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SocArXiv papers

  • On the Positive Relationship between Breastfeeding & Intelligence
    A wealth of literature has examined the association between breastfeeding and the development of cognitive abilities in childhood. In particular, at least some evidence exists suggesting that breastfed children (as opposed to formula fed children) perform better on measures of general intelligence later in life. While a correlation appears to be present, fewer observational studies have included appropriate adjustment for potentially confounding variables; maternal intelligence, maternal education, and cognitive stimulation provided by mothers being chief among them. As a result, we analyze a large national sample of American respondents in order to test the association between breastfeeding and intelligence during childhood and adolescence using multiple intelligence tests and controlling for a range of key covariates. Our results suggest that the correlation between breastfeeding and intelligence is statistically significant and robust, yet of substantively minor impact.
  • Victims and Villains: Racial/ethnic Differences in News Portrayal of individuals with Mental Illness Killed by Police
    WORKING PAPER This paper examines racial/ethnic differences in how 301 individuals with mental illness killed by police during 2015 and 2016 were portrayed in news reports. Qualitative content analysis indicates that frames that construct individuals as being victims of mental illness were most common in news reports about Whites, while African-Americans were most likely to be portrayed as victims of police actions. Graphic content was also much more prevalent in news reports about African-Americans, serving as a visceral reminder of the actions of police. For news reports about African-Americans, 22% included graphic content, versus 6% of news reports about Whites and 13% of news reports about Hispanics. Hispanics were most likely to be portrayed as 'villains' through discussions of substance use, criminal records, and expressions of support for police. Drawing from literature examining the media construction of crime through a lens of 'villains' versus 'victims', this paper explores implications of racial/ethnic differences in news coverage of individuals with mental illness killed by police.
  • Exit, Cohesion, and Consensus: Social Psychological Moderators of Consensus among Adolescent Peer Groups
  • Divergent discourse between protests and counter-protests: #BlackLivesMatter and #AllLivesMatter
    Since the shooting of Black teenager Michael Brown by White police officer Darren Wilson in Ferguson, Missouri, the protest hashtag #BlackLivesMatter has amplified critiques of extrajudicial killings of Black Americans. In response to #BlackLivesMatter, other Twitter users have adopted #AllLivesMatter, a counter-protest hashtag whose content argues that equal attention should be given to all lives regardless of race. Through a multi-level analysis of over 860,000 tweets, we study how these protests and counter-protests diverge by quantifying aspects of their discourse. We find that #AllLivesMatter facilitates opposition between #BlackLivesMatter and hashtags such as #PoliceLivesMatter and #BlueLivesMatter in such a way that historically echoes the tension between Black protesters and law enforcement. In addition, we show that a significant portion of #AllLivesMatter use stems from hijacking by #BlackLivesMatter advocates. Beyond simply injecting #AllLivesMatter with #BlackLivesMatter content, these hijackers use the hashtag to directly confront the counter-protest notion of "All lives matter." Our findings suggest that Black Lives Matter movement was able to grow, exhibit diverse conversations, and avoid derailment on social media by making discussion of counter-protest opinions a central topic of #AllLivesMatter, rather than the movement itself.
  • An archaeology of domestic life in early byzantine Gortyna: stratigraphy, pots and contexts
    Ceramic finds from the Byzantine Quarter near the Pythion in Gortyna (Crete) are primarily linked to domestic spaces, particularly during the 7th and 8th century. Specific contexts gave the opportunity to investigate the use life of pottery in such domestic spaces, within the changes that happen both in the quarter and in the city as a whole. Submitted for publication in the proceedings volume of the LRCW5 conference (Alexandria, 2014).
  • Land grab / data grab
    Developments in the area of ‘precision agriculture’ are creating new data points (about flows, soils, pests, climate) that agricultural technology providers ‘grab,’ aggregate, compute, and/or sell. Food producers now churn out food and, increasingly, data. ‘Land grabs’ on the horizon in the global south are bound up with the dynamics of data production and grabbing, although researchers have not, as yet, revealed enough about the people and projects caught up in this new arena. Against this backdrop, this paper examines some of the key issues taking shape, while highlighting new frontiers for research and introducing a concept of ‘data sovereignty,’ which food sovereignty practitioners (and others) need to consider.
  • Getting it Right or Being Top Rank: Games in Citizen Science
    The use of games in citizen science is growing, but can create tension as gaming and science can be seen as incompatible areas of activity. For example, the motivations for winning a game and scientific pursuit of knowledge may be seen as contrary. Over a one-year period, we conducted a virtual ethnographic study of the public forums of two online citizen science projects, Foldit and Galazy Zoo. The first where gaming is an explicit design feature and the second where it is not. The aim was to give a nuanced view of how participants topicalize and respond to tensions between gaming and science. Thematic analysis of discussion forum posts suggests that participants in the two projects respond differently to the tension. By unpacking participant responses to the tension between games and science, our study highlights that citizen science projects using games are not just about fun. To enrol and retain volunteers, our findings suggest that they must also recognize and manage the implicit normative scientific ideals that participants bring with them to a project.
  • A Human-Computer Interaction Approach of Simplicity for Integrity in Social Science
    Emerging data science platforms using simplified and automated user interfaces can help research become significantly more transparent and ethical. By depending on standard human-generated code, many statistical software programs commonly used in the behavioral and social sciences inadvertently rely on the human willpower of scientists, and inspite of an assumed invincibility, such individuals are nearly necessarily prone to errors and research integrity compromises, as is increasingly clear. Removing the vast majority of arbitrary and subjective data judgments, including the generation of code, from researcher control would free behavioural and social scientists from human limitations. Automating the text annotations that accompany data visualizations in figures and diagrams using emerging natural language processing tools can also free scientists from overconfidence or the temptation to embellish findings. Scientific communities across disciplinary human behavioral science communities should embrace such systems to enhance the integrity and transparency of the next-generation of human behaviour research.
  • Perspective Coordination: Empathy and Information Asymmetries
    Information asymmetries are reinterpreted as fundamentally uncoordinated perspectives or mismatched coordinate systems driven by inadequate empathy. Agents view phenomena through different lenses, using coordinate systems that affect how agents view the same phenomena. Since there is no one correct reference point in the economic environment, information is neither necessary nor sufficient to resolve asymmetries. Information travelling between agents is only understood in terms of its objective meaning if the coordinate system is maintained during the transmission process, which occurs in an equilibrium communication path that is conveniently unique. In this setting, empathy via coordinated perspectives is a general explanation for lessened information asymmetries. I close the paper with simple applications that contextualize the model.
  • “Elder Brother Tobacco”: Traditional Nicotiana Snuff Use among the Contemporary Tzeltal and Tzotzil Maya of Highland Chiapas, Mexico - PREPRINT
    In Tzotzil and Tzeltal Maya communities throughout the highlands of Chiapas in southeastern Mexico, a potent oral snuff composed of fresh tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) and slaked lime (calcium hydroxide) is used in a wide range of therapeutic, ritual, and protective contexts. The use of this tobacco snuff—referred to in Tzotzil Maya as “angel” (anjel), “elder brother” (bankilal), “great old man” (muk’ta mol), or simply “tobacco” (moy)—appears to date back to the Classic Maya, and represents continuity in Mayan tobacco culture spanning more than a thousand years. Despite the central importance of this plant in highland Maya medicine and ritual, its use has not previously been documented in any systematic manner. Accordingly, this chapter seeks to present a comprehensive overview of traditional highland Maya tobacco culture among the contemporary Tzotzil and Tzeltal Maya of highland Chiapas, exploring the cultural significance in this quintessentially Amerindian plant in the domains of ethnomedicine, ritual, folklore, and mythology.
  • Causal effects of the timing of life course events: age at retirement and subsequent health
    In this paper we combine the extensive literature on the analysis of life course trajectories as sequences with the literature on causal inference, and propose a new matching approach to investigate the causal effect of the timing of life course events on subsequent outcomes. Our matching approach takes into account pre-event confounders that are both time-independent and time-dependent, as well as life course trajectories. After matching, treated and control individuals can be compared using standard statistical tests or regression models. We apply our approach to the study of the consequences of the age at retirement on subsequent health outcomes, using a unique dataset from Swedish administrative registers. Once selectivity in the timing of retirement is taken into account, effects on hospitalization are small, while early retirement has negative effects on survival. Our approach also allows for heterogeneous treatment effects. We show that the effects of early retirement differ according to pre-retirement income, with higher income individuals tending to benefit from early retirement, while the opposite is true for individuals with lower income.
  • Priming human-computer interactions: Experimental evidence from economic development mobile surveys
    This paper investigates how citizens from developing countries vocalize controversial topics, combining behavioral economics with human-computer interaction. I examine a priming effort to understand how people decide to discuss controversial local subjects, using the human-computer interaction of people with their mobile phones to quantify how attracted people feel to alternative local political economy topics when randomly asked what they think about international aid. The treatment significantly impacted the choice to discuss sanitation, health, poverty, democracy, individual determination, pro-poor support, and happiness. However, the intervention does not affect subjectively ranked preferences. Human-computer interaction approaches may help policy makers understand experimental outcomes.
  • Will a highly developed society be able to secure population replacement?
    In a highly developed society, economic and social changes often lead to a low total fertility rate (TFR). The low TFR has obviously negative impacts on quality of life of individuals as well as society as a whole, and it could lead to societal decline. Widening of a gap between early beginning of sexual activities and late reproduction start of individuals is a phenomenon specific to humans, not observed in apes, other mammals or other species. We believe that this gap significantly impacts the TFR, while not only economic but also social and cultural aspects like ethics, morals, and religions are important to reverse the low TFR. We contemplate social, moral and economic actions that could reduce this gap. This could also have many positive effects on personal health, satisfaction, and ensure population replacement.
  • The cultural evolution of shamanism
    Shamans, including medicine-men, mediums, and the prophets of religious movements, recur across human societies. Shamanism also existed among nearly all documented hunter-gatherers, likely characterized the religious lives of many ancestral humans, and is often proposed by anthropologists to be the “first profession”, representing the first institutionalized division of labor beyond age and sex. This paper proposes a cultural evolutionary theory to explain why shamanism consistently develops, and in particular, (1) why shamanic traditions exhibit recurrent features around the world, (2) why shamanism professionalizes early, often in the absence of other specialization, and (3) how shifting social conditions affect the form or existence of shamanism. According to this theory, shamanism is a set of traditions developed through cultural evolution that adapts to people’s intuitions to convince observers that a practitioner can influence otherwise unpredictable, significant events. The shaman does this by ostensibly transforming during initiation and trance, violating folk-intuitions of humanness to assure group-members that he or she can interact with the invisible forces that control uncertain outcomes. Entry requirements for becoming a shaman persist because the practitioner’s credibility depends on them “transforming”. This contrasts with dealing with problems that have identifiable solutions (like building a canoe), where credibility hinges on showing results and outsiders can invade the jurisdiction by producing the outcome. Shamanism is an ancient human institution that recurs because of the capacity of cultural evolution to produce practices adapted to innate psychological tendencies.
  • The Effects of In Utero Exposure to the 1918 Influenza Pandemic on Family Formation
    A growing literature ties in utero conditions to life course outcomes, including education, earnings, and adult health and mortality. A smaller literature has begun to examine the intergenerational impacts of in utero conditions. A link between these two literatures—the impacts of in utero conditions on family formation—has had few examinations but offers a potential set of mechanisms for the intergenerational reach of early conditions. This paper draws from the 1960 US Decennial Census to examine whether exposed individuals had different family formation patterns than adjacent unexposed cohorts. The findings suggest small overall effects on marriage rates, number of children, and several measures of “type” of spouse for men, but moderate effects for women. The findings also show that exposed individuals have spouses with lower schooling than unexposed counterparts, this effect is particularly large for women, and it increases the likelihood of marrying spouses with very low levels of schooling.
  • Being a ‘citizen’ in the smart city: Up and down the scaffold of smart citizen participation
    This paper critically appraises citizens’ participation in the smart city. Reacting to critiques that the smart city is overly technocratic and instrumental, companies and cities have reframed their initiatives as ‘citizen-centric’. However, what ‘citizen-centric’ means in practice is rarely articulated. We draw on and extend Sherry Arnstein’s seminal work on participation in planning and renewal programmes to create the ‘Scaffold of Smart Citizen Participation’ – a conceptual tool to unpack the diverse ways in which the smart city frames citizens. We then use this scaffold to measure smart citizen inclusion, participation, and empowerment in smart city initiatives in Dublin, Ireland. Our analysis illustrates how most ‘citizen-centric’ smart city initiatives are rooted in stewardship, civic paternalism, and a neoliberal conception of citizenship that prioritizes consumption choice and individual autonomy within a framework of state and corporate defined constraints that prioritize market-led solutions to urban issues, rather than being grounded in civil, social and political rights and the common good. We conclude that significant normative work is required to rethink ‘smart citizens’ and ‘smart citizenship’ and to remake smart cities if they are to truly become ‘citizen-centric’.
  • Opioid Deaths by Race in the United States, 2000–2015
    The opioid-related mortality rate in the United States more than tripled between 2000 and 2015. However, there were stark differences in the trend for the non-Hispanic black and non-Hispanic white populations. In this paper we assess differences in opioid deaths by race. We analyze patterns and trends in multiple cause-of-death data to gain a better understanding of how deaths differ by race and what has contributed to changes over time. The trend in race-specific opioid death rates over 2000–2015 can be divided into two periods: 2000–2010 and 2010–2015. The increase in 2000–2010 was more substantial for the white population and was driven by prescription painkillers. Since 2010, the rates of opioid-mortality increase for both the white and black populations have been similar and largely due to heroin and fentanyl-type opioids. For the white population, death rates due to heroin and fentanyl-type drugs decrease with age, but for the black population, the opposite is true. In addition, the number of deaths that involve more than one opioid drug has increased over time, with the rate of increase coinciding with the overall rate of increase in opioid deaths.
  • Operating Anew: Queering GIS with Good Enough Software
    In the last decade, conversations around queering of GIScience emerged. Drawing on literature from feminist and queer critical GIS with special attention to the under-examined political economy of GIS, I suggest that the critical project of queering all of GIS, both GIScience and GISystems, requires not just recognition of the labor and lives of queers and research in geographies of sexualities. Based upon a queer feminist political economic critique and evidenced in my teaching critical GIS at two elite liberal arts colleges, I argue that “status quo” between ESRI and geography as a field must be interrupted. Extending a critical GIS focus beyond data structures and data ethics, I argue that geographic researchers and instructors have a responsibility in queering our choice and production of software, algorithms, and code alike. I call this production and choice of democratic, accessible, and useful software by, for, and about the needs of its users good enough software. Instead, I argue that “status quo” between ESRI and geography as a field must be interrupted.
  • Alchemical symbols on Stećak tombstones and their meaning
    In order to truly be able to understand the phenomenology of Stećak tombstones in its total complexity, the Stećak primarily needs to be viewed through philosophy (Neoplatonism), theology (Cataphatic and Apophatic theology) and through the practice of theurgy and alchemy (work on stone and metal). It is very difficult to understand the symbols on Stećak tombstones without the essential knowledge of the basic principles and philosophy of Neoplatonism and Hermeticism, so even the most dedicated researchers of Bosnian Middle Ages observed Stečak symbols only as a decorative motifs denying the tombstones' enormous amount of "philosophical and spiritual content" that greatly can help in the study of the religious character of the Bosnian Church in the Middle Ages. To understand the meaning of many symbols of alchemy and theurgy on Stećak tombstones, a researcher of Bosnian medieval spirituality has to relate himself with one world in which mystery and spirituality are central. For example alchemical imagination constantly reminds us that opposing forces in nature have to unite thus forming a special relationships in a way that through their unification the mysterious "third" occurs (Alchemical "Egg","Philosopher's Stone", "Tree of Life") that transcends an ordinary existence.
  • Plato's spirituality (The Eternal Soul and the "Real" World)
    Mixture of philosophy and religion defines Plato's tradition of spirituality known as Platonism. The view of God as a First Principle or Supreme Good rather than a person is based on platonistic doctrine that anything that have personality is changeable and belongs to Lower Realm, while God is an eternal principle who emanates unchangeable untelligible Forms in the Upper Realm. According to Plato, ascent to heaven from the„cave“ or world of shadows could happen only after the conversion of inverted soul through "intellectual vision" or "ascetic paradigm". The very concept of spirituality in the West as we know it today comes from Plato and it is still an integral part of all three monotheistic religions today . In the „Republic“ we learn about Allegory of the Cave; in „Meno“ Theory of the Recollection; in „Phaedo“ Theory of the Immortality of the Soul; in „Phaedrus“ Theory of Division and the Fall of the Soul; and finally in „Symposium“ we learn about doctrine of Platonic Love.
  • Neoplatonic "Tree of Life" (Arbor Porphyriana: A diagram of logic and mystical theology
    In several versions of „Introduction to Aristotle's Categories“ („The Isagoge“) we find very intriguing diagram of the "Tree of Porphyry". This diagram is closely linked with the square of opposition (logical square), natural tree with vegetative ornaments and the anthropomorphic figure. Porphyry took over Aristotle's division into five predicables (quinque praedicabilia) and defined them through five classes (species, genus, differentia, propria, accidentia) and from them he created scala praedicamentalis (Arbor Porphyriana). The Neoplatonic-Aristotelianism of Porphyry influenced the return of interest in Aristotle's logic in the Middle Ages through translations of Boethius and Al-Farabi. Their works of logic were the basis for the study of many topics, especially those related to theology. Later diagrams with the natural tree and human figure (syndesmos) are found in the 13th century in "Tractatus" („Summulae Logicales“) written by Peter of Spain under different names such as: Tree of Love, Tree of Life, Tree of Science, Tree of Knowledge etc. Christian mysticism (Mystical theology), Islamic mysticism (Sufism) and Jewish mysticism (Kabbalah) was deeply influenced by Neoplatonic philosophy and within these mystical traditions we find different variations of the diagram aswell. Under the influence of the concept of Neoplatonic procession and reversion, mystic should be simultaneously involved in both Cataphatic and Apophatic theology to truly understand God. In other words, a spiritual person has to oscillate between affirming claims about the Tree of Life (the Being) and negation of those same claims to be able to have real knowledge of God.
  • Founded by Faith: Social Entrepreneurship as a Bridge Between Religion and Work
    Social entrepreneurship is an increasingly prevalent subcategory of entrepreneurship that is being used to tackle some of society’s most intractable problems. However, it is unclear what motivates individuals to become social entrepreneurs. In a partially-inductive, exploratory study, we examine what drives entrepreneurs to found social ventures. We find that social entrepreneurs often express a common motivation: an aspiration to integrate their religious beliefs and work. Our findings are used to construct a process model that describes how entrepreneurs progressed through five phases: desire, disenchantment, epiphany, bridging, and enlightenment. In doing so, entrepreneurs created social ventures, which served to unite their faith and work.
  • Terrorism and Social Movements; Wiley-Blackwell Companion to Social Movements, 2nd Edition
    In spite of a proliferation of empirical research, scholarship on terrorism remains theoretically fragmented and often inconclusive on even basic issues. In this chapter, we detail how terrorism can be incorporated into the social movements and collective action scholarships’ portfolio of research through a review of several of the most widely debated topics in current terrorism research: 1) how terrorism is defined; 2) dynamics of radicalization for individuals and groups; 3) intensity and targets of violence; 4) organizational diversification; and 5) the context of terrorist action. Taking a problem-centered approach, we detail how prior insights from scholarship on social movements and collective action can theoretically and substantively advance terrorism research.
  • The mutual specification of genres and audiences: Reflective two-mode centralities in person-to-culture data
    Recent developments at the intersection of cultural sociology and network theory suggest that the relations between persons and the cultural forms they consume can be productively analyzed using conceptual resources and methods adapted from network analysis. In this paper I seek to contribute to this developing line of thinking on the culture-networks link as it pertains to the sociology of taste. I present a general analytic and measurement framework useful for rethinking traditional survey (or population) based data on individuals and their cultural choices as a “two mode” persons X genres network. The proposed methodological tools allow me to develop a set of “reflective” metrics useful for ranking both persons and genres in terms of the pattern of choices and audience composition embedded in the cultural network. The empirical analysis shows that these metrics have both face and criterion validity, allowing us to extract useful information that would remain out of reach of standard quantitative strategies. I close by outlining the analytic and substantive implications of the approach.
  • The Tied Migrant Employment Penalty: Public Perceptions of Military Spouses Seeking Work
    People who move to support the employment prospects of their spouses are tied migrants, and military spouses experience tied migration repeatedly: active duty military personnel move about once every two years, twice as often as civilian families. This frequent geographical disruption directly affects the career trajectories of military spouses. Previous research established military spouses experience worse employment outcomes than their civilian peers, but less is known about the specific characteristics that lead to this difference. Do military spouses have worse employment outcomes because of being a tied migrant, or is there a separate effect because of their status as a military spouse? This article analyzes original data from a factorial vignette survey in which respondents evaluated fictitious job applicant profiles. Results suggest (1) Military spouses receive a premium as job applicants, they are evaluated as more warm, competent, reliable, and social, but receive lower evaluations on perceived longevity; (2) Military spouses with a stable geographic history are evaluated higher than civilians, but that premium switches to a penalty for military spouses with a history of moving frequently, in which case they are evaluated more harshly than civilians who have moved frequently; and (3) Neither tied migration nor military spouse status influence starting salary offers. As many careers require employees to move as part of their training or to seek advancement opportunities, understanding the employment-related challenges and opportunities military spouses face can lead to implications that may affect other tied migrants.
  • The stories of social entrepreneurship: Narrative discourse and social enterprise resource acquisition
    Social entrepreneurship is a phenomenon of increasing significance. A key challenge for social ventures is resource acquisition. However, how social entrepreneurs gather the resources necessary to grow their organizations is not clear. The focus of this study is how narratives are used to acquire social venture resources. This topic is examined using a multi-study, inductive, theory-building design based on 121 interviews, observation, and archival data. In Study 1, I interview 75 entrepreneurs, investors, and ancillary participants in the social enterprise sector. In Study 2, I construct case studies of eight technology-focused social ventures. Evidence from this study is used to construct a framework explaining how differences in entrepreneurs’ narrative tactics and characteristics are associated with differences in their resource acquisition success. Specifically, from Study 1 I develop a typology of social enterprise narratives, identify three narrative-types (personal, social-good, and business), and show that they possess unique elements. Evidence from Study 2 suggests that the three narrative-types serve as the building blocks for communication with external stakeholders. These findings contribute to three literatures that formed the basis of the study – social entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial resource acquisition, and organizational narrative theory – and have implications for work on competing organizational logics. They also produce several practical implications for social entrepreneurs.
  • The Role of Family in Initiating Police-Public Encounters: Demographic Differences and Fatal Consequences
    WORKING PAPER This paper examines 1,312 police-public encounters that resulted in the fatal shooting of civilians between January 1, 2015 and December 31, 2016. Data published by The Washington Post is merged with data collected by the author regarding how fatal police-public encounters were initiated. Multinomial logistic regression and adjusted predictive probabilities indicate that African-Americans killed by police are approximately half as likely to have police contact due to a family member or friend calling 911 than Whites. Individuals with mental illness killed by police are very unlikely to have contact initiated by police. Furthermore, logistic regression and adjusted predictive probabilities indicate that that how contact was initiated matters: there is a lower probability of police using only lethal force when a family member or friend initiates contact. The implications of the results for both understanding police use of force as well as police relations with minority communities are discussed.
  • Three Models of Ethnographic Transparency: Naming Places, Naming People, and Sharing Data
    Ethnographic research consists of multiple methodological approaches, including short- and/or long-term participant observation, interviews, photographs, videos, and group field work, to name a few. Yet, it is commonly practiced as a solitary endeavor and primary data is not often subject to scholarly scrutiny. In this paper, I highlight three models that scholars have used to make ethnographic methods more transparent: naming the places they studied, naming the people they met, and sharing data. In doing so, this paper makes several contributions. Theoretically, it situates varied decisions regarding ethnographic transparency as part of the tools in ethnographers’ methodological toolkit. Researchers make these decisions strategically, depending on the content and context of their work. Empirically, it synthesizes these varied approaches, and highlights their advantages and disadvantages. Finally, it contributes to ongoing debates regarding who ethnographers should be accountable to—our subjects, other scholars, and/or ourselves.
  • Stigmatizing Media Coverage of Persons with Mental Illness Killed by Police
    WORKING PAPER This paper examines the prevalence and types of stigmatizing language and frames in news reports about persons with mental illness killed by police. A sample of 301 online news reports was content analyzed, of which 132 reports contributed to 231 examples of stigmatizing language or frames. Analysis indicates that the construction of stigma in these news reports does not always adhere to existing frameworks for identifying stigmatizing frames. Furthermore, stigmatization that is implicit, and often seemingly innocuous, is far more pervasive than overt and explicit forms of stigmatization. To the author's knowledge this study is the first to examine media stigmatization of persons with mental illness killed by police as well as explore stigmatizing frames regarding suicide by cop. Implications of the findings for de-stigmatization efforts are explored.
  • Sherd weight: a new look at the numbers
    Weight of single ceramic sherds from archaeological contexts has a log-normal distribution. This property can be used for a purely quantitative statistical analysis of contexts. Rather than focusing on the economic and social value of ceramics, quantification is used to evaluate depositional histories and verify or improve archaeological interpretation.
  • From the accidental to articulated smart city: The creation and work of ‘Smart Dublin’
    While there is a relatively extensive literature concerning the nature of smart cities in general, the roles of corporate actors in their production, and the development and deployment of specific smart city technologies, to date there have been relatively few studies that have examined the situated practices as to how the smart city as a whole unfolds in specific places. In this paper, we chart the smart city ecosystem in Dublin, Ireland, and examine how the four city authorities have actively collaborated to progressively frame and mobilise an articulated vision of Dublin as a smart city. In particular, we focus on the work of ‘Smart Dublin’, a shared unit established to coordinate, manage and promote Dublin’s smart city initiatives. We argue that Smart Dublin has on the one hand sought to corral smart city initiatives within a common framework, and on the other has acted to boost the city-region’s smart city activities, especially with respect to economic development. Our analysis highlights the value of undertaking a holistic mapping of a smart city in formation, and the role of political and administrative geographies and specialist smart city units in shaping that formation.
  • Dictatorial Rule and Sexual Politics in Argentina: The Case of the Frente de Liberación Homosexual, 1967–1976
  • Dictatorial Rule and Sexual Politics in Argentina: The Case of the Frente de Liberación Homosexual, 1967-1976
    The Frente de Liberacio´n Homosexual (FLH, 1967–1976) was the first political movement of homosexual men in Argentina. Despite its short life span, this organization set the ground for futuredevelopments.TheFLHemergedinthecontextofincreasingauthoritarianismratherthanbeingtheresultof a transition to democracy. The relationship with homophobic Peronists and left-wing traditions was, para-doxically, crucial for the emergence of the FLH. Most homosexual activists came from the Left, and they understood homosexual liberation as one aspect of the struggle against capitalism. These activists werehighly critical of anticapitalist politics as it existed in Argentina at the time, but they also actively sought tobecome allies of the expanding New Left during the period. Eventually, however, the 1976–1983 military dictatorship made all forms of dissidence impossible, and the FLH had to dissolve.
  • Differences in STI knowledge accuracy and STI/HIV testing among a random sample of college students: A secondary survey analysis
    Objective: This study aimed to describe STI knowledge accuracy and STI/HIV testing service use in college students. Participants: A random sample of 991 university students aged 18-24, enrolled at a major public university, participated in this study in February 2009. Methods: Students took a survey designed by researchers in college health promotion and sexual health. Survey responses were examined for differences in STI knowledge accuracy, and demographic and behavioral predispositions to getting an STI or HIV test. Results: STI knowledge and testing service use differed significantly by gender, race, sexual orientation, STI/HIV testing history, and being sexually active in the past year. Conclusions: These findings can inform health communication campaigns of specific populations to target by providing identifiable sub-groups lacking STI knowledge and not using testing services.
  • MOOCs and Crowdsourcing: Massive Courses and Massive Resources
    Premised upon the observation that MOOC and crowdsourcing phenomena share several important characteristics, including IT mediation, large-scale human participation, and varying levels of openness to participants, this work systematizes a comparison of MOOC and crowdsourcing phenomena along these salient dimensions. In doing so, we learn that both domains share further common traits, including similarities in IT structures, knowledge generating capabilities, presence of intermediary service providers, and techniques designed to attract and maintain participant activity. Stemming directly from this analysis, we discuss new directions for future research in both fields and draw out actionable implications for practitioners and researchers in both domains. First Monday, Volume 20, Issue 12, December 2015
  • Next Generation Crowdsourcing for Collective Intelligence
    New techniques leveraging IT-mediated crowds such as Crowdsensing, Situated Crowdsourcing, Spatial Crowdsourcing, and Wearables Crowdsourcing have now materially emerged. These techniques, here termed next generation Crowdsourcing, serve to extend Crowdsourcing efforts beyond the heretofore dominant desktop computing paradigm. Employing new configurations of hardware, software, and people, these techniques represent new forms of organization for IT-mediated crowds (Prpić et al 2015; 2015b, 2015c, 2015d, Prpić & Shukla 2013; 2014; 2016). However, it is not known how these new techniques change the processes and outcomes of IT-mediated crowds for Collective Intelligence purposes? The aim of this exploratory work is to begin to answer this question. The work ensues by outlining the relevant findings of the first generation Crowdsourcing paradigm, before reviewing the emerging literature pertaining to the new generation of Crowdsourcing techniques. Premised on this review, a collectively exhaustive and mutually exclusive typology is formed, organizing the next generation Crowdsourcing techniques along two salient dimensions common to all first generation Crowdsourcing techniques. As a result, this work situates the next generation Crowdsourcing techniques within the extant Crowdsourcing literature, and identifies new research avenues stemming directly from the analysis. Prpić, J. (2016). Next Generation Crowdsourcing for Collective Intelligence. Collective Intelligence Conference, 2016. Stern School of Business, NYU.
  • Human capital or signaling? Differences in skills distributions and the labor market disadvantage of less-educated adults across 21 countries
    Less-educated adults bear the highest risk of labor market marginalization in all advanced economies, but the extent of their disadvantage differs considerably across countries. Exploiting unique data on the actual skills of adults from PIAAC 2011/12, we examine two prominent explanations for this cross-country variation. Human capital theory suggests that the marginalization of less-educated individuals reflects a lack of skills. The signaling explanation emphasizes the role of educational credentials as easy-to-observe proxies for skills and productivity. It suggests that the skills distribution of educational groups can affect their labor market position beyond any individual-level effect of skills by influencing the signaling value or “skills transparency” of educational credentials. Applying a two-step regression approach to a sample of 48,033 adults in 21 countries, we find support for both explanations. Consistent with human capital theory, literacy and numeracy skills are positively related to occupational status at the individual level and partly account for cross-national differences in the labor market disadvantage of less-educated adults. Yet, cross-country variation remains considerable even after controlling for skills and further key observables. Consistent with the signaling account, country-level regressions show that the remaining variation is related to two direct measures of skills transparency: the aggregate skills differential between less- and intermediate-educated adults and the internal homogeneity of these groups. We also find that the labor market disadvantage of less-educated adults increases with the vocational orientation of secondary education, presumably reflecting individual- and aggregate-level effects of occupation-specific skills, which were not assessed in PIAAC.
  • From Economic to Social Regulation: How the Deregulatory Moment Strengthened Economists’ Policy Position
    The deregulatory moment of the late 1970s increased the policy influence of economics in the United States by linking the efforts of two distinct communities of economists: a systems analytic group and an industrial organization (I/O) group. The systems analytic group, which used cost-benefit analysis to improve government decision-making, had considerable success in the 1960s and helped create offices of economists throughout the executive branch, but was losing momentum by 1970. The I/O group was, by the mid-1970s, working from the White House to reduce economic regulation—eliminating price and entry controls across a range of industries—but its ability to act was limited. After 1975, the I/O group increasingly focused on social regulation—rules meant to improve health, environmental, or safety conditions—and pushed for cost-benefit/cost-effectiveness analysis of such regulations. In the process, its efforts became linked with the legacy of systems analysis, leading to legal requirements for cost-benefit analysis of regulation and the expansion of executive-branch offices oriented toward economics—changes which opened doors to the future exchange of ideas between academia and the policy domain.
  • The (in)security of smart cities: vulnerabilities, risks, mitigation and prevention
    In this paper we examine the current state of play with regards to the security of smart city initiatives. Smart city technologies are promoted as an effective way to counter and manage uncertainty and urban risks through the effective and efficient delivery of services, yet paradoxically they create new vulnerabilities and threats, including making city infrastructure and services insecure, brittle, and open to extended forms of criminal activity. This paradox has largely been ignored or underestimated by commercial and governmental interests or tackled through a technically-mediated mitigation approach. We identify five forms of vulnerabilities with respect to smart city technologies, detail the present extent of cyberattacks on networked infrastructure and services, and present a number of illustrative examples. We then adopt a normative approach to explore existing mitigation strategies, suggesting a wider set of systemic interventions (including security-by-design, remedial security patching and replacement, formation of core security and computer emergency response teams, a change in procurement procedures, and continuing professional development). We discuss how this approach might be enacted and enforced through market-led and regulation/management measures, and examine a more radical preventative approach to security.
  • Connecting Online Work and Online Education at Scale
    Education is one of the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDG) of the United Nations. Considerable interest has been displayed in online education at scale, a new arising concept to realize this goal. Yet connecting online education to real jobs is still a challenge. This CHI workshop bridges this gap by bringing together groups and insights from related work at HCOMP, CSCW, and Learning at Scale. The workshop aims at providing opportunities for groups not yet in the focus of online education, exemplified by students who have not have equal access to higher education, compared to typical students in MOOCs.The focus is on theoretical and empirical connections between online education and job opportunities which can reduce the financial gap, by providing students with an income during their studies. The workshop explores the technological analogue of the concept of ‘apprenticeship’, long established in the European Union, and education research [2]. This allows students to do useful work as an apprentice during their studies. This workshop tackles such questions by bringing together participants from industry (e.g., platforms similar to Upwork, Amazon Mechanical Turk); education, psychology, and MOOCs (e.g., attendees of AERA, EDM, AIED, Learning at Scale); crowdsourcing and collaborative work (e.g., attendees of CHI, CSCW, NIPS, AAAI’s HCOMP). Krause, M., Hall, M., Williams, J. J., Paritosh, P., Prpić, J., & Caton, S. (2016, May). Connecting Online Work and Online Education at Scale. In Proceedings of the 2016 CHI Conference Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems (pp. 3536-3541). ACM.
  • The Indus Texts: A Symbol Dictionary
    The dictionary is expected to be an evolving compilation, with further versions incorporating new symbols based on progress in interpreting the texts. Check the preprint's publicly accessible project area for the latest version of the dictionary.
  • Crowd Capital in Governance Contexts
    To begin to understand the implications of the implementation of IT-­mediated Crowds for Politics and Policy purposes, this research builds the first-­known dataset of IT-­mediated Crowd applications currently in use in the governance context. Using Crowd Capital theory and governance theory as frameworks to organize our data collection, we undertake an exploratory data analysis of some fundamental factors defining this emerging field. Specific factors outlined and discussed include the type of actors implementing IT mediated Crowds in the governance context, the global geographic distribution of the applications, and the nature of the Crowd derived resources being generated for governance purposes. The findings from our dataset of 209 on-­going endeavours indicates that a wide-­diversity of actors are engaging IT-mediated Crowds in the governance context, both jointly and severally, that these endeavours can be found to exist on all continents, and that said actors are generating Crowd-derived resources in at least ten distinct governance sectors. We discuss the ramifications of these and our other findings in comparison to the research literature on the private-­sector use of IT-­mediated Crowds, while highlighting some unique future research opportunities stemming from our work. Prpić, J., & Shukla, P. (2014). Crowd Capital in Governance Contexts. Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford - IPP 2014 - Crowdsourcing for Politics and Policy.
  • A Computational Model of Crowds for Collective Intelligence
    In this work, we present a high-level computational model of IT-mediated crowds for collective intelligence. We introduce the Crowd Capital perspective as an organizational level model of collective intelligence generation from IT-mediated crowds, and specify a computational system including agents, forms of IT, and organizational knowledge. Prpić, J., Jackson, P., & Nguyen, T. (2014). A Computational Model of Crowds for Collective Intelligence. Collective Intelligence 2014. MIT Center for Collective Intelligence.
  • The Effect of the Academic Attainment of ESL Teachers on Evaluation of ESL Learners’ Errors: Educational Degree-Based Study
  • The Indus Texts: A Bundle Measure of Grain and a Stereotyped Number
    A symbol in the Indus texts that occurs frequently next to the symbol of the `handspan' anthropomorphic measure is interpreted as an ideogram for `harvested grain' based on its iconic form, taken to depict a series of heaps of grains. This has a direct visual parallel in a determinative in contemporaneous Egyptian hieroglyphics that was used to assist in the reading of a phonetically spelt word for `food'. The combination of the `harvested grain' symbol with the `handspan' anthropomorphic measure is read as a picto-phrase that conveyed the sense `measure of harvested grain'. A pictogram of seven line strokes that often occurs interchangeably with the `harvested grain' symbol in the corpus is proposed to represent a stereotyped expression `the seven'. The expression is interpreted as the representation of a collection of `seven grains' following an ancient system of classification of food-grains into groups of seven attested in the Vedic literature and later. This correspondence is argued to demonstrate a certain continuity of practices in the agricultural-ritual domain between the Indus tradition and the Vedic. The results of this paper provide further evidence that the Indus texts involved a type of picture-writing that did not encode spoken language. The results also support the position that some symbols in the Indus texts which resemble numeral strokes likely represented stereotyped entities rather than literal numeral phrases.
  • The Effect of the Academic Attainment of ESL Teachers on Evaluation of ESL Learners’ Errors: Educational Degree-Based Study
    This paper analyzes reactions and evaluations of 70 participants, native and non-native speakers of English to 32 errors written by learners of English as a second language, ESL. It investigates the effect of the academic attainment of ESL teachers on the evaluation of ESL error seriousness. The educational attainment of teachers, both native and non-native, include the B.A., M.A., and Ph.D. degrees. Participants in the study include 34 non-native Palestinian ESL teachers, 26 English native speaking ESL teachers, and 10 English native speakers who are not teachers. Errors in this study are taken from compositions written by Arab-Palestinian students. Eight error categories including prepositions, concord, word order, plural, pronouns, spelling, vocabulary, and verb form are used. Four correct sentences are also included. All participants for the study had to underline errors and evaluate them by indicating the points from 0-5 they would deduct for each error; 5 indicates very serious errors; 0 is for error-free sentences; “1” is for errors which can easily be excused; “2”, “3”, and “4” are means to show intermediate degrees of seriousness. Results of the study show that the three academic groups differ in their evaluation of errors. Whereas the Ph.D. groups are the most lenient, the M.A. groups are the least tolerant. The non-teachers are the most tolerant of all groups.
  • The Fundamentals of Policy Crowdsourcing
    What is the state of the research on crowdsourcing for policymaking? This article begins to answer this question by collecting, categorizing, and situating an extensive body of the extant research investigating policy crowdsourcing, within a new framework built on fundamental typologies from each field. We first define seven universal characteristics of the three general crowdsourcing techniques (virtual labor markets, tournament crowdsourcing, open collaboration), to examine the relative tradeoffs of each modality. We then compare these three types of crowdsourcing to the different stages of the policy cycle, in order to situate the literature spanning both domains. We finally discuss research trends in crowdsourcing for public policy and highlight the research gaps and overlaps in the literature. Prpić, J., Taeihagh, A., & Melton, J. (2015). The Fundamentals of Policy Crowdsourcing. Policy & Internet, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 340-361.
  • How To Work A Crowd: Developing Crowd Capital Through Crowdsourcing
    Traditionally, the term ‘crowd’ was used almost exclusively in the context of people who self organized around a common purpose, emotion, or experience. Today, however, firms often refer to crowds in discussions of how collections of individuals can be engaged for organizational purposes. Crowdsourcing– defined here as the use of information technologies to outsource business responsibilities to crowds–—can now significantly influence a firm’s ability to leverage previously unattainable resources to build competitive advantage. Nonetheless, many managers are hesitant to consider crowdsourcing because they do not understand how its various types can add value to the firm. In response, we explain what crowdsourcing is, the advantages it offers, and how firms can pursue crowdsourcing. We begin by formulating a crowdsourcing typology and show how its four categories–—crowd voting, micro-task, idea, and solution crowdsourcing —can help firms develop ‘crowd capital,’ an organizational-level resource harnessed from the crowd. We then present a three-step process model for generating crowd capital. Step one includes important considerations that shape how a crowd is to be constructed. Step two outlines the capabilities firms need to develop to acquire and assimilate resources (e.g., knowledge, labor, funds) from the crowd. Step three outlines key decision areas that executives need to address to effectively engage crowds. Prpić, J., Shukla, P.P., Kietzmann, J.H., & McCarthy, I.P. (2015). How to Work a Crowd: Developing Crowd Capital Through Crowdsourcing. Business Horizons, Volume 58, Issue 1, Pages 77-85.
  • Crowdsourcing the Policy Cycle
    Crowdsourcing is beginning to be used for policymaking. The “wisdom of crowds” [Surowiecki 2005], and crowdsourcing [Brabham 2008], are seen as new avenues that can shape all kinds of policy, from transportation policy [Nash 2009] to urban planning [Seltzer and Mahmoudi 2013], to climate policy ( In general, many have high expectations for positive outcomes with crowdsourcing, and based on both anecdotal and empirical evidence, some of these expectations seem justified [Majchrzak and Malhotra 2013]. Yet, to our knowledge, research has yet to emerge that unpacks the different forms of crowdsourcing in light of each stage of the well established policy cycle. This work addresses this research gap, and in doing so brings increased nuance to the application of crowdsourcing techniques for policymaking. Prpić, J., Taeihagh, A., & Melton, J. (2014). Crowdsourcing the Policy Cycle. Collective Intelligence 2014, MIT Center for Collective Intelligence.
  • Accounting for Purposive Social Action
    This paper articulates a sociological approach to analyzing individual choices. I discuss sociological roadblocks to economic thinking, namely disagreements about preference formation, social influence, and the importance of group-level phenomena. I show that these ideas can be integrated into an individual choice modeling approach based on the assumption that individuals maximize the "morality" or "rightness" of a choice in a particular context, rather than its rational utility. I suggest that scholars place explicit constraints on the analysis itself, rather than on the cognition of the actors being analyzed, which allows for truly scientific, endogenous models of individual choice that maintain analytical rigor. I conclude by elaborating several tools for methodological implementation of the model.
  • Evidence for Non-Linguistic Symbol Structures in the Indus Texts
    The Indus Civilization (2600-1900 BCE) produced brief written texts that represent the earliest evidence of writing in South Asia. Numerous studies on the texts and many attempts at decipherment have not established if the texts encoded a spoken language or exploited a system of non-linguistic symbols. This paper identifies symbols in the texts that bear graphic resemblance to anthropomorphic units of measurement amenable to pictorial interpretation. The symbols are interpreted as ideograms of objects that may have functioned as capacity measures. The occurrences of a `grain stalk'-like pictogram next to some of these symbols allowed the combinations to be read as non-linguistic expressions that pictorially conveyed the sense `measure [of] grain'. Another symbol in the corpus is identified as the representation of the finger-millet grain (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.) based on a correspondence between its striking pictorial form and the characteristic shape of the head of the finger-millet grass. The symbol's frequent combination with one of the anthropomorphic measures is read as the expression `measure [of] finger-millet grain'. A further three-symbol combination involving `grain stalk'-like symbols is interpreted ideographically as `triply-twisted stalk', an expression for `rope'. The nature of the symbols, their referents, and the manner of construction of `picto-phrases' demonstrate that the Indus texts included elements of a symbol system that did not encode spoken language.
  • Ego-Centered Cognitive Social Structures of Close Personal Networks in the United States
    Social network analysis is increasingly important in the social and behavioral sciences and has been employed to study a host of inter- and intra-personal social processes. One of the challenges researchers face in this area, however, is balancing the trade-offs between different modes of network measurement and study design. At one end of the spectrum, entirely ego-centered network designs facilitate access to a large, generalizable sample of the population but often lack details on the underlying network structure that embed each respondent. At the other end, whole-network designs offer fine details about the network structure but are costly and suffer from generalizability limitations. In this paper, we employ an ego-centered network sampling design that strikes a balance between these two cases by leveraging how individuals perceive their social worlds vis-a-vis respondent reports of their alter-alter ties. We describe a large sample of close personal networks where respondents informed on their perceptions of the ties between their alters on multiple types of relations. Specifically, we characterize the distribution of network statistics (size, density, and multiplexity) for over a thousand individual ego-centered cognitive networks drawn from a representative sample of the U.S. population. To our knowledge this is the first study to characterize the distribution of mental maps vis-a-vis perceived alter-alter relationships in this large of a sample of respondents involved in close personal networks. In doing so, we more clearly shed light on how Americans perceive the structure of their social worlds and provide an empirical case study in what we characterize as ego-centered cognitive social structures.
  • Central bank planning? Unconventional monetary policy and the price of bending the yield curve
    Central banks have long used their position as the monopoly issuers of reserves to ‘fix’ a crucial price in the economy, namely the short-term, interbank interest rate. They have also increasingly used communication to ‘fix’ market actors’ expectations of future rates of interest, inflation, and growth. Aware of the proximity of these practices to a form of (financial) central planning, central banks used to restrict their interventions to the short end of the yield curve, insisting that longer-term interest rates constituted aggregators of decentralised knowledge and information, best determined by market forces. By embracing forward guidance and quantitative easing to target long-term rates, central banks have purposefully crossed that line. This paper uses the conceptual toolkit of the literature on social studies of finance and central banking to come to grips with the implications of that decision for the theory and practice of macroeconomic governability. Three arguments are advanced. First, Keynesian fiscal demand management and monetary inflation targeting represent separate ideal types of macroeconomic state agency, the former operating in a hydraulic, the latter in a strategic and performative manner. Second, while consistent with the post-1980s expansion of the temporal reach of monetary policy into the future, large-scale asset purchases nevertheless mark a structural break – the return of hydraulic macroeconomic state agency, refashioned for a financialised economy. Third, central bank planning has a deep theoretical lineage in general-equilibrium macroeconomics. The case of the European Central Bank serves to illustrate these arguments.
  • Normative Beliefs about Money in Families: Balancing Togetherness, Autonomy, and Equality
    Using original data from a nationally representative vignette-survey experiment (n = 3,986), this study investigated norms about income sharing within families. Respondents were asked to select a preferred income allocation strategy for a fictional couple with varied circumstances. Findings showed that despite differences in fictional couples’ marital and parental statuses, the majority of respondents indicated all couples should ideally pursue some level of autonomy within their relationships. Respondents also believed higher-earning partners ought to hold back a greater absolute value of their income, potentially reproducing unequal labor market conditions within families. When women were presented as the primary earner, the ideal level of withholding income was slightly larger in magnitude than when men were shown as the primary earner. Findings challenge the notion that marriage distinctively establishes a unitary family interest and suggest normative support for women’s self-determination in lieu of a push for gender equality.
  • Exit, cohesion, and consensus: social psychological moderators of consensus among adolescent peer groups
    Virtually all social diffusion work relies on a common formal basis, which predicts that consensus will develop among a connected population as the result of diffusion. In spite of the popularity of social diffusion models that predict consensus, few empirical studies examine consensus, or a clustering of attitudes, directly. Those that do either focus on the coordinating role of strict hierarchies, or on the results of online experiments, and do not consider how consensus occurs among groups in situ. This study uses longitudinal data on adolescent social networks to show how meso-level social structures, such as informal peer groups, moderate the process of consensus formation. Using a novel method for controlling for selection into a group, I find that centralized peer groups, meaning groups with clear leaders, have very low levels of consensus, while cohesive peer groups, meaning groups where more ties hold the members of the group together, have very high levels of consensus. This finding is robust to two different measures of cohesion and consensus. This suggests that consensus occurs either through central leaders’ enforcement or through diffusion of attitudes, but that central leaders have limited ability to enforce when people can leave the group easily.
  • Secular but not Superficial: An Overlooked Nonreligious/Nonspiritual Identity
    Since Durkheim’s characterization of the sacred and profane as “antagonistic rivals,” the strict dichotomy has been framed in such a way that “being religious” evokes images of a life filled with profound meaning and value, while “being secular” evokes images of a meaningless, self-centered, superficial life, often characterized by materialistic consumerism and the cold, heartless environment of corporate greed. Consequently, to identify as “neither religious nor spiritual” runs the risk of being stigmatized as superficial, untrustworthy, and immoral. Conflicts and confusions encountered in the process of negotiating a nonreligious/nonspiritual identity, caused by the ambiguous nature of religious language, were explored through qualitative interviews with 14 ex-ministers and 1 atheist minister—individuals for whom supernaturalist religion had formed the central core of identity, but who have deconverted and no longer hold supernatural beliefs. The cognitive linguistics approach of Frame Semantics was applied to the process of “oppositional identity work” to examine why certain identity labels are avoided or embraced due to considerations of the cognitive frames evoked by those labels. Through the constant comparative method of grounded theory, a host of useful theoretical concepts emerged from the data. Several impediments to the construction of a “secular but not superficial” identity were identified, and a framework of new theoretical concepts developed to make sense of them: sense disparity, frame disparity, identity misfire, foiled identity, sense conflation, and conflated frames. Several consequences arising from these impediments were explored: (1) consequences of sense conflation and conflated frames for the study of religion; (2) consequences of conflated frames for religious terminology; and (3) consequences of the negation of conflated frames for those who identify as not religious, not spiritual, or not Christian. Additionally, four types of oppositional identity work were identified and analyzed: (1) avoidance identity work, (2) dissonant identity work, (3) adaptive identity work, and (4) alternative identity work. Finally, the concept of conflated frames was applied to suggest a new interpretation of the classic Weberian disenchantment narrative.
  • How Consciousness Creates Reality
    The present text is a very abridged version of a book I wrote out of the desire to examine the structure of our reality from a standpoint unbiased by established teachings, be they academic- scientific, popular- esoteric, or religious in nature. We will begin with seemingly simple interactions in our daily lives, examine how they originate on a deeper level, come to understand the essentials of consciousness, and finally recognize that we create our reality in its entirety. In the course of this quest, we will uncover little-heeded paths to accessing our subconscious, other individuals, and that which can be understood by the term "God". And the solution to the classical problem of free will constitutes the gist of the concepts thus revealed.
  • “Elder Brother Tobacco”: Traditional Nicotiana Snuff Use among the Contemporary Tzeltal and Tzotzil Maya of Highland Chiapas, Mexico
    Ethnographic study of traditional tobacco (Nicotiana) use among the Tzeltal and Tzotzil Maya of Highland Chiapas, Mexico
  • Youtube Yinzers: Stancetaking and the performance of 'Pittsburghese'
    Work on dialect performance and enregisterment has shown that when dialects are performed it is often through the enactment or indexing of particular enregistered characterological figures and personae. I expand this view by showing that one linguistic feature of “Pittsburghese” is used to create stances that are enregistered along with the characterological figures in this vernacular variety of English. Falling question intonation (FQI) is a common feature of the White Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania variety. I analyze its use in a series of videos posted on YouTube® entitled Greg and Donny. The series depicts conversations among the two eponymous characters and their friends in Johnstown, Pennsylvania. LQI is used by them to take stances that serve to mock the addressee while simultaneously aligning with them, a stance that is typical of working class Pittsburghers. Stance is thus crucial for understanding both the enregistered figures and the use of LQI in Western Pennsylvania.
    Efficacy of a system of education depends on whether it reaches the entire population and whether its quality is acceptable, independent of the factors that limit its spread. We derive here novel metrics for each. The triad of students, teachers and curriculum could be assessed by measuring long term retention in school children by a recall method, which was independent of socioeconomic status, school grades and gender but depends on the subject. The test also revealed that those who are not good at cramming could exhibit good retention though the conventional tests fail to identify them. The socio–economic dependence is seen specifically with school dropouts, where parental income plays a decisive role. This economic influence on education follows a hierarchy of consumption wherein education itself is a commodity of variable preference in the hierarchy of commodities. It is possible to extend the current methodology to encompass the teachers and curriculum also into a quantifiable metric that helps render examinations as an aid to learning rather than as a threat as commonly perceived.
  • Privacy after the Agile Turn
    The objective of this paper is to explore how recent paradigmatic transformations in the production of digital functionality are changing the conditions for privacy governance. We are motivated by the lack of scholarship that focuses on these transformations and attends to how they matter to privacy. The introduction of information systems in different spheres of societal activity continues to spark privacy issues. But for those that are trying to understand the issues and come up with solutions, what is our mental model of how information systems and digital functionality are produced? Is privacy research and policy sufficiently informed by the predominant modes of software production? This paper originates from the realization that this may not sufficiently be the case, at least for its authors.
  • Comments on Conceptualizing and Measuring the Exchange of Beauty and Status
    Note: This is a working paper of a comment that is forthcoming in the American Sociological Review (expected August 2017) In this comment, I identify two methodological issues in McClintock’s (2014) article on beauty exchange. First, McClintock’s difference models, which find no evidence of exchange, are poor measures of exchange that fail to account for important confounders and rely upon an overly narrow conceptualization of exchange. Second, McClintock codes her log-linear models to find a difference in the effect of men and women’s beauty in exchange rather than the total effect of women’s beauty, which is both statistically significant and substantively large. The code (but not the data) to reproduce this analysis, as well as my own output, is also available at:
  • The Experience of Discrimination in Contemporary America: Results from a Nationally Representative Sample of Adults
    A large body of social science research is devoted to understanding the causes and correlates of discrimination. Comparatively less effort has been aimed at providing a general prevalence estimate of discrimination using a nationally representative sample. The current study is intended to offer such an estimate using a large sample of American respondents (n = 14,793) while also exploring perceptions regarding why respondents felt they were discriminated against. The results provide a broad estimate of self-reported discrimination experiences—an event that was only reported by about one-quarter of all sample members—across racial and ethnic categories.
  • Gender Conventions, Sexual Self-Efficacy, and Sexual Frequency
    Some studies suggest that gender conventions increase couples’ sexual frequency by enacting sexual scripts tied to heterosexuality. Other studies suggest gender egalitarianism increases sexual intimacy by enhancing communication in couples. We tested these competing hypotheses by examining the underlying processes that link gender attitudes to sexual activity. We also examined the association between gender egalitarian attitudes and women’s and men’s sexual self-efficacy and examined how sexual self-efficacy in turn shapes gendered patterns of sexual initiation and sexual frequency. An actor-partner interdependence model based on data from the National Couples Survey provided support for both perspectives. Women’s gender egalitarian attitudes decreased couples’ sexual frequency by negatively affecting men’s sexual control, but gender egalitarian attitudes surrounding the scripting of sexual activity among women were positively associated with sexual frequency. Moreover, egalitarian attitudes about domestic roles were positively associated with partner communication which in turn enhanced partners’ sexual self-efficacy and sexual frequency. Yet, while sexual self-efficacy was positively associated with sexual frequency for men it was negatively associated for women. The findings show that whereas gender conventional attitudes increase sex through male empowerment and female disenfranchisement, egalitarian beliefs lead to greater sexual intimacy – not only more sex, but also mutual partner decision-making.
  • Structural Property Losses from Tornadoes in Florida
    The probability of extreme property losses from tornadoes in Florida is estimated from a one-km grid of structural property values in 2014 and data on historical tornado events since 1950. Property value exposed to tornadoes across the state since 1950 is estimated using a geometric model for the historical paths. A regression model is used to quantify the relationship between actual losses since 2007 and exposures. Randomization of the historical tornado paths provides alternative exposure scenarios that are subsequently used to determine the probability of extreme loss years. The method indicates a 1% chance that the annual loss will exceed 430 million dollars and a .1% chance that it will exceed 1 billion dollars.
  • Social Organization and the City: The role of space in the reduction of social entropy
    How can individual acts amount to coherent systems of action? In this article, we attempt to answer this key question by suggesting that there is a role for cities in the way we coordinate seemingly chaotic decisions. We look into the elementary processes of social organisation exploring a particular concept: ‘social entropy’, or how social systems deal with uncertainty and unpredictability in the transition from individual actions to action systems. Examining ideas that (i) actions rely on informational differences latent in their environments, and that (ii) the city itself is an informational environment to actions, we propose that (iii) the city produces differences in the probability of interactions, becoming an essential part of the reduction of social entropy as a way to advance social organisation. We investigate this process through simulations of distinct scenarios of action orientations and spatial conditions. Finally, we suggest that states and fluctuations of social entropy are a vital part of social reproduction, and reveal a deep connection between social, informational and spatial systems.
  • congressbr: An R Package for Analysing Data from Brazil's Chamber of Deputies and Federal Senate
    In this research note, we introduce congressbr, an R package for retrieving data from the Brazilian houses of legislature. The package contains easy-to-use functions that allow researchers to query the Application Programming Interfaces of the Chamber of Deputies and the Federal Senate, perform cleaning data operations, and store information in a format convenient for future analyses. We outline the main features of the package and demonstrate its use with some practical examples.
  • Pre-Election Mobilization and Electoral Outcome in Authoritarian Regimes
    Does pre-election protest have an effect on the outcomes of authoritarian elections? Electoral authoritarian regimes use elections to consolidate their power and claim democratic legitimacy. Nonetheless, on some occasions authoritarian incumbents lose elections despite their advantages and a democratic breakthrough is achieved. I propose that pre-election protest contributes to such election results. Existing scholarship focuses primarily on the effectiveness of post-election upheavals, but the effects of pre-election protest are still theoretically and empirically understudied. This paper proposes a theory for why pre-election contention has an independent effect on incumbent defeat of authoritarian regimes and democratization. I present empirical support for the association between pre-election protest activities, incumbent defeat, and democratization using data from 190 elections across 65 countries with non-democratic regimes. The findings of this analysis have important implications for studies of social movements, authoritarian politics, and democratization.
  • “Service Programmes” on Jordanian Radio: Understanding Broadcaster Persona through an Interdisciplinary Analysis of Language and Performance
    My ESRC-funded doctoral research explores linguistic practice on Jordanian radio today. The main conclusion of my research is that details of Arabic use in the radio setting have significant implications for the kind of audiences addressed – that is, who is included as a legitimate or “validated” listener – and the way members of the public can participate in radio discourse – this latter in particularly through call- ins, which are a frequent feature of Jordanian radio programming more generally. This paper looks at one type of programmes present on many contemporary Jordanian radio stations: the so-called “service programmes,” "barāmiž ḳadamātiyya," in which listeners call the station and speak live on the air in order to request assistance or mediation with local authorities in resolution of an issue – such as a damaged road, a broken water pipe, et cetera. It compares two popular service programmes: Barnāmiž al-wakīl, hosted by Muhammad al-Wakeel, and Wasaṭ al- balad, hosted by Hani al-Badri. It argues that, in order to properly appreciate the differences between the two programmes, an interdisciplinary approach to the data is required. This has raised certain methodological issues for my work, but on the other hand allowed me to explore new theoretical pathways and contribute new insights to scholarship on both contemporary Arabic language use, and Middle Eastern media.
  • Geoprivacy
    Location is uniquely sensitive in terms of the kinds of things that it reveals about us as individuals and the ways in which those disclosures are made. This chapter examines the ways in which the rapid proliferation and resulting pervasiveness of spatial media are radically reconfiguring norms and expectations around locational privacy. Existing definitions of locational are individualistic, emphasizing a negatively defined rights oriented approach to privacy – for example, the right to not have one’s location monitored. Privacy, however, is being relocated from the individual to the network, where privacy violations and harms increasingly occur beyond the site of the individual. Encompassing more than solely location, a broadened concept of ‘geoprivacy’ must account for the emergent complex of potential privacy harms and violations that may arise from a number of nascent realities of living in a spatial big data present: i) from the spatial-media enabled pervasive capture and repurposing of individuals’ personal spatial-relational and spatio-temporal data; ii) from the ways in which individuals cast digital footprints as they move across the numerous sensor networks of smart cities; iii) from the circulation and analytics of these data, which position individuals as spatially vulnerable in various and unprecedented ways; and, iv) from the inability of individuals to control highly personal flows of spatial information about themselves in networked device and data ecologies.
    Although there is an impressive body of research on the U.S. Congress, there has been limited discussion about the central role race plays in the organization of this political institution. While some scholars have documented Congress’ racist past, less is known about the present significance of race in the federal legislature. Throughout the day, African Americans routinely nod to one another in the halls of the Capitol, and consider the Black nod as a common cultural gesture. However, data from over sixty in-depth interviews suggest there is an additional layer of meaning to the Black nod in Congress. From the microlevel encounters, I observed and examined, I interpret the nod as more than a gesture that occurs in a matter of seconds between colleagues or even among perfect strangers in the halls of Congress. The Black nod encompasses and is shaped by labor organized along racial lines, a history of racial subordination, and powerful perceptions of race in the post-Civil-Rights era on the meso-, and macrolevels. Using this interpretive foundation, this article will show how the nod is an adaptive strategy of Black staffers that renders them visible in an environment where they feel socially invisible. The nod becomes an external expression of their racialized professional identity. I argue that the congressional workplace is a raced political institution and that the microlevel encounters I observed delineate and reproduce its racial boundaries. This article represents perhaps the first sociological study of Congress and provides an unprecedented view into its inner workings and the social dimensions that organize workplace relationships.
  • The Hunt for Red Flags: Human Resource Perspectives on Internet-based Job Candidate Screening
    This study uses qualitative interviews with 31 human resource professionals to examine how they weigh the usefulness as well as the discriminatory potential of evaluating job candidates based on information obtained from the Internet. Results show that most HR professionals value social media and online search data, though some question its accuracy and usefulness. The majority recognize that because online information emphasizes personal and ascribed traits, it can potentially result in hiring discrimination. They use four strategies to cope with this discriminatory potential. Two strategies downplay the importance of online information by constructing it as the responsibility of individual job candidates and its role in hiring as marginal. Two other tactics involve guarding against discrimination, but in individualized and rather passive and post-hoc ways. Findings contribute to our knowledge of the organizational and labor market dynamics that contribute to inequality in the face of exogenous technological change and field-level uncertainty.
  • Digital Spatialities
    This chapter identifies and provides an overview of conceptual and theoretical approaches to understanding the relationship between digital media, society, and space. Beginning with the historical context of map:territory relationships, geographers have always understood technologies – and most recently digital media - as central to the production of space. Contemporary theoretical and conceptual frameworks for engaging the role and status of digital media in the production of spatiality (or socio-spatial relationships) include hybrid spaces, digital shadows and augmented realities, code/space, mediated spatialities, and atmospheres.
  • Understanding Popularity, Reputation, and Social Influence in the Twitter Society
    The pervasive presence of online media in our society has transferred a significant part of political deliberation to online forums and social networking sites. This article examines popularity, reputation, and social influence on Twitter using large-scale digital traces from 2009 to 2016. We process network information on more than 40 million users, calculating new global measures of reputation that build on the D-core decomposition and the bow-tie structure of the Twitter follower network. We integrate our measurements of popularity, reputation, and social influence to evaluate what keeps users active, what makes them more popular, and what determines their influence. We find that there is a range of values in which the risk of a user becoming inactive grows with popularity and reputation. Popularity in Twitter resembles a proportional growth process that is faster in its strongly connected component, and that can be accelerated by reputation when users are already popular. We find that social influence on Twitter is mainly related to popularity rather than reputation, but that this growth of influence with popularity is sublinear. The explanatory and predictive power of our method shows that global network metrics are better predictors of inactivity and social influence, calling for analyses that go beyond local metrics like the number of followers.
  • OSMnx: A Python package to work with graph-theoretic OpenStreetMap street networks
    This is a peer-reviewed marker paper for the OSMnx software repository.
  • Digital Methods I: Wicked tensions
    In this first of three reports, I engage with ‘digital methods’ as methodologies or approaches to knowing and making sense of the world. I identify triangulation and representativeness as two ‘wicked tensions’ at which the research potentials opened up by digital mediums, mediations and data sources come up against the limitations of methodologies for accessing and making sense of digital presences, practices, and spatialities. Triangulation signals the challenges of maximizing meaning in qualitative and mixed-methods digital research, whereas representativeness captures the challenges of using data-analytic approaches to say something meaningful about socio-spatial relations rather than about digital entities per se.
  • Case Reports and Open Source Work Products in PAR
  • Cost, Confidence, and College Choice
    How are high school students’ beliefs about college costs related to their postsecondary enrollment decisions? Through an analysis of the base-­year and available follow‑up waves of the High School Longitudinal Study of 2009, this article offers three primary findings for a nationally representative sample. First, consistent with substantial prior research, ninth grade students, on average, believe that a four-­year college degree at a public university in their state is substantially more expensive than the true costs indicate. Second, the students most likely to attend college in the year after high school graduation are, on average, those students who over-­estimate the true costs. Third, the students who express the most confidence in their own estimates of costs are the students least likely to enter college immediately after high school, either at a four-­year college or at any other type of institution. In combination, these results imply a perverse policy recommendation: to boost college attendance, the nation should increase tuition and fees while eroding the confidence of high school students that they understand how much college will cost. Because no reasonable analyst of college choices would recommend such a reckless policy intervention, the results of this article demonstrate how much additional work is needed to collect and analyze newer forms of data that can enable deeper modeling of students’ beliefs and the consequences of their variation for subsequent choices.
  • Analiza relacji głosów na ogólnomiejskie projekty w stosunku do głosów rejonowych we Wrocławskim Budżecie Obywatelskim
    Celem niniejszej pracy jest uzyskanie odpowiedzi na pytania związane z relacjami między głosami na projekty rejonowe a ogólnomiejskie we Wrocławskim budżecie obywatelskim: czy zwycięską strategią działania jest wspieranie przez głosy rejonowe projektów ogólnomiejskich - czy odwrotnie? A może nie zachodzi żadne powiązanie? Jak wygląda wpływ głosów pojedynczych - w tym przypadku rozumianych jako głosy oddane tylko na projekty ogólnomiejskie.
  • Annotated Work Instructions
    This is an open-source project about creating documented work processes in organizations whose officials are unwilling to promulgate implementable procedures. This is a project of Center for Public Administrators,
  • Case Reports and Open Source Work Products in PAR
    (This is the submitted version of an article that was subsequently published in Public Administration Review.) Public Administration journals should publish two types of professional literature that are not research: * Case Reports - As in medical journals, a description by a practitioner of a situation she encountered, what she did about it, and the results. * Open Source Work Products - Practitioners' work products, such as procedures, position descriptions or statements of work, that are shared publicly, so that any interested person can contribute improvements.
  • Measuring the Complexity of Urban Form and Design
    Complex systems have become a popular lens for conceptualizing cities, and complexity has substantial implications for urban performance and resilience. This paper develops a typology of methods and measures for assessing the complexity of the built form at the scale of urban design. It extends quantitative methods from urban planning, network science, ecosystems studies, fractal geometry, and information theory to the physical urban form and the analysis of qualitative human experience. Metrics at multiple scales are scattered throughout these bodies of literature and have useful applications in analyzing the complexity that both evolves and results from local planning and design processes. The typology developed here applies to empirical research of multiple neighborhood types and design standards and it includes temporal, visual, spatial, fractal, and network-analytic measures of the urban form.
  • Dynamic Existence
    Everything is in motion. "Inertness" arises from (approximative) repetition, that is, through rotation or an alternation that delineates a focus of consciousness. This focus of consciousness, in turn, must also move/alternate (the two differ only in continuity). If its alternation seems to go too far - physically, psychically or intellectually - it reaches into the subconscious. In this way, interconnection is established by the alternation of the focus of consciousness. Therefore, in a world in which everything is interconnected, all focuses must reciprocally transition into each other. "Reality" is a common "goal", a focus which all participants can switch into and which is conscious to them as such, as a potential one. Its "degree of reality" is the probability of its fully becoming conscious (or more simply: its current degree of consciousness). Thus, a reality is created when all participants increase its probability or, respectively, their consciousness of it.
  • Early Maternal Employment and Children’s Vocabulary and Inductive Reasoning Ability: A Dynamic Approach
    This study investigates the relationship between early maternal employment history and children’s vocabulary and inductive reasoning ability at age 5, drawing on longitudinal information on 2,200 children from the Growing Up in Scotland data. Prior research rarely addresses dynamics in maternal employment and the methodological ramifications of time-variant confounding. The present study proposes various measures to capture duration, timing, and stability of early maternal employment and uses inverse probability of treatment weighting to control for time-variant confounders that may partially mediate the effect of maternal employment on cognitive scores. The findings suggest only modest differences in the above ability measures between children with similar observed covariate history but who have been exposed to very different patterns of early maternal employment.
  • Not Everyone is Xenophobic in South Africa
    Objective: Show that South Africa is not uniquely xenophobic. Methods: Regression analysis of SASAS 2013. Results: There are clear patterns who tends to be more xenophobic: people in vulnerable positions, and people who have less contact with foreigners. These patterns reflect those found in other countries. Conclusion: South Africa is not uniquely xenophobic. This is a brief summary of research prepared for "Reflecting on 10 Years of South African Xenophobic Violence" workshop at the University of the Witwatersrand, 15 March 2017.
  • Did Einstein really say that? Testing content versus context in the cultural selection of quotations
    We experimentally investigated the influence of context-based biases, such as prestige and popularity, on the preferences for quotations. Participants were presented with random quotes associated to famous or unknown authors (experiment one), or with random quotes presented as popular, i.e. chosen by many previous participants, or unpopular (experiment two). To exclude effects related to the content of the quotations, all participants were subsequently presented with the same quotations, again associated to famous and unknown authors (experiment three), or presented as popular or unpopular (experiment four). Overall, our results showed the context-based biases had no (in case of prestige and conformity), or limited (in case of popularity), effect in determining participants’ choices. Quotations preferred for their content were preferred in general, despite the contextual cues to which they were associated. We conclude discussing how our results fit with the well-known phenomenon of the spread and success (especially digital) of misattributed quotations, and we draw some more general implications for cultural evolution research.
  • The development of an fMRI protocol to investigate vmPFC network topology underlying the generalization of behavioral control
    Experiencing behavioral control over stress can have long lasting and generalizing effects. The controllability of a physical threat, for example, affects the processing of subsequent social stress. Animal research has shown that the vmPFC plays a critical role in behavioral control and orchestrating subcortical responses. However, translational research on these neural systems in humans is sparse and we therefore aimed to develop a paradigm to test the generalization effect of behavioral control on vmPFC functioning. A pilot study was performed in which subjects (n=18) were first randomly assigned to one of two versions of a signal detection task, where feedback was either paired with a controllable or an uncontrollable mild shock. Subsequently, subjects underwent a social evaluative threat fMRI paradigm to measure their response to the anticipation of speaking in public. The analyses tested whether the controllability manipulation influenced behavioral and physiological responses and vmPFC network topology. Results showed that overall subjects were faster to respond to potential shock trials in the signal detection task, and there was a trend significant difference between the controllable or uncontrollable group. No significant differences between the two groups were observed on other behavioral or physiological responses. fMRI results showed higher vmPFC efficiency in the controllable threat group at baseline and recovery but similar to the uncontrollable group during speech anticipation. The current report establishes the feasibility of the protocol and adequately-powered follow-up research is needed to further evaluate the generalization effect on the behavioral, physiological and neural level.
  • The determinants of and barriers to critical consumption: a study of Addiopizzo
    ‘Addiopizzo’ (Goodbye protection money) is a grassroots anti-mafia movement based in Palermo that stresses the individual consumer's responsibility for maintaining the Sicilian mafia's pizzo system. If you purchase products from a business that pays the pizzo you are indirectly supporting the mafia. By encouraging Palermitans to buy from ‘pizzo-free’ businesses, Addiopizzo uses the purchasing power of the consumer to fight organised crime. The community of ‘pizzo-free’ businesses is small but steadily growing whilst the number of critical consumers pledging to buy their products appears to have peaked. This article aims to investigate the reasons why consumers may be reluctant to support ‘pizzo-free’ businesses by asking those who have already made public their decision to do so. Whilst critical consumers cannot fully explain why the majority of Palermo's citizens continue to tolerate the pizzo system their attitudes towards them do highlight differences that may help to account for wider non-participation in Addiopizzo's campaign.
  • Computational Reproducibility in Archaeological Research: Basic Principles and a Case Study of Their Implementation
    The use of computers and complex software is pervasive in archaeology, yet their role in the analytical pipeline is rarely exposed for other researchers to inspect or reuse. This limits the progress of archaeology because researchers cannot easily reproduce each other's work to verify or extend it. Four general principles of reproducible research that have emerged in other fields are presented. An archaeological case study is described that shows how each principle can be implemented using freely available software. The costs and benefits of implementing reproducible research are assessed. The primary benefit, of sharing data in particular, is increased impact via an increased number of citations. The primary cost is the additional time required to enhance reproducibility, although the exact amount is difficult to quantify.
  • Good to be Disliked? Exploring the Relationship Between Disapproval of Organizations and Job Satisfaction in the French Context.
    Previous research has found that a positive relationship exists between favorable perception of a firm and employees’ job satisfaction: the more positively an organization is perceived, the happier are its workers. However, the current literature has overlooked the consequences of a negative corporate image, or disapproval of organizations. Building on the concept of organizational identification and the social identity literature, we fill in this gap and counterintuitively argue that employees are more likely to identify and align with their organizations when it faces illegitimate criticism. We test our hypotheses on a large-scale survey collected in France and find that perception of disapproval of an organization has indeed an adverse effect on job satisfaction. However, if employees perceive criticism as illegitimate, job satisfaction is positively impacted. This study suggests the existence of micro-level social identity reactions in case of unjustified disapprobation: employees stick together and hold the line against criticism, strengthening the collective identity and adding positive emotional value to the work experience.
  • The Future for Cosmopolitan Social Democracy
  • Swing Voting in the 2016 Presidential Election in Counties Where Midlife Mortality has been Rising in White Non-Hispanic Americans
    Understanding the effects of widespread disruption of the social fabric on public health outcomes can provide insight into the forces that drive major political realignment. Our objective was to estimate the association between increases in mortality in middle-aged non-Hispanic white adults from 1999-2005 to 2008-2014 and the surge in support for the Republican Party in pivotal US counties. We found a significant up-turn in mortality from 1999-2005 to 2008-2014 in counties where the Democratic Party won twice (2008 and 2012) but where the Republican Party won in 2016 (+11.5/100,000), as compared to those in which the Democratic Party won in 2016 (-10.6/100,000). An increase in mortality of 14.6/100,000 was associated with a significant 1% vote swing from the 2008-2012 average to 2016.Counties with worsening premature mortality in the last 15 years shifted votes toward the Republican Party presidential candidate.
  • Subaltern's image and the real: an inquiry
    For last few decades post-colonial studies has been one of the ruling framework for cultural theory in Indian subcontinent. In search for the subaltern we mostly can not articulate ourselves as theory. Our inquiries in to the epistemic domain (‘What can we know of the subaltern?’), the metaphysical domain has largely gone unanswered (‘What makes the subaltern possible?’). Here I would like to propose that the solution lies in our proleterization process. In this article I give an outline of just such a theoretical framework, harnessing the theoretical kernel of Marx, Hegel, Lacan and Zizek.
  • A dasymetric method to apportion tornado casualty counts spatially
    This paper describes a dasymetric technique to spatially apportion casualty counts from tornado events in the U.S. Storm Prediction Center's database. Apportionment is performed with respect to the proportion of damage path area and to the underlying population density. The method is illustrated with raster grids on tornadoes occurring between 1955 and 2015 within the most tornado-prone region of the United States. Validation of the results using county- and grid-level data reveals strong correlation between dasymetric estimated and location-specific counts. On a broad spatial scale the method provides a better estimate of where casualties have occurred than counting the number of casualty-producing tornadoes. Case studies using the 1974 Xenia, OH and the 1994 Piedmont, AL tornadoes highlight limitations of the method and indicate that results will be improved with more precise tornado path information. Future work that includes socioeconomic variables (demographics, ethnicity, poverty and housing stock/value) might allow populations to be profiled with regards to vulnerability.
  • Insecure People in Insecure Places: The Influence of Regional Unemployment on Workers’ Reactions to the Threat of Job Loss
    Social comparison theory predicts that unemployment should be less distressing when the experience is widely shared, but does this prediction extend beyond the unemployed to those who are at risk of job loss? Research demonstrates a link between aggregate unemployment and employed individuals’ perceptions of job insecurity; however, less is known about whether the stress associated with these perceptions is shaped by others’ unemployment experiences. We analyze a nationally representative sample of Canadian workers (CAN-WSH study; N=3,900) linked to census data, and test whether regional unemployment influences the mental health consequences of job insecurity. Multilevel analyses provide more support for the social norm of insecurity hypothesis over the amplified threat hypothesis: the health penalties of job insecurity are weaker for individuals in high unemployment regions. This contingency is partially explained by the ability of insecure workers in poor labor market contexts to retain psychological resources important for protecting mental health.
  • Limited Intersectional Approaches to Veteran and Former Prisoner Reintegration: Examining Gender Identity and Sexual Orientation
    Recent legal and policy changes within two prominent institutions, the military and criminal justice system, have profoundly altered the visibility – and subsequent rights – of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) service members and those currently incarcerated. Comparing these two institutions side-by-side illustrates how LGBT inequality mechanisms operate at both an individual and systemic level. Both the military and criminal justice system are total, hypermasculine institutions, both are socially concentrated experiences, both end with a changed relationship with the state, and both veterans and those formerly incarcerated have comparable challenges to reintegration upon returning to their communities. Intersectional analysis provides an apt tool to critically examine how reintegration processes differ for those identifying as LGBT. I examine ways in which existing literature is intersectional and highlight the lack of analyses about systems of power that amplify or moderate former prisoner re-entry and veteran transition for those identifying as LGBT. Finally, I discuss why there may be a lack of attention to intersectionality, and specifically to LGBT individuals, in the literature and address how an intersectional framework would contribute to both public policy and to expanding the existing literature on social inequality and stratification.
  • Diversity erfassen: Statistische Diversitätsindizes
    Dieses Kapitel stellt die statistische Erfassung von Diversity vor. Es umfasst zunächst konzeptionelle Überlegungen zur Definition von Diversität und führt die drei Dimensionen ein, aus denen Diversität sich zusammensetzt: Balance, Variabilität und Disparität. Es werden sodann statistische Diversitätsindizes erläutert, die diese drei Dimensionen in einer Diversitätsmaßzahl auszudrücken versuchen. Die gängigen Diversitätsindizes messen jedoch die Vielfalt oder Verschiedenartigkeit der Bevölkerung nur im Hinblick auf eine Eigenschaft, wie etwa Nationalität oder Religion. In einem kurzen Abschnitt wird daher auch auf Faultline- bzw. Kreuzkategorisierungsindizes eingegangen, die – ganz der Idee der Intersektionalität entsprechend – die Überlappung verschiedener Eigenschaften in einer Population erfassen.
  • Can competing diversity indices inform us about why ethnic diversity erodes social cohesion? A test of five diversity indices in Germany
    An ever-growing number of studies investigates the relation between ethnic diversity and social cohesion, but these studies have produced mixed results. In cross-national research, some scholars have recently started to investigate more refined and informative indices of ethnic diversity than the commonly used Hirschman-Herfindahl Index. These refined indices allow to test competing theoretical explanations of why ethnic diversity is associated with declines in social cohesion. This study assesses the applicability of this approach for sub-national analyses. Generally, the results confirm a negative association between social cohesion and ethnic diversity. However, the competing indices are empirically indistinguishable and thus insufficient to test different theories against one another. Follow-up simulations suggest the general conclusion that the competing indices are meaningful operationalizations only if a sample includes: (1) contextual units with small and contextual units with large minority shares, as well as (2) contextual units with diverse and contextual units with polarized ethnic compositions. The results are thus instructive to all researchers who wish to apply different diversity indices and thereby test competing theories.
  • Inter-Ethnic Neighbourhood Acquaintanceships of Migrants and Natives in Germany: On the Brokering Roles of Inter-Ethnic Partners and Children
    Since Allport, social scientists emphasise the importance of personal inter-ethnic contact for overcoming prejudices and enhancing social cohesion in mixed societies. But why do some people have more contact to their neighbours of other ethnicity? Using new data from a large-scale German survey, I analyse the brokering roles of children and inter-ethnic partners in explaining inter-ethnic neighbourhood acquaintanceships. Even on a contextual level, my results suggest that people living in regions with larger shares of children have more inter-ethnic neighbourhood acquaintances, which expands earlier findings on the general integrating function of children. However, I also argue that we should recognise brokering to be context-specific and exemplify this by showing how the brokering role of inter-ethnic partners shows particularly in interaction with inter-ethnic encounters at local bars and restaurants, while that of children shows particularly given frequent inter-ethnic encounters at public parks and playgrounds. More importantly, the brokering role of children only shows in interaction with the frequency of inter-ethnic encounters at local parks and playgrounds. On a theoretical level, my results demonstrate the importance of studying the interaction of mechanisms in explaining personal (inter-ethnic) contact.
  • Which groups are mostly responsible for problems in your neighbourhood? The use of ethnic categories in Germany
    Why and under which conditions do people employ ethnic categories rather than others (such as age, class, gender, and so on) to conceptually organize their social environment? This paper analyses an open-ended question on who is seen as responsible for neighbourhood problems taken from a recently conducted large-scale survey in Germany. Thereby, this study tries to give novel insight on native German’s use of ethnic folk classifications and aims to identify contextual factors that might explain why people characterize problem-groups in ethnic terms. This paper shows that drunkards, elderly and especially teenagers are more frequently seen as problem-group than any ethnic minority. Conditions of economic decline and out-group size are analysed as to whether they are associated with a higher likelihood to use ethnic categories. The findings suggest that the effects of out-group size are diminishing in their impact, whereas the effects of economic decline are accumulating in strength.
  • Status Aspirations and Perceived Discrimination
    Based on the ‘integration paradox’ and other literature, this article asks why it is that ethnic boundaries increase in perceptual salience and contestation, while they factually decline. As an answer, it proposes that perceived discrimination increases with unfulfilled aspirations. Analyses based on the six-country comparative EURISLAM survey data of Muslim persons of immigrant origin support the argument: status aspirations as indicated by parental education positively predict perceived discrimination. Moreover, the relation is particularly pronounced among the less educated (as compared to the highly educated) who arguably failed to realize their (parents’) status aspirations. Parental education is also a stronger predictor of perceived discrimination among respondents who regard making their parents proud an important goal in life. A robustness replication and falsification test based on the IAB-GSOEP Migration Sample reconfirms these results.
  • Does Opening Complaints Data Change Company and Consumer Behavior? Evidence from the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau
    I analyze a technological change which improved the public monitoring of financial customer treatment. This major assessment of the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau is based on its exposing credit card-related complaints online while keeping mortgage-related complaints concealed. Exposed companies were more likely to close complaint files while providing explanations and relief to aggrieved consumers and in a timely manner. The transparency policy seems uncompromised by economic inequality. Consumers procrastinate in reporting exposed banks while rewarding exposed banks for their improved behavior with new accounts. Debt remained generally stable. Surprisingly, both consumers and banks benefit when offending banks are exposed online.
  • Extended Kin and Children’s Behavioral Functioning: Family Structure and Parental Immigrant Status
    Using the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (L.A. FANS), this paper examines the association between the presence of co-resident extended kin and children’s internalizing and externalizing behaviors. The paper demonstrates the differential role of extended kin by family structure, as well as across parental immigrant status – specifically, nativity and documentation status. Children in the sample were found to be disadvantaged in extended family households, especially with regard to internalizing behaviors. This disadvantageous association was found mostly among married-parent extended family households, whereas there was no association between the presence of extended kin and behavior problems in children from single-parent families. This pattern emerged more clearly among children of documented immigrants, compared to those with native-born parents and those whose parents were unauthorized immigrants. These findings suggest a need to modify previous theories on extended family living arrangements; they also provide policy implications for immigrant families.
  • Intellectual Property and Climate Change: Inventing Clean Technologies
    Book. Rimmer, Matthew (2011) Intellectual property and climate change: Inventing clean technologies. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham (UK) and Northampton (Mass.).
  • Economies of Score
    To introduce a novel generalization of economies of scope, the paper develops a theory of average cost reductions based on enabling products to have multiple features or functions. The process is labelled economies of score. Focusing production costs on the details of product features can lead to more significant average cost reductions relative to standard economies of scope and scale. The multifeatured product is a network graph represented with a binary decision diagram that describes product feature integration for each product. A feature equilibrium is defined. Evidence suggests that the approach is apt for describing smartphone-app industrial organization.
  • Heritagization and Festive Culture: Christmas, Foodways and Women’s Magazines
    This paper investigates the discursive construction of typical foodways in relation to Christmas in Flanders after World War II. I explore if Christmas celebrations translated into typical foodways and if so, by whom, when and why the translation took place. Building on the notion of heritagization, the analysis shows that Christmas was interpreted in light of convivial family life and although food played a role in bringing together the family around the Christmas table, the menu did not speak of typical dishes. The analysis deals with mentality history, and its cultural expression through food and foodways, providing an understanding of how people used food to forge a sense of community.
  • Book Review: The left side of history: World War II and the unfulfilled promise of Communism in Eastern Europe by Kristen Ghodsee
    Social Anthropology/Anthropologie Sociale 24 (2): 257–258. doi: 10.1111/1469-8676.12244
  • Multiple diffractometry as a tool for archaeomineralogy
    Multiple diffractometry as a tool for archaeomineralogy
  • Multispectral negatoscope as a tool for archaeomineralogy
    Multispectral negatoscope as a tool for archaeomineralogy
  • Spectrochemistry as a tool for archaeomineralogy
    spectrochemistry in archaeomineralogy.pdf
  • An introduction to bioinformatics algorithms for mathematical linguists
    An introduction to bioinformatics algorithms for mathematical linguists
  • Educação e Tecnologia: questões críticas
    O uso de tecnologias digitais é um componente central da maior parte das formas de oferta e prática educacionais contemporâneas. Crucialmente, a tecnologia educacional é agora um negócio multibilionário que envolve corporações globais em nível de práticas e provisão locais. A necessidade de se questionar criticamente a Educação e a Tecnologia é mais premente do que nunca. Este capítulo apresenta algumas questões fundamentais que precisam ser verbalizadas diante de tais avanços. Em particular, retoma os sete desafios críticos propostos pelo teórico das mídias Neil Postman. Ainda que Postman tenha se preocupado com o efeito dos computadores e da Internet nas escolas durante a década de 1990, seus argumentos permanecem relevantes em nossa era de smartphones, big data e computação em nuvem. O texto examina as implicações dessa linha de questionamento crítico para a compreensão do estado atual da Educação e Tecnologia. Essas são discutidas em termos de: tópicos centrais; atores e interesses chave; métodos de investigação; e decorrências prováveis de se questionar criticamente a educação e tecnologia.
  • Education and technology: critical questions
    The use of digital technology is a central component of most forms of contemporary education provision and practice. Crucially, educational technology is now a multi billion dollar business – involving global technology corporations in local educational provision and practice. The need for critical questions to be asked of education and technology is more pressing than ever. This chapter lays out some fundamental questions that need to be voiced in the face of such advances. In particular, it reconsiders seven critical challenges raised by the media critic Neil Postman. While Postman was concerned with the effect of computers and the internet on schools in the 1990s, much of what he argued for could be seen as having continued relevance to our current era of smartphones, big data and cloud computing. The chapter outlines the implications of these lines of critical questioning for making sense of the current state of education and technology. These are discussed in terms of: central topics of concern; key actors and interests; methods of inquiry; and likely outcomes of asking critical questions of education and technology.
  • Cosmopolitanism and Global Politics
    On cosmopolitan approaches to global politics
  • The use of informative priors and Bayesian updating: implications for behavioural research
    The stereotype threat literature has become one of the latest in behavioural research to be accused of publication bias. By simulating datasets based on this literature, we examine how using different methods of statistical analysis affect the development of a field of research. Specifically, we consider how different analysis techniques can result in certainty or uncertainty about the true presence of an effect in a population. We simulated 30,000 datasets in total and compared four different analyses including commonly used frequentist methods (ANOVA and a generalized linear mixed model), as well as more novel Bayesian methods. We found that using posterior passing, a Bayesian approach in which past experiments inform subsequent analyses, allowed the true effect in the population to be found with higher certainty and accuracy than all other analysis types. We conclude that different statistical methods have important effects upon the ability of a literature to reliably come to accurate conclusions, in particular we suggest that using informative priors could help researchers to be more certain about the presence of a true effect in a population. We suggest that the use of informative priors better reflects the cumulative nature of scientific research than the current norm of null hypothesis significance testing.
  • When Wealth Encourages Individuals to Fight: Evidence From the American Civil War
    How does personal wealth shape an individual's decision to abandon the democratic process and participate in violent rebellion? Studying the American Civil War and the atrocity of human slavery, we offer competing theoretical accounts for how we should expect individual wealth, in the form of land and slaves, to affect white men's decisions to join the Confederate Army. To resolve these disagreements, we assemble a dataset on roughly 3.9 million white citizens in Confederate states, and we show that slaveowners were more likely to fight in the Confederate Army than non-slaveowners. To see if these links are causal, we exploit a randomized land lottery in 19th-century Georgia. Households of lottery winners owned more slaves in 1850 and were more likely to have sons who fought in the Confederate Army than were households who did not win the lottery. The findings add nuance to our understanding of the relationship between individual wealth, political institutions, and the propensity to engage in civil conflict. Although in general wealthier individuals are less likely to fight in such conflicts, when their wealth is tied to existing institutions that civil conflict threatens, they may in fact be more likely to fight.
  • Vidéoformation « orientée-activité » : quelles utilisations pour quels effets sur les enseignants ?
    L’émergence relativement récente des entrées « analyse de l’activité » dans le champ de la formation des enseignants a contribué à relancer et renouveler la conception et l’utilisation de dispositifs vidéo (Leblanc & Veyrunes, 2012). Parmi eux, la plateforme Néopass@ction propose notamment des ressources basées sur une modélisation des transformations de l’activité des enseignants débutants visant à aider les formés à analyser des situations de classe réelles et fréquemment rencontrées. En favorisant de cette manière l’instruction de problèmes typiques de l’entrée dans le métier, les concepteurs postulent que les formés peuvent transformer leur propre activité en classe. En outre, un programme de recherche en analyse de l’activité vise à déterminer quels sont les effets réels de ce type de vidéoformation (Ria & Leblanc, 2011 ; Flandin & Ria, 2014a). Cet article se propose d’en synthétiser et comparer les résultats selon trois axes analytiques : a) la « mise en relation » de l’activité visionnée par le formé avec sa propre activité de travail ; b) les processus de transformation de cette activité et c) les conditions technologiques les favorisant. Ces résultats nous permettent de proposer ensuite un méta-modèle plus générique des apports du « voir » pour le « faire », s’appuyant sur les dimensions anthropologiques et technologiques de l’activité humaine médiatisée. Cette dernière partie discute les conditions à mettre en œuvre en vidéoformation pour contribuer à des transformations majorantes de l’activité des enseignants.
  • Non-consensual porn and the responsibilities of online intermediaries
    This paper considers the legal options of victims of the non-consensual distribution of sexually explicit media - sometimes known as 'revenge porn'. The ALRC has called for Australia to introduce a new tort for serious invasions of privacy, and the Senate Legal and Constitutional Affairs Committee has recently reinforced the need for stronger penalties. A private members' Bill was introduced in the last Federal parliament, but has since lapsed. Each of these proposals focuses primarily on the wrongful acts of the perpetrator. As a deterrent and a strong signal of social opprobrium, they may be partially effective. They do not, however, consider in detail how victims may be able to seek some relief once material has already been posted online. In this paper, we consider explicitly what role internet intermediaries should play in responding to abuse online. The challenge in developing effective policy is not only to provide a remedy against the primary wrongdoer, but to impose some obligations on the platforms that host or enable access to harmful material. This is a difficult and complex issue, but only by engaging with this process are we likely to develop regulatory regimes that are likely to be reasonably effective.
  • Preliminary report on the 2008 and 2009 excavation seasons at Jiyeh (Porphyreon)
    Report from archaeological excavations in 2008 and 2009 carried out at the coastal site of Jiyeh in Lebanon, following up on earlier investigations, by Polish archaeologists.Remains of late Roman –Byzantine dwellings in the central part of the site, excavated originally by a Lebanese mission in 1975, were re-explored including documentation of finds in local museum collections, said to have come from these excavations. Testing in this part of the habitation quarter produced a provisional stratification, from the Iron Age (8th–7thcentury BC) directly on bedrock, through the Persian–Hellenistic period (5th–2nd centuries BC) to the late Roman–Byzantine age when the quarter has reoccupied. A curious feature consisting of pots sunk in the floor in several of the late Roman and Byzantine-age houses is discussed in the first of two appendices. The other appendix treats on stone thresholds from these houses, five types of which have been distinguished, reflecting different technical solutions used to close doors
  • Estimating age- and sex-specific mortality rates for small areas with TOPALS regression: an application to Brazil in 2010
    High sampling variability in recorded vital events creates serious problems for small-area mortality estimation. Many existing approaches to fitting local mortality schedules, including those most often used in Brazil, estimate rates by making rigid mathematical assumptions about local age patterns. Such methods assume that all areas within a larger area (for example, microregions within a mesoregion) have identically-shaped log mortality schedules by age. We propose a more flexible statistical estimation method that combines Poisson regression with the TOPALS relational model (DE BEER, 2012). We use the new method to estimate age-specific mortality rates in Brazilian small areas (states, mesoregions, microregions, and municípios) in 2010. Results for Minas Gerais show notable differences in the age patterns of mortality between adjacent small areas, demonstrating the advantages of using a flexible functional form in regression models.
  • California Restrictive Employment Covenants After Edwards
    In Edwards v. Arthur Andersen, the California Supreme Court reaffirmed the state's strong policy against noncompetition agreements, rejecting the Ninth Circuit's "narrow restraint" exception. We explain what the Court did, why California's policy makes sense, and what the opinion will mean for employers, for the high-tech industry, and for trade secret law.
  • How Information Shapes Portfolio Allocation During Financial Crises
    During financial crises individual investors modify their portfolio allocation to decrease their exposure to more risky investments such as equities. Most recent empirical analyses of this phenomenon have focused on changes in risk attitudes, and in risk and return expectations but, so far, inconclusive evidence has been provided that changes in those psychological variables play a causal role in the actual decision making at work. Furthermore, the duration of the phenomenon, which is very short, is often not considered and it is thus unclear why the situation recovers so quickly after crises. Relying on experimental data and on a simple agent-based model, we propose an alternative explanation of this phenomenon based on the interaction of the two most important phases that individuals undertake in decision making, namely (1) searching information about possible options and (2) selecting the preferred one. Our main result is that the observed reallocation of portfolios in times of crisis is not the result of a portfolio reassessment driven by the crisis but it is instead explained by changes in search behavior for information on specific market conditions.
  • Digital Exhaustion
    As digital networks emerge as the dominant means of distributing copyrighted works, the first sale doctrine is increasingly marginalized. The limitations first sale places on the exclusive right of distribution are of little importance when the alienation and use of copies entails their reproduction. This fact of the modern copyright marketplace has led to calls for statutory clarification of digital first sale rights. Acknowledging the obstacles to legislative intervention, this Article argues that courts are equipped today to limit copyright exclusivity in order to enable copy owners to make traditionally lawful uses of their copies, including resale through secondary markets. We argue that first sale is not simply an isolated limitation on the distribution right. Instead, it is a component of a broader principle of copyright exhaustion that emerges from early case law preceding the Supreme Court’s foundational decision in Bobbs-Merrill v. Strauss. This context reveals a common law of copyright exhaustion that embraces a set of user privileges that includes not only alienation, but renewal, repair, adaptation, and preservation. Despite congressional recognition of exhaustion in sections 109 and 117 of the Copyright Act, this Article concludes that courts have ample room to apply and continue to develop common law rules that preserve the many benefits of the first sale doctrine in the digital marketplace.
  • In Living Color: Crystal Bridges and its American Color Plate Collection
    Since opening, Crystal Bridges has generated a great deal of interest from the public and cultural institutions. From the construction of a 185,000 square foot facility in the bottom of a ravine, to the much-discussed art acquisitions and features in national media, this attention is hardly surprising. However, beyond the building and the art, Crystal Bridges also has an art research library with many rare books and the most important collection of American color printed books in North America. These diverse resources presented unique challenges to the librarians, as well as to the cataloger, specifically in accurately researching and describing these significant items.
  • Economic Factors and Relationship Quality Among Young Couples: Comparing Cohabitation and Marriage
    Are economic resources related to relationship quality among young couples, and to what extent does this vary by relationship type? To answer these questions, we estimated regression models predicting respondent reports of conflict and affection in cohabiting and married partner relationships using the National Longitudinal Study of Youth, 1997 (NLSY97, N = 2, 841) and the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health, N = 1, 702). We found that economic factors are an important predictor of conflict for both married and cohabiting couples. Affection was particularly responsive to human capital rather than short-term economic indicators. Economic hardship was associated with more conflict among married and cohabiting couples.
  • The Control of Managerial Discretion: Evidence from Unionization's Impact on Employment Segregation
    Does limiting managers’ discretion limit organizations’ scope for discrimination? Social-psychological research argues that it limits opportunities to exercise cognitive biases. Organizational research has found that formal personnel practices that establish accountability for workplace diversity have increased women and minority representation in management. However, drawing causal inferences from such studies is complicated because adopting such policies may be endogenous to the firm’s wish to hire and promote women and minorities. This study uses unionization elections to conduct a regression-discontinuity test from which stronger causal inferences can be made. I find that while unionization is associated with more representative workplaces and more women and minorities in management, these effects disappear close to the discontinuity threshold. Most of the effects of unionization on workforce diversity may be attributable to the unobserved drivers of selection into unionization. This has similar implications for the causal effects of diversity policies adopted by managers.
  • Are Universities Patent Trolls?
    The confluence of two significant developments in modern patent practice leads me to write a paper with such a provocative title. The first development is the rise of hold-up as a primary component of patent litigation and patent licensing. The second development in the last three decades is the massive surge in university patenting. At the confluence of these developments is a growing frustration on the part of industry with the role of universities as patent owners. Time and again, when I talk to people in a variety of industries, their view is that universities are the new patent trolls. In this paper, I argue that Universities should take a broader view of their role in technology transfer. University technology transfer ought to have as its goal maximizing the social impact of technology, not merely maximizing the university's licensing revenue. Sometimes those goals will coincide with the university's short-term financial interests. Sometimes universities will maximize the impact of an invention on society by granting exclusive licenses for substantial revenue to a company that will take the invention and commercialize it. Sometimes, but not always. At other times a non-exclusive license, particularly on a basic enabling technology, will ultimately maximize the invention's impact on society by allowing a large number of people to commercialize in different areas, to try out different things and see if they work, and the like. University policies might be made more nuanced than simply a choice between exclusive and nonexclusive licenses. For example, they might grant field-specific exclusivity, or exclusivity only for a limited term, or exclusivity only for commercial sales while exempting research, and they might condition continued exclusivity on achievement of certain dissemination goals. Finally, particularly in the software context, there are many circumstances in which the social impact of technology transfer is maximized either by the university not patenting at all or by granting licenses to those patents on a royalty-free basis to all comers. Finally, I think we can learn something about the raging debate over who's a patent troll and what to do about trolls by looking at university patents. Universities are non-practicing entities. They share some characteristics with trolls, at least if the term is broadly defined, but they are not trolls. Asking what distinguishes universities from trolls can actually help us figure out what concerns us about trolls. What we ought to do is abandon the search for a group of individual companies to define as trolls. In my view, troll is as troll does. Universities will sometimes be bad actors. Nonmanufacturing patent owners will sometimes be bad actors. Manufacturing patent owners will sometimes be bad actors. Instead of singling out bad actors, we should focus on the bad acts and the laws that make them possible.
  • Marconi's Legacy: National Sovereignty Claims in Radio
    Abstract: Presented at the 1st COMMUNIA Workshop on "Technology and the Public Domain," NEXA Center for Internet and Society, Politecnico di Torino, Italy, 18 January 2008. Since early in the 20th century, national governments have asserted sovereignty over the electromagnetic spectrum. These assertions were initially embraced as a way to control the monopolistic ambitions and offensive business practices of the Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company. They are still the basis of radio regulation. However, as wireless communication moves to higher and higher frequencies - into the range of infrared (heat) and free space optics (light) - it is becoming obvious that claiming sovereignty over radio frequencies makes no more sense than claiming sovereignty over colors of the rainbow. Is radio legally different from light? If not, might we someday need government authorisation to use certain colors of light for certain purposes, as with the invisible colors of radio?
  • Grassroots Expertise at a New York City Community Board
    Democratic theory predicts that the use of expert knowledge can conflict with democratic participation in policy-making, but neighborhood-level participatory bodies in U.S. cities frequently deploy quantitative analysis and other forms of expertise as they engage land use processes. An ethnographic approach permits us to investigate the fine-grained human interactions around one such potentially problematic instance. Participatory observation and in-depth interviewing of board members and staff from a New York City community board in a low-income neighborhood show that they can partially overcome the challenge of expertise by developing their own technical capacity. Expertise enhances board members’ influence, but members nevertheless encounter difficulties, including the problem of simultaneously performing advisory and representative roles.
  • World Society and the Global Foreign Aid Network
    This article analyzes the relationship between foreign aid and globalization to explain developing country ties to world society and argues that foreign aid can be viewed as a recursive mechanism through which donor states refine and spread international norms and organizational ties. Using network data on foreign aid relationships between countries this article analyzes the effects of aid on human rights treaty ratification and international organization memberships in a sample of 135 less developed countries from the period of 1975-2008. Results of random effects panel regression models show that increased aid network centrality brokers increased country ties to world society, supporting a novel interpretation of foreign aid as a transnational process of political globalization.
  • Beyond Search Costs: The Linguistic and Trust Functions of Trademarks
    Modern trademark scholarship and jurisprudence view trademark law as an institution aimed at improving the amount and quality of information available in the marketplace by reducing search costs. By providing a concise and unequivocal identifier of the particular source of particular goods, trademarks facilitate the exchange between buyers and sellers, and provide producers with an incentive to maintain their goods and services at defined and persistent qualities. Working within this paradigm, this Article highlights that reducing search costs and providing incentives to maintain quality are related yet distinct functions and shows that recognizing their distinct nature enriches our understanding of trademark law. The Article first develops a distinction between two functions of trademarks: a linguistic and a trust functions. Then, the Article demonstrates how the distinction provides a matrix for evaluating the normative strength of various trademark rules and doctrines. Under this matrix, rules that promote both functions would be considered normatively strong; rules that promote neither function would be normatively weak; and rules that promote one function but not the other would be normatively ambiguous, their strength depending on the results of a closer cost-benefit analysis.
  • 'It Can't Be a Lie': The Wire as Breaching Experiment
    This is the final pre-publication chapter that Joe Soss and I published in *The Politics of *The Wire*: Everything is Connected *(2015).
    This research tries to examine comprehensively about the different concepts of village autonomy in Law Number 5 of 1979 and Law Number 6 of 2014. The results supposed to be contributed as scientific journal and other scientific work, which is valuable for scientific improvement in provincial autonomy law. It surely could be used by the local governments in Indonesia and hopefully in Asia as a framework to construct a strategic procedure of the village development. This study uses the conceptual approach and analysis approach as methods. The conceptual approach directed to examine the first legal issue related to differ autonomy concept in Law number 5 of 1979 and Law Number 6 of 2014 while the analytical approach is used for assessing the alignment of the concept of village autonomy in Law Number 6, 2014 with a constitutional mandate. Research activity begins with establishing the legal issue through review the primary legal materials, followed by research on secondary law as a theoretical source for legal analysis of emerging issues. Once the overall legal materials collected, the legal issues in the primary legal materials be analyzed. Upon analysis of the legal issues research reports which at the end of the report is concluded and recommended to the stakeholders concerned.
  • Rural waste generation : a geographical survey at local scale
    The paper examines the per capita waste generation rates from rural areas of Neamț County (Romania) using thematic cartography. The geographical approach to this issue is difficult because the lack of a geostatistic database at commune scale. Spatial analysis of waste indicators reveals several disparities between localities. Comparability of data between communes located in various geographical conditions must be carefully made according to local waste management systems. Several dysfunctionalities are outlined in order to compare these results, on the one hand, between localities, and on the one hand, between recent years. Geographical analysis of waste generation rates is imperative for a proper monitoring of this sector. Data from 2009, 2010 and 2012 shows that rural waste management is in a full process of change towards a more organized, stable and efficient system
  • No Need to Turn Bayesian in Multilevel Analysis with Few Clusters: How Frequentist Methods Provide Unbiased Estimates and Accurate Inference
    Comparative political science has long worried about the performance of multilevel models when the number of upper-level units is small. Exacerbating these concerns, an influential Monte Carlo study by Stegmueller (2013) suggests that frequentist methods yield biased estimates and severely anti-conservative inference with small upper-level samples. Stegmueller recommends Bayesian techniques, which he claims to be superior in terms of both bias and inferential accuracy. In this paper, we reassess and refute these results. First, we formally prove that frequentist maximum likelihood estimators of coefficients are unbiased. The apparent bias found by Stegmueller is simply a manifestation of Monte Carlo Error. Second, we show how inferential problems can be overcome by using restricted maximum likelihood estimators for variance parameters and a t-distribution with appropriate degrees of freedom for statistical inference. Thus, accurate multilevel analysis is possible without turning to Bayesian methods, even if the number of upper-level units is small.
  • The Goldilocks Theory
    Oman-Reagan Michael P. "The Goldilocks Theory." The Winnower. 2:e142974.49132. DOI: 10.15200/winn.142974.49132
  • The Quality of Quantity
    The field of Linguistic Landscapes has grown significantly from its beginnings in quantitative approaches concerned with the counting of languages and signs in the attempt to gauge linguistic vitality to a discipline in its own right, concerned not only with the documentation of languages’ public presence, but the complex relationship between language, place and people. This expansion in scope has, for the most part, moved away from quantitative methods in favor of more in-depth ethnographic approaches, situating the optimal analysis of the LL within careful consideration of the context(s) in which a sign may occur and/or bring about as well as the fluidity of interpretation researchers must allow in their assessments of signs’ significance (Banda and Jimaima 2015; Jaworski and Thurlow 2010; Malinowski 2010; Kallen 2010). In the face of such shifts towards contextualization over context or process over product, quantitative-based approaches which tend to rely on the establishment of discrete categories may be seen as problematic (Gorter and Cenoz 2015; Gorter 2006). This chapter, however, will argue that if enacted with caution and precision, quantitative methods – particularly the use of inferential statistics – continue to offer significant insight for LL research.
  • Why Pirates (Still) Won't Behave: Regulating P2P in the Decade after Napster
    Since the birth of Napster in 1999, corporate copyright owners have attempted to "govern" file sharing aggressively at three discrete points of intervention: the content level, the network level, and the user level. Their efforts have met with resistance at each of these points, however, because they have failed to appreciate the insight articulated by Michel Foucault that governing people, in the broad sense, is not only a matter of making them behave; it's also a matter of making them want to behave. This article surveys a decade's worth of anti-piracy regulation and examines the ways in which the entertainment industry's recourse to coercion at every point of intervention has functioned to undermine rather than advance the anti-piracy cause. Annemarie Bridy Professor|University of Idaho College of Law|PO Box 83720-0051|Boise, ID 83720|Ph. 208.364.4583 Affiliate Scholar|Stanford Center for Internet and Society Affiliate Fellow|Yale Information Society Project SSRN|HeinOnline|LinkedIn|Twitter
  • Deliberative Processes in Practice
    This chapter discusses the use of deliberative processes in policy making about bioethics, drawing more broadly on deliberative democracy theory and health policy. We discuss who runs deliberative processes and why, but are particularly concerned with what conditions are needed for deliberative processes to be successful. We note uncertainties and tensions that may be inevitable in meeting these conditions. Fairness and accountability emerge as themes in which these conditions can be grouped. For accountability in particular, understanding the policy context and motives for deliberative processes are essential to their evaluation.
  • How Religious Are American Women and Men? Gender Differences and Similarities
    Are women universally more religious than men? Some research on gender differences has argued that biology leads women to be innately more religious than men, but other research has highlighted the importance of avoiding universal claims and recognizing complexity. This brief note uses General Social Survey data to report gender differences in predicted religiosity by religious category across eight measures. In the United States, gender differences seem to be primarily a Christian phenomenon. While women reveal higher levels of religiosity across Christian groups, this trend does not extend to non-Christian groups. Furthermore, there is variation even among Christian groups, with women not revealing higher levels of religiosity for all measures. Nevertheless, there does seem to be a general trend for women to report daily prayer more often than men. These findings further problematize the idea that there are innate gender differences in religiosity rooted in biology, and provide a descriptive foundation for future attempts to explain why (American) Christian groups reveal gender differences in religiosity.
  • Anthropology of Outer Space: Familiar Scales, Strange Sites (CFP, AAA 2015)
    This panel aims to investigate the meanings, limits, and possibilities of expanding our anthropological fieldwork into space. At stake is an understanding of how human activity in space increasingly shapes possible human futures both on and off planet Earth. We ask: What are the constraints and potentialities of interrogating outer space in this emerging era of science, imagination, exploration, and settlement? Keywords: Robotics, History, Future Studies, Geography, Environmental Science, Physics, Space Sciences, Economics, Anthropology, Medical Anthropology, Political Economy, Ontology, Tourism Studies, Social Sciences, Political Ecology, Astrobiology, Exoplanets, STS, Environmental Sustainability, Social Studies Of Science, Astrophysics, Astronomy, Astroanthropology, Infrastructure, Call for Papers Please cite as: Oman-Reagan, Michael P. and Kira Turner. 2015. Call for Papers: “Anthropology of Outer Space: Familiar Scales, Strange Sites.” 114th Annual Meeting of the American Anthropological Association; Denver, Colorado. 18-22 November.
  • Pirates Versus Mercenaries: Purely Private Transnational Violence at the Margins of International Law
    Examines international law's application to maritime piracy and private military companies
  • Heterogeneity in Crowding-Out: When Are Charitable Donations Responsive To Government Support?
    De Wit, A., Bekkers, R., & Broese Van Groenou, M. (2017). Heterogeneity in Crowding-out: When Are Charitable Donations Responsive To Government Support? European Sociological Review, 33(1), 59-71.
  • Predictors of returns to work following retirement: A prospective analysis of Germany, Russia and the United Kingdom
    Aims: Individuals may return to paid work following retirement, a phenomenon described as “unretirement”. By following recent retirees over time in Germany, Russia and the United Kingdom, we examined whether unretirement is more common for people who are facing financial hardship. Methods: Data are drawn from four prospective surveys: the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (1991–2013), the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (1994–2013) and, for the United Kingdom, the British Household Panel Survey (1991–2008) and Understanding Society (2010–2014), harmonized ex post. Unretirement behaviour was examined using Cox regression in relation to demographic covariates, as well as education, health and financial adequacy. Findings: The cumulative hazard of unretirement attained around 17% among German participants, 26% among British participants and 42% among Russian participants after 20 years of follow-up. Males, younger and more educated retirees, in better health and with higher incomes were generally more likely to return to work. Participants who were more concerned about their finances were not more likely to unretire in Russia or the United Kingdom and were only more likely to return to work in Germany following adjustment for the other covariates. Conclusions: Unretirement was common, confirming previous largely North American studies depicting retirement as a fluid and flexible process. These results suggest that retired people represent a substantial pool of potential labour, but there was little indication that those most in need were unretiring, particularly in Russia and the UK. This suggests that encouraging greater reliance on employment in later life may cause hardship among older people unable to find suitable work and potentially exacerbate social inequalities.
  • General Intelligence & Early Life Friendships: An Analysis of Peer Similarity
    Research on the topics of general intelligence and friendship formation separately has elicited a tremendous amount of attention across decades of psychological scholarship. To date, however, less effort has been aimed at uniting these lines of inquiry. In particular, do friendship bonds emerge, based in part, on shared levels of cognitive ability? Several disparate lines of evidence suggest this might be the case, however, a need remains to replicate this work using large national samples coupled with psychometrically sound measurement. The current study helps to fill this void in the literature using a national sample of American respondents. Our results reveal that friendship dyads are robustly correlated on measures of general intelligence, and the effects withstand correction for potentially confounding variables.
  • NO TRUMP!: A statistical exercise in priming
    How are people unconsciously influenced by the rise of Donald Trump? We test the theory that Trump’s rise has irrationally changed the behavior of one group of people: elite bridge players, whom we assume are otherwise completely typical. We examine the hands played in one of the premier North American bridge events, the Vanderbilt Knockout Tournament, in 1999 and 2015. We find that players had significantly higher probabilities of making No Trump contracts in the 2015 period compared with the earlier periods. We conclude that in the latter period, defending players are subtly deranged by the prospect of Trump and play their hands worse. By contrast, a 2015 European tournament shows no significant difference with the earlier 1999 tournament. This strengthens our conclusion.
  • Black Lives Matter in Wikipedia: Collaboration and Collective Memory around Online Social Movements
    Social movements use social computing systems to complement offline mobilizations, but prior literature has focused almost exclusively on movement actors' use of social media. In this paper, we analyze participation and attention to topics connected with the Black Lives Matter movement in the English language version of Wikipedia between 2014 and 2016. Our results point to the use of Wikipedia to (1) intensively document and connect historical and contemporary events, (2) collaboratively migrate activity to support coverage of new events, and (3) dynamically re-appraise pre-existing knowledge in the aftermath of new events. These findings reveal patterns of behavior that complement theories of collective memory and collective action and help explain how social computing systems can encode and retrieve knowledge about social movements as they unfold.
  • Spillovers
    Economists since Demsetz have viewed property rights as a way to internalize the external costs and benefits one party's action confers on another. They have thought this internalization desirable, reasoning that if a party didn't capture the full social value of her actions she wouldn't have optimal incentives to engage in those actions. Measured by this standard, IP rights are inefficiently weak. There is abundant evidence that the social value of innovations far exceeds the private value. But there is also good evidence that, contrary to what economists might assume, these spillovers actually encourage greater innovation. The result is a puzzle for Demsetzians. In this article, we offer three insights that help to explain the positive role of innovation spillovers. First, we note that in IP, unlike real property, a wide range of externalities matter, because IP rights are much less certain than property rights, and because the decision to create a legal entitlement will determine whether or not a transaction must occur. Second, we make the point that while society needs some ex ante incentive to innovate, it doesn't need (and doesn't particularly want) full internalization of the benefits of an invention. Third, we observe that even where internalizing externalities is desirable, property rights do not in fact do so perfectly, and they create problematic distortions in circumstances in which the buyer in a transaction makes productive reuse of the work. The result of combining these insights is that at least where innovation is concerned, we cannot rely on the easy equation of property rights with efficient internalization of externalities.
  • Rationale of early adopters of fossil fuel divestment
    This research uses the social science perspectives of institutions, ecological modernization, and social movements to analyze the rationale used by the early-adopting universities of fossil fuel divestment in the US. Through analysis of qualitative data from interviews with key actors at the universities that divested their endowments from fossil fuels, I examine how institutions navigate competing logics and frame their rationale. The results show that while many institutions relied on ecological values embedded in their missions to justify their decision to divest, many also continued to embrace an altered version of market logic.
  • American Policing and the Danger Imperative
    Despite the fact that policing is growing safer in the United States, the danger associated with police work continues to structure departmental training and police behavior. This article describes how police are socialized into a cultural frame conceptualized as the "danger imperative"—the preoccupation with violence and the provision of officer safety—and the unintended, deadly consequences of their perception through it. Using nearly 1000 hours of participant observation and 94 interviews across three urban police departments, the author demonstrates that officers are formally and informally socialized into this frame, and learn both policy-sanctioned and policy-deviant behaviors to protect themselves from violence. However, policy-deviant behavior such as not wearing a seatbelt when driving, though justified as necessary to allow officers to defend themselves from violence, places officers at grave risk of injury and death in high-speed car crashes.
  • Intellectual Property, Antitrust, and the Rule of Law: Between Private Power and State Power
    This Article explores the rule of law aspects of the intersection between intellectual property and antitrust law. Contemporary discussions and debates on intellectual property (IP), antitrust, and the intersection between them are typically framed in economically oriented terms. This Article, however, shows that there is more law in law than just economics. It demonstrates how the rule of law has influenced the development of several IP doctrines, and the interface between IP and antitrust, in important, albeit not always acknowledged, ways. In particular, it argues that some limitations on IP rights, such as exhaustion and limitations on tying arrangements, are grounded in rule of law principles restricting the arbitrary exercise of legal power, rather than solely in considerations of economic efficiency. The historical development of IP law has reflected several tensions, both economic and political, that lie at the heart of the constitutional order of the modern state: the tension between the benefits of free competition and the recognition that some restraints on competition may be beneficial and justified; the concern that power, even when conferred in the public interest, can often be abused and arbitrarily applied to advance private interests; and the tension between freedom of contract and property and freedom of trade. This Article explores how rule of law considerations have allowed courts to mediate these tensions, both in their familiar public law aspects but also in their less conspicuous private law dimensions, and how, in particular, they have shaped the development of IP doctrine and its intersection with antitrust law and the common law.
  • Chefs Know More than Just Recipes: Professional Vision in a Citizen Science Game
    The main purpose of this study is to investigate players’ professional vision and interpret their use of recipes during their gameplay. The main research question is: What do players observe and do when they use recipes in their gameplay? To address this question, we examined the choices made by players solving two different kinds of puzzles, a beginner’s puzzle and an advanced one. Specifically, we studied when, how and why the players ran recipes when solving the puzzles, and what actions those recipes performed in the gameplay.
  • Project Risk Management Incorporating Knight, Ellsberg & Kahneman
    This work investigates the Practice Standard for Project Risk Management (PSPRM) in light of the fundamental organizational risk research. As a result of this investigation, the work finds that the PSPRM is lacking some key concepts from the extant organizational risk literature and that other fundamental risk concepts are not applied in a manner consistent with the literature. Building on these findings, the work illustrates how project risk management and project risk research might be effected by these deficiencies and recommends some simple measures that could be implemented to usefully augment the PSPRM and project risk research. Prpić, J., (2016). Project Risk Management Incorporating Knight, Ellsberg & Kahneman. Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences #49. January 2016, Kauai, Hawaii, USA. IEEE Computer Society Press
  • The Marriage Wealth Premium Revisited
    This study examines the association between marriage and economic wealth of women and men. Going beyond previous research, which focused on household wealth, I examine personal wealth which allows identifying gender disparities in the association between marriage and wealth. Using unique data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (2002, 2007, 2012), I apply random-effects and fixed-effects regression models to test my expectations. I find that both, women and men, experience substantial marriage wealth premiums not only in household but also in personal wealth. I do not find consistent evidence for gender disparities in these general marriage premiums. Additional analyses indicate, however, that women’s marriage premiums are substantially lower than men’s premiums in older cohorts and when only considering non-housing wealth. Overall, this study provides new evidence that women and men gain unequally in their wealth attainment through marriage.
  • British Counterinsurgency in Malaya: Population Control, Intelligence and Military Operations
    An analysis of counterinsurgency operations in the Malayan Emergency.
  • Transformative Teaching and Educational Fair Use After Georgia State
    The Supreme Court has said that copyright’s fair use doctrine is a “First Amendment safety valve” because it ensures that certain crucial cultural activities are not unduly burdened by copyright. While many such activities (criticism, commentary, parody) have benefited from the courts’ increased attention to First Amendment values, one such activity, education, has been mired for years in a minimalist, market-based vision of fair use that is largely out of touch with mainstream fair use jurisprudence. The latest installment in the history of educational fair use, the 11th Circuit’s opinion in the Georgia State University e-reserves case, may be the last judicial word on the subject for years to come, and I argue that its import is primarily in its rejection of outdated guidelines and case law, rather than any affirmative vision of fair use, which the court studiously avoids. Because of the unique factual context of the case, it stops short of bridging the gap between educational fair use and modern transformative use jurisprudence. With help from recent scholarship on broad patterns in fair use case law, I pick up where the GSU court left off, describing a variety of common educational uses that are categorizable as transformative, and, therefore, entitled to broad deference under contemporary fair use doctrine. In the process, I show a way forward for vindicating fair use rights and First Amendment rights, by applying the transformative use concept at lower levels of abstraction to help practice communities make sense of the doctrine.
  • The Geographical Imagination
    Geographers attach multiple definitions to the term geographical imagination, many of which can be traced back to the work of Hugh Prince, David Harvey, and Derek Gregory. The term is most often used in relation to understandings of the landscape, the power of maps, studies of identity and oppression, and/or meanings of large territories as they relate to everyday lives such as the city, nature, or the nation-state. At its best, the geographical imagination affords the user ways to pry open the power of assumptions, stereotypes, and expectations associated with space and place, and to delve into how and why they are linked.
  • Antitrust Arbitration and Merger Approval
    In a string of recent opinions, the Supreme Court has made it harder for consumers to avoid arbitration clauses, even when businesses strategically insert provisions in them that effectively prevent consumers from being able to bring any claim in any forum. In American Express Co. v. Italian Colors Restaurant, an antitrust case, the Court held that class-action waivers embedded in mandatory arbitration clauses were enforceable even when they had the effect of making it economically irrational for the victims of antitrust violations to pursue their claims. Courts have long considered antitrust claims to be too complex and too important to trust to private arbitrators. By the 1980s, the Supreme Court permitted federal statutory rights, including antitrust claims, to be arbitrated so long as the plaintiffs could effectively vindicate their rights in the alternative forum. In 2013, the Supreme Court in Italian Colors fundamentally weakened the Effective Vindication Doctrine when it held that arbitration clauses that precluded class actions and classwide arbitration were enforceable even when they effectively prohibited all individual plaintiffs from bringing a case. Arbitration differs from litigation in ways that harm the interests of consumer antitrust plaintiffs. For example, arbitration limits discovery and has no meaningful appeals process. Furthermore, defendants use the terms in arbitration clauses to prevent class actions and to undercut the pro-plaintiff features of antitrust law, including mandatory treble damages, meaningful injunctive relief, recovery of attorneys’ fees, and a lengthy statute of limitations. With the Court’s undermining of the Effective Vindication Doctrine in Italian Colors, defendants’ efforts to dismantle these pro-plaintiff components of antitrust law may prove more successful in the future. The problems associated with antitrust arbitration are magnified in concentrated markets. Supporters of enforcing arbitration clauses assume that they these contractual provisions are the result of an informed, voluntary bargain. But when a market is dominated by a single supplier or a small group of firms, consumers often find it impossible to purchase a necessary product while retaining the right to sue, especially since arbitration clauses are generally embedded in contracts of adhesion. This means that in the markets most likely to be affected by antitrust violations, consumers are least likely to be able to avoid mandatory arbitration clauses. Furthermore, when mergers result in concentrated markets, they can increase the problems explored in Part Two. Antitrust authorities can address the problem of proliferating arbitration clauses. When evaluating mergers, officials at the Federal Trade Commission and the Antitrust Division of the Department of Justice can threaten to challenge the merger unless the merging parties agree to specified conditions, such as the divestiture of certain assets. Because those mergers that pose the greatest risk of anticompetitive effects also magnify the problems associated with mandatory arbitration clauses, antitrust officials would be wise to condition merger approval on the merging parties’ agreement to not require arbitration of antitrust claims.
  • Grounding Trademark Law Through Trademark Use
    The debate over trademark use has become a hot-button issue in intellectual property (IP) law. In Confusion over Use: Contextualism in Trademark Law, Graeme Dinwoodie and Mark Janis characterize it as a dispute over whether to limit trademark holder rights in a new and unanticipated way. Yet there is another - in our view more historically accurate - way to frame the trademark use debate: the question is whether courts should, absent specific statutory authorization, allow trademark holders to assert a new and unprecedented form of trademark infringement claim. The pop-up and keyword cases involve attempts to impose third-party liability under the guise of direct infringement suits. Dinwoodie and Janis's thorough account notwithstanding, it remains the fact that, before the recent spate of Internet-related cases, no court had ever recognized a trademark claim of the sort that trademark holders are now asserting. Trademark infringement suits have always involved allegations of infringement by parties who use marks in connection with the promotion of their own goods and services. The question raised by the trademark use cases, as we view it, is whether courts should countenance a radical departure from that traditional model without specific instruction from Congress. We think they should not. In this paper, we explain the origins of trademark use doctrine in traditional limits on the scope of the trademark right and in the distinction between direct and contributory infringement. We also explain why we cannot simply rely on the likelihood of consumer confusion test to solve the problems the trademark use doctrine addresses, and we examine the difficult problem of defining the scope of the trademark use doctrine.
  • Are Human Genes Patentable
    This editorial examines the logical structure of the United States Supreme Court decision in Myriad Genetics v. AMP, regarding patents on human DNA. In the first half of the opinion, a unanimous court holds that genomic DNA molecules derived from human cells are unpatentable products of nature because they have the same informational content, and hence the same function, as native DNA. But in the second half of the opinion, the Court holds that complementary DNA molecules generated in the laboratory are patentable over native sequences because they have a different structure. These two conflicting rationales leave the law of patentable subject matter indeterminate, and far more incoherent than before the Court intervened.
  • The Privacy Pragmatic as Privacy Vulnerable
    *Abstract: * Alan Westin’s well-known and often-used privacy segmentation fails to describe privacy markets or consumer choices accurately. The segmentation divides survey respondents into “privacy fundamentalists,” “privacy pragmatists,” and the “privacy unconcerned.” It describes the average consumer as a “privacy pragmatist” who influences market offerings by weighing the costs and benefits of services and making choices consistent with his or her privacy preferences. Yet, Westin’s segmentation methods cannot establish that users are pragmatic in theory or in practice. Textual analysis reveals that the segmentation fails theoretically. Original survey data suggests that, in practice, most consumers are not aware of privacy rules and practices, and make decisions in the marketplace with a flawed, yet optimistic, perception of protections. Instead of acting as “privacy pragmatists,” consumers experience a marketplace myopia that causes them to believe that they need not engage in privacy analysis of products and services. Westin’s work has been used to justify a regulatory system where the burden of taking action to protect privacy rests on the very individuals who think it is already protected strongly by law. Our findings begin to suggest reasons behind both the growth of some information-intensive marketplace activities and some prominent examples of consumer backlash. Based on knowledge-testing and attitudinal survey work, we suggest that Westin’s approach actually segments two recognizable privacy groups: the “privacy resilient” and the “privacy vulnerable.” We then trace the contours of a more usable segmentation and consider whether privacy segmentations contribute usefully to political discourse on privacy. Available at SSRN:
  • Racial Diversity and Union Organizing in the United States, 1999--2008
    Does racial diversity make it harder to form a union? Case studies give conflicting answers, and little large-scale research on the question exists. Most quantitative research on race and unionization studies trends in membership rather than the outcome of specific organizing drives, and assumes that the main problem is mistrust between workers and unions, paying less attention for example to the role of employers. I explore the role of racial and ethnic diversity in the outcomes of nearly 7,000 organizing drives launched between 1999 and 2008. By matching the National Labor Relations Board’s information on union activity with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission’s surveys of large establishments, I reconstruct the demographic composition of the work groups involved in each mobilization. I find that more diverse establishments are less likely to see successful organizing attempts. However, I find little evidence that this is because workers are less interested in voting for unions. Instead, I find that the organizers of more diverse units are more likely to give up before such elections are held. Furthermore, this higher quit rate can be explained best by the other organizations involved in the organizing drive. In particular, employers are more likely to be charged with unfair labor practices when the unit in question is more racially diverse. This effect persists when controlling for heterogeneity among industries, unions and regions.
  • Another frame, another game? Explaining framing effects in economic games
    Small changes in the framing of games (i.e., the way in which the game situation is described to participants) can have large effects on players' choices. For example, referring to a prisoner's dilemma game as the "Community Game" as opposed to the "Wall Street Game" can double the cooperation rate (Liberman, Samuels, & Ross, 2004). Framing effects are an empirically well-studied phenomenon. However, a coherent theoretical explanation of the observed effects is still lacking. We distinguish between two types of framings - valence framing and context framing - and provide an overview of three general classes of theories that may account for the observed changes in behaviour.
  • Starting Off on the Wrong Foot: Elite Influences in Multi-Ethnic Democratization Settings
    Abstract: Elite manipulation theories, particularly the idea of diversionary war, have played a substantial role in the analysis of ethnic civil wars. Some, as Gagnon (2004), argue that political elites have shaped the perceptions of their population to create the illusion of a threatening outside world. This, driven to the extreme, would then give rise to an ethnic security dilemma and potentially, civil war. Even if violence does not break out, divisive elite manipulation increases the likelihood of self-perpetuating injustices between members of ethnic groups. Snyder (2000) argues that democratizing multi-ethnic states face an extraordinarily high risk of such conflict. During and shortly after democratization processes, when political leaders are most in need of popular backing, the temptation to seek the support of a fairly well defined ethnic group rather than that of the multi-ethnic demos that existed so far may be strong. Especially if group identities have been reified through institutionalization – as is frequently the case in multi-ethnic societies – ready-made social cleavages may be available for politicians to exploit. However, Brubaker (1998) convincingly argues that political leaders rarely have both the ability and ideal environment to manipulate identities for their own personal need that the theory of diversionary war suggests. This paper provides an initial analysis of the first in a series of democratization cases in ethnically heterogeneous settings: the Burundian democratization process of the late 1980s and early 1990s. Based on news agency and local newspaper reports, this paper attempts to assess to what degree elites stimulate ethnic hostilities in their bid for political power and to what extend they react to credible already present in the population.
  • Fine-tuning the IP Approaches for Fostering Open Science: Some Insights from India
    Draft version. Comments and suggestions welcome.
  • The Proliferation of Men: Markets, Property, and Seizure in Jordan
    Spurred on by massive influxes of Palestinian refugees in previous de- cades, the 1970s and 1980s were marked by acute struggles over land and housing in Jordan. This article places those struggles within the context of a historical look at property in Jordan spanning from the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire to more recent waves of refugees from Syria and Iraq. Drawing on recent research in the social studies of finance and feminist substantivist critiques of “the economy,” I argue for more attention to the role of violence and war in the formation of markets and property regimes. Moving between a World Bank squatter settlement standardization pro- gram and interviews with contemporary planners, speculators, homeown- ers, and construction workers, I argue that the sublimation of violent con- testation over property has required subtle but important transformations in gender norms that privilege new strategies of accumulation. Yet many of my interlocutors insist that this novel “proliferation of wealth” remains sub- ordinate to the role of large agnatic kin groups in the communal defense of land (“the proliferation of men”). Ongoing struggles between financiers, agnatic kin groups, and the Jordanian state illustrate the ways in which seizure is key to the work of market formation.
  • The Comparative Method in Practice: Case Selection and the Social Science of Revolution
    Formalization of comparative case methodology has given the appearance of growing consensus and cross-disciplinary acceptance around a set of best practices. Yet how researchers actually use a method may differ widely from what methodologists believe, which is the crux of institutionalization of a method. This study examines whether comparative methodology has, in fact, institutionalized within the social sciences using evidence from the entire corpus of comparative studies of revolution published from 1970 to 2009. Content analysis of methods of case selection within the revolution subfield reveals a wide diversity of strategies with only modest methodological awareness by practitioners, a lack of consensus among which case selection strategies to use, and little convergence over time. Thus, the comparative method has not yet institutionalized in its practice. Methodological practice has implications for the coverage of cases of revolution and what is substantively known about the phenomenon.
  • Collateral Damage: The Health Effects of Invasive Police Encounters in New York City
    In the 1990s New York City widened the surveillance reign of the criminal justice system to include minor offenses. One aspect of this public policy is a procedure known as Terry stops, which involves police temporarily detaining persons who may be acting criminally. While only a small percentage of these stops result in arrest, warrants, or the recovery of illegal materials, a sizeable portion become physically invasive (i.e., involve body searches and use of force). The health effects of invasive policing practices for the community at-large are unknown. Using microlevel health data from 2009-2012 NYC Community Health Survey nested within mesolevel data from the 2009-2012 NYC Stop, Question, and Frisk dataset, this study employs multilevel mixed effects models to evaluate contextual and ethnoracially-variant associations between invasive aspects of Terry stops and multiple dimensions of illness (poor/fair health, diabetes, high blood pressure, asthma episodes, body weight). Terry stops are, in fact, associated with worse health. The most consistent Terry measures associated with illness is the likelihood that stops will result in frisking. More limited deleterious effects can be attributed to the likelihood that stops will result in use of force and to minority-to-white ratios of frisk and use of force. The health effects of Terry stops vary by ethnoracial group in complex ways. For instance, the minority-to-white frisking ratio and the likelihood that stops will involve use of force increase certain dimensions of illness for minorities; meanwhile, the minority-to-white use of force ratio reduces the likelihood of diabetes for Blacks. - Abigail A. Sewell, Ph.D. Assistant Professor Department of Sociology Emory University 1555 Dickey Dr. Atlanta, GA 30322 Vice Provost's Postdoctoral Fellow Population Studies Center University of Pennsylvania 3718 Locust Walk 239 McNeil Building Philadelphia, PA 191014 Email: Website: ________________________________ This e-mail message (including any attachments) is for the sole use of the intended recipient(s) and may contain confidential and privileged information. If the reader of this message is not the intended recipient, you are hereby notified that any dissemination, distribution or copying of this message (including any attachments) is strictly prohibited. If you have received this message in error, please contact the sender by reply e-mail message and destroy all copies of the original message (including attachments).
  • The Problem of Process in Biotechnology
    Patent law routinely relies on distinctions between products and processes, but the courts appear to have a great deal of trouble distinguishing the two when it comes to biotechnology cases. Over the past two decades, this has led to a series of cases grappling with a process-related problems that are characteristic of biotechnology patents. These cases include those dealing with obviousness of macromolecules, those addressing the so-called "Durden" problem of patenting old processes that use novel substrates or create novel products, and several recent importation cases considering sections 271(f) and 271(g) of the U.S. patent statute. It is no accident that biotechnology patent cases repeatedly coalesce around such process-related issues; rather, in biotechnology patenting a discontinuity at the center of patent law has finally come to light. This anomaly is due to the character of molecules as channels for informational transfer processes, and the inability of current patent doctrine to encompass information transfer. Consequently, conflicts regarding process and product will be endemic not only to the patenting of biotechnology products, but also other informational products, particularly software.
  • Accessibility of waste collection services in Romania: a multi-scale analysis in EU context using thematic cartography
    Low coverage of urban and rural population to waste collection services leads to various environmental threats caused by uncontrolled waste disposal. New EU regulations on waste management issues transposed into national laws have improved this sector, but, the population access to such services is still low compared to others new EU members. A multi-scale approach of this indicator is a necessary tool for a proper analysis of this environmental issue. The maps reveal that Romanian development regions (NUTS 2) have the lowest coverage rates at EU level in 2010. Furthermore, major disparities are reflected between Romanian counties in 2010. Thematic maps outline a comparative analysis at national and regional scale (Romanian counties & cities and communes of North-East Region) between urban vs rural areas in 2010. These geographical approaches are necessary for a better monitoring process of waste management sector.
  • If You Can't Beat 'Em, Join 'Em? How Sitting by Designation Affects Judicial Behavior
    Judges, lawyers, and scholars have long decried the high reversal rate district judges face in patent cases. Many have suggested greater district court specialization as a solution, and Congress in 2011 enacted legislation to promote such specialization. In this paper, we investigate the impact of a novel measure of experience – whether a district court judge has sat by designation on a Federal Circuit panel in a patent claim construction appeal – on the likelihood a district judge’s subsequent claim constructions are reversed. Before sitting by designation, judges who later do so actually have a slightly higher claim construction reversal rate than judges who never do so. After sitting by designation, the reversal rate of district court judges on subsequent claim construction appeals decreases by 50 percent. This decrease is not fully explained by other measures of experience, including the number of prior patent cases or years on the bench. Nor is it fully explained by the timing of the appeal, the particular district court judge or various other characteristics of the patents, the parties and the litigation. Our results suggest a simple way to reduce the reversal rate in patent and perhaps other sorts of cases. However, our evidence suggests this increased agreement is due to increased Federal Circuit trust in the decisions of individual judges who have sat by designation and not increased district judge understanding of claim construction.
  • Safe Spaces: Gay-Straight Alliances in High School
    In activists' circles as in sociology, the concept "safe space" has been applied to all sorts of programs, organizations, and practices. However, few studies have specified clearly what safe spaces are and how they support the people who occupy them. In this paper, we examine one social location typically understood to be a safe space: gay-straight alliance groups in high schools. Using qualitative interviews with young adults in the United States and Canada who have participated in gay-straight alliances, we examine the experiences of safe spaces in these groups. We unpack this complex concept to consider some of the dimensions along which safe spaces might vary. Participants identified several types of safe space, and from their observations we derive three inter-related dimensions of safe space: social context, membership and activity.
  • Educational Background and Stratification in the Legal Academy: Invasion of the Body Snatchers… or More of the Same?
    *Abstract*: Since the 1960s, law schools have seen an influx of faculty with graduate training and research presences in fields outside the law – primarily in the social sciences, statistics, and the humanities, but also in biology and medicine – which has brought “interdisciplinarity” into law schools, in the form of scholarship under the banners of “law and [ ]” or “critical [ ] studies.” As their names suggest, these lines of inquiry either seek to extend traditional legal scholarship with complementary insights from external disciplines or else seek to question (if not overturn) traditional legal scholarship based on such insights. The rise of interdisciplinarity has been discussed in depth, with some scholars arguing that the rise of interdisciplinarity has strengthened the legal academy by broadening legal curricula and legal scholarship beyond traditional disciplinary law, while others aver that the rise of interdisciplinarity has reduced the autonomy of law in the university by introducing “alien” ideologies and practices. To trace this phenomenon, we use data-science methods to gather and analyze “big data” on the educational backgrounds of all faculty who held tenured and tenure-track positions in all accredited law schools in the United States in the 2011-12 academic year. Our analysis reveals a persistent increase in law-school faculty with PhDs, but most of those are faculty with both PhDs and JDs. This suggests that law schools have not been invaded by PhD-toting “pod people” importing alien values and practices from the arts and sciences Rather than reducing the autonomy of the law, the influx of PhD-trained faculty is more likely to be promoting an intellectual culture and academic practices that are a hybrid of the traditional legal academy and the arts and sciences, which involves taking only selected external elements and adapting them to fit traditional law-school culture and practices, rather than adopting them wholesale to replace traditional law-school culture and practices. Such hybridization would yield more of (almost) the same culture and practices. Our analysis also reveals that although PhD-trained faculty are concentrated in the most prestigious law schools, the influx of PhD-trained faculty has trickled down the ranks to many less prestigious schools. This suggests that PhD credentials have become an important axis of competition in the law school market, in which prospective law professors increasingly accumulate advanced degrees to compete for law-school positions, and law schools increasingly hire candidates with multiple advanced degrees to compete in prestige and media rankings. Finally, our analysis shows that male law professors are far more likely than their female counterparts to hold PhDs, but male professors are also far more likely than their female counterparts to be employed by top-tier law schools when they do not hold PhDs. The gender gap in the stratification of law faculty across the law-school prestige hierarchy indicates that even though the training of legal academics has changed, patterns of inequality in achievement have persisted.
  • Beyond Preemption: The Federal Law and Policy of Intellectual Property Licensing
    Proposed Uniform Commercial Code article 2B, which will govern transactions in information, will remake the law of intellectual property licensing in a radical way. But federal and state intellectual property policies impose significant limits on the ability of states to change these rules by contract law. One such limit is preemption, but preemption is unlikely to provide sufficient protection for the established rules of intellectual property law. Three other sets of doctrines will limit the ability of parties to set their terms by contract, even in the UCC 2B world. The first doctrine is copyright misuse, which has been applied against restrictive licensing provisions. The second set of doctrines provides that a number of licensing rules are decided as questions of federal, not state, law. The third doctrines are state public policies that cannot be overriden by contract. Taken together, these doctrines create a patchwork federal policy of intellectual property law that UCC 2B cannot alter.
  • MPEDS: Automating the Generation of Protest Event Data
    Large-scale research of social movements has required more detailed, recent, and specific data about protest events. Analyses of these data allow for new insights into movement emergence, consequences, and tactical innovation and adaptation. One of the issues with this kind of analysis, however, is that the generation of event data is incredibly costly. Human coders must pore through news sources, looking for instances of protest and coding many variables by hand. Because of the high labor costs, projects are typically limited to one or two newspapers per country. This, in turn, exacerbates issues of selection and description biases. This article aims to address this issue with the development, validation, and application of a system for automating the generation of protest event data. This system, called the Machine-Learning Protest Event Data System (MPEDS), is the first of its kind coming from within the social movement community. MPEDS uses recent innovations from machine learning and natural language processing to generate protest event data with little to no human intervention. The system aims to have the effect of increasing the speed and reducing the labor costs associated with identifying and coding collective action events in news sources, thus increasing the timeliness of protest data and reducing biases due to excessive reliance on too few news sources. Work on MPEDS is ongoing, and to that end, the system will also be open, available for replication, and extendable by future social movement researchers, and social and computational scientists.
  • Metajournals. A federalist proposal for scholarly communication and data aggregation
    While the EU is building an open access infrastructure of archives (e.g. Openaire) and it is trying to implement it in the Horizon 2020 program, the gap between the tools and the human beings – researchers, citizen scientists, students, ordinary people – is still wide. The necessity to dictate open access publishing as a mandate for the EU funded research – ten years after the BOAI - is an obvious symptom of it: there is a chasm between the net and the public use of reason. To escalate the advancement and the reuse of research, we should federate the multitude of already existing open access journals in federal open overlay journals that receive their contents from the member journals and boost it with their aggregation power and their semantic web tools. The article contains both the theoretical basis and the guidelines for a project whose goals are: 1. making open access journals visible, highly cited and powerful, by federating them into wide disciplinary overlay journals; 2. avoiding the traps of the “authors pay” open access business model, by exploiting one of the virtue of federalism: the federate journals can remain little and affordable, if they gain visibility from the power of the federal overlay journal aggregating them; 3. enriching the overlay journals both through semantic annotation tools and by means of open platforms dedicated to host ex post peer review and experts comments; 4. making the selection and evaluation processes and their resulting data as much as possible public and open, to avoid the pitfalls (e. g, the serials price crisis) experienced by the closed access publishing model. It is about time to free academic publishing from its expensive walled gardens and to put to test the tools that can help us to transform it in one open forest, with one hundred flowers – and one hundred trailblazers.
  • Stalling for Time
    Carel Fabritius left behind few but important works of art. We are concerned here with the View in Delft, and attempt to make two points about it. The first is that this small painting manages to break away from the classical perception of perspective, an endeavor informed mostly by new findings in the field of optics of the time. The second point, theoretically related to the first, stresses compositional elements that would bring View in Delft closer to a meditation on the fleetingness of life, making it a "town-scape" vanitas.
  • Grave Monuments from Jiyeh (Porphyreon) and the Sepulchral Art of Sidon's Chora
    Hellenistic steles and Roman cippi and sarcophagi discovered in the course of salvage excavations in Jiyeh (ancient Porphyreon) opened the way to the discussion of the artictic culture of Sidon and the northern part of its hinterland. The form and decoration of these grave monuments find no parallels outside the Sidonian cemeteries, pointing to very strong artistic ties between the metropolis and the villages in its chora. Compared to the output of other Syro-Palestinian sculptural centers, the products from Sidonian territory demonstrate exceptional originality, foremost in the choice of decorative motifs, but also concerning the stone material: local sandstone conglomerate and limestone. The steles, cippi and sarcophagi from Jiyeh enable us to date more precisely the locality's northern necropolis that functioned, in the light of the presented evidence, from the Hellenistic to the early Byzantine period. Moreover; the dating of the monuments leads to the assumption that the early phase of the cemetery coincided with the operation of nearby pottery workshops.
  • Mediated Deliberation
    Final manuscript version available [here][1]. Mediated deliberation refers to a family of media communication processes conducive to a well-ordered polity as envisioned in deliberative theories of democracy. It is based on the traditional engagement of deliberation scholars with face-to-face small-group communication and has evolved into a distinct program of empirical and normative research. This entry traces the relations to deliberative democratic theory, highlights the differences between mediated deliberation and face-to-face deliberation, provides an overview of the key components of mediated deliberation processes, and outlines future directions in researching mediated deliberation. [1]:
  • The Declaration of Unity and Union
    This is a declaration. The identity of mathematics and number theory or arithmetics. I have defined a pattern here that shows consciousness is a pure unique entity that is present everywhere and whole the existence is a graphical manifestation that has been phenomenoned over to enclose it and I hermetically simplify my intuition to transfer it to curious ones. Since explaining the methodology requires in thousands of pages, the final concluded statements and equations are only declared here. We are living in a calculational system of Information that has an algorithm which is explained here.
  • Ethics, Technology and the Challenges of Documenting History in Real Time
    New technologies including mobile phones and use of social media software have made available a plethora of new sources for news and information that both complement and contrast with traditional news sources. This content is relevant to research libraries and archives around the world. Yet most of it does not get deposited into library and archival collections in traditional ways. Libraries and archives need to be innovative and proactive about seeking it out from numerous participants and scraping it off social network sites in real time to insure authenticity and reliability. At UCLA and NYU we have been collecting both digital and physical materials from the front lines of conflict and war-ravaged areas of the world. We've partnered with political activists to develop unique assemblages of ephemera collected on the front lines of social media revolutions. This paper will present two case studies that illustrate the challenges and opportunities for collaboration and community engagement and utilizing new technologies including social media to capture and preserve history in real time.
  • Privacy and Modern Advertising: Most US Internet Users Want 'Do Not Track' to Stop Collection of Data about their Online Activities
    *Abstract: * Most Americans have not heard of 'Do Not Track,' a proposal to allow Internet users to exercise more control over online advertising. However, when probed, most prefer that Do Not Track block advertisers from collecting data about their online activities. This is a much more privacy-protective approach for Do Not Track than what has been proposed by the advertising industry. In previous studies, we have found that Americans think they are protected by strong online privacy laws. Here, we probed beliefs about tracking on medical websites and 'free' websites, with most not able to answer true/false questions correctly about tracking. This result brings into question notice-and-choice models that depend on consumer understanding of the terms for their legitimacy. We also probed Internet users' attitudes towards advertising. Most Internet users say that they do not find utility in online advertising, with half claiming that they never click on ads. Advertisers and consumers are at an impasse on privacy. Advertisers seem to be seeking a kind of total information awareness for behavioral advertising, and have proposed self-regulatory guidelines with little bite. At the same time, both our survey evidence and media reports show consumer opposition to tracking. Do Not Track has emerged from the current skirmish between consumers and advertisers, but it is a relatively modest intervention that does little to shift the underlying incentives that have driven increasing tracking and aggregation of information about consumers. It is foreseeable that regardless of the form Do Not Track takes, websites will simply require consumers to disable it in order to access content. A fundamental change in incentives may be necessary to relieve this impasse and find an approach for advertising that is not so dependent upon third-party tracking and aggregation of information, both online and off. Available at SSRN:
  • Review of "Making a Market for Acts of God"
    Making a Market for Acts of God: The Practice of Risk Trading in the Global Reinsurance Industry. By Paula Jarzabkowski, Rebecca Bednarek, and Paul Spee. Book review published in *American Journal of Sociology*.
  • The Gender Income Gap and the Roles of Education and Family Formation: A Scientific Replication of Bobbitt-Zeher (2007)
    This article reports the results of a replication of Bobbitt-Zeher’s 2007 Sociology of Education article “The Gender Income Gap and the Role of Education” based on comparable data from Germany. Models that emulate the original specifications successfully replicate the results. However, models that instead adhere to Bobbitt-Zeher’s theory concerning the gendered effect of family formation call her key finding that “family formation has virtually no effect on the income gap” into question.
  • The Swahili Art of Indian Taarab: A Poetics of Vocality and Ethnicity on the Kenyan Coast
    Employing approaches from ethnomusicology and vocal anthropology, Eisenberg undertakes an interpretive-ethnographic analysis of Indian taarab, a genre of Swahili song on the Kenyan coast that features Swahili words set to Hindi film song melodies performed in a distinctly Indian style. Eisenberg argues that Swahili musicians and audiences derive pleasure and meaning from Indian taarab’s paradoxical presentation of Indian sounds as Swahili expressions, and that this positions the genre as a vehicle for public reflection on Swahili ethnicity. Focusing on the voice and vocality, he explores how certain Indian taarab singers—the genre’s “clowns”—engage in a reflexive critical analysis of Swahili ethnicity by playfully making audible the Indianness that resonates within the space of Swahili ethnicity (uswahili). Ultimately, the essay seeks to generate new perspectives on social identification among Kenyan coastal Muslims by taking an ethnographic ear to Indian taarab clowning and its “harlequin poetics.” Keywords: Swahili identity, poetics, vocality, vocal anthropology, ethnomusicology, Indian Ocean
  • The gambler's fallacy fallacy (fallacy)
    The gambler's fallacy is the irrational belief that prior outcomes in a series of events affect the probability of a future outcome, even though the events in question are independent and identically distributed. In this paper, we argue that in the standard account of the gambler's fallacy, the gambler's fallacy fallacy can arise: The irrational belief that all beliefs pertaining to the probabilities of sequences of outcomes constitute the gambler's fallacy, when, in fact, they do not. Specifically, the odds of the probabilities of some sequences of outcomes can be epistemically rational in a given decision-making situation. Not only are such odds of probabilities of sequences of outcomes not the gambler's fallacy, but they can be implemented as a simple heuristic for avoiding the gambler's fallacy in risk-related decision-making. However, we have to be careful not to fall prey to a variant of the gambler's fallacy, the gambler's fallacy fallacy (fallacy), in which we do not calculate odds for the probabilities of sequences that matter, but rather simply believe that the raw probability for the occurrence of a sequence of outcomes is the probability for the last outcome in that sequence.
