Papers

Papers on SocArXiv appear here as they are posted, with the latest first. This is intended both to show the latest papers and also to demonstrate the potential of our platform.


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SocArXiv papers

  • Social Development and Revolution in Iran
    The scholarship about the consequences of social revolutions contends that social revolutions boost state capacity and strengthen the state's developmental projects. Social justice and addressing the needs of ordinary citizens also were central themes in the discourse of the Iranian revolution and the Islamic Republic that emerged as the post-revolutionary regime with the fall of the monarchy in Iran. In this essay, I assess the performance of the post-revolutionary state in Iran according to different development indicators. Specifically, I compare the record of the post-revolutionary regime with the pre-revolutionary regime. My examination of various indicators relating to health, education, poverty, income inequality, and housing presents more of a mixed result than the overall improvement that previous scholarship anticipated and that the post-revolutionary regime had promised. Furthermore, the evidence points to declines in some important areas of development and welfare provision. Based on this analysis, I propose directions for future research about the developmental outcome of revolutions.
  • Inequality in Life Lost to Violence in the United States
    This study uses demographic methods to describe ethnoracial and educational inequality in the cumulative risk of homicide death and life lost to violence in the United States. If age-specific homicides rates were to continue at 2018-2019 levels, more than 1 in 19 Black males without a high school diploma would die by homicide. In contrast, 1 in 152 White males without a high school diploma and 1 in 233 Black males with a bachelor's degree would be violently killed. Among Black males without a high school diploma, homicide led to a decrease in life expectancy at ages 15-19 of more than two years. The impact of U.S. violence on the life expectancy of socially marginalized people exceeds the population impact of all causes of death except heart disease and cancer.
  • Congestion charge, air pollution and children's school attendance: benefitting the poor
    Air pollution negatively affects individuals' health and human capital accumulation. For example, students school performance is hampered by air pollution as it decreases cognitive abilities and increases absences. Moreover, low-income students are the most exposed and vulnerable to the negative effects of air pollution lacking protective resources and suffering from pre-existing health conditions. Here, we inquire how more stringent traffic regulations implemented in Central London from late 2015 affected pollution levels and school absences. First, we observe a substantive decrease in pollution in the area affected by the regulations from 2016. Secondly, we use a Difference in Difference approach to estimate the causal effect of the policy on air pollution and school absences. For all schools combined, findings do not show any substantive improvement in attendance. However, when looking at the heterogeneous effects of the policy, we observe a larger decrease in absences for Low socioeconomic status (SES) students. Moreover, we find a positive spillover effect for schools just outside the area targeted by the policy. Consequently, the findings highlight the efficacy of environmental policy in diminishing pollution levels and to benefit the poor.
  • Regulating cross-border information flow - the proposed Chinese Personal Information Protection Law
    To better protect personal information and develop the digital economy, China is taking action to enact its Personal Information Protection Law. On 30 April 2021, the second deliberation draft of the Personal Information Protection Law (hereinafter 'Proposed Chinese Personal Information Protection Law') was published by the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress for public opinion (official version and unofficial English translation available). Regulating cross-border information flow is a highlight of the Proposed Chinese Personal Information Protection Law. Five important issues deserve attention. This article seeks to raise those issues.
  • Reciprocal Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments in China: Breakthrough and Trend
    Chinese Civil Procedure Law (CPL) provides that foreign judgments can be recognised and enforced according to reciprocity if no treaty is applicable. However, although Chinese judgments have been recognised and enforced in many countries without a treaty, China had never reciprocated before 2016. Since 2016, Chinese courts unprecedentedly recognised and enforced foreign monetary judgments based on de facto reciprocity. This spurs rich literature with mixed views about the future direction of reciprocity-based judicial recognition and enforcement (JRE) in China. This post aims to add to the current debate from two aspects. First, it tries to answer the doubts in contemporary literature about whether the two foreign judgments recognised and enforced in 2016 and 2017 are fortuitous. Second, it addresses the question of what the trend of the Chinese reciprocity-based JRE law might be.
  • Coronavirus Outbreak and Teaching Chinese Students Online - Legal Issues That Australian Universities Should Know
    This post seeks to briefly outline the legal issues that Australian universities should be aware of in relation to the delivery of online teaching.
  • The first Mainland China monetary judgment enforced in NSW Australia - Bao v Qu; Tian (No 2)
    On 19 May 2020, the Supreme Court of New South Wales rendered the judgment in Bao v Qu; Tian (No 2) and decided to enforce a monetary judgment issued by the Qingdao Intermediate People's Court of Shanghai Province, China. This is the first case at the state of NSW in Australia where a Chinese monetary judgment got enforced. This article seeks to discuss this case.
  • Recognition and Enforcement of Chinese Monetary Judgments in Australia based on Chinese Citizenship
    The Australian common law does not require reciprocity for recognizing and enforcing foreign judgments. Therefore, although Chinese courts have never recognized and enforced an Australian monetary judgment, Australian courts have recognized and enforced Chinese judgments. Thus far, there have been two Chinese judgments recognized and enforced in Australia (both in the State of Victoria). In both cases, the Australian judges considered whether the Chinese courts had international jurisdiction based on the defendants' citizenship/nationality. This article seeks to discuss the two cases.
  • RCD Holdings Ltd v LT Game International (Australia) Ltd_ Foreign jurisdiction clauses and COVID-19
    This article seeks to discuss RC Holdings v LT Game International which is a case concerning foreign jurisdiction clauses.
  • Changzhou Sinotype Technology Co., Ltd, Hague Service Convention and Judgment Enforcement in China
    Changzhou Sinotype Technology Co, Ltd. v. Rockefeller Technology Investments (Asia) VII is a recent case decided by the Supreme Court of California on April 2, 2020. The certiorari to the Supreme Court of the US was denied on 5 October 2020. It is a controversial case concerning the interpretation of the Convention on the Service Abroad of Judicial and Extra Judicial Documents in Civil or Commercial Matters of November 15, 1965 (the "Hague Service Convention") for service of process in China. This article seeks to discuss this case.
  • Australian Information Commission v Facebook Inc - Substituting the Hague Service Convention during the Pandemic
    Recently, in Australian Information Commission v Facebook Inc ([2020] FCA 531), the Federal Court of Australia ('FCA') addresses substituted service and the Hague Service Convention in the contexts of the COVID-19 pandemic. This article seeks to discuss this important case in relation to whether defendants located outside of Australia in a Hague Convention state can be served by substituted service instead of following the Convention.
  • Arbitration and Protest in Hong Kong
    Following the promulgation of the judicial interpretation by the Supreme People's Court ("SPC") on 26 September 2019, Arrangement Concerning Mutual Assistance in Court-ordered Interim Measures in Aid of Arbitral Proceedings by the Courts of the Mainland and of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region ("Arrangement") signed by Mainland China and Hong Kong on 2 April 2019 came into effect in Mainland China from 1 October 2019. This Arrangement provides mutual recognition and enforcement of interim measures between Hong Kong and Mainland China. It has generated broad coverage. This post tries to add to the discussion by providing the first case decided under the Arrangement on 8 October 2019, and more broadly, the reflections on the continuing protests in Hong Kong and arbitration under "One Country, Two Systems'.
  • #JusticeforGeorgeFloyd: How Instagram Facilitated the 2020 Black Lives Matter Protests
    We present and analyze 1.13 million public Instagram posts during the Black Lives Matter protests of 2020, which erupted in response to George Floyd's public murder by police on May 25. Our aim is to understand the growing role of visual media, through a comprehensive view of the spatial (where) and temporal (when) dynamics, the visual and textual content (what), and the user communities (who) that drove the social movement. Using network and time-series analysis, results reveal New York, California, and Minnesota evolved as the epicenters of online social interaction. Our results also make two theoretical contributions. Social movements traditionally typologize posts as discrete instances of mobilization, organization, or conversation. The semantic analysis of 1.69 million photos show these functions are folded together visually. Second, we discuss how pre-existing meme groups and international organizations stood in solidarity to critically assist information dissemination. Together, these analyses demonstrate the precarious nature of protest journalism, and how international content creators, journalists, and everyday users co-evolved with social media to report on one of America's largest-ever human rights movements.
  • Toward Computational Literature Reviews: Applying Expert-Built Dictionaries for Automated Analysis of Complex Texts
    The social sciences face growing demand for reproducible tools for processing massive troves of often-complex text data (political speeches, medical notes, etc.). In response, we aim toward computational literature review by developing an inductive method of applying expert-built dictionaries for automated analysis of complex texts. Our workflow begins with developing dictionaries from foundational texts and domain expertise. Next, we apply text-analytic methods of differential domain-specificity and complexity to create vector-space representations of texts. Finally, we compare the validity of these methods by using regression models to evaluate relationships between their representations and ground truth. Taking as our use case a large corpus of academic articles in organizational science, we find that domain-specific, relatively simple embeddings were most valid--while the more sophisticated models were very weak. Thus, we suggest that social science workflows for learning from complex texts incorporate embeddings that are domain-specific and straightforward--rather than convoluted.
  • Landmines: The Local Effects of Demining
    Demining campaigns are key to remove anti-personnel landmines, one of the main causes of civilian victimization in conflict-affected areas and a significant obstacle for post-war reconstruction and long-term development. We argue that the documented positive economic effects of mines' clearance campaigns are likely not the case if demining operations take place while conflicts are ongoing or if they are only partial. Using highly disaggregated data on demining operations in Colombia from 2004 to 2019 and exploiting the staggered fashion of demining, we find that only post-conflict humanitarian demining generates economic growth (measured with nighttime light density) and increases students' performance in test scores. In contrast, economic activity does not react to post-conflict demining events carried out during military operations, and it decreases if demining takes place while the conflict is ongoing. Rather, those types of demining are more likely to exacerbate extractive activities that do not manifest in higher economic growth but increase deforestation instead.
  • American Religion in the Era of Increasing Polarization
    Americans are increasingly polarized by a variety of metrics. The dimensions, extent, causes, and consequences of that polarization have been the subject of much debate. Yet despite the centrality of religion to early discussions, the analytical focus on America's divides has largely shifted toward partisan identity, political ideology, race, and class interests. I show that religion remains powerfully implicated in all dimensions of American polarization, and sociologists must once again make religion more central to their analyses. After outlining research on American polarization, focusing on the role of religion, I survey findings within the burgeoning literatures on cultural transformation processes, (white) Christian nationalism, complex religion, and Americans' attitudes toward science in order to underscore the centrality of ethno-religious identities, religious demography, and religious institutions for both shaping and exacerbating various forms of polarization. Lastly, I propose an agenda for elucidating religion's ongoing role in understanding polarization beyond public opinion research at the macro-, meso-, and micro-levels. Though polarization research has been dominated by political scientists, leveraging religion in our analyses--not merely as a sui generis "variable," but as a "site" of complex social behavior--facilitates novel sociological contributions to these literatures via our relative attention to multiple levels of analysis, theoretical eclecticism, and methodological fluidity.
  • OSD2F: An Open-Source Data Donation Framework
    The digital traces that people leave through their use of various online platforms provide tremendous opportunities for studying human behavior. However, the collection of these data is hampered by legal, ethical and technical challenges. We present a framework and tool for collecting these data through a data donation platform where consenting participants can securely submit their digital traces. This approach leverages recent developments in data rights that have given people more control over their own data, such as legislation that now mandates companies to make digital trace data available on request in a machine-readable format. By transparently requesting access to specific parts of this data for clearly communicated academic purposes, the data ownership and privacy of participants is respected and researchers are less dependent on commercial organizations that store this data in proprietary archives. In this paper we outline the general design principles, the current state of the tool, