public policy expert at Public Knowledge, and as a lawyer working for Shapeways, Michael Weinberg has written a number of public policy papers on intellectual property and 3D Printing. Associate Professor Dinusha Mendis and her colleagues have undertaken legal and empirical research on intellectual property and 3D printing. In 2015, Professor Mark Lemley from Stanford Law School wrote about intellectual property and 3D printing in the context of work on the economics of abundance. As a practising lawyer, John Hornick has examined the topic of intellectual property and 3D printing. Comparative legal scholar Dr Angela Daly has written on the socio-legal aspects of 3D printing in 2016. The World Intellectual Property Organization in 2015 highlighted 3D printing. 3D printing has provided new opportunities for cultural institutions to redefine their activities and purposes, and engage with a variety of new constituencies. 3D printing has also highlighted deficiencies in copyright law in respect of cultural institutions. Culturally and technologically specific exceptions for libraries, archives, and cultural institutions have proven to be ill-adapted for an age of 3D printing and makerspaces. The Australian Law Reform Commission has highlighted the need to modernise Australia’s copyright laws for the digital age. Likewise, the Productivity Commission has considered the question of copyright exceptions in its study of intellectual property arrangements in 2016. The Turnbull Government has contemplated somewhat more modest copyright reforms, with the draft legislation in the Copyright Amendment (Disability Access and Other Measures) Bill 2016 (Cth). Libraries, galleries, museums, and archives would all benefit from flexible copyright exceptions for cultural institutions to take full advantage of the possibilities of digitisation and 3D printing.
  • The Sociology of Quantification: Where Are We Now?
    A decade ago, Wendy Espeland and Mitchell Stevens published an essay titled “The Sociology of Quantification.” In it, they wrote that “sociologists have generally been reluctant to investigate [quantification] as a sociological phenomenon in its own right.” While accountants, anthropologists, and historians had begun the reflexive study of numbers, “sociologists have paid relatively little attention to the spread of quantification or the significance of new regimes of measurement” (Espeland and Stevens 2008:402). That has clearly changed. While Google Scholar shows only nine results for the phrase “sociology of quantification” through 2007, the last decade returns 448. This proliferation of scholarship on numbers goes hand in hand with a proliferation of numbers themselves. New technologies have created a “quantified self,” and the explosion of the internet has produced “big data”. As a senior sociologist recently quipped to one of us, sociology has become quantitative researchers, and qualitative researchers studying quantification. Thus the moment seems ripe for revisiting the sociology of quantification, looking at emerging themes, and seeking signs that a new subfield might be starting to consolidate. Alas, the news is mixed. Lots of good work is being done. The intellectual space is full of ferment. Yet—and perhaps the fact that we were reviewing books by authors from at least four different disciplines should have clued us in earlier—so far, we seem to be looking at a genre, not a subfield....
  • “Service Programmes” on Jordanian Radio: Understanding Broadcaster Persona through an Interdisciplinary Analysis of Language and Performance
    My ESRC-funded doctoral research explores linguistic practice on Jordanian radio today. The main conclusion of my research is that details of Arabic use in the radio setting have significant implications for the kind of audiences addressed – that is, who is included as a legitimate or “validated” listener – and the way members of the public can participate in radio discourse – this latter in particularly through call- ins, which are a frequent feature of Jordanian radio programming more generally. This paper looks at one type of programmes present on many contemporary Jordanian radio stations: the so-called “service programmes,” "barāmiž ḳadamātiyya," in which listeners call the station and speak live on the air in order to request assistance or mediation with local authorities in resolution of an issue – such as a damaged road, a broken water pipe, et cetera. It compares two popular service programmes: Barnāmiž al-wakīl, hosted by Muhammad al-Wakeel, and Wasaṭ al- balad, hosted by Hani al-Badri. It argues that, in order to properly appreciate the differences between the two programmes, an interdisciplinary approach to the data is required. This has raised certain methodological issues for my work, but on the other hand allowed me to explore new theoretical pathways and contribute new insights to scholarship on both contemporary Arabic language use, and Middle Eastern media.
  • Linguistic Dissent on Jordanian Radio: Implicature and Stance as Ambiguous Subversion
    This paper examines the mobilisation of linguistic ideologies as a form of dissent from dominant discourses of identity in contemporary Middle Eastern media. As part of my broader doctoral research on non-government Jordanian radio today, it takes a linguistical anthropological perspective focused on the notion of indexicality: the non-referential meanings that are invoked contingently in language use, and thus articulate links to broader social and cultural ideologies, including stereotypes of identity categories such as gender and geographic origins. I examine two case studies in which speakers problematise and reframe such stereotypes. The first involves the indexical mechanism of implicature, whereby a talk show caller mounts a challenge to dominant discourses of urban linguistic refinement through the ironic use of a ‘sanitised’ pronunciation of a local Jordanian dish (ča‘āčīl / ka‘ākīl). The second, from a programme in honour of a Jordanian pilot executed by the Islamic State (IS) in Syria, exhibits the performance of an evaluative stance towards Jordanian military activity as a form of patriotic nationalism, through the use of the [g] pronunciation of the sound /q/ (qāf) by a female broadcaster – a usage that defies gendered linguistic norms Jordanian radio, which require female speakers to use the [ʔ] (glottal stop) pronunciation instead. While these contingent uses of implicature and stance form challenges to certain dominant discourses, they are nevertheless ambiguous in that they draw on other problematic ideologies, including localist linguistic ‘authenticity’ and patriotic Jordanian nationalism. Thus, while details of language use provide important potential for dissent, this paper also problematises this potential – asking whether (1) subversive linguistic practices always need to draw on other dominant discourses in order to be meaningful, and (2) whether such references necessarily make dissent compromised or illegitimate.
  • Social Media on Jordanian Radio: Facebook Counts and Link-Up Messages
    This brief article describes the use of social media on Jordanian radio today - a form of amplifying potentials and agendas already implicit in radio broadcaster discourse, rather than an inherently revolutionary technology.
  • Preelection Mobilization and Electoral Outcome in Authoritarian Regimes
    Final version of the paper is available here: Does pre-election protest have an effect on the outcomes of authoritarian elections? Electoral authoritarian regimes use elections to consolidate their power and claim democratic legitimacy. Nonetheless, on some occasions authoritarian incumbents lose elections despite their advantages and a democratic breakthrough is achieved. I propose that pre-election protest contributes to such election results. Existing scholarship focuses primarily on the effectiveness of post-election upheavals, but the effects of pre-election protest are still theoretically and empirically understudied. This paper proposes a theory for why pre-election contention has an independent effect on incumbent defeat of authoritarian regimes and democratization. I present empirical support for the association between pre-election protest activities, incumbent defeat, and democratization using data from 190 elections across 65 countries with non-democratic regimes. The findings of this analysis have important implications for studies of social movements, authoritarian politics, and democratization.
  • un-intelligent Comedy
    One clearly has a taste for comedy, not all comedy/comedians are considered funny by all audiences. Some audiences are considerably more selective, unless under the influence very seldom does anyone accidentally hurting themselves on YouTube seem funny to the rational mind. To the contrary, it actually creates overwhelming empathy causing most people to switch/click away.
  • Black Box Models and Sociological Explanations: Predicting GPA Using Neural Networks
    The Fragile Families Challenge provided opportunity to empirically assess the applicability of black box machine-learning models to sociological questions and the extent to which these models can be used to produce interpretable explanations. I experimented with neural networks to predict grade-point average and assessed how variations in the basic network architecture affected overall performance. I then selected the model that performed best out-of-sample for further evaluation, observing that it generalizes well to the held-out data. Using a recently proposed technique I then study the predictive features and assess the extent to neural networks are amenable to sociological explanations. I conclude by reflecting upon the utility of this approach for social scientific inquiry.
  • The Demographic Consequences of Assisted Reproductive Technologies
    The use of assisted reproductive technology (ART) is widespread, with an estimated five million ART-conceived children born now worldwide. Despite this marked increase in the use of ART, little is known about the demographic consequences. We explore several dimensions of demographic consequences of ART. The proportion of ART-conceived babies varies greatly across countries, and our analyses suggest that ART costs, policies and regulations, and national norms and values are core determinants of these differences. Based on a review of the literature, we conclude that ART has a negligible impact on national fertility rates, thereby suggesting that it is not an effective policy instrument to counter low fertility. Furthermore, we show that the recent increase in twin births in Europe can be attributed to ART usage. A case study of Italy reveals that ART mothers were more likely to deliver prematurely, even when controlling for maternal age.
  • The Efficiency of Subjective Well-being: a Key of Latin American Development
    This chapter compares the development of Latin American countries with that of traditionally developed nations, based on several international indicators of well-being and sustainability that have emerged in the last decade. It is argued that in Latin America there is a specific type of development, which could be understood as an alternative path to the traditional model of social progress. The key to understand this type of development would be "the efficiency of subjective well-being": people get high happiness and life satisfaction with lower economic, state and environmental costs than in traditionally developed countries. It is suggested that the cohesion and quality of family ties is a key factor to explain this particular form of development: in Latin America the family has a relevant role in social security and at the same time would be important to explain the outstanding levels of subjective well-being.
  • Work organization and mental health problems in PhD students
  • “The First Rule of Gunfighting is Have a Gun”: Technologies of Concealed Carry in Gun Culture 2.0
    American gun culture has undergone a profound change over the past half century, from a culture rooted in hunting and recreational shooting to one centered on armed citizenship and personal defense. As shorthand, I describe this as an evolution from Gun Culture 1.0 to Gun Culture 2.0. In this paper, I begin by giving a brief history of the rise of Gun Culture 2.0. I then propose a cultural approach to studying gun culture, based on a working definition of culture that emphasizes the ways in which culture helps us to understand the world by defining problems and prospects and helps us to act in the world by suggesting recipes and providing tools for action in relation to those problems and prospects. Here, objects of material culture like guns and gun-related accessories play an important role. Far from being static entities, in addressing the problems associated with carrying concealed weapons in everyday life, these technologies respond to and facilitate the cultural practice of gun carrying which is central to Gun Culture 2.0. I apply this cultural approach to studying gun culture using ethnographic observation of a Concealed Carry Expo to explore some of the many technologies that have been developed to help those who want to be armed citizens reconcile the competing demands of carrying a concealed handgun in public. These material culture technologies include guns and holsters, as well as products designed to address women’s specific carry needs.
  • The Rise of Self-Defense in Gun Advertising: The American Rifleman, 1918-2017
    This chapter examines changes in American gun culture through a content analysis of advertisements in The American Rifleman magazine for every year from 1918 to 2017. We understand the changing themes in these ads as a specific measure of a change from what gun journalist Michael Bane calls Gun Culture 1.0, rooted in hunting and recreational target shooting, to Gun Culture 2.0, centering on personal protection through armed citizenship. Central to Gun Culture 2.0 is the legal carrying of concealed weapons, mostly handguns, in public by ordinary Americans. After briefly reviewing the history of American gun culture, we discuss our analytical approach to studying gun culture through advertising and explain the specific data and methods employed here. Our analysis of this advertising data documents the pattern of decline of Gun Culture 1.0 over the past 100 years and the ongoing rise of Gun Culture 2.0. We also identify the point at which the two centers of gravity in gun culture cross paths.
  • The politics of collective repair: examining object-relations in a postwork society
  • Journal of the History of Economic Thought Preprints - Review of Taxing the Rich: A History of Fiscal Fairness in the United States and Europe
    Review of Taxing the Rich: A History of Fiscal Fairness in the United States and Europe
  • Using Online Practice Spaces to Investigate Challenges in Enacting Principles of Equitable Computer Science Teaching
    Equity is a core component of many computer science teacher preparation programs. One promising approach is addressing unconscious bias in teachers, which may impact teacher expectations and interactions with students. Since early intervention literature indicates that asking individuals to suppress biases is counterproductive, our work uses online interactive case studies as practice spaces to focus on teaching decisions that may be impacted by unconscious bias. Our initial findings indicate that when embedded within teacher preparation programs, practice spaces produce rich learning opportunities, and our analysis yields insights into how beliefs or biases may interfere with principles of equity like disrupting preparatory privilege.
  • Party and Cleavage in the 2016 Election
    I fit non-parametric spatial models to a novel set of survey data on the 2016 election (N=8,000). I find two underlying dimensions: "race/identity" and "trade-plus." Attitudes toward Muslim immigration and transgender people emerge as the clearest divides between Trump and Clinton voters. Trade is nearly orthogonal to "race/identity" and cleaves both candidates' blocs. Attitudes toward redistributive policies split both parties, depending on the question asked. Supporters of Republican and Democratic candidates reflect distinct positions on "race/identity" (except those of Kasich). Sanders supporters are at least as liberal as Clinton supporters on "race/identity." They are slightly to the left of all others on "trade-plus." Those Sanders voters who voted for Trump are more conservative on "race/identity" and slightly more liberal on "trade-plus."
  • Quality of Work and Quality of Life of Service Sector Workers
    How do European service sector workers evaluate their quality of work and life nowadays? Europeanization and globalization are bringing about major shifts in the economy, but we know little about how this is affecting the well-being of Europe’s citizens. This chapter presents a range of subjective indicators for the quality of work and life as reported by service sector employees in eight European countries. In addition, it provides background information on the organizational context. The countries involved are at different stages of economic development and have differing welfare systems. Four organizations were surveyed in each country: one bank or insurance company, one public hospital, one retail organization and one IT or telecom company.
  • Another frame, another game? Explaining framing effects in economic games
    Small changes in the framing of games (i.e., the way in which the game situation is described to participants) can have large effects on players' choices. For example, referring to a prisoner's dilemma game as the "Community Game" as opposed to the "Wall Street Game" can double the cooperation rate (Liberman, Samuels, & Ross, 2004). Framing effects are an empirically well-studied phenomenon. However, a coherent theoretical explanation of the observed effects is still lacking. We distinguish between two types of framings - valence framing and context framing - and provide an overview of three general classes of theories that may account for the observed changes in behaviour.
  • Quality of Life
    This chapter reviews the quality of life in European societies, drawing on sociological theories of the quality of life, and specifically touching upon the areas of housing, the environment, health, and time use. One major theme is the social stratification of quality of life, both within and between European societies. The chapter was published in Steffen Mau and Roland Verwiebe, European Societies. Mapping Structure and Change, Policy Press 2010. A Stata replication file that recreates all the Figures in the chapter is available.
  • Social Stratification and Health. Four Essays on the Social Determinants of Health and Wellbeing
    The relationship between socioeconomic status, health, and wellbeing has puzzled researchers for decades. Individuals with higher education, a better job, or higher status, live longer and healthier. The four essays in this book offer a fresh view on crucial aspects of this relationship. Drawing on data from more than fifty countries, the multidimensional nature of socioeconomic status is explored, not only covering objective indicators of socioeconomic status—education, income, occupational prestige—but also individuals' subjective perceptions of socioeconomic status and status differentials between doctors and patients. Furthermore, the essays analyze the multilevel nature of social stratification, comparing differences in the strength of the relationship between education and health across countries and regions, as well as investigating the pathways by which income inequality affects health.
  • Does Foreign Aid Target the Poorest?
    This paper examines the extent to which foreign aid reaches people at different levels of wealth in Africa. I use household surveys to measure the sub-national distribution of a country’s population by levels of wealth and match this information to data on the location of aid projects from two multilateral donors. Within countries, aid disproportionately flows to regions with more of the richest people. Aid does not favor areas with more of the poorest people. These findings violate the stated preferences of the multilateral donors under study, suggesting that the donors either cannot or are not willing to exercise control over the location of aid projects within countries. The results also suggest that aid is not being allocated effectively to alleviate extreme poverty.
  • On the justification of intergroup violence: The roles of procedural justice, police legitimacy and group identity in attitudes towards violence among indigenous people
    Objective: Why do people justify intergroup violence? In this paper we examine attitudes towards violence perpetrated by indigenous activists to claim for rights and violence by pólice officers against indigenous people. We assess the role that perceived pólice legitimacy, procedurally just policing towards the indigenous minority group and group identity play in the justification of intergroup violence. Method: We present findings from two surveys (Study 1, n=1493, Study 2, n=198) and an experiment (Study 3, n=76) conducted among indigenous people in Chile. Studies 1 and 2 measure perceptions of police procedural justice towards indigenous people. Study 3 manipulates the fairness with which police officers treat indigenous people. Effects of procedural justice on police legitimacy (Studies 2 and 3) and attitudes towards violence for social change and social control (Studies 1-3) are analyzed. Result: Higher perceptions of procedurally just policing towards indigenous people predict more support for police violence and less support for violence perpetrated by indigenous activists. These effects are mediated by perceived police legitimacy and moderated by identification with the minority group. Among people who identify strongly with their indigenous group, perceiving high procedural justice predicts greater police legitimacy, greater support for police violence, and lesser support for violence perpetrated by indigenous activists. Conclusions: Findings contribute to an emerging literature on the roles of procedural justice and legitimacy in violence perceptions. Fair, respectful and neutral treatment of pólice officers may reduce the support for violence among minority group members and increase trust in the violence used by police officers.
  • Literary Translation Teaching/Learning as a TRI-PHASE PROCESS: Case Study: Arabic-English and English-Arabic Translation of Novels
    The aim of the present work is to demonstrate a tri-phase method for teaching literary translation. The first pre-translation phase consists in introducing the author, his/her works, style and the text to be translated. The second phase, the translation proper, is divided into three sub-phases: (a) the identification of problems (connotative meanings, figures of speech, idioms, uncommon collocations, culture-bound items, …), (b) the treatment of these problems by opting for the adequate procedures which should be in tune with the overall translation strategy opted for, and (c) the translation of the whole text into the target language. The final third phase is of revision and assessment. The criteria to be taken into consideration are genre-related and the focus is on the stylistic match or mismatch between the source and target texts. The present process-oriented method of literary translation is illustrated through three in-class translations of three literary texts from Arabic into English and vice versa. The targeted students are enrolled in the Master of Translation Science and Linguistics during Fall-Semester 2017 at the Faculty of Humanities at the University Abdelmalek Essaadi. The study concluded that literary translation should be taught as a creative tri-phase process throughout which students are made fully aware of the significance and impact of the strategies they opt for in order to deal with the different literary translation problems and attain the perfect stylistic equivalence so aspired for by literary translators.
  • The Educational Gradient in Self-Rated Health in Europe: Does the Doctor-Patient Relationship Make a Difference?
    Research suggests that doctor–patient relations have evolved from a doctor-centered, paternalistic approach towards a more patient-centered, egalitarian model of interactions between physicians and their patients. Given the long-running debate on the positive relationship between education and health, the question arises how this development in doctor–patient relations affects social inequalities in health. First, we test to what extent egalitarian (e.g. discussing treatment decisions with patients) doctor–patient relations are underlying the education–self-reported health association. Second, we test whether egalitarian and paternalistic (e.g. withholding some information from patients) doctor–patient relations show differential effects on self-reported health across educational groups. Analyses of the European Social Survey (ESS) 2004/2005 for 24 countries demonstrate that a more egalitarian doctor–patient relationship does not substantially reduce educational inequalities in self-reported health. However, some direct positive effects of egalitarian and direct negative effects of paternalistic doctor–patient relations on health ratings can be found. Finally, results show how the health status of the lower educated can improve with a more egalitarian and less paternalistic doctor–patient relationship.
  • The ‘New Jungle Law’: Development, Indigenous Rights and ILO Convention 169 in Latin America
    This article explores the relationship between indigenous rights, international standards, and development in Latin America with a specific focus on ILO Convention 169 on the rights of indigenous and tribal peoples and its application in the region. Whereas, on the one hand, democratic change, constitutional reforms and the recognition of indigenous peoples signal the emergence of a new rights era, on the other hand, deep-running inequalities, persistent poverty and development conflicts reveal structural tensions and the ambiguities of recognition. While such ambiguity is often explained as a consequence of poor implementation and compromised rights standards, this article analyses trends in both orthodox and heterodox polities as well as in the international arena in order to draw further attention to how rights regimes are being renegotiated. Rights under this ‘new jungle law’ are no longer characterised by neglect and poor implementation, but through reappropriation, strategic attention and regulatory negotiations, revealing a sliding scale of potentialities between empowerment and normalisation.
  • Internet Intermediary Liability: WILMap, Theory and Trends
    To better understand the heterogeneity of the international online intermediary liability regime—with the collaboration of an amazing team of contributors across five continents—I have developed and launched the World Intermediary Liability Map (WILMap), a detailed English-language resource hosted at Stanford CIS and comprised of case law, statutes, and proposed laws related to intermediary liability worldwide. Since its launch in July 2014, the WILMap has been steadily and rapidly growing. Today, the WILMap covers almost one hundred jurisdictions in Africa, Asia, the Caribbean, Europe, Latin America, North America and Oceania. After introducing the WILMap—and the surrounding landscape of recent projects related to intermediary liability—this article aims at discussing advancement in intermediary liability theory and describing emerging regulatory trends.
  • Book Review: "Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis in archaeological computational modeling" edited by Marieka Briuwer Burg, Hans Peeters, William A. Lovis
    This volume is collection of papers emerging from a forum at the 2014 SAA meetings. The papers are motivated by the question of how we can measure and interpret uncertainty in quantitative archaeological models, specifically by using sensitivity analysis. The types of models discussed in this volume include geo-referenced models of past environments to infer hunter-gather land use, and agent-based models of cultural transmission processes. They explore various sources of uncertainty, and implement sensitivity analysis by assessing how the output of the models varies according to changes in the inputs. The motivation for this collection is the editors' observations that archaeologists lack a discipline-based protocol for testing models.
  • The educational gradient in self-rated health in Europe
    Does the doctor–patient relationship make a difference?
  • From data extraction to data leaking. Data-activism in Italian and Spanish anti-corruption campaigns
    This article investigates how activists employ ICTs and engage with data-activism in grassroots struggles against corruption. Based on a comparative research design that triangulates three qualitative data sources – in-depth interviews, movements’ documents and participatory platforms – the article analyzes two campaigns: Riparte il Futureo in Italy and 15MpaRato in Spain. In doing this, the article casts light on how activists engage with digital data, showing how their employment is connected to and consistent with the type of organizational structure and communication strategy of the campaign. Moreover, the article evaluates how activists engage with three specific digital data-related practices - digital data creation, data usage and data transformation practices. The article, finally, illustrates that grasping the features of digital data-related practices is also telling of how activists perceive and enact distinct ideas of active citizenship and data transparency in their fight against corruption.
  • Scaling Back and Finding Flexibility: Gender Differences in Parents’ Strategies to Manage Work–Family Conflict
    Studies show that fathers report work–family conflict levels comparable to mothers. The authors examine gender differences in work-related strategies used to ease such conflicts.Theauthorsalsotestwhetherthepresence of young children at home shapes parents’ use of different strategies. They address these focal questions using panel data from the Canadian Work ,Stress, and Health study(N=306fathers,474mothers).Theauthorsfindthatmotherswith young children are more likely to scale back on work demands when compared with fathers with young children, but mothers and fathers with older children are equally likely to pursue these strategies. Furthermore, women with young children and men with older children are more likely to seek increased schedule control as a result of work–family conflict when compared with their parent counterparts. The authors situate these findings in the vast literature on the consequences of work–family conflict.
  • Insecure People in Insecure Places: The Influence of Regional Unemployment on Workers’ Reactions to the Threat of Job Loss
    Social comparison theory predicts that unemployment should be less distressing when the experience is widely shared, but does this prediction extend beyond the unemployed to those who are at risk of job loss? Research demonstrates a link between aggregate unemployment and employed individuals’ perceptions of job insecurity; however, less is known about whether the stress associated with these perceptions is shaped by others’ unemployment experiences. We analyze a nationally representative sample of Canadian workers (Canadian Work, Stress, and Health study; N = 3,900) linked to census data and test whether regional unemployment influences the mental health consequences of job insecurity. Multilevel analyses provide more support for the social norm of insecurity hypothesis over the amplified threat hypothesis: the health penalties of job insecurity are weaker for individuals in high-unemployment regions. This contingency is partially explained by the ability of insecure workers in poor labor market contexts to retain psychological resources important for protecting mental health
  • Open Science in Archaeology
    In archaeology, we are accustomed to investing great effort into collecting data from fieldwork, museum collections, and other sources, followed by detailed description, rigorous analysis, and in many cases ending with publication of our findings in short, highly concentrated reports or journal articles. Very often, these publications are all that is visible of this lengthy process, and even then, most of our journal articles are only accessible to scholars at institutions paying subscription fees to the journal publishers. While this traditional model of the archaeological research process has long been effective at generating new knowledge about our past, it is increasingly at odds with current norms of practice in other sciences. Often described as ‘open science’, these new norms include data stewardship instead of data ownership, transparency in the analysis process instead of secrecy, and public involvement instead of exclusion. While the concept of open science is not new in archaeology (e.g., see Lake 2012 and other papers in that volume), a less transparent model often prevails, unfortunately. We believe that there is much to be gained, both for individual researchers and for the discipline, from broader application of open science practices. In this article, we very briefly describe these practices and their benefits to researchers. We introduce the Society of American Archaeology’s Open Science Interest Group (OSIG) as a community to help archaeologists engage in and benefit from open science practices, and describe how it will facilitate the adoption of open science in archaeology.
  • Cultural Determinants Influence Assisted Reproduction Usage in Europe More than Economic and Demographic Factors
    Study question: To what extent do financial, demographic, and cultural determinants explain the vast cross-national differences in assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatments in Europe? Summary answer: The normative cultural acceptance of ART is a major driver of ART treatments in Europe, above and beyond differences in country wealth, demographic aspects, and religious composition. What is known already: There are vast differences in the number of ART treatments across European countries, which are to some extent related to country affluence, regulation, and insurance coverage and costs. The role and impact of cultural and normative factors has not been explored in a larger cross-national comparison. Study design, size, duration: A descriptive and comparative cross-national analysis of ART treatment prevalence in over 30 European countries in 2010, with the outcome defined as the total number of ART cycles per million women of reproductive age (15–44 years). Data is drawn from multiple sources (ICMART, US Census Bureau Library, World Bank, Barro–Lee Educational Attainment Dataset, IFFS Surveillance reports, European Values Study, and World Religion Database). Participants/materials, setting, methods: Our sample includes data from 35 European countries, where we describe the associations between demographic and cultural factors and the prevalence of ART treatments. Bivariate correlation and ordinary least squares (OLS) multiple regression analysis serves to establish the relationships between predictor variables and the number of ART treatments per million women aged 15–44 years in a country. Main results and the role of chance: A one-percent increase in national GDP is associated with 382 (95% CI: 177–587) additional ART procedures per million women of reproductive age, yet this effect is reduced to 99 (-92–290) treatments once cultural values are accounted for. In our fully adjusted model, normative cultural values about the acceptability of ART are the strongest predictor of ART usage, with a one-point increase of average approval in a country associated with 276 (167–385) additional ART treatments per million women of reproductive age. Limitations, reasons for caution: Findings are based on a cross-sectional, cross-national analysis, making formal tests of causality impossible and prohibiting inferences to the individual level. Wider implications of the findings: Results indicate that reproductive health policy should openly acknowledge the importance of cultural norms in informally shaping and regulating the wider availability of ART treatment.
  • The ‘Wert’ and ‘Wertform’ Texts Of The Indus Civilization
    A non-linguistic model that offers substantial explanatory power over linguistic models is proposed for reading the brief texts of the Indus Civilization (ca. 2600 – 1900 BCE). Commonly occurring symbols in the texts are interpreted as pictorial representations of noun objects, adjectives, quantity specifiers or functional markers. Symbols are demonstrated to combine selectively across semantic categories to form ‘picto-phrases’ that expressed objects of ‘worth’ (German:wert) in the Indus economy, such as measures of grain and quantities of metallic objects. A class of texts is identified as particularly encoding such commodity worth against the binary fractions from the half to the one-sixteenth of an Indus measure of value, the ‘cow’ unit, and a very large ‘boatload’ unit. This study suggests that the Indus symbol system may have emerged in a commercial context, but was predominantly exploited in the ritual-gift-economic domain ‘donation, fee, offering, gift’, marked in the texts by the most common symbol in the system. One clear instance of phonetic reading via rebus is noted in the corpus, and a few phonetically influenced symbols are tentatively put forward, but the etymologies of the words in question are uncertain, with possibilities in Proto-Munda, Proto-Dravidian and Indo-Aryan. A few cases of symbolic representation in the texts via pictorial metonymy and metaphor that have direct parallels in the earliest linguistic record in the Subcontinent, the Vedic texts, call into question the current model of characterization and dating of that orally transmitted literature.
  • Do educational institutions explain SES gaps? an international comparison of the SES achievement gap from 2000-2015
    The literature on achievement inequality has only recently started studying the evolution of the socio-economic achievement gap in cognitive abilities and it has uncovered a wide variety of results. The main finding comes from American research and it shows that the gap has been widening by about 40-50% in the last 30 year. Other international comparisons show that there’s important variation among developed countries, but the research on this area is scarce. This paper looks to study whether there are specific patterns in the evolution of the gap in a comparative perspective. We find that there is considerable variation in the way in which the gap is evolving, with the U.S and Germany closing at a rapid pace and France widening at a similar rate. We find that this gap is strongly correlated with a country’s overall performance and simulations show that switching to less tracking can help decrease a countries SES gap by about 20%. We also find that tracking and vocational enrollment explain over one third of the evolution of the achievement gap and show that the relationship is conditioned by a strong interaction: low tracking is associated with a small achievement gap, but high levels of tracking coped with high vocational enrollment can also remedy the aversive effects of tracking.
  • Cultural determinants influence assisted reproduction usage in Europe more than economic and demographic factors
  • Journal of the History of Economic Thought Preprints - Monetary Theory and Cameralist Economic Management, c. 1500-1900 A.D.​
    More than England and other states the German principalities were, in the preindustrial period, hampered by silver outflow and persistent pressures on the balance of payments which led to idiosyncratic models and strategies of economic development usually but not entirely helpfully called “Cameralism”. It is less well understood how Cameralism as a policy of order and development and monetary theory went together. The present paper will attempt a sketch of these working mechanisms as well as provide a few angles for new perspectives and future research. A first section after the brief introduction studies general issues of development in relation to balance of payment constraints (II), followed by the discourses on whether the domestic currency ought to remain stable in terms of intrinsic (silver) value (III), or whether it may be debased so as to raise domestic exports and competitiveness (IV). Both options were considered, at times and by varying actors, as valid strategies of promoting economic development, especially export-led growth, although most contemporaries viewed coin debasement as harmful to the economy. A fifth section discusses an alternative to the aforementioned strategies, by raising effective monetary mass through increasing velocity. Since the middle ages and into the nineteenth century the German economic tradition had a clear understanding of how velocity could be managed and the common weal stimulated by an increase in “vivacity” of circulation (V). Upon hindsight it appears that we find here a powerful programme towards promoting economic development and Europe’s rise towards capitalism. A conclusion will offer some thoughts for further research (VI).
  • The Impact of Financial Education Participation on Financial Knowledge and Efficacy: Evidence from the Canadian Financial Capability Survey
    Very little is known about how participation in financial education affects cognitive outcomes such as financial knowledge and self-efficacy. We used two waves of the nationally representative Canadian Financial Capability Survey along with propensity score matching to compare outcomes between persons who had taken a financial education course to those who had not. After matching and adjusting for demographic and economic factors, financial education participants exhibited significantly higher financial knowledge and financial self-efficacy scores. Post-estimation analysis showed that higher overall financial knowledge scores of participants were at least partially driven by higher scores of men. There was no difference in knowledge scores for women across all age groups. Financial education participants had higher efficacy scores for both genders and across age. Future research into the impact of financial education ought to consider cognitive dimensions in addition to strictly behavioral and financial outcomes.
  • Effects of Capability on Decision Making: Socio-demographic Status and 'Turtling' in a Modified Asian Disease Problem
    This paper examines to what extent social inequalities are likely to lead individuals to change their choices conditional on how they are framed. It examines whether there are people who counter-intuitively switch risk preferences in response to gain-loss framing in a modified Asian Disease problem, exhibiting a pattern we call “turtling”. That is, they mimic the practice of turtles who, when confronted with danger, withdraw into their shell. Developing a novel model that accounts for cumulative dynamics in people’s lives, and using survey data from a diverse sample of Canadians, we test whether people’s socio-demographic attributes are associated with their decisions regarding agricultural innovation. A key finding is that low capability, measured by a person’s risk of experiencing low income, is strongly positively associated with their likelihood of turtling. This result should help better understand poverty and decision making, and cognitive biases more broadly.
  • Social Space Diffusion
    Social networks represent two different facets of social life: (1) stable paths for diffusion, or the spread of something through a connected population, and (2) random draws from an underlying social space, which indicate the relative positions of the people in the network to one another. The dual nature of networks creates a challenge – if the observed network ties are a single random draw, is it realistic to expect that diffusion only follows the observed network ties? This study takes a first step towards integrating these two perspectives by introducing a social space diffusion model. In the model, network ties indicate positions in social space, and diffusion occurs proportionally to distance in social space. Practically, the simulation occurs in two parts: positions are estimated using a latent space model, and then the predicted probabilities of a tie from that model – representing the distances in social space – or a series of networks drawn from those probabilities – representing routine churn in the network – are used as weights in a weighted averaging framework. Using a school friendship network, I show that the model is more consistent and, when probabilities are used, the model converges faster than diffusion following only the observed network ties.
  • The Death of ‘No Monitoring Obligations’: A Story of Untameable Monsters
    In imposing a strict liability regime for alleged copyright infringement occurring on YouTube, Justice Salomão of the Brazilian Superior Tribunal de Justiça stated that “if Google created an ‘untameable monster,’ it should be the only one charged with any disastrous consequences generated by the lack of control of the users of its websites.” In order to tame the monster, the Brazilian Superior Court had to impose monitoring obligations on YouTube. This was not an isolated case. Proactive monitoring and filtering found their way in the legal system as a privileged enforcement strategy through legislation, judicial decisions and private ordering. In multiple jurisdictions, recent case law has imposed proactive monitor obligations on intermediaries. These cases uphold proactive monitoring across the entire spectrum of intermediary liability subject matters: intellectual property, privacy, defamation, and hate/dangerous speech. In this context, however, notable exceptions—such as the landmark Belen case in Argentina—highlight also a fragmented international response. Legislative proposals have been following suit. As part of its Digital Single Market Strategy, the European Commission, would like to introduce filtering obligations for intermediaries to close a “value gap” between rightholders and online platforms allegedly exploiting protected content. In addition, proactive monitoring and filtering obligations would also feature in an update of the European audio-visual media legislation. Meanwhile, online platforms have already set up miscellaneous filtering schemes on a voluntary basis. In this paper, I suggest that we are witnessing the death of “no monitoring obligations,” a well-marked trend in intermediary liability policy. Current Internet policy—especially in Europe—is silently drifting away from a fundamental safeguard for freedom of expression online. In this respect, this paper would like to contextualize this trend within the emergence of a broader move towards private enforcement online. The EU Digital Single Market Strategy apparently endorsed voluntary measures as a privileged tool to curb illicit and infringing activities online. As I argued elsewhere, the intermediary liability discourse is shifting towards an intermediary responsibility discourse. This process might be pushing an amorphous notion of responsibility that incentivizes intermediaries’ self-intervention. In addition, filtering and monitoring will be dealt almost exclusively by intermediaries through automatic infringement assessment systems. Due process and fundamental guarantees get mauled by algorithmic enforcement, limiting enjoyment of exceptions and limitations, use of public domain works, and silencing speech according to the mainstream ethical discourse. The upcoming reform—and the border move that it portends—might finally slay “no monitoring obligations” and fundamental rights online, together with the untameable monster.
  • Why Keep a Dog and Bark Yourself? From Intermediary Liability to Responsibility
    Since the enactment of the first safe harbours and liability exemptions for online intermediaries, market conditions have radically changed. Originally, intermediary liability exemptions were introduced to promote an emerging Internet market. Do safe harbours for online intermediaries still serve innovation? Should they be limited or expanded? These critical questions—often tainted by protectionist concerns—define the present intermediary liability conundrum. In this context, this paper would like to explain the recent developments in intermediary liability theory and policy within a broader move towards private ordering online. Public enforcement lacking technical knowledge and resources to address an unprecedented challenge in terms of global human semiotic behaviour would coactively outsource enforcement online to private parties. Online intermediaries’ governance would move away from a well-established utilitarian approach and toward a moral approach by rejecting negligence-based intermediary liability arrangements. Miscellaneous policy tools—such as monitoring and filtering obligations, blocking orders, graduated response, payment blockades and follow-the-money strategies, private DNS content regulation, online search manipulation, or administrative enforcement—might reflect this change in perspective. In particular, governments—and interested third-parties such as intellectual property rightholders—try to coerce online intermediaries into implementing these policy strategies through voluntary measures and self-regulation, in addition to validly enacted obligations. This process might be pushing an amorphous notion of responsibility that incentivizes intermediaries’ self-intervention to police allegedly infringing activities in the Internet. In this sense, the intermediary liability discourse is shifting towards an intermediary responsibility discourse. Further, enforcement would be looking once again for an ‘answer to the machine in the machine’. By enlisting online intermediaries as watchdogs, governments would de facto delegate online enforcement to algorithmic tools. Due process and fundamental guarantees get mauled by technological enforcement, curbing fair uses of content online and silencing speech according to the mainstream ethical discourse.
  • A Bayesian Hierarchical Logistic Regression Model of Multiple Informant Family Health Histories
    Family health history (FHH) inherently involves collecting proxy reports of health statuses of related family members. Traditionally, such information has been collected from a single informant. More recently, research has suggested that a multiple in- formant approach to collecting FHH results in improved individual risk assessments. Likewise, recent work has emphasized the importance of incorporating health-related behaviors into FHH based risk calculations. Integrating both multiple accounts of FHH with behavioral information on family members represents a significant methodological challenge as such FHH data is hierarchical in nature and arises from potentially error-prone processes. In this paper, we introduce a statistical model that addresses that challenges using informative priors for background variation in disease prevalence and the effect of other, potentially correlated, variables jointly with handling the hierarchical structure nesting multiple FHH accounts into families. Our empirical example is drawn from previously published data on families with a history of diabetes. The results of the model assessment suggest that simply accounting for the structured na- ture of multiple informant FHH data improves classification accuracy over the baseline and that incorporating family member health-related behavioral information into the model is preferred over alternative specifications
  • Transport legacy of mega-events and the redistribution of accessibility to urban destinations
    Local governments increasingly justify the hosting of mega-events because of their legacy value, assuming that all local residents benefit from those events. Yet, little attention has been paid to the distributive question of who benefits from the transport legacy left by those events. This paper reflects on the delimitation of transport legacies and its social impacts in terms of how such developments can reshape urban accessibility to opportunities. It analyses the transformation in the transport system of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) in preparation for the 2014 World Cup and the 2016 Olympic Games. That transformation involved substantial expansion in public transport infrastructure followed by rationalization of bus routes and cuts in service levels. The paper examines whether those recent changes have increased the number of people from different income levels who could access Olympic sports venues and healthcare facilities by public transport within 15, 30, 60 and 90 minutes. The analysis uses a before-and-after comparison of Rio’s transport network (2014-2017) and a quasi-counterfactual scenario to separate the effects of newly added infrastructure from the reorganization and cuts of transport services. The results show that the infrastructure expansion alone would have increased the number of people who could access the Olympic sports venues but it would have only marginally improved people’s access to healthcare facilities. Nonetheless, the findings indicate that the streamlined bus system have offset the benefits of infrastructure investments in a way that particularly penalizes the poor. The analysis of both the implemented changes to the public transport network and the counterfactual scenario show that the accessibility benefits from the recent cycle of investments and disinvestments in Rio generally accrued to middle- and higher-income groups, reinforcing existing patterns of urban inequality.
  • Heterogeneity in Crowding-Out: When Are Charitable Donations Responsive To Government Support?
    De Wit, A., Bekkers, R., & Broese Van Groenou, M. (2017). Heterogeneity in Crowding-out: When Are Charitable Donations Responsive To Government Support? European Sociological Review, 33(1), 59-71.
  • Resisting the Resistance: Resisting Copyright and Promoting Alternatives
    This article discusses the resistance to the Digital Revolution and the emergence of a social movement “resisting the resistance.” Mass empowerment has political implications that may provoke reactionary counteractions. Ultimately—as I have discussed elsewhere—resistance to the Digital Revolution can be seen as a response to Baudrillard’s call to a return to prodigality beyond the structural scarcity of the capitalistic market economy. In Baudrillard’s terms, by increasingly commodifying knowledge and expanding copyright protection, we are taming limitless power with artificial scarcity to keep in place a dialectic of penury and unlimited need. In this paper, I will focus on certain global movements that do resist copyright expansion, such as creative commons, the open access movement, the Pirate Party, the A2K movement and cultural environmentalism. A nuanced discussion of these campaigns must account for the irrelevance of copyright in the public mind, the emergence of new economics of digital content distribution in the Internet, the idea of the death of copyright, and the demise of traditional gatekeepers. Scholarly and market alternatives to traditional copyright merit consideration here, as well. I will conclude my review of this movement “resisting the resistance” to the Digital Revolution by sketching out a roadmap for copyright reform that builds upon its vision.
  • Rediscovering Cumulative Creativity from the Oral-Formulaic Tradition to Digital Remix: Can I Get a Witness?
    For most of human history, the essential nature of creativity was understood to be cumulative and collective. This notion has been largely forgotten by modern policies that regulate creativity and speech. As hard as it may be to believe, the most valuable components of our immortal culture were created under a fully open regime with regard to access to pre-existing expressions and reuse. From the Platonic mimesis to Shakespeare’s “borrowed feathers,” the largest part of our culture has been produced under a paradigm in which imitation—even plagiarism—and social authorship formed constitutive elements of the creative moment. Pre-modern creativity spread from a continuous line of re-use and juxtaposition of pre-existing expressive content, transitioning from orality to textuality and then melding the two traditions. The cumulative and collaborative character of the oral formulaic tradition dominated the development of epic literature. The literary pillars of Western culture, the Iliad and the Odyssey, were fully forged in the furnace of that tradition. Later, under the aegis of Macrobius’ art of rewriting and the Latin principles of imitatio, medieval epics grew out of similar dynamics of sharing and recombination of formulas and traditional patterns. Continuations, free re-use, and the re-modeling of iconic figures and characters, such as King Arthur and Roland, made chansons de geste and romance literature powerful vehicles in propelling cross-country circulation of culture. The parallelism between past and present highlights the incapacity of the present copyright system to recreate the cumulative and collaborative creative process that proved so fruitful in the past. In particular, the constant development and recursive use of iconic characters, which served as an engine for creativity in epic literature, is but a fading memory. This is because our policies for creativity are engineered in a fashion that stymies the re-use of information and knowledge, rather than facilitating it. Under the current regime, intellectual works are supposedly created as perfect, self-sustaining artifacts from the moment of their creation. Any modifications, derivations, and cumulative additions must secure preventive approval and must be paid off, as if they were nuisances to society. Rereading the history of aesthetics is particularly inspiring at the dawn of the networked age. The dynamics of sharing of pre-modern creativity parallel the features of digital networked creativity. As in the oral-formulaic tradition, digital creativity reconnects its exponential generative capacity to the ubiquity of participatory contributions. Additionally, the formula—the single unit to be used and reused, worked and re-worked—is the building block of the remix culture as well as the oral formulaic tradition. Today, in an era of networked mass collaboration, ubiquitous online fan communities, user-based creativity, digital memes, and remix culture, the enclosure of knowledge brought about by an ever-expanding copyright paradigm is felt with renewed intensity. Therefore, I suggest that the communal, cumulative, social and collaborative nature of creativity and authorship should be rediscovered and should drive our policies. In order to plead my case, I have asked for the support of the most unexpected witnesses.
  • Right to Be Forgotten: Much Ado About Nothing
    In the information society, the role of private sector entities in gathering information for and about users has long been a most critical issue. Therefore, intermediaries have become a main focus of privacy regulations, especially in jurisdictions with a strong tradition of privacy protection such as Europe. In a landmark case, the ECJ ruled that an internet search engine operator is responsible for the processing that it carries out of personal data which appear on web pages published by third parties. The recognition by the European Union of a so called “right to be forgotten” (RTBF) has ignited disgruntled reactions from civil society and legal scholars, especially in the United States. Meanwhile, proposals for the adoption of a similar right have appeared in several jurisdictions, including Brazil, Japan, Korea, and Russia. Supposedly, the right to be forgotten would endanger freedom of expression (FoE) and access to information. Apparently, factoids — defined by the Oxford Dictionary as “an item of unreliable information that is reported and repeated so often that it becomes accepted as fact” — dominated the recent debate surrounding the right to be forgotten. This paper will discuss and debunk these factoids, review data protection legislation in Europe, and explore the legal and policy implications of the newly emerging right to be forgotten. Finally, the idea that extra-territorial application of the RTBF might unleash a kraken that can break down the Internet will be contextualized within the present political scenario. The extra-territorial application of the RTBF follows in the footsteps of a global move towards data protectionism against the de facto market dominance of US Internet conglomerates. Global blocking governed by a nationality principle — as suggested by CNiL and other EU institutions — would put to rest these protectionist concerns.
  • User Patronage: the Return of the Gift in the “Crowd Society”
    In this work, I discuss the tension between gift and market economy throughout the history of creativity. For millennia, the production of creative artifacts has lain at the intersection between gift and market economy. From the time of Pindar and Simonides—and until the Romanticism will commence a process leading to the complete commodification of creative artifacts—market exchange models run parallel to gift exchange. From Roman amicitia to the medieval and Renaissance belief that scientia donum dei est, unde vendi non potest, creativity has been repeatedly construed as a gift. Again, at the time of the British and French “battle of the booksellers,” the rhetoric of the gift still resounded powerfully from the nebula of the past to shape the constitutional moment of copyright law. The return of gift exchange models has a credible source in the history of creativity. Today, after a long unchallenged dominance of the market, gift economy is regaining momentum in the digital society. The anthropological and sociological studies of gift exchange, such as Marcel Mauss’s The Gift, served to explain the phenomenon of open source software and hacker communities. Later, communities of social trust—such as Wikipedia, YouTube, and fan-fiction communities—spread virally online through gift exchange models. In peer and user-generated production, community recognition supersedes economic incentives. User-based creativity thrives on the idea of “playful enjoyment,” rather than economic incentives. Anthropologists placed societies on an economic evolutionary scale from gift to commodity exchange; in a continuum from the clan to capitalist system of organization. I suggest that this continuum should now extend to the “crowd society,” which features new modes of social interaction in digital online communities. The networked, open, and mass-collaborative character of the crowd society enhances the proliferativeness of the gift exchange model that lies in what anthropologists and social scientists described as a debt-economy. The exploration of the creative mechanics of online communities put under scrutiny the validity of utilitarian theories of copyright and traditional market economy models. From Émile Durkheim and Mauss to Alain Caillé, anti-utilitarian thought designed a new political economy that defines humans as a “cooperative species,” rather than Homo economicus. In this context, I look into commons theory, through the lens of Elinor Ostrom’s work, and its application to modern commons-based peer production with special emphasis on Yochai Benkler and Jerome Reichman’s work. In conclusion, I evoke Jean Baudrillard’s essential question: “Will we return, one day, beyond the market economy, to prodigality?” I consider whether the digital revolution that promoted the emergence of the networked information economy is that “revolution of the social organization and of social relations” that might bring about, according to Jean Baudrillard, “real affluence” through a return to “collective prodigality,” rather than our “productivistic societies, which [...] are dominated by scarcity, by the obsession with scarcity characteristic of the market economy.” I argue that a possibility for the reinstatement of Baudrillard’s “collective prodigality” might have materialized in the “crowd society” thanks to technological advancement and the emergence of a consumer gift system or “user patronage,” promoting an unrestrained, diffused, and networked discourse between creators and the public through digital crowd-funding.
  • Reforming Intermediary Liability in the Platform Economy: A European Digital Single Market Strategy
    Since the enactment of the first safe harbours and liability exemptions for online intermediaries, market conditions have radically changed. Originally, intermediary liability exemptions were introduced to promote an emerging Internet market. Do safe harbours for online intermediaries still serve innovation? Should they be limited or expanded? These critical questions—often tainted by protectionist concerns—define the present intermediary liability conundrum. Apparently, safe harbours still hold, although secondary liability is on the rise. As part of its Digital Single Market Strategy, the European Commission would like to introduce sectorial legislation that would de facto erode liability exemptions for online intermediaries, especially platforms. Under the assumption of closing a “value gap” between rightholders and online platforms allegedly exploiting protected content, the proposal would implement filtering obligations for intermediaries and introduce neighbouring rights for online uses of press publications. Meanwhile, an upcoming revision of the Audio-visual Media Services Directive would ask platforms to put in place measures to protect minors from harmful content and to protect everyone from incitement to hatred. Finally, the EU Digital Single Market Strategy has endorsed voluntary measures as a privileged tool to curb illicit and infringing activities online. This paper would like to contextualize the recent EU reform proposal within a broader move towards turning online intermediaries into Internet police. This narrative builds exclusively upon governmental or content industry assumptions, rather than empirical evidence. Also, the intermediary liability discourse is shifting towards an intermediary responsibility discourse. Apparently, the European Commission aligns its strategy for online platforms to a globalized, ongoing move towards privatization of enforcement online through algorithmic tools. This process might be pushing an amorphous notion of responsibility that incentivizes intermediaries’ self-intervention to police allegedly infringing activities in the Internet.
  • Women's Transnational Activism, Norm Cascades, and Quota Adoption in The Developing World
  • Women’s Transnational Activism, Norm Cascades, and Quota Adoption in the Developing World
    Electoral quotas are a key factor in increasing women’s political representation in parliaments globally. Despite the strong effects of quotas, less attention has been paid to the factors that prompt countries to adopt electoral quotas across developing countries. This article employs event history modeling to analyze quota adoption in 134 developing countries from 1987 to 2012, focusing on quota type, transnational activism, and norm cascades. The article asks the following questions: (1) How might quota adoption differ according to quota type—nonparty versus party quotas? (2) How has the 1995 Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing, China (Beijing 95), contributed to quota diffusion? (3) Do global, regional, or neighboring country effects contribute more to quota adoption? Results provide new evidence of how quota adoption processes differ according to quota type, the central role played by participation in Beijing 95, and how increased global counts contribute to faster nonparty quota adoption while increased neighboring country counts lead to faster to party quota adoption.
  • A Sociology of Foreign Aid and the World Society
    This article highlights an emerging research agenda for the study of foreign aid through a World Society theory lens. First, it briefly summarizes the social scientific literature on aid and sociologists' earlier contributions to this research. Next, it reviews the contours of world society research and the place of aid within this body of literature. Finally, it outlines three emergent threads of research on foreign aid that comprise a new research agenda for the sociology of foreign aid and its role in world society globalization.
  • The Othering of Muslims: Discourses of Radicalization in the New York Times, 1969-2014
    In this paper, I engage with Edward Said’s Orientalism and various perspectives within the othering paradigm to analyze the emergence and transformation of radicalization discourses in news media. Employing discourse analysis of 607 New York Times articles from 1969 to 2014, this paper demonstrates that radicalization discourses are not new, but are the result of complex socio-linguistic and historical developments that cannot be reduced to dominant contemporary understandings of the concept or to singular events or crises. The news articles were then compared to 850 government documents, speeches, and official communications. The analysis of the data indicates that media conceptualizations of radicalization, which once denoted political and economic differences, have now shifted to overwhelmingly focus on Islam. As such, radicalization discourse now evokes the construct radicalization as symbolic marker of conflict between the West and the East. I also advanced the established notion that news media employ strategic discursive strategies that contribute to conceptual distinctions that are used to construct Muslims as an ‘alien other’ to the West.
  • A Man is Known by His Cup: Signaling Commitment via Costly Conformity
    Commonly persisting are management practices that are recognized as inefficient and widely deplored, and they can often be characterized as “unpopular norms,” i.e., norms to which individuals widely conform despite widespread disapproval. Why might such norms persist? Existing approaches see this issue as an information problem, where individuals misconstrue a norm as popular among others, and conform so as to feign their endorsement. But even when the unpopularity of the norm is revealed, conformity sometimes continues. My theory thus identifies when and why individuals might conform to such visibly unpopular norms by focusing on the need to credibly signal commitment to their interactants in nascent relationships. For embedded relationships to be beneficial, individuals need to discern whether their relationship partners are committed to collective interests over individual interests. In this context, conformity to a visibly unpopular norm signals that the conformist is willing to violate her own preference to meet a behavioral standard demanded by the collective (i.e., norm). Insofar as actors recognize this signaling value, visibly unpopular norms persist. Using both qualitative and experimental methods, I leverage a visibly unpopular “ideal-worker” norm – norm around excessive drinking in after-hour business gatherings in South Korea – to test this theory. A macro implication is that an unpopular norm might persist not despite visible unpopularity but precisely because of visible unpopularity.
  • “Journal of the History of Economic Thought Preprints - Economists and Their Travels, or the Time When JFK Sent Douglass North on a Mission to Brazil​”​
    The role of traveling as a source of discovery and development of new ideas has been controversial in the history of economics. Despite their protective attitude toward established theory, economists have traveled widely and gained new insights or asked new questions as a result of their exposition to “other” economic systems, ideas and forms of behavior. That is particularly the case when they travel to new places while their frameworks are in their initial stages or undergoing changes. This essay examines economists’ traveling as a potential source of new hypotheses, from the 18th to the 20th centuries, with a detailed case study of Douglass North’s 1961 travel to Brazil.
  • The Economic World Obverse: Freedom Through Markets After Arts Education
  • The Economic World Obverse: Freedom Through Markets After Arts Education
    What role does arts education play in artistic activity and income? In light of the rise of university arts education and its effects, especially the changing role of teaching in artistic careers, this paper questions key assumptions of both winner-take-all and economic-world-reversed analyses of artistic careers. While almost all studies of remuneration in the creative arts find that income is highly skewed, these dominant perspectives take an object-oriented view of artistic life that neglects the vast majority of activities that underpin and compose contemporary arts practices. Looking at arts practices more holistically and using the changing status of art teaching as an exemplar of the expanded field of artistic practice, we document the challenges that the rise of arts education present to traditional analyses of artistic careers, income, and success.
  • The New Right Stuff: Social Imaginaries of Outer Space and the Capitalist Accumulation of the Cosmos
    This thesis utilizes ethnographic and historical data in order to propose that the trajectory of outer space imaginaries—and therefore, as will be demonstrated, the future realities of outer space affairs—has drifted from peaceful exploration to violent exploitation due to the rise of private space corporations (operating under the moniker of NewSpace). This is partially due to the increasing acceptance of neoliberal capitalism within the United States—and much of the Global North—since the 1970s. Furthermore, NewSpace companies —which now possess multi-billion dollar contracts with governmental space agencies—are zealous adopters of neoliberal economics, and these philosophies are tied to colonial conceptions of the individual, limited governance, unchecked resource extraction, and frontier mentalities. These concepts became apparent during my multi-sited ethnographic investigations of NewSpace—as well as governmental—facilities and museums. This thesis argues that these hegemonic economic ontologies must be met with resistance from social scientists, science fiction authors, and the public in order to create a human future in outer space that is equitable, decolonized, and democratic.
  • International representations of Balkan wars: a socio-anthropological account in international relations perspective
    International audience This article introduces the socio-anthropological concept of international representations to examine the relationship between a civilizational rhetoric, the West European and the international politics of otherization and containment of Southeast Europe, and an essentialist and timeless bias in international relations theory, including both radical and constructivist trends. We first explore the different narrative perspectives on the Balkan wars from the beginning to the end of twentieth century. Their subsequent problematization is aimed at challenging the way how they have constructed commonplace and time-worn representations, which international society shares with different consequences in international affairs. This is a limited conception since international representations as a socio-anthropological concept are always socially, culturally and politically constructed, contested and negotiated. They do not neutrally refer to a reality in the world; they create a reality of their own. Moreover, this limited conception ignores the fact that how, by whom and in whose interest international representations are constructed is itself a form of power in international relations. Therefore, the way international representations are constructed can be problematized as an example of political and ideological projects that operate in the West as well as in the Southeast European countries that are the object of Western foreign policy.
  • The past in the present: time and narrative of Balkan wars in media industry and international politics
    International audience In this article, we explore various forms of travel writing, media reporting, diplomatic record, policy-making, truth claims and expert accounts in which different narrative perspectives on the Balkan wars, both old (1912–1913) and new (1991–1999), have been most evident. We argue that the ways in which these perspectives are rooted in different temporalities and historicisations have resulted in the construction of commonplace and time-worn representations. In practical terms, we take issue with several patterns of narratives that have led to the sensationalism of media industry and the essentialisation of collective memory. Taken together as a common feature of contemporary policy and analysis in the dominant international opinion, politics and scholarship, these narrative patterns show that historical knowledge is conveyed in ways that make present and represent the accounts of another past, and the ways in which beliefs collectively held by actors in international society are constructed as media events and public hegemonic representations. The aim is to show how certain moments of rupture are historicised, and subsequently used and misused to construct an anachronistic representation of Southeast Europe.
  • Job Turnover and Divorce
    Inspired by Pugh (2015), this paper explores the connection between work and couple stability, using a new combination of data from the Current Population Survey (CPS) and the American Community Survey (ACS). I test the association between job turnover, a contextual variable, and divorce at the individual level. Results show that people who work in jobs with high turnover rates – that is, jobs which many people are no longer working in one year later – are also more likely to divorce. One possible explanation is that people exposed to lower levels of commitment from employers, and employees, exhibit lower levels of commitment to their own marriages
  • The Old and the New: Qualifying City Systems in the World with Classical Models and New Data
    The Old and the New
  • The Politics of Collective Repair. Examining Object-Relations in a Postwork Society.
    In this article we look at repair as an emergent focus of recent activism in affluent societies, where a number of groups are reclaiming practices of repair as a form of political and ecological action. Ranging from those that fight for legislative change to those groups who are trying to support ecological and social change through everyday life practices, repair is beginning to surface tensions in everyday life and as such poses opportunities for its transformation. We survey a few of the practices that make up this movement in its various articulations, to take stock of their current political import. While we suggest that these practices can be seen as an emergent lifestyle movement, they should not be seen as presenting a unified statement. Rather, we aim to show that they articulate a spectrum of political positions, particularly in relation to the three specific issues of property, pedagogy and sociality. These three dimensions are all facets of current internal discrepancies of repair practices and moreover express potential bifurcations as this movement evolves. Drawing on a diverse methodology that includes discourse analysis and participant observation, we suggest some of the ways in which this growing area of activity could play a significant role in resisting the commodification of the everyday and inventing postwork alternatives.
  • Comment on Pugh and Rice, "Early Urban Planning, Spatial Strategies, and the Maya Gridded City of Nixtun-Ch'ich', Petén, Guatemala
    This is a short comment on the paper by Pugh and Rice. "Unfortunately the theoretical and epistemological choices made by Pugh and Rice all but rule out achieving an adequate explanation for these questions about Nixtun-Ch’ich’."
  • The Mastery Rubric: A tool for curriculum development and evaluation in higher, graduate/post-graduate, and professional education.
    A Mastery Rubric is a curriculum development and evaluation tool – for higher, graduate and professional, and post-graduate education. It brings structure to a curriculum by specifying the desired knowledge, skills and abilities (KSAs) that the curriculum will provide, together with performance levels that characterize the learner, on each KSA, as the individual moves through stages of development. This tool unites a developmental implementation of Bloom’s taxonomy with curriculum objectives, to move learners along the articulated path from novice towards independence and expertise with built-in features of psychometric assessment validity. This tool promotes development in the target KSAs as well as assessment that demonstrates this development, and encourages reflection and self-monitoring by learners and instructors throughout individual courses and the entire curriculum. A Mastery Rubric represents flexible, criterion-referenced, definitions of “success” for both individuals and the program itself, promoting alignment between the intended and the actual curricula, and fosters the generation of actionable evidence for learners, instructors, and institutions. These properties are described through the seven examples that have been completed to date. The methods that are used to create a Mastery Rubric highlight the theoretical and practical features; the effort required; as well as potential benefits to learners, instructors, and the institution.
  • Heritage Language Loss in the Chinese Community in Argentina
    A rapid linguistic shift is happening in the Chinese community in Argentina, one of the newest immigrant groups in the country. Second- and third-generation Chinese-Argentines are quickly abandoning their home language variety (e.g. Taiwanese or Fujianese) for Spanish. At the same time, their parents are sending them to weekend language schools to acquire Standard Mandarin, a variety distinct from the language of the home. Through an ethnographic study of a weekend language school in Buenos Aires Chinatown, I seek to explore the phenomenon of language loss in the Chinese-Argentine community. In order to provide sufficient background to explain the linguistic and sociological phenomena observed, this paper will begin by providing a description of the Chinese community in Argentina, outlining theories of language loss in minority communities, and reviewing historical language shifts in China and Argentina. After laying out this framework, I will then describe the ethnographic project and analyze the observations I gathered in the field. I find that the Chinese community in Argentina is generally following the Fishman (1965) model of language shift, in which the Argentine-born second-generation is dominant in Spanish and chooses to raise children in that language, meaning that subsequent generations are monolingual in Spanish. However, weekend language schools complicate this shift by teaching Standard Mandarin to the youth of the community. Because second- and third-generation children are still acquiring Standard Mandarin in these schools, Chinese language and culture are being maintained at some level; however, it is still unclear how stable this maintenance is. What is clear is that because there is little to no reinforcement outside of the home, non-standard varieties of Chinese will not survive past the second generation. I hope that this paper will spur further research on the Chinese-Argentine community, on which there is very little social science literature.
  • Dialogue on Alternating Consciousness: From Perception to Infinities and Back to Free Will
    Can we trace back consciousness, reality, awareness, and free will to a single basic structure without giving up any of them? Can the universe exist in both real and individual ways without being composed of both? This dialogue founds consciousness and freedom of choice on the basis of a new reality concept that also includes the infinite as far as we understand it. Just the simplest distinction contains consciousness. It is not static, but a constant alternation of perspectives. From its entirety and movement, however, there arises a freedom of choice being more than reinterpreted necessity and unpredictability. Although decisions ultimately involve the whole universe, they are free in varying degrees also here and now. The unity and openness of the infinite enables the individual to be creative while this creativity directly and indirectly enters into all other individuals without impeding them. A contrary impression originates only in a narrowed awareness. But even the most conscious and free awareness can neither anticipate all decisions nor extinguish individuality. Their creativity is secured.
  • The Emancipatory Promise of the Habitus: Lindy Hop, the Body, and Social Change
    Existing research about the role of the habitus in social change emphasizes inertia. Individuals in new contexts are understood to face disadvantage, making disruption of a hierarchical status quo difficult. Recent theory regarding our ability to strategically change and use our bodily habits, however, suggests that the habitus may not be condemned to a purely conservative role. Here I examine a community of lindy hoppers who are re-shaping the collective body towards feminist ends. Control over bodies is essential to partner dance. However, these dancers revision the lead/follow dynamic. Instead of an active/passive binary, partners happily negotiate power. This negotiation is decidedly corporeal and cooperative and occurs spontaneously and constantly. My findings add empirical weight to theory regarding the role of the habitus in widespread social change, suggest that the habitus has emancipatory potential, and offer a template for how the habitus could be used by social movement actors.
  • Movement of lithics by trampling: An experiment in the Madjedbebe sediments
    Understanding post-depositional movement of artefacts is vital to making reliable claims about the formation of archaeological deposits. Human trampling has long been recognised as a contributor to post-depositional artefact displacement. We investigate the degree to which artefact form (shape-and-size) attributes can predict how an artefact is moved by trampling. We use the Zingg classification system to describe artefact form. Our trampling substrate is the recently excavated archaeological deposits from Madjedbebe, northern Australia. Madjedbebe is an important site because it contains early evidence of human activity in Australia. The age of artefacts at Madjedbebe is contentious because of the possibility of artefacts moving due to trampling. We trampled artefacts in Madjedbebe sediments and measured their displacement, as well as modelling the movement of artefacts by computer simulation. Artefact elongation is a significant predictor of horizontal distance moved by trampling, and length, width, thickness and volume are significant predictors of the vertical distance. The explanatory power of these artefact variables is small, indicating that many other factors are also important in determining how an artefact moves during trampling. Our experiment indicates that trampling has not contributed to extensive downward displacement of artefacts at Madjedbebe.
  • Mapping the Temples of Cyborgism: Exploring the Numinous Potential of Replicants in Ridley Scott’s Blade Runner
    Description: I wrote this in 2007 as a student trying to think about Blade Runner through both religious studies and anthropology. An updated version is in progress. Excerpt: "By threatening binary systems and insisting on an identity of plurality, replicants and cyborgs are granted access to a sanctuary in which they can interface with the numinous place of origin; the place Jenna Tiitsman describes as the chaotic “territory of creation.” The following analysis is a journey of exploration to map the cyborg sanctuaries in that chaotic territory of Tiitsman’s “creative becoming.” This expedition will explore the web of shared conversation between discourse in three regions: investigation into human reactions to robot humanness, relational ordering of religious experience, and the capacity of cyborgs to access the numinous. At the intersection of these cognitive spaces emergent from the “territory of creation” are conceptual-crossroads where cyborgs mediate access to the supernatural. To situate these emergent conceptual-crossroads within more familiar cognitive spaces with supernatural access, I will refer to them as the temples of cyborgism." Keywords: Blade Runner, cyborg, uncanny valley, numinous, creation, supernatural. Please cite as: Oman-Regan, Michael P. 2007. "Mapping the Temples of Cyborgism: Exploring the Numinous Potential of Replicants in Ridley Scott’s Blade Runner." Manuscript. SocArXiv, Open Science Framework.
  • Understanding Popularity, Reputation, and Social Influence in the Twitter Society
    Understanding the Twitter Society
  • Is Steering Humanity a Good Idea?
    This is an entry which was submitted to the 2014 Essay contest "How Should Humanity Steer the Future?" sponsored by the Foundational Questions Institute
  • Review of "American Allegory: Lindy Hop and the Racial Imagination"
    American Allegory uses lindy hop—a social dance invented in the 1920s by black youth in Harlem and now practiced mostly by white dancers—to gain insight into the relationship between black and white Americans and their cultural forms. It aims to contribute to theory about how superordinate groups manipulate culture to maintain power, while also accounting for cultural change and exchange. On page 204 Hancock begins to ask sophisticated theoretical questions but, by then, it is far too late to answer them. While Hancock’s central premise is one to which I am sympathetic—that the community of primarily white people who dance lindy hop today are participating in an appropriation of black culture—he’s never able to move past his premise to a useful contribution.
  • Biology vs. Moral Objectivity
    In 1986, Wilson and Ruse argued that with a better understanding of evolutionary biology, one can apply principles of biology to the study of moral philosophy, and that there are no "extrasomatic moral truths". This paper attempts a defense of moral objectivity based on three analogies between mathematics and ethics. An objection to this defense based on dissimilarities between the two fields is examined and found wanting, but a more powerful objection based on denying the independent existence of mathematics forces a direct examination of Wilson and Ruse's argument. It is found that their conclusion is too sweeping to follow from the arguments they present, but that the possibility it might be correct still exists.
  • Instrumentalism vs. Realism and Social Construction
    An important debate in the philosophy of science, whether an instrumentalist or realist view of science correctly characterizes science, is examined in this paper through the lens of a related debate, namely whether science is a social construct or not. The latter debate arose in response to Kuhn’s work, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, in which he argued that while there exists a process through which scientific understanding evolves from primitive to increasingly refined ideas, it does not describe progress ’toward’ anything. Kuhn’s work was then used to argue that there is no such thing as a knowable objective reality, a view much in agreement with that of the instrumentalist. This paper argues that a generalized version of the correspondence principle applied to a theory’s domain of validity is an exclusive feature of science which distinguishes it from socially constructed phenomena and thereby supports the realist position. According to this argument, progress in science can be characterized as the replacement of old paradigms by new ones with greater domains of validity which obey the correspondence principle where the two paradigms overlap. This characterization, however, is susceptible to the instrumentalist objection that it does not fit the transition from Aristotelian to Newtonian physics. In response, it is required that this argument depend on the intactness of certain core concepts in the face of experimental challenge within some regions of the theory’s original domain of validity. While this requirement saves the argument and even offers an answer to the question of what it would take for our most established theories in physics, relativity and quantum theory, to suffer the same fate as Aristotelian physics, it also defers a conclusive resolution to the debate between instrumentalists and realists until it can be determined whether an ultimate theory of nature can be found.
  • Opioid Deaths by Race in the United States, 2000–2015
    The opioid-related mortality rate in the United States more than tripled between 2000 and 2015. However, there were stark differences in the trend for the non-Hispanic black and non-Hispanic white populations. In this paper we assess differences in opioid deaths by race. We analyze patterns and trends in multiple cause-of-death data to gain a better understanding of how deaths differ by race and what has contributed to changes over time. The trend in race-specific opioid death rates over 2000–2015 can be divided into two periods: 2000–2010 and 2010–2015. The increase in 2000–2010 was more substantial for the white population and was driven by prescription painkillers. Since 2010, the rates of opioid-mortality increase for both the white and black populations have been similar and largely due to heroin and fentanyl-type opioids. For the white population, death rates due to heroin and fentanyl-type drugs decrease with age, but for the black population, the opposite is true. In addition, the number of deaths that involve more than one opioid drug has increased over time, with the rate of increase coinciding with the overall rate of increase in opioid deaths.
  • A Modified Framework for Identifying Stigma: News Coverage of Persons with Mental Illness Killed by Police
    © 2017, American Psychological Association. This paper is not the copy of record and may not exactly replicate the final, authoritative version of the article. Please do not copy or cite without authors permission. The final article will be available, upon publication, via its DOI: 10.1037/sah0000121 This paper examines the types of stigmatizing language and frames present in news reports about persons with mental illness killed by police. A sample of 301 online news reports was content analyzed, of which 132 reports contributed to 231 examples of stigmatizing language or frames. Analysis indicates that the construction of stigma in these news reports does not fully adhere to existing frameworks for identifying stigmatization. Stigmatization that is implicit, and often seemingly innocuous, is almost three times as common in the analyzed news reports than overt and explicit forms of stigmatization. A modified framework for identifying stigmatization is proposed that includes the presence of stigmatizing syntax, implicit stereotypes, stigmatizing myths, and behavior labeling. To the author's knowledge, this study is the first to examine media stigmatization of persons with mental illness killed by police as well as explore stigmatization regarding suicide by cop. Implications of the findings for efforts to destigmatize mental illness are explored. Comments and queries about this project are welcome at
  • Solidarity or Schism: Ideological Congruence and the Twitter Networks of Egyptian Activists
    Social movements scholarship on the role of coalitions in advancing social change claims that communication across ideological boundaries can foster a collective identity among diverse groups of activists. New communications technology, especially activists' widespread adoption of social media, calls into question whether these claims apply equally to online social media-based coalitions. Using the case of the Egyptian revolution in the Arab Spring, we conduct a series of social network analyses of the Twitter networks of activists. We find that social movements coalitions theory accurately predicts the conditions under which coalitions form and dissolve for online activists, as it does for on-the-ground activists. Among activists of diverse ideologies, we identify a pattern of solidarity in the early days of the revolutionary period, followed by a period of schism after a military crackdown on protestors. This research extends social movements theory to the sphere of digital activism.
  • OUP accepted manuscript
  • Mercantilist dualization: the introduction of the euro, redistribution of industry rents, and wage inequality in Germany, 1993-2008
    The current debate over distributional implications of the crisis-ridden Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) is heavily biased towards inter-national accounts. Little attention is paid to who wins and who loses out intra-nationally. I argue that in Germany the EMU has reinforced dualization, the insider-outsider cleavage in the country’s welfare state and production model. To scrutinize this argument, I analyze longitudinal linked employer-employee data (N>9.6 mio) and pursue a mechanistic three-step identification strategy: First, I illustrate how the introduction of the Euro distorted real interest and exchange rates within the Eurozone. Second, I demonstrate how these imbalances redistributed rents from the domestic sector, in particular from construction, to the core manufacturing industry. Third, I show how this shift in industry rents reverberated to the wage distribution and increased inequality. The study contributes to resolve the puzzle why wage inequality in Germany increased through a fanning out of the wage distribution whereas countries similarly exposed to technological change and globalization grew unequal through a polarization of their wage distribution.
  • Journal of the History of Economic Thought Preprints - Review of A History Of Macroeconomics: From Keynes To Lucas And Beyond
    A review of Michel de Vroey's history of modern macroeconomics
  • The epistemic value of p-values
    p-values are widely used in data analytic contexts, and the misuse of p-values can have grave consequences. In order to get a better grip on p-values, we need to make epistemological sense of them. The least inappropriate way of doing that, I argue, is to regard p-values as a quantification of epistemic luck, or, in the rare contexts in which the belief in a null model is justified, as a degree of justifiedness. When we handle p-values in an epistemically responsible way, there is no need to abandon them. What should be abandoned, however, is the ritualistic attachment to p-values as a default tool: We have to be more open to justified applications of other tools, such as Bayesian data analysis.
  • Demographic changes, educational improvements, and earnings in Brazil and Mexico
    This paper estimates the association of demographic and educational changes with earnings and returns to schooling of male workers in Brazil and Mexico. Our analysis takes into account demographic, educational, and economic variations within each country over time, using Demographic Censuses microdata from Brazil and Mexico. Results suggest that demographic and educational transitions are correlated with earnings and returns to education. Proportions of people in age-education groups tend to have negative associations with aggregated earnings. Workers with secondary education completed experience negative effects on their earnings by having lower education than university graduates (education effect) and by representing a bigger share of the population than males with university education completed (cohort size effect). The negative correlations of cohort size have been decreasing in magnitude over time. We also find that the concentration of skilled labor in specific locations has positive associations with individual earnings and that they are greater than those observed in more developed countries. Moreover, in Brazil and Mexico, these effects are observed throughout the income distribution, contrary to what is observed in studies for the United States.
  • Depolarization as a group process
    Two experiments examined the effects of debate on the attitude of a group. The first experiment (N = 220, 164 men and 56 women, ages 19 to 21, Japanese) compared the effects of two discussion styles on attitude change while controlling for in-group variance. The discussion topic was belief about blood-type stereotype, a topic for which Japanese hold both for and against knowledge. The debate condition comprised groups of four people, two of whom were assigned to “Pro” (for) and two to “Con” (against) positions. The consensus condition comprised groups of four individuals who had to reach a consensus. The direction of attitude change in the debate condition was opposite to that in the consensus condition. The second experiment (N = 96, 16 men and 72 women, ages 19 to 21, Japanese) explored the process of depolarization observed in the debate condition during the first experiment. Experiment 2 confirmed the result of Experiment 1 and suggested that the groups in the debate condition produced new information that group members did not possess before discussion.
  • How Were Encounters Initiated That Resulted in the Fatal Shooting of Civilians by Police?
    WORKING PAPER This paper examines police-public encounters that resulted in the fatal shooting of civilians during 2015 and 2016. Data published by The Washington Post is merged with data collected by the author regarding how encounters were initiated. Descriptive analysis and basic statistical analysis is performed and the results indicate that how police contact was initiated varies by race/ethnicity, age, sex, mental health status, and whether (or how) the individual killed by police was armed with a weapon. The implications of the results for understanding police use of force are discussed. This paper recommends that databases on civilian fatalities include information on how contact was initiated. Without this crucial information, understandings of police use of force are incomplete. Comments and queries about this project are welcome at
  • Defining Excellence: 70 Years of John Bates Clark Medals
    In 2017 the John Bates Clark Award turned 70, and the 39th medal was be awarded. Often dubbed the “baby Nobel Prize,” widely discussed by economists and covered in the press, it has become a professional and public marker of excellence for economic research. Yet, after three initial unanimous choices of laureates (Paul Samuelson, Kenneth Boulding, Milton Friedman), the award was increasingly challenged. The prize was not awarded in 1953, almost discontinued three times, the selection procedure and the age limit also created issues. We show how economists in these years disagreed over the definition of merit and excellence. Many young economists felt the prize was biased toward theory and asked for the establishment of a separate “Wesley Clair Mitchell award” for empirical and policy-oriented work. We examine how the committee on honors and awards reacted to critique on the lack of diversity of laureates in origins, affiliations, fields and methods, and we provide a quantitative analysis of the evolving profile of laureates.
  • Professionalization Through Attrition?: An Event History Analysis of Mortalities in Citizen Journalism
    Despite both scholarly and popular claims that citizen journalism (CJ) represents a growing democratizing force in the journalistic field, recent scholarship in the area has noted the decline of the organizational population of CJ. In this paper, we investigate how individual characteristics of sites and the dynamics of larger organizational population affect a CJ site’s risk of experiencing a mortality. Drawing on the largest sample to date of U.S-based English-language CJ sites, this study examines risk of site mortality through an event history framework. Findings indicate that the strongest predictor of a site’s mortality is the age of the site, consistent with organizational population theory’s “liability of newness.” We also find that for-profit and community based-sites have lower rates of site mortality, indicating that adopting legitimate conventions of journalism may serve as a protective buffer to site death. The results offer mixed evidence on whether CJ has become more professionalized via attrition.
  • Beyond opening up the black box: Investigating the role of algorithmic systems in Wikipedian organizational culture
    Scholars and practitioners across domains are increasingly concerned with algorithmic transparency and opacity, interrogating the values and assumptions embedded in automated, black-boxed systems, particularly in user-generated content platforms. I report from an ethnography of infrastructure in Wikipedia to discuss an often understudied aspect of this topic: the local, contextual, learned expertise involved in participating in a highly automated social-technical environment. Today, the organizational culture of Wikipedia is deeply intertwined with various data-driven algorithmic systems, which Wikipedians rely on to help manage and govern the "anyone can edit" encyclopedia at a massive scale. These bots, scripts, tools, plugins, and dashboards make Wikipedia more efficient for those who know how to work with them, but like all organizational culture, newcomers must learn them if they want to fully participate. I illustrate how cultural and organizational expertise is enacted around algorithmic agents by discussing two autoethnographic vignettes, which relate my personal experience as a veteran in Wikipedia. I present thick descriptions of how governance and gatekeeping practices are articulated through and in alignment with these automated infrastructures. Over the past 15 years, Wikipedian veterans and administrators have made specific decisions to support administrative and editorial workflows with automation in particular ways and not others. I use these cases of Wikipedia's bot-supported bureaucracy to discuss several issues in the fields of critical algorithms studies, critical data studies, and fairness, accountability, and transparency in machine learning -- most principally arguing that scholarship and practice must go beyond trying to "open up the black box" of such systems and also examine sociocultural processes like newcomer socialization. Comment: 14 pages, typo fixed in v2
    Abstrak Keterampilan membaca diperlukan dalam bidang apapun termasuk dalam matapelajaran IPA. Dengan membaca orang akan memahami sesuatu dan memperoleh informasi. Seseorang dikatakan telah paham apabila dapat menerima informasi dan dapat menginformasikan kembali. Penyampaian informasi kembali dapat melalui bahasa lisan maupun tulisan. Menulis juga merupakan keterampilan yang diperlukan untuk menyampaikan gagasan dalam rangka berpikir kritis dan kreatif. Dalam membaca dan menulis terdapat keterampilan berpikir tingkat tinggi yaitu berpikir kritis. Dengan berpikir kritis saat memahami bacaan maka seseorang juga akan mempunyai kecenderungan untuk kritis dalam menyampaikan ide-ide melalui bahasa tulis. Keterampilan dalam membaca literatur dan menuliskan konsep yang telah dibaca dan ditulisnya diharapkan dapat meningkatkan literasi sains.
  • Beyond opening up the black box: Investigating the role of algorithmic systems in Wikipedian organizational culture
    Scholars and practitioners across domains are increasingly concerned with algorithmic transparency and opacity, interrogating the values and assumptions embedded in automated, black-boxed systems, particularly in user-generated content platforms. I report from an ethnography of infrastructure in Wikipedia to discuss an often understudied aspect of this topic: the local, contextual, learned expertise involved in participating in a highly automated social–technical environment. Today, the organizational culture of Wikipedia is deeply intertwined with various data-driven algorithmic systems, which Wikipedians rely on to help manage and govern the “anyone can edit” encyclopedia at a massive scale. These bots, scripts, tools, plugins, and dashboards make Wikipedia more efficient for those who know how to work with them, but like all organizational culture, newcomers must learn them if they want to fully participate. I illustrate how cultural and organizational expertise is enacted around algorithmic agents by discussing two autoethnographic vignettes, which relate my personal experience as a veteran in Wikipedia. I present thick descriptions of how governance and gatekeeping practices are articulated through and in alignment with these automated infrastructures. Over the past 15 years, Wikipedian veterans and administrators have made specific decisions to support administrative and editorial workflows with automation in particular ways and not others. I use these cases of Wikipedia’s bot-supported bureaucracy to discuss several issues in the fields of critical algorithms studies; critical data studies; and fairness, accountability, and transparency in machine learning—most principally arguing that scholarship and practice must go beyond trying to “open up the black box” of such systems and also examine sociocultural processes like newcomer socialization.
  • Three Models of Ethnographic Transparency: Naming Places, Naming People, and Sharing Data
    Ethnographic research consists of multiple methodological approaches, including short- and/or long-term participant observation, interviews, photographs, videos, and group field work, to name a few. Yet, it is commonly practiced as a solitary endeavor and primary data is not often subject to scholarly scrutiny. In this paper, I suggest a model in which to understand the different ways in which ethnographies can be transparent—naming places, naming people, and sharing data—and the varied decisions ethnographers have made with regard to them: whether to name a region, city or specific neighborhood, name primary participants or public officials, and to share interview guides, transcripts, or different kinds of field notes. In doing so, this paper highlights how decisions regarding transparency are part of an ethnographer’s methodological toolkit, and should be made on a case-by-case basis depending on the who, what, where, when and why of our research.
  • Understanding with Theoretical Models
    This paper discusses the epistemic import of highly abstract and simplified theoretical models using Thomas Schelling’s checkerboard model as an example. We argue that the epistemic contribution of theoretical models can be better understood in the context of a cluster of models relevant to the explanatory task at hand. The central claim of the paper is that theoretical models make better sense in the context of the menu of possible explanations. In order to justify this claim, we introduce a distinction between causal scenarios and causal mechanism schemes. These conceptual tools help us to articulate the basis for modelers’ intuitive confidence that their models make an important epistemic contribution. By focusing on the role of the menu of possible explanations in the evaluation of explanatory hypotheses, it is possible to understand how a causal mechanism scheme can improve our explanatory understanding even in cases where it does not describe the actual cause of a particular phenomenon.
  • Journal of the History of Economic Thought Preprints - Wicksell on Walras's early treatment of capital and interest
    In this paper we examine the criticism that Knut Wicksell advanced against Walras’s treatment of capital and interest at the end of the nineteenth century, as well as the views of two distinguished followers of Walras concerning the points raised by the Swedish economist. As regards the first aspect, it should be noted that the criticism put forward by Wicksell at that time refers to the earlier editions of the Éléments, in which circulating capital is excluded from the analysis. We thus endeavour to clarify Wicksell’s remarks on the consequences of that exclusion for both the representation of the social production process and the determination of the interest rate. As to the second aspect, our discussion indicates that the appropriate way of treating the capitalistic element of production was an unsettled issue within the small circle of Walras’s followers at the end of the nineteenth century.
  • Queering Outer Space
    How can queer and other minority or marginalized people stake a claim in human futures in space? This paper reflects on the challenges, opportunities, scenarios, and interventions involved as we try to queer the increasingly corporate and military human exploration of and engagement with outer space. I suggest that we must go further than academically interrogating the military and corporate narratives of space “exploration” and “colonization.” We must also water, fertilize, and tend the seeds of alternative visions of possible futures in space, not only seeking solutions to earthly problems of the moment, but actively queering outer space and challenging the future to be even more queer. Keywords: Queer Theory, Space, Anthropology, Colonialism, Mars, SETI Please Cite as: Oman-Reagan, Michael P. 2015. “Queering Outer Space.” SocArXiv, Open Science Framework. Manuscript, submitted January 22, 2017.
  • Waste collection in rural communities: challenges under EU regulations. A Case study of Neamt County, Romania
    The paper aims to examine the changes in the rural waste management sector at regional scale since the Romania adhesion to the EU in 2007. Traditional waste management based on the mixed waste collection and waste disposal often on improper sites prevailed in municipal waste management options of transitional economies across the globe. The lack of formal waste collection services in rural areas has encouraged the open dumping or backyard burning. The paper analyses the improvements and challenges of local authorities in order to fulfill the new EU requirements in this sector supported by data analysis at local administrative unit levels and field observations. Geographical analysis is compulsory in order to reveal the local disparities. The paper performs an assessment of waste collection issues across 78 rural municipalities within Neamt County. This sector is emerging in rural areas of Eastern Europe, but is far from an efficient municipal waste management system based on the waste hierarchy concept.
  • Summary Analysis of the 2017 GitHub Open Source Survey
    This report is a high-level summary analysis of the 2017 GitHub Open Source Survey dataset, presenting frequency counts, proportions, and frequency or proportion bar plots for every question asked in the survey. This report was generated from a Jupyter notebook that can be found on OSF at
  • Brains in vats and model theory
    Hilary Putnam’s BIV argument first occurred to him when ‘thinking about a theorem in modern logic, the “Skolem–Löwenheim Theorem”’ (Putnam 1981: 7). One of my aims in this paper is to explore the connection between the argument and the Theorem. But I also want to draw some further connections. In particular, I think that Putnam’s BIV argument provides us with an impressively versatile template for dealing with sceptical challenges. Indeed, this template allows us to unify some of Putnam’s most enduring contributions to the realism/antirealism debate: his discussions of brains-in-vats, of Skolem’s Paradox, and of permutations. In all three cases, we have an argument which does not merely defeat the sceptic; it also shows us that we must reject some prima facie plausible philosophical picture. Published in S. Goldberg (ed.), The Brain in a Vat, Cambridge University Press: 131–54.
  • Distributional effects of transport policies on inequalities in access to opportunities in Rio de Janeiro
    The evaluation of the social impacts of transport policies is attracting growing attention in recent years. Yet, this literature is still predominately focused on developed countries. The goal of this research is to investigate how investments in public transport networks can reshape social and geographical inequalities in access to opportunities in a developing country, using the city of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) as a case study. Recent mega-events, including the 2014 Football World Cup and the 2016 Olympic Games, have triggered substantial investment in the city’s transport system. More recently, though, bus services in Rio have been rationalized and reduced as a response to a fiscal crisis and a drop in passenger demand, giving a unique opportunity to look at the distributional effects this cycle of investment and disinvestment have had on peoples’ access to educational and employment opportunities. Based on a before-and-after comparison of Rio’s public transport network, this study uses a spatial regression model and cluster analysis to estimate how accessibility gains vary across different income groups and areas of the city between April 2014 and March 2017. The results show that recent cuts in service levels have offset the potential benefits of newly added public transport infrastructure in Rio. Average access by public transport to jobs and public high-schools decreased approximately 4% and 6% in the period, respectively. Nonetheless, wealthier areas had on average small but statistically significant higher gains in access to schools and job opportunities than poorer areas. These findings suggest that, contrary to the official discourses of transport legacy, recent transport policies in Rio have exacerbated rather than reduced socio-spatial inequalities in access to opportunities.
  • Detecting Communities in Science Blogs
  • Detecting Communities in Science Blogs
    Many scientists maintain blogs and participate in online communities through their blogs and other scientists' blogs. This study used social network analysis methods to locate and describe online communities in science blogs. The structure of the science blogosphere was examined using links between blogs in blogrolls and in comments. By blogroll, the blogs are densely connected and cohesive subgroups are not easily found. Using spin glass community detection, six cohesive subgroups loosely corresponding to subject area were found. By commenter links, the blogs form into more easily findable general subject area or interest clusters.
  • Fake Archives: Doppelgängers and the Search for Openness in Scholarly Communication Platforms is a preprint repository that mimics the design, logo, structure and functioning of, the open access website that collects articles from physics, mathematics and other quantitative sciences before or regardless of their submission and publication in a peer-reviewed journal. Launched in 2009 as an answer to the role of arXiv as the dominant platform for scholarly publishing in some areas, viXra is an ironic copycat version of the “official” website, of which it spells the name backwards.
  • The gambler’s fallacy fallacy (fallacy)
  • The geometry of mortality change: Convex hulls for demographic analysis
    We introduce convex hulls as a data visualization and analytic tool for demography. Convex hulls are widely used in computer science, and have been applied in fields such as ecology, but are heretofore underutilized in population studies. We briefly discuss convex hulls, then we show how they may profitably be applied to demography. We do this through three examples, drawn from the relationship between child mortality and adult survivorship (5q0 and 45p15 in life table notation). The three examples are: (i) sex differences in mortality; (ii) period and cohort differences and (iii) outlier identification. Convex hulls can be useful in robust compilation of demographic databases. Moreover, the gap/lag framework for sex differences or period/cohort differences is more complex when mortality data are arrayed by two components as opposed to a unidimensional measure such as life expectancy. Our examples show how, in certain cases, convex hulls can identify patterns in demographic data more readily than other techniques. The potential applicability of convex hulls in population studies goes beyond mortality.
  • The gambler's fallacy fallacy (fallacy)
    The gambler's fallacy is the irrational belief that prior outcomes in a series of events affect the probability of a future outcome, even though the events in question are independent and identically distributed. In this paper, we argue that in the standard account of the gambler's fallacy, the gambler's fallacy fallacy can arise: The irrational belief that all beliefs pertaining to the probabilities of sequences of outcomes constitute the gambler's fallacy, when, in fact, they do not. Specifically, the odds of the probabilities of some sequences of outcomes can be epistemically rational in a given decision-making situation. Not only are such odds of probabilities of sequences of outcomes not the gambler's fallacy, but they can be implemented as a simple heuristic for avoiding the gambler's fallacy in risk-related decision-making. However, we have to be careful not to fall prey to a variant of the gambler's fallacy, the gambler's fallacy fallacy (fallacy), in which we do not calculate odds for the probabilities of sequences that matter, but rather simply believe that the raw probability for the occurrence of a sequence of outcomes is the probability for the last outcome in that sequence.
  • Informal urban green space: Residents’ perception, use, and management preferences across four major Japanese shrinking cities
    Urban residents’ health depends on green infrastructure to cope with climate change. Shrinking cities could utilize vacant land to provide more green space, but declining tax revenues preclude new park development – a situation pronounced in Japan, where some cities are projected to shrink by over ten percent, but lack green space. Could informal urban green spaces (IGS; vacant lots, street verges, brownfields etc.) supplement parks in shrinking cities? This study analyzes residents’ perception, use, and management preferences (management goals, approaches to participatory management, willingness to participate) for IGS using a large, representative online survey (n=1,000) across four major shrinking Japanese cities: Sapporo, Nagano, Kyoto and Kitakyushu. Results show that residents saw IGS as a common element of the urban landscape and their daily lives, but their evaluation was mixed. Recreation and urban agriculture were preferred to redevelopment and non-management. For participative management, residents saw a need for the city administration to mediate usage and liability, and expected an improved appearance, but emphasized the need for financial and non-financial support. A small but significant minority (~10%) were willing to participate in management activities. On this basis, eight principles for participatory informal green space planning are proposed.
  • The Spine of American Law: Digital Text Analysis and U.S. Legal Practice
    In the second half of the nineteenth century, the majority of U.S. states adopted a novel code of legal practice for their civil courts. Legal scholars have long recognized the influence of the New York lawyer David Dudley Field on American legal codification, but tracing the influence of Field’s code of civil procedure with precision across some 30,000 pages of statutes is a daunting task. By adapting methods of digital text analysis to observe text reuse in legal sources, this article provides a methodological guide to show how the evolution of law can be studied at a macro level—across many codes and jurisdictions—and at a micro level—regulation by regulation. Applying these techniques to the Field Code and its emulators, we show that by a combination of creditors’ remedies the code exchanged the rhythms of agriculture for those of merchant capitalism. Archival research confirmed that the spread of the Field Code united the American South and American West in one Greater Reconstruction. Instead of just a national political development centered in Washington, we show that Reconstruction was also a state-level legal development centered on a procedure code from the Empire State of finance capitalism.
  • Comments on Conceptualizing and Measuring the Exchange of Beauty and Status
    This is a working paper of a comment that is now available in the American Sociological Review 82(5):1293-1299. The code (but not the data) to reproduce this analysis, as well as my own output, is also available at: In this comment, I identify two methodological issues in McClintock’s (2014) article on beauty exchange. First, McClintock’s difference models, which find no evidence of exchange, are poor measures of exchange that fail to account for important confounders and rely upon an overly narrow conceptualization of exchange. Second, McClintock codes her log-linear models to find a difference in the effect of men and women’s beauty in exchange rather than the total effect of women’s beauty, which is both statistically significant and substantively large.
  • The Politics of Acculturation: Female Genital Cutting and the Challenge of Building Multicultural Democracies
    Understanding how the idea of culture is mobilized in discursive contests is crucial for both theorizing and building multicultural democracies. To investigate this, I analyze a debate over whether we should relieve the “cultural need” for infibulation among immigrants by offering a “nick” in U.S. hospitals. Using interviews, newspaper coverage, and primary documents, I show that physicians and opponents of the procedure with contrasting models of culture disagreed on whether it represented cultural change. Opponents argued that the “nick” was fairly described as “female genital mutilation” and symbolically identical to more extensive cutting. Using a reified model, they imagined Somalis to be “culture-bound”; the adoption of a “nick” was simply a move from one genital cutting procedure to another. Unable to envision meaningful cultural adaptation, and presupposing the incompatibility of multiculturalism and feminism, they supported forced assimilation. Physicians, drawing on a dynamic model of culture, believed that adoption of the “nick” was meaningful cultural change, but overly idealized their ability to protect Somali girls from both Somali and U.S. patriarchy. Unduly confident, they failed to take oppression seriously, dismissing relevant constituencies and their concerns.
  • An Unusual Power: Scientific Revolution
    The actual nature of the scientific revolution from the 16th and 17th centuries in relation to the medical profession.
  • AN UNUSUAL POWER: The rise and influence of medical doctors
    The history and development of the medical profession considering to what degree its different sections are scientific, if they are not what are they, and if not scientific what are the actual effects of their procedures.
  • Central bank planning? Unconventional monetary policy and the price of bending the yield curve
    Central banks have increasingly used communication to guide market actors’ expectations of future rates of interest, inflation, and growth. However, aware of the pitfalls of (financial) central planning, central bankers used to draw a line by restricting their monetary policy interventions to short-term interest rates. Longer-term rates, they argued, reflected decentralised knowledge and should be determined by market forces. By embracing forward guidance and quantitative easing (QE) to target long-term rates, central banks have crossed that line. While consistent with the post-1980s expansion of the temporal reach of monetary policy into the future, these unconventional policies nevertheless mark a structural break – the return of hydraulic macroeconomic state agency, refashioned for a financialised economy.
  • Infrastructural power, monetary policy, and the resilience of European market-based banking
    The pre-crisis rise and post-crisis resilience of European repo and securitisation markets represent political victories for the interests of large banks. To explain when and how finance wins, the literature emphasises lobbying capacity (instrumental power) and the financial sector’s central position in the economy (structural power). Increasingly, however, finance also enjoys infrastructural power, which stems from entanglement between specific financial markets and public-sector actors, such as treasuries and central banks, that govern by transacting in those markets. To demonstrate the analytical value of this perspective, the article traces how the European Central Bank, motivated by monetary policy considerations, shaped post-crisis financial policymaking in the EU. It shows that the ECB played a key part in fending off a financial transactions tax on repos and in shoring up and re-building the securitisation market. With market-based forms of state agency on the rise, infrastructural entanglement and power shed new light on the politics of finance.
  • The Economic Dynamics and the Calculus of Variations in the Interwar Period
    Abstract Analogies with rational mechanics played a pivotal role in the search for formal models in economics. In the period between the two world wars, a small group of mathematical economists tried to extend this view from statics to dynamics. The main result was the extensive application of calculus of variations to obtain a dynamic representation of e-conomic variables. This approach began with the contributions put forward by Griffith C.Evans, a mathematician who in the first phase of his scientific career published wi-dely in economics. Evans' research was further developed by his student, Charles Roos. At the international level, this dynamic approach found its main followers in Italy, within the Paretian tradition. During the 1930s, Luigi Amoroso, the leading exponent of the Paretian School, made major contributions along with his student, Giulio La Volpe that anticipated the concept of temporary equilibrium. The analysis of the application of the calculus of variations to economic dynamics in the interwar period raises a set of questions on the application of mathematics designed to study mechanics and physics to economics
  • On the Positive Relationship between Breastfeeding & Intelligence
    A wealth of literature has examined the association between breastfeeding and the development of cognitive abilities in childhood. In particular, at least some evidence exists suggesting that breastfed children perform better on measures of intelligence later in life. While a correlation appears to be present, fewer observational studies have included appropriate adjustment for potentially confounding variables; maternal intelligence, maternal education, and cognitive stimulation provided by mothers being chief among them. As a result, we analyze a national sample of approximately 790 American respondents in order to test the association between breastfeeding and intelligence during childhood and adolescence using multiple intelligence tests and controlling for a range of key covariates. Our results suggest that the correlation between breastfeeding throughout the first six months of life and intelligence is statistically significant and consistent, yet of substantively minor impact. Keywords: Intelligence; breastfeeding; development; structural equation modeling
  • Designing Personal Sustainability into Organizational Culture: The Case of Burning Man
    Efforts to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of organizations has been ongoing for over a century, starting with the “scientific management” approach of Frederick Taylor and the “functions and principles” approach of Henri Fayol that gained popularity in the first two decades of the 1900s. More recently, the notion of sustainability -- that is, the efficient use of energy and resources at both the personal and organizational levels -- has been recognized as a contributor to developing competitive advantage. Personal sustainability contributes to organizational sustainability by raising awareness about sustainability at the organizational level, promoting engagement among members of an organization, and ensuring that individuals have the energy and resources to contribute to the overall mission of the organization. For this interplay to occur, though, sustainability must be part of the organization’s core values. In this case study, we examine the culture of the annual Burning Man event in the Black Rock Desert of northwestern Nevada, and examine how personal sustainability impacts the success of the event, while helping to create a strong cultural identity among participants known as “Burners”.
  • Brute force effects of mass media presence and social media activity on electoral outcome
  • Brute force effects of mass media presence and social media activity on electoral outcome
    In this study, we analyze whether the mere volume of presence in mass media and the mere volume of activity on social media convey advantages to candidates in parliamentary elections. Based on the theoretical model of bounded rationality, we call these potential effects brute force effects. During the last month of the election campaign of the Swiss federal election of 2015, we have tracked the presence of all 873 candidates in the canton of Zurich, the most populous canton, in a broad sample of mass media. Additionally, we have tracked those candidates' activity on Facebook and Twitter. The results of our multilevel Bayesian estimates show that mass media presence has a consistent non-trivial impact on different aspects of electoral outcome. Furthermore, social media activity also has a non-trivial impact, but only in terms of resonance (reactions to candidates' social media activity). Overall, our results suggest that brute force effects of of mass media presence and social media activity can have substantial impact on voting behavior.
  • Comments on Conceptualizing and Measuring the Exchange of Beauty and Status
  • The Teotihuacan Anomaly: The Historical Trajectory of Urban Design in ancient Central Mexico
    The ancient Mexican city of Teotihuacan had the most aberrant design of any city in ancient Mesoamerica. I examine similarities and differences between the design of Teotihuacan and other Mesoamerican cities. During the Preclassic period, a set of common Mesoamerican planning principles emerged. The designers of Teotihuacan rejected most of these principles in favor of a new and radical set of planning concepts. After the fall of Teotihuacan, subsequent urban planners ignored the Teotihuacan principles and returned to ancient Mesoamerican planning ideas. Elements of the Teotihuacan plan did not resurface until the Mexica of Tenochtitlan revived them for a specific goal. The historical sequence of central Mexican city layouts highlights the anomalous character of Teotihuacan’s principles of urban design within the canons of ancient Mesoamerican urbanism.
  • Messing with the attractiveness algorithm: a response to queering code/space
  • Education and Attitudes toward Interpersonal and State-Sanctioned Violence
    The link between education and liberal attitudes is one of the most consistent findings in public opinion research, but the theoretical explanations for this relationship warrant additional attention. Previous work suggested that the relationship is due to education socializing students to the “official culture” of the United States. This study uses the World Values Survey and General Social Survey to further develop this theory and test whether it applies to Americans’ attitudes toward justifiable violence. I find that Americans with more education are less likely to say that interpersonal violence—against women, children, and other individuals—can be justifiable. However, they are more likely to say that state-sanctioned violence—war and police violence—can be justifiable. These patterns are consistent with a modified socialization model of education and social attitudes. I conclude that American education socializes people to establishment culture, identity, and interests, which differentiate between unacceptable interpersonal violence and ostensibly acceptable state-sanctioned violence.
  • Polite Literature and Satyagraham
    Satyagraham: commonly mistaken for passive resistance; in actual fact means “firmness in the truth”. The ‘capable’ spokesperson/s holds in their power the ability to aggravate the general public into higher orbitals of tempers that anger is the only neural pathway through which deliberations occur. One is thus adequately motivated to trust the news produced, pandering to the outcomes of ones thoughts whilst in the state of anger. There is an old saying in Tamil that when translated goes: “The man that is easily angered, lacks the capacity for thought”. This may not necessarily apply only to the temperamental. A feeling one gets is that the arousal of tempers is quite subjective and the right trigger can overly anger even the most rational of people. Threat to safety, income and acquired xenophobia are historically potent triggers. If one then wished then to advance an agenda, ‘hide it behind a veil that is the trigger’ is a secret known to the enlightened, and the less mechanically visible the veil, the less likely the public’s ability to see through the veil to the hidden agenda.
  • Catastrophic Gradualism To thee I write
    The second I saw the title: Catastrophic Gradualism, I thought to myself, this can’t possibly be about the effect laziness and general apathy has on society, could it? Did Orwell and the like pick up on this disease more than fifty odd years ago? If it was an issue then, one can only imagine its impact of such a thing in our modern apaced society. How appropriate is the word catastrophic?! It validates a feeling that the general populace wont so much as lift an eyebrow until either the cause impacts one in a manner dire, provides arbitrage or is thrust upon them by authority. This type of behavior resonates with the concept of the path of least resistance. Why would anyone do more than the absolute required to get from a to b? I am surely not defending this behavior, I am only trying to understand and rationalize it. Surely society is divided with those willing effort for change and those not so. Those seeking change are surely fueled by ambition applying to almost anything: technology, science and politics or even with general work related matters. In my general experience, one can observe the same overall effects of Gradualism on society by observing the statistical sample that is the workplace.
  • Assisted Reproductive Technologies in Europe. Towards Legal Coherence and Policy Recommendations
    Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) are a controversial topic for the general public and policy makers alike. ART regulations touch upon many ethical sentiments and various areas of policy-making. Europe is a world leader in the utilization of ART, yet there is limited research on policies, practices, and legislation across time or between countries. The first aim of this report is examine how key ART policies and legislation have changed across time and vary between countries. To achieve this goal, we analyze data from the International Federation of Fertility Societies Surveillance reports for European and selected countries, describing ART policies and practices from 1997 to 2012. A second objective is to understand the national normative climate in which ART policies and legislation are made, with a focus on family values and ART. Finally, in light of the differences between countries and national normative structures; we conclude that it is unrealistic to harmonize ART policies on all grounds. We likewise highlight the need for reliable data and monitoring.
  • The Challenge of Evaluation: An Open Framework for Evaluating Citizen Science Activities
    In today’s knowledge-based society we are experiencing a rise in citizen science activities. Citizen science goals include enhancing scientific knowledge generation, contributing to societally relevant questions, fostering scientific literacy in society and transforming science communication. These aims, however, are rarely evaluated, and project managers as well as prospective funders are often at a loss when it comes to assessing and reviewing the quality and impact of citizen science activities. To ensure and improve the quality of citizen science outcomes evaluation methods are required for planning, self-evaluation and training development as well as for informing funding reviews and impact assessments. Here, based on an in-depth review of the characteristics and diversity of citizen science activities and current evaluation practices, we develop an open framework for evaluating diverse citizen science activities, ranging from projects initiated by grassroots initiatives to those led by academic scientists. The framework incorporates the social, the scientific and the socio-ecological/economic perspectives of citizen science and thus offers a comprehensive collection of indicators at a glance. Indicators on a process- and impact-level can be selected and prioritized from all three perspectives, according to the specific contexts and targets. The framework guides and fosters the critical assessment and enhancement of citizen science projects against these goals both for external funding reviews as well as for internal project development.
  • Specificity of Social Work in the CSR of Colombian Companies
    This document shows the results of the research “Participation of social workers in the corporate social responsibility programs developed by companies operating in Colombia”, which aims to describe social workers’ participation in the field of corporate social responsibility (CSR) of companies operating in Colombia. The results trace the profile of social workers who develop activities in the areas of CSR, define the CSR strategies of companies operating in Colombia, and the participation of these professionals in them, and define the specific functions they perform in these areas.