  • Does 'Public Use' Mean the Same Thing It Did Last Year?
    In 2011, Congress enacted the America Invents Act (AIA), the most substantial overhaul of the patent system in the past sixty years. The most significant change in the AIA was the move from a first to invent regime to a first inventor to file regime. The goal of the move to first to file, besides harmonization, is to encourage inventors to move with alacrity to share their invention with the world. There is an ambiguity in the AIA, however, that threatens that disclosure objective. Some commentators have argued that Congress intended to fundamentally change the rules of prior art in a way that would encourage secrecy rather than disclosure. Under this interpretation of the new law, an inventor can use its process in secret for commercial purposes, potentially forever, and still file a patent on that invention at some point in the future. Far from encouraging disclosure, on this interpretation the effect of the AIA is to encourage secrecy and delay in patenting. Curiously, the argument is that Congress signaled its intent to make this fairly radical change by re-enacting language that had been in the Patent Act for the last 140 years: the words "public use." Because two of these commentators, Bob Armitage and Joe Matal, were involved in the drafting of the AIA, this argument has carried substantial weight, and the PTO in 2013 adopted regulations that read the term "public use" in the AIA as meaning something completely different than it had for the century before 2011. In this paper, I make two points. First, as a matter of statutory interpretation it is unlikely that Congress intended to make such a change, not only because they readopted existing statutory language but because other parts of the statute make no sense under such an interpretation. Second, reading the AIA as making such a change would be unwise as a policy matter, not only because it would encourage secrecy but because it would undermine confidence that other terms reenacted in the AIA have the same meaning they have accrued in decades of common law.
  • Examiner Characteristics and Patent Office Outcomes
    In this paper, we show that there are important differences across patent examiners at the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), and that these relate to the most important decision made by the USPTO: whether or not to grant a patent. We find that more experienced examiners, and those who systematically cite less prior art, are more likely to grant patent applications. These results are not encouraging as a matter of public policy. But they do point to human resource policies as potentially important levers in patent system reform.
  • The Immorality of Requesting Expedited Review
    It is common practice, as it has been for decades, for legal scholars to submit draft papers to many law journals simultaneously. They then tell more prestigious journals of publishing offers they have received from less prestigious journals, in an effort to maximize the prestige of the journal in which the piece finally appears. They do so to benefit their personal careers, overlooking that, along the way, they have systematically redistributed labor away from student editors at less prestigious journals, and toward student editors at more prestigious journals. They—we—are wrong to do it and should stop.
  • Economic Inequality and Belief in Meritocracy in the United States
    How does the context of income inequality in which people live affect their belief in meritocracy, the ability to get ahead through hard work? One prominent recent study, Newman, Johnston, and Lown (2015), argues that, consistent with the conflict theory, exposure to higher levels of local income inequality lead lower-income people to become more likely to reject—and higher-income people to become more likely to accept—the dominant U.S. ideology of meritocracy. Here, we show that this conclusion is not supported by the study's own reported results and that even these results depend on pooling three different measures of meritocracy into a single analysis. We then demonstrate that analysis of a larger and more representative survey employing a single consistent measure of the dependent variable yields the opposite conclusion. Consistent with the relative power theory, among those with lower incomes, local contexts of greater inequality are associated with more widespread belief that people can get ahead if they are willing to work hard.
  • Making Inferences Using Incidentally Collected Data
    This chapter discusses the use of large quantities of incidentally collected data (ICD) to make inferences about politics. This type of data is sometimes referred to as “big data” but I avoid this term because of its conflicting definitions (Monroe, 2012; Ward & Barker, 2013). ICD is data that was created or collected primarily for a purpose other than analysis. Within this broad definition, this chapter focuses particularly on data generated through user interactions with websites. While ICD has been around for at least half a century, the Internet greatly expanded the availability and reduced the cost of ICD. Examples of ICD include data on Internet searches, social media data, and user data from civic platforms. This chapter briefly explains some sources and uses of ICD and then discusses some of the potential issues of analysis and interpretation that arise when using ICD, including the different approaches to inference that researchers can use.
  • Brute force effects of mass media presence and social media activity on electoral outcome
    In this study, we analyze whether the mere volume of presence in mass media and the mere volume of activity on social media convey advantages to candidates in parliamentary elections. Based on the theoretical model of bounded rationality, we call these potential effects brute force effects. During the last month of the election campaign of the Swiss federal election of 2015, we have tracked the presence of all 873 candidates in the canton of Zurich, the most populous canton, in a broad sample of mass media. Additionally, we have tracked those candidates' activity on Facebook and Twitter. The results of our multilevel Bayesian estimates show that mass media presence has a consistent non-trivial impact on different aspects of electoral outcome. Furthermore, social media activity also has a non-trivial impact, but only in terms of resonance (reactions to candidates' social media activity). Overall, our results suggest that brute force effects of of mass media presence and social media activity can have substantial impact on voting behavior.
  • Opportunities and Challenges of Applying the SDGs to Business
    Current efforts to drive business Sustainability are improving but still falling short of the transformational impact needed. This paper explores the potential of the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) to contribute to improved business Sustainability. Research revealed significant challenges including: a disconnect between the design of the SDGs and the needs of businesses, significant measurement difficulties and an already existing momentum to integrate the SDGs without disrupting the status quo. The big opportunity is that the SDGs are a universally agreed upon definition of Sustainability which fully integrates the “social” side. The specificity and structure of the SDGs also creates the opportunity for accountability based on outcomes and impacts rather than inputs and the development of businesses strategies with the potential for transformation. Work is needed to transform the SDGs themselves into a tool which can usefully contribute to business Sustainability, but the opportunities suggest it will be worthwhile.
  • The Presidential Election in Belarus, October 2015
    In this paper, we examine the 2015 Presidential Election in Belarus. In addition to discussing the results and effects of the election, we also provide information about the context of the election, the candidates for office, and the most important campaign issues.
  • Platform logic: The need for an interdisciplinary approach to the platform-based economy
    By synthesizing critical political economy of digital platforms with information systems management and design studies, a descriptive model of structural ramifications of platform-based infrastructure-and an epistemological rationale for studying it-are provided. Key structural principles are outlined, resulting in the main hypothesis: Digital platforms enact a twofold logic of micro-level technocentric control and macro-level geopolitical domination, while at the same time having a range of generative outcomes, arising between these two levels. Different platform business models and attendant degrees of market dominance are observed. In order to assess platform logic for academic or regulatory purposes, this quite specific paradoxical tension between openness and control (i.e. 'platform logic') has to be considered. In order to assess externalities, accurate platform data has to become observable to researchers and policymakers; herein lies a problem of information access. Conversely, it should be in the interest of platform companies that actual externalities are measured, so as to avoid spurious regulatory overreach. In order to understand the vast range of contingencies at play in platform logic, multidisciplinarity is essential: Knowledge for equitable regulation can be achieved only by combining data science, media studies, economic sociology, and philosophy with studies of infrastructure, management, and design.
  • Negotiating Use, Persistence, and Archiving: A Study of Academic Research Library and Publisher Perspectives on Licensing Digital Resources
    Stewardship has always figured predominantly in the mission of libraries. This paper discusses major findings and implications of a study of licensing in U.S. academic libraries. The data suggests that not all libraries are accepting their heritage role - that is, they are not planning for long-term preservation and access for their growing licensed digital collections and resources. Instead they rely increasingly on third parties to perform this fundamental function. This shift may have far-reaching implications for long-term preservation and access to the world's knowledge and cultural and historical record.
  • Inequality - what can be done?
    Economic inequality has become centre stage in the political debate, but what the political leaders have not said is what they would do about it. There are repeated calls for equitable growth but little clue as to how this is to be achieved. In this Working Paper, I seek to show what could be done to reduce the extent of inequality if we are serious about that objective. I draw on the lessons of history, and take a fresh look - through distributional eyes - at the underlying economics. I identify ambitious new policies in five areas - technology , employment, social security, the sharing of capital, and taxation - that could bring about a genuine shift in the distribution of income towards less inequality.
  • Should We Be Charlie? A Deliberative Take on Religion and Secularism in Mediated Public Spheres
    The terror attack on the French satirical magazine Charlie Hebdo in January 2015 serves to explore the role of religion and secularism in mediated public spheres. We argue that deliberative theory, including its recent criticisms and extensions, helps navigate normative dilemmas presented by the attacks. From a deliberative perspective, journalists should reprint Charlie cartoons that are perceived by Muslims as insulting and incendiary only if this fulfills a real need for public reflection and enlightenment. Media and the wider public should engage in differentiated solidarity with Charlie Hebdo, help transfer the hidden argumentative potential of its cartoons into the realm of truly argumentative discourse, and engage in metadeliberation that explicitly reflects the contexts and rules for public debate.
  • Categorical Analysis in Antitrust Jurisprudence
    Legal doctrines vary in the extent to which they apply either detailed, categorical rules or broad, open-ended standards that allow for case-specific adjudication. Antitrust law is generally thought of as inhabiting the standards end of this spectrum. In fact, however, despite the generality of the enabling statutes antitrust law is rife with categorical distinctions. In Part I, we explore not only the well-known distinction between conduct that is per se illegal and conduct judged under the rule of reason, but also a number of categorical distinctions the courts draw, either to help delineate the scope of the per se rule or to create distinctions within the scope of the rule of reason itself. By and large these rules don't come from the antitrust statutes. They are created by courts, who are in effect converting case-specific standards en masse into categorical rules. In Part II, we identify a number of problems with these distinctions. One problem is administrative: courts spend a great deal of time trying to parse conduct in order to put it on one side or another of the lines they have created. Indeed, in many cases courts spend more time on categorization than they do on actual economic analysis of the case itself. Second, judicial antitrust categories are subject to manipulation. Parties go to great lengths to fit into a box that will give them more favorable treatment, sometimes by legal argument, sometimes by restructuring a transaction, and sometimes by concealing or misrepresenting the facts of that transaction. Third, a number of the categories the courts have created make no sense, whether because they have lost their meaning over time, because their boundaries have eroded, because they actually tell us very little of relevance to the competitive effects of the transaction, or because they are simply dumb. The net result is a mess. Categories have become conclusions, displacing the fact-specific economic analysis in which antitrust law is supposed to be engaging. In Part III, we argue that there is a better way. We evaluate the costs and benefits of the judicial creation of categories, and contend that the complex of antitrust boxes the courts have created today does more harm than good. We don't mean to suggest there is no value to categories, and that everything must be thrown into a pure cost-benefit analysis. Some rules (the per se rule against price fixing, for instance) make sense. Rather, the important thing is to make sure that the categories we use have empirical support, and that they are communicating valuable information to courts about the competitive effects of a general practice. We think the courts have gone too far in the creation of rules in a variety of cases. Finally, we suggest that courts make more use than they do of certain tools - the doctrine of direct economic effect and empirical evidence - as powerful filters for distinguishing good from bad antitrust claims.
  • Discussion quality diffuses in the digital public square
    Studies of online social influence have demonstrated that friends have important effects on many types of behavior in a wide variety of settings. However, we know much less about how influence works among relative strangers in digital public squares, despite important conversations happening in such spaces. We present the results of a study on large public Facebook pages where we randomly used two different methods—most recent and social feedback—to order comments on posts. We find that the social feedback condition results in higher quality viewed comments and response comments. After measuring the average quality of comments written by users before the study, we find that social feedback has a positive effect on response quality for both low and high quality commenters. We draw on a theoretical framework of social norms to explain this empirical result. In order to examine the influence mechanism further, we measure the similarity between comments viewed and written during the study, finding that similarity increases for the highest quality contributors under the social feedback condition. This suggests that, in addition to norms, some individuals may respond with increased relevance to high-quality comments.
  • Hip-Hop and Cultural Citizenship on Kenya’s ‘Swahili Coast’
    The Muslim-dominated ‘Swahili coast’ has always served as a conceptual as well as physical periphery for post-colonial Kenya. This article takes Kenyan youth music under the influence of global hip-hop as an ethnographic entry into the dynamics of identity and citizenship in this region. Kenyan youth music borrows from global hip-hop culture the idea that an artist must ‘represent the real’. The ways in which these regional artists construct their public personae thus provide rich data on ‘cultural citizenship’, in Aihwa Ong’s (1996) sense of citizenship as subjectification. I focus here on youth music production in the Kenyan coastal city of Mombasa between 2004 and 2007. During this time, some local artists adopted a representational strategy that subtly reinscribed the symbolic violence to which members of the coast’s Muslim-Swahili society have long been subjected. I examine the representational strategies that were adopted during this period by Mombasan artists who happened to be members of the Muslim- Swahili society (‘subjects of the Swahili coast’, as I name them), with an ethnographic eye and ear trained on what they say about the ways in which young subjects of the Swahili coast are objectified and subjectified as ‘Kenyan youth’ in the twenty-first century.
  • Death to the Archivist: John Lakenheath’s Register of Bury St Edmunds
    John Lakenheath reorganized the archives of the Benedictine abbey of Bury St Edmunds in the 1370s, a key tool in his administrative work on its estates that was still in disorder after it was sacked by the townspeople in 1327. This culminated in the ‘Lakenheath Registry’ (London, British Library, Harley MS 743), an indexed directory of the Bury charters created in 1379–81. His preface to this book explaining its mode of operation, here edited and translated, provides a glimpse into the mind of a medieval archivist. The book led to personal disaster: he was beheaded by a mob during the Peasants’ Revolt in 1381.
  • The Intolerable Acts
    A brief survey of the intolerable acts on the eve of the American revolution.
  • From the Trenches: A Global Survey of Anti-TIP NGOs and their Views of US Efforts
    Amid the academic and policy critiques of the United States’ 15-year push to eliminate human trafficking, the perspective of the nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) working with anti-trafficking advocacy and services has been largely ignored. This article presents the results of a global survey of nearly 500 anti-trafficking NGOs in working in 133 countries, and is the first NGO-focused survey of its kind. Based on the results of the survey, we provide an overview of the anti-trafficking NGO sector as a whole, detail the relationship between anti-trafficking NGOs and the US, and account for some of the variation in NGO opinions of US efforts. Notably, we find that NGOs are remarkably satisfied with US-led efforts—despite their acknowledged flaws—and that NGOs believe that American anti-TIP policies are important and, on balance, helpful. These results also provide a warning for the future of the United States’ anti-trafficking advocacy, suggesting that the US avoid politicizing its annual Trafficking in Persons Report.
  • Is subjective knowledge the key to fostering Sustainable behavior? Mixed evidence from an education intervention in Mexico.
    Educational interventions are a promising way to shift individual behaviors towards Sustainability. Yet as this research confirms, the standard fare of education, declarative knowledge, does not work. This study statistically analyzes the impact of an intervention designed and implemented in Mexico using the *Educating for Sustainability (EfS) *framework which focuses on imparting procedural and subjective knowledge about waste through innovative pedagogy. Using data from three different rounds of surveys we were able to confirm 1) the importance of subjective and procedural knowledge for Sustainable behavior in a new context, 2) the effectiveness of the *EfS* framework and 3) the importance of *changing* subjective knowledge for changing behavior. Yet, while the impact was significant in the short term, one year later most if not all of those gains had evaporated. Interventions targeted at subjective knowledge will work, but more research is needed on how to make behavior change for Sustainability durable.
  • How Often Do Non-Practicing Entities Win Patent Suits?
    Much of the policy debate over the patent system has focused on the perceived problems with non-practicing entities (NPEs), also called patent trolls. Drawing on a comprehensive data set we built of every patent lawsuit filed in 2008 and 2009 that resulted in a ruling on the merits, we find that the situation is rather more complicated than simply operating companies vs. NPEs. While operating companies fare better in litigation than NPEs overall, breaking NPEs into different categories reveals more complexity. Patent Assertion Entities (PAEs) in particular win very few cases. Further, once we remove certain pharmaceutical cases from the mix, no patent plaintiff fares very well. That is particularly true of software, computer, and electronics patents.
  • Preliminary report on the 2010 excavation season at Jiyeh
    The archaeological fieldwork in 2010 at the site of Jiyeh (ancient Porphyreon), situated on the Mediterranean coast between ancient Berytus and Sidon, focused in on full-scale excavations of the Late Antique streets and residential quarter (4th–7th century AD ), uncovering 21 rooms and three alleys. The results contributed to a better understanding of the street network in the quarter and the nature of the architecture. The quarter comprising the 21 newly uncovered rooms taken together with 80 from earlier fieldwork in 2008 and 2009 formed an extensive residential complex, approximately 40 m by 35 m. It is a unique example of private domestic architecture illustrating everyday life in Roman and Byzantine Phoenicia. A bread oven (tannur) suggested the presence of a bakery in this part of the settlement.
  • Word vayuna in Rigveda
    A new interpretation of word vayuna as occurring in Rigveda is given with translation of all rik-s containing it.
  • Derivatives and Deregulation Financial Innovation and the Demise of Glass–Steagall
    Just as regulation may inhibit innovation, innovation may undermine regulation. Regulators, much like market actors, rely on categorical distinctions to understand and act on the market. Innovations that are ambiguous to regulatory categories but not to market actors present a problem for regulators and an opportunity for innovative firms to evade or upend the existing order. We trace the history of one class of innovative financial derivatives—interest rate and foreign exchange swaps—to show how these instruments under- mined the separation of commercial and investment banking established by the Glass-Steagall Act of 1933. Swaps did not fit neatly into existing product categories—futures, securities, loans—and thus evaded regulatory scrutiny for decades. The market success of swaps put commercial and investment banks into direct competition, and in so doing undermined Glass-Steagall. Drawing on this case, we theorize some of the political and market conditions under which regulations may be especially vulnerable to disruption by ambiguous innovations.
  • Feminism and the Future of Library Discovery
    This paper discusses the various ways in which the practices of libraries and librarians influence the diversity (or lack thereof) of scholarship and information access. We examine some of the cultural biases inherent in both library classification systems and newer forms of information access like Google search algorithms, and propose ways of recognizing bias and applying feminist principles in the design of information services for scholars, particularly as libraries reinvent themselves to grapple with digital collections.
  • Universals
    Musical universals generally refer to aspects of music that are common across humankind, as opposed to aspects that are culture-specific. The existence of musical universals has implications for diverse areas, such as evolution, aesthetics, and cross-cultural understanding, and has thus been a major focus of debate in ethnomusicology and related disciplines. For reasons of space and expertise, this article focuses on debates about musical universals in the mainstream ethnomusicological canon and their broader connections with concepts of human universals in the Western academic tradition, without intending to diminish the value of alternative approaches developed outside of these traditions. Scale tunings and other aspects of pitch structure were long assumed to be universal. During the 20th century, ethnomusicology embraced relativism, emphasizing cross-cultural differences in musical meaning and behavior. However, a 21st century renewal of interest by music psychologists has seen a return to an empirical middle-ground that seeks to move beyond universal/relative dichotomies. Instead, recent research attempts to characterize the degrees to which different aspects of music are more or less common cross-culturally, and to understand the biological and cultural factors underlying this spectrum. Existing evidence suggests a statistically universal set of basic building blocks that may reflect pan-human biological constraints, but each culture may combine and develop these building blocks in unique ways to construct music that can mean different things to different listeners.
  • Policies, Skills and Earnings: How Educational Inequality Affects Earnings Inequality
    We study the impact of dispersions in education (both in student test scores and final educational attainment) on earnings inequality, in a country-cohort design. Neo-classical economic theory would predict a positive association between skill inequality (as measured in student test scores) and earnings inequality, while educational attainment inequality adds little on top of skills inequality. A sociological theory of social closure, however, argues that inequality in educational attainment is more important than skills inequality in the prediction of earnings inequality. Using educational policies as instruments, we find causal effects of skills inequality and educational attainment inequality, suggesting that a simple human capital model is insufficient to explain rising earnings inequalities. Nevertheless, skills inequality appeared a more important predictor of earnings inequality than educational attainment inequality. Some educational policy reforms (like public preschool provision or introducing standardised tests) led to reduced educational dispersions, and thereby reduced earnings inequality in adulthood.
  • Media Licensing, Convergence and Globalization
    Abstract: Published in EastBound, Vol. 1, March 13, 2006 For nearly a century, governments have imposed detailed limits on the use of radio - who can use what frequencies and waveforms, at what power levels, in which locations, for what purposes. Licenses summarize these controls for specific users or stations. State control of radio use goes far beyond what is accepted for other media, (publishing, photography, Internet, speech, etc.). Most people think this is necessary to control interference; others felt that broadcasting was too powerful a social influence to be left unregulated. But recently, there has been explosive growth in short-range, personal uses of radio - Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, cordless phones, etc. The arguments used to justify radio licensing seem inappropriate for such low-power devices. In fact, government regulation of purely personal, informal communications is unnecessarily intrusive and politically risky. Many countries now allow some short-range wireless devices to be used without a license in specific bands. In general, smarter radios go a long way toward solving problems that once seemed to require rigid government controls, giving rise to the open spectrum movement. At the same time, digitalisation and the widening use of TCP/IP make it possible to transmit nearly any content through any channel. We use our mobile phones to take photographs, send text messages and watch videoclips. Our cable television networks provide Internet access. Seeping out of their original contexts, dissimilar media traditions now mix and clash in interconnecting, hybrid networks. In this situation, it is crucially important to the future of human communication which regulatory norms emerge as default choices and dominant models. Will it be broadcasting, telephony, publishing, Internet or ordinary speech that sets the tone for communications policy in the age of ubiquitous networks? Which regulatory approach do we WANT to set the tone?
  • Advocacy in Social Work or Advocacy versus Social Work?:An attitudinal survey of practicing social workers in Ireland.
    *Abstract* This paper discusses and presents findings drawn from a quantitative attitudinal survey of practising social workers conducted in the republic of Ireland. Sampling was conducted across Ireland within a population of 3900 practising social workers approximately and resulted in 128 responses, 111 of which were complete. The purpose of the study was to explore the role of advocacy approaches in social work practice and to examine the relationship of professional social work to independent advocacy groups. The study found that social workers frequently engage in advocacy tasks. However, despite this, it also found that a majority of social workers feel that the tasks associated with advocacy are best placed with other groups in Irish society. The study found that a majority of social workers acknowledge sharing a similar value-base to independent advocacy groups. However, it also suggests that the relationship between social workers and advocacy groups is complex and conflictual. In this respect, it was suggested that while social workers recognise the importance of advocacy groups, they also acknowledge that advocacy groups do not always complement the social work role. Ultimately this study shows that many practitioners acknowledge that the necessity for advocacy groups in Ireland can be ascribed to the causal effects of contemporary social work practice. *Keywords:* *Social Work; Advocacy; Independent advocacy groups.*
  • How Federal Circuit Judges Vote in Patent Validity Cases
    We recently studied the outcomes of every final written patent validity decision at both the district court and Federal Circuit levels between 1989 and 1996. The study produced a variety of interesting statistics on patent validity questions. Using the dataset from that study, and matching it with the panels serving on each case, we describe in this paper how individual Federal Circuit judges voted in patent validity cases during that period. The results may surprise many patent litigators. While there are some interesting differences in voting patterns, our overall conclusion is that the votes of Federal Circuit judges during this period defied easy description. Judges do not fit easily into "pro-patent" or "anti-patent" categories, or into "affirmers" and "reversers." We think this is a good thing for the court system. Still, there are some interesting facts to be found in the data.
  • A prospective analysis of labour market status and self-rated health in the United Kingdom and Russia
    Comparing prospective data from the United Kingdom and Russia, this paper analyses whether the association of labour market status, and particularly unemployment, with subsequent health varies by the level of state protection provided to the unemployed. While the UK’s unemployment welfare regime is classified as providing minimal protection, the Russian regime is sub-protective. Employing Cox duration analysis upon data from the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey and the British Household Panel Survey for the period 2000–2007, this study finds that labour market status and economic circumstances independently predicted individual-level declines in self-rated health and, contrary to expectations, the associations of unemployment with health decline were similarly sized in the two countries.
  • Bowling with Veterans: The Impact of Military Service on Subsequent Civic Engagement
    From Tocqueville to Putnam, scholars have argued that civic engagement is not only the key to a healthy democracy, but also that civic engagement begats more civic engagement. In this paper I examine the effects of military service on subsequent civic engagement. The key finding is that men who served in the US military prior to the advent of All-Volunteer Force (AVF) in 1973 are actually less civically engaged than those who never served. Military service has no significant effect on civic attitudes. These findings represent an especially powerful challenge to the notion that civic participation begets more civic participation. The fact that serving the citizenry through military duty actually decreases one’s subsequent civic involvement indicates that we cannot assume that all forms of civic activity are equally effective at inculcating their participants with civic values and habits. In fact, these findings indicate a need for a more refined conceptualization of the relationships between civic activity and future civic involvement.
  • Ideology over Strategy: Extending Voting Rights to Felons and Ex-Felons, 1966-1992
    Published as: Burkhardt, Brett C. 2011. “Ideology over Strategy: Extending Voting Rights to Felons and Ex-Felons, 1966–1992.” The Social Science Journal 48(2):356–63. (
    Rural areas of the new EU Member States face serious problems in compliance with EU regulation on waste management. Firstly, the share of the rural population is higher and it has lower living standards and secondly, the waste collection services are poorly-developed covering some rural regions. In this context, open dumping is used as an appropriate waste disposal solution generating complex pollution. This paper analyzes the disparities between Romanian counties regarding the rural population access to waste collection services in 2008 which reflects the geographical distribution of rural dumpsites in 2009. It examines, on one hand , the role of waste management services to reduce illegal dumping and on the other hand, the dysfunctions of traditional waste management system from rural areas and their implications on the local environment.
  • English and Arabic Metaphorical Conceptualization of Food: A contrastive Study
    The purpose of this study is to compare and contrast food conceptual metaphors between English and Arabic. The researcher adopted the corpus-based approach suggested by Deignan (1995) and collected the maximum number of English and Arabic food metaphorical expressions to construct the linguistic corpus for the study. The analysis of the data was carried out for the English and Arabic languages individually following the Conceptual Metaphor Theory. The aim is to come up with a simple classification that facilitated the process of comparison between English and Arabic metaphorical expressions. The findings of the study revealed that English and Arabic share the same major food conceptualization within their scheme, namely: IDEAS ARE FOOD, TEMPERAMENT IS FOOD, GOING THROUGH AN EXPERIENCE ISTASTING IT AND GAINING MONEY UNLAWFULLY IS DEVOURING IT. Nevertheless, such conceptualizations are not equally conventionalized in the two languages due to differences between the Arabic and the western cultures.
  • Living Labs, vacancy, and gentrification
    This paper evaluates smart city (SC) initiatives in the context of re-using vacant property. More specifically, we focus on living labs (LL) and vacancy in general, as well as on their potential role in fostering creative economy-fuelled gentrification. LL utilise Lo-Fi technologies to foster local digital innovation and support community-focused civic hacking, running various kinds of workshops and engaging with local citizens to co-create digital interventions and apps aimed at ‘solving’ local issues. Five approaches to LL are outlined and discussed in relation to vacancy and gentrification: pop-up initiatives, university-led activities, community organised venues/activities, citizen sensing and crowdsourcing, and tech-led regeneration initiatives. Notwithstanding the potential for generating temporary and independent spaces for transferring and fostering digital competences and increasing citizens’ participation in the SC, we argue that LL largely foster a form of participation framed within a model of civic stewardship for ‘smart citizens’. While presented as horizontal, open, and participative, LL and civic hacking are often rooted in pragmatic and paternalistic discourses and practices related to the production of a creative economy and a specific version of SC. As such, by encouraging a particular kind of re-use of vacant space, LL potentially contributes to gentrification pressures within locales by attracting the creative classes and new investment. We discuss these approaches and issues generally and with respect to examples in Dublin, Ireland.
  • Book Review: “Theater in a Crowded Fire: Ritual and Spirituality at Burning Man”
    Book Review of "Theater in a Crowded Fire: Ritual and Spirituality at Burning Man." Lee Gilmore. Berkeley: University of California Press. 2010. xiii + 237 pp. + DVD (30 minutes). Paperback, $24.95 USD, £16.95 GBP. ISBN: 978-0-520-26088-7. Keywords: Ethnography, Spirituality, Ritual, Ritual Theory, Book Review, Burning Man Festival Please cite as: Oman-Reagan, Michael Paul. 2010. “Theater in a Crowded Fire: Ritual and Spirituality at Burning Man by Lee Gilmore.” Alternative Spirituality and Religion Review 1 (2): 163–67.
  • Greenwashing the Trans-Pacific Partnership: Fossil fuels, the environment, and climate change
    Refereed Journal Article Rimmer, Matthew (2016) Greenwashing the Trans-Pacific Partnership: Fossil fuels, the environment, and climate change. Santa Clara Journal of International Law, 14(2), pp. 488-542.
  • Coaching Youth Middle Distance Runners
  • Goldilocks and the South China Sea: Why Vietnam is Hedging Against a Rising China
    When Richard Samuels raised the prospect of a ‘Goldilocks Consensus’ in regards to Japan’s relationship vis à vis China, he was positing the idea that Japan should hedge. Samuels identified a need for Japan to grow stronger whilst avoiding growing sufficiently powerful as to pose a threat to China, while simultaneously positioning itself not too close and not too far from the United States, its security guarantor. In short, Japan should aim to get the relationship ‘just right’, hence the faerie—tale analogy. Moving further south within Asia, an examination of the evolving relationship between Vietnam and China shows this is precisely the strategy Vietnam is adopting vis à vis China, albeit within an entirely different security dynamic. In essence, Vietnam's hedging strategy, comprising what Goh has defined as a form of “triangular politics” between Vietnam, China and the United States, is a strategy predicated on working for the best whilst preparing for the worst. It is a strategy that seeks to combine a mixture of balancing, containment, engagement and enmeshment as a form of insurance against an uncertain strategic future. This paper will argue that, due to Thayer’s “tyranny of geography’ – where Vietnam's shared northern continental border and their long snaking eastern littoral coastline bordering the South China Sea have inevitably thrown Vietnam's and China's interests together – Vietnam is more threatened by China's rise than any other regional state. As Goh states, “the tyranny of geography renders the two countries strategic rivals.” Consequently, as China continues to rise, this paper argues that Vietnam will increasingly seek to hedge with the United States, increasing military and security ties with the western hegemon as part of a nuanced strategy, which also includes engagement with China (particularly through growing trade and economic ties); which seeks to enmesh China in multilateral institutions within the regional security architecture; and which seeks to strengthen its own security position through a program of military modernisation and selective military expansion. This nuanced strategy we shall call hedging.
  • Single-Parent Family Poverty in 24 OECD Countries: A Focus on Market and Redistribution Strategies
    Single-parent families and their high poverty rates remain a genuine concern in OECD countries. Much of the research has focused on “redistribution” through income taxes and transfers as an effec- tive strategy to reduce poverty. In this research brief, we adopt this traditional approach, and then push forward a focus on “market” strategies that facilitate single parents’ labor market participation.
  • Pay Attention: Object Consideration as a Mechanism of Network Diffusion
    Theories of diffusion in networks rely on two broad classes of mechanisms: social influence directs the flow of information, and influence affects object valuation. This paper proposes an integrated model of decision-making for the adoption process. This model reveals a neglected middle step between information and valuation: social influence affects whether agents consider a particular object as relevant to the adoption decision. I identify this attention-driving mechanism using data on traders in an online foreign exchange platform. Features of the setting exclude the possibility of information- or valuation-driven diffusion, but traders still adopt one another’s trading behaviors, and they do so most for those rare behaviors that lack external drivers of attention. I discuss the importance of attention- driven diffusion for future work and the value of an integrated decision model in delineating conditions under which existing theories of influence apply.
  • Origin, Scope, and Irrevocability of the Manifest Disregard of the Law Doctrine: Second Circuit Views
    A paper concerning the "manifest disregard of the law" standard in the judicial review of arbitrations
    This article presents the results of current studies of Early Byzantine residential architecture in Jiyeh (ancient Porphyreon) that represents the best preserved remains of architecture of this period on the Lebanese coast. This preliminary characteristic is based on fi eldwork carried out in 2012 –13 in the northern, southeastern and western parts of the important housing quarter in Sector D, extended to include the investigations in Sector E in 2013. The discussion draws upon the results of earlier excavation work in Jiyeh (Porphyreon), also taking into account parallels from other Syro-Palestinian sites.
  • Soundscape in North-Eastern Part of Iasi City (Sararie – Ticau District)
    This paper presents a complex study of noise levels from road traffic source and the variation during the seasons in an old residential area located in the north-eastern part of Iasi city, an important educational and cultural centre of the country. The study reveal the correlation between noise levels and social activities developed in the area: low number of inhabitants because of the holidays time in August and the resumption of the educational activity in autumn, including school start in September and of the university activity in October. After direct observations, the measurements were made with digital sound –level meter Quest Technologies, 1400 model in five hour intervals 7:00 - 8:00; 10:00 - 11:00; 13:30 - 14:30; 18:00 - 19:00; 19:00 - 20:00. The monitoring of Equivalent Continuous Noise Level (Leq) were made in 30 points located along the different type of roads in the second part of August – October 2009, with different admissible levels, showing the exceeding of the limit in 5 points in September and 8 points in October. It can be observed an important difference during the week in the monitoring period, between Monday to Friday and the week-end with lower values 59.64 - 6.5 dB (A) in August, 61.98 - 5.14 dB (A) in September, 63.9 - 5.3dB (A) in October and among the four street categories with major differences between first category: 66.89 dB (A) and fourth category 47.69 dB (A), so that urban noise can be stratified according to a prior classification of a town’s streets due to their use and functional characteristics. Sound levels monitoring and statistical data processing (Pearson correlation coefficient, Tukey range test) sustain the fact that road traffic is main source of noise in the area, differentiated in correlation with street category,a decrease in noise with increasing street category, with insignificant differences between first and second street category thank to the best management and traffic control.
  • Roles and Responsibilities for Sustaining Open Source Platforms and Tools
    Developing, deploying and maintaining open source software is increasingly a core part of the core operations of cultural heritage organizations. From preservation infrastructure, to tools for acquiring digital and digitized content, to platforms that provide access, enhance content, and enable various modes for users to engage with and make use of content, much of the core work of libraries, archives and museums is entangled with software. As a result, cultural heritage organizations of all sizes are increasingly involved in roles as open source software creators, contributors, maintainers, and adopters. Participants in this workshop shared their respective perspectives on institutional roles in this emerging open source ecosystem. Through discussion, participants created drafts of a checklist for establishing FOSS projects, documentation of project sustainability techniques, a model for conceptualizing the role of open source community building activities throughout projects and an initial model for key institutional roles for projects at different levels of maturity.
  • Neighborhoods, Family Functioning, and Mothers’ Mental Health for Families with a Child with an Autism Spectrum Disorder
    Mothers of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) typically report lower overall family functioning and worse mental health. Neighborhood conditions are found to positively influence family functioning and mental health in the general population. Employing a process-person-context model, this study extends these literatures to examine whether various neighborhood conditions – both positive and negative – affect mothers’ mental health and the overall functioning of families with a child with an ASD. Simultaneous equation path analysis of a nationally representative sample of children in the US finds neighborhood support to be positively and significantly associated with mothers’ mental health and the overall functioning of families with a child with an ASD. However, neighborhood amenities and neighborhood deficiencies were not significantly associated with either mothers’ mental health or family functioning. Neighborhood support can play a vital role in improved subjective quality of life for mothers with a child on the autism spectrum.
  • New Survey Questions and Estimators for Network Clustering with Respondent-Driven Sampling Data
    Clustering coefficient estimation in respondent-driven sampling
  • Concurrent activation of two task sets by implicit and probabilistic contextual cues
    Real-world settings impose constantly changing demands on cognition and behaviour. These task demands can often be predicted by the context, and the implicit learning of these probabilistic context-task associations may enhance task performance. While previous studies have focused on how task cues that are either probabilistic or implicit affect task-switching performance, the present study investigated how people learn and use contextual cues that are both implicit and probabilistic within a cued task-switching design. Participants showed response speed benefits when engaging in tasks that were predicted to be more likely by a preceding contextual cue. However, this probabilistic cueing effect was only seen when specific contextual cues were associated with task probabilities (Experiment 2), and not when contextual categories were associated with task probabilities (Experiment 1). The findings provide support for automatic activation of multiple task sets; a model of multiple concurrent task set activation and representation is proposed. Taken together, our findings suggest that people can implicitly learn probabilistic associations between specific contexts and tasks, and can use information from contexts to guide adaptive behaviour in dynamic environments.
  • José Revueltas y la filosofía latinoamericana: imágenes cinematográficas del mundo
    En este artículo sostengo que la obra del escritor mexicano José Revueltas Sánchez (1914-1976) se aleja de las convenciones de la filosofía latinoamericana, al dejar atrás la experiencia del lamento y la nostalgia por la unidad perdida, así como el extravío del ser sepultado por el colonialismo. Argumento, además, que a ello Revueltas opone un pensamiento sin finalidad y un análisis antimoralista de la verdad. Para lograrlo, postulo que Revueltas utiliza un método basado en la construcción de una imagen cinematográfica del pensamiento. Esto permite construir otra imagen de América Latina, y de su filosofía, por fuera de la moral del sufrimiento o la victimización por parte de Europa. Esa imagen es la de Latinoamérica como isla y no como continente.
  • Conceptual and Methodological Aspects of Documenting the History and the Future of Monuments Restoration – Towards an Interdisciplinary Perspective
    The objective of the paper is the methodological presentation of the basic principles towards a critical interdisciplinary approach for studying the history of monuments restoration, valid for different cultures. The proposed integrated framework offers the possibility to study and document monuments restoration in various spatial levels e.g. global, continental, international, national, regional, and local. The conceptual and methodological aspects are based on the following fundamental pillars a) the development of science and technology, including relevant history of education, b) the evolution of the restoration philosophy, c) the incorporation of the above in restoration projects at a lower level, d) the infiltration of the above in restoration interventions at the lowest level. The author expects that the above successive and/or parallel levels of scientific branches can contribute effectively to the analysis, synthesis and comparative assessment of the aspects and criteria that influenced monuments restoration timeline. The challenge for the researcher of the monuments restoration history is the adjustment of the whole process to his own –under research- level in such a way as to take advantage of all the interdisciplinary inputs creating, thus, inventive links and stimulating new information and knowledge. The above are briefly tested in the case study of Thessaloniki, Macedonia, Greece. Such an inductive approach will enable all disciplines to devote their finest efforts towards understanding, documenting and studying monuments restoration history and, thus, support effectively a sustainable future for the world’s cultural heritage.
  • The Role of Patent Law in Knowledge Codification
    Recent studies of knowledge production have increasingly recognized the role of codified knowledge in the operation of social organizations. But the literature on knowledge production has to date recognized only in passing the role of intellectual property in this process. This paper applies the insights of knowledge production to the features of intellectual property regimes, both to flesh out the analysis of tacit knowledge codification, and to illuminate the role of intellectual property in the firm. Patents, for example, constitute an explicitly codified form of technical knowledge, providing a stable common code for technical know-how, partially ameliorating the risks associated with loss of tacit knowledge. Codification through the patent system also provides important stability to attendant tacit knowledge. Patent doctrines regarding prior art, interference practice, and infringement all address the balance of tacit and codified knowledge. By functioning as a codification mechanism, patents may facilitate employee movement and entrepreneurial business spin-offs. Thus, aside from the usual justifications for patents in terms of incentive or disclosure, patenting may help to secure knowledge against loss or dissipation.
  • The Unit of Translation
    This paper tackles the topic of the Unit of Translation (UT) with the aim of making a number of suggestions that might bring up new insights into this thorny issue. UT has been differently tackled by scholars and related to general text types, or functions. In this paper, UT is related to the micro text levels and a number of text-functions. It concludes that the UT issue cannot be tackled in terms of wide generalizations of macro text types and that many practical factors interfere in the choice of UT such as text length, text complexity, time pressure, translator’s experience, and degree of conformity between SL & TL languages and cultures.
  • Online Platforms, Rate Parity, and the Free Riding Defence
    A two-sided platform business is a new type of intermediary to be found in a growing number of economic sectors. As to the hospitability industry in particular, recent innovations in the field of digital technologies prompted the rise of so called Online Travel Agents (OTAs) and the demise of the traditional merchant model. Recently national competition authorities (NCAs) in the EU investigated so called rate parity clauses in the contracts between the three largest OTAs and their hotel partners. These are contract clauses laying down the hotelier’s obligation to display the same room prices across sales channels. The parallel investigations conducted by the NCAs revealed an array of anticompetitive effects stemming from rate parity obligations. While the German NCA concluded that there was insufficient evidence of the efficiency gains of these clauses, and therefore decided to prohibit them, the French, Italian and Swedish NCAs implicitly recognised that some level of protection against free-riding was necessary, and accepted commitments to reduce the scope of the rate parity obligation. The hotel online booking cases were closely followed in the EU and beyond, since they could help clarify a number of key assessment issues concerning a category of commercial practices already widely spread in online markets. In-depth analyses of the NCAs’ findings are now needed, especially in view of the promotion of an effective antitrust-based platform regulation. In particular, this article explores some of the challenges related to the application of the traditional free-riding defence to rate parity obligations.
  • Estimations of Flood Waste from Rural Dumpsites Located on Floodplains from Neamţ County, Romania
    Waste dumping is a serious environmental threat to major rivers from extra- Carpathian Region of Neamţ county in the proximity of villages because the lack of waste collection services. In this context, floodplains are frequently susceptible to such bad practices, these areas being also exposed to stronger floods.The paper aims to calculate the potential waste taken from these areas in order to assess a quantitative impact of these bad practices.
  • Black Cyberfeminism: Ways Forward for Classification Situations, Intersectionality and Digital Sociology
    This paper considers what intersectionality brings to digital sociology. I will use digital sociology to mean: observing social processes at the micro, meso, and macro level that are transformed or mediated by digital logics, technologies and platforms. T
  • Copyright’s Digital/Analog Divide
    This Article shows how the substantive balance of copyright law has been overshadowed online by the system of intermediary safe harbors enacted as part of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (“DMCA”) in 1998. The Internet safe harbors and the system of notice-and-takedown fundamentally changed the incentives of platforms, users, and rightsholders in relation to claims of copyright infringement. These different incentives interact to yield a functional balance of copyright online that diverges markedly from the experience of copyright law in traditional media environments. This article also explores a second divergence: the DMCA’s safe harbor system is being superseded by private agreements between rightsholders and large commercial Internet platforms made in the shadow of those safe harbors. These agreements relate to automatic copyright filtering systems, such as YouTube’s Content ID, that not only return platforms to their gatekeeping role, but encode that role in algorithms and software. The normative implications of these developments are contestable. Fair use and other axioms of copyright law still nominally apply online; but in practice, the safe harbors and private agreements made in the shadow of those safe harbors are now far more important determinants of online behavior than whether that conduct is, or is not, substantively in compliance with copyright law. The diminished relevance of substantive copyright law to online expression has benefits and costs that appear fundamentally incommensurable. Compared to the offline world, online platforms are typically more permissive of infringement, and more open to new and unexpected speech and new forms of cultural participation. However, speech on these platforms is also more vulnerable to over-reaching claims by rightsholders. There is no easy metric for comparing the value of non-infringing expression enabled by the safe harbors to that which has been unjustifiably suppressed by misuse of the notice-and-takedown system. Likewise, the harm that copyright infringement does to rightsholders is not easy to calculate, nor is it easy to weigh against the many benefits of the safe harbors. DMCA-plus agreements raise additional considerations. Automatic copyright enforcement systems have obvious advantages for both platforms and rightsholders; they may also allow platforms to be more hospitable to certain types of user content. However, automated enforcement systems may also place an undue burden on fair use and other forms of non-infringing speech. The design of copyright enforcement robots encodes a series of policy choices made by platforms and rightsholders and, as a result, subjects online speech and cultural participation to a new layer of private ordering and private control. In the future, private interests, not public policy will determine the conditions under which users get to participate in online platforms that adopt these systems. In a world where communication and expression is policed by copyright robots, the substantive content of copyright law matters only to the extent that those with power decide that it should matter. Keywords: Copyright, DMCA, Infringement, Internet, Safe harbors, Enforcement, Fair use, Automation, Algorithms, Robots.
  • Povety Eradication
  • Are the U.S. Patent Priority Rules Really Necessary?
    The United States is the only country in the world that awards patents to the first person to invent something, rather than the first to file a patent application. In order to determine who is first to invent, the United States has created an elaborate set of "interference" proceedings and legal standards to define invention and decide how it may be proven. Supporters of this system claim that it is necessary to protect small inventors, who may not have the resources to file patent applications quickly, and may therefore lose a patent race to large companies who invented after they did. Advocates of global patent harmonization have suggested, however, that the first inventor is usually also the first to file, and that the first-to-invent standard is unnecessary and wasteful. In this Article, we study U.S. Patent and Trademark Office ("PTO") interference proceedings and court cases in which the parties dispute who is first to invent. We find that the first person to file is usually, but by no means always, also the first to invent. In over 40% of the cases, the first to invent is last to file. We also find that the long-standing rule that discriminated against foreign inventors by requiring proof of inventive activity in the U.S. had surprisingly little effect on outcomes; that a large number of priority disputes involve near-simultaneous invention; and that the vast majority of such disputes could be resolved without reliance on much of the evidence the law permits. Finally, we study the role of small inventors to see whether they are disproportionately the beneficiaries of the first to invent system. While the evidence is mixed, it does not appear that small inventors particularly benefit from the first to invent system. Part I describes the legal background for the international debate over how to determine patent priority. Part II describes our studies and discusses our results in detail. Finally, Part III draws conclusions for policy-makers from the data. There is some truth to the arguments of both sides in this debate. The first to invent system does produce significantly different results in individual cases than a first to file system would. But it is not clear that those different results are particularly fairer, or that they are worth the cost. We suggest some possible ways to modify the U.S. system to take account of these facts without changing entirely to a first-to-file system.
  • 3D Printing Jurassic Park: Copyright law, cultural institutions, and makerspaces
    Case Note - Rimmer, Matthew (2016) 3D printing Jurassic Park: Copyright law, cultural institutions, and makerspaces. Pandora's Box. 1-12.
  • Determining rural areas vulnerable to illegal dumping using GIS techniques. Case study: Neamț county, Romania
    The paper aims to mapping the potential vulnerable areas to illegal dumping of household waste from rural areas in the extra- Carpathian region of Neamț County. These areas are ordinary in the proximity of built-up areas and buffers areas of 1km were delimited for every locality. Based on various map layers in vector formats ( land use, rivers, buil-up areas, roads etc) an assessment method is performed to highlight the potential areas vulnerable to illegal dumping inside these buffer areas at local scale. The results are corelated to field observations and current situation of waste management systems. The maps outline local disparities due to various geographical conditions of county. This approach is a necesary tool in EIA studies particularly for rural waste management systems at local and regional scale which are less studied in current literature than urban areas.
  • Expecting the Unexpected
    If the patentee’s invention produced unexpected results, the law says, that is pretty good evidence that it wasn’t obvious. But the law also says that if it is obvious to try to make something, and if those who might try would expect to succeed, making that thing is not patentable. It’s just the ordinary work we expect of scientists. These two doctrines can conflict. What if it is obvious to try something, but actually trying it leads to unexpected results? This actually happens with some frequency, particularly in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries, where researchers are motivated to try various standard modifications of known chemicals but where the unpredictability of the art means that they can expect to be surprised by what they learn from time to time. When these two legal doctrines conflict, the doctrine of unexpected results must give way. Obviousness is based on the idea that we should not give a patent if ordinary scientists could have gotten to the result without the encouragement of that patent. If researchers of ordinary skill were already motivated to try a new variation, and correctly expected that they would succeed, actually trying the new variation is normal science, not the extraordinary skill or insight required for invention. And if scientists would have created the new variation in the ordinary course of their duties, they would of necessity have stumbled upon the unexpected results. Normal science, not the incentive of a patent, led them to that course, so the invention is not patentable. This result may alarm patent owners in the pharmaceutical industries, who have been obtaining patents for this sort of normal experimentation for years. But I think it is required by the Supreme Court’s decision in KSR, which held that an invention was not patentable if it was obvious to try. And while pharmaceutical patent owners may lament the loss of these patents, the rest of the world may not. Patents likely to be affected by the obvious-to-try rule tend to be follow-on patents used to try to extend the life of expired patents on new chemical entities, not breakthrough drugs that require strong protection.
  • Electronic Gaming and the Ethics of Information Ownership
    Players of electronic games, particularly on-line role-playing games, may invest a substantial degree of time, effort, and personal identity into the game scenarios they generate. Yet, where the wishes of players diverge from those of game publishers, the legal and ethical interests of players remain unclear. The most applicable set of legal principles are those of copyright law, which is often grounded in utilitarian justifications, but which may also be justified on deontological grounds. Past copyright cases involving video arcade and personal computer gaming suggest that the gaming scenaria generated by players may constitute original selection and arrangement of the game elements, thus qualifying such gaming sequences for copyright protection as either derivative works or works of joint authorship. But this result may be difficult to justify on utilitarian theories. Rather, the personal investment of game players suggests a deontological basis for claims of game sequence ownership.
  • Neighborhood Change, One Pint at a Time: The Impact of Local Characteristics on Craft Breweries
    Cities have recognized the local impact of small craft breweries, in many ways altering municipal codes to make it easier to establish breweries and making them the anchor points of economic development and revitalization. Nevertheless, we do not know the extent to which these strategies impacted changes at the neighborhood level across the nation. In this chapter, we examine the relationship between growth and locations of craft breweries and the incidence of neighborhood change across the United States. In the first part of the chapter, we rely on a unique dataset of geocoded brewery locations that tracks openings and closings from 2004 to the present. Using measures of neighborhood change often found in literature on gentrification-related topics, we develop statistical models relying on census tract demographic and employment data to determine the extent to which brewery locations are associated with social and demographic shifts since 2000. The strongest predictor of whether a craft brewery opened in 2013 or later in a neighborhood was the presence of a prior brewery. We do not find evidence entirely consistent with the common narrative of a link between gentrification and craft brewing, but we see a link between an influx of lower-to-middle income urban creatives and the introduction of a craft breweries. We advocate for urban planners to recognize the importance of craft breweries in neighborhood revitalization while also protecting residents from potential displacement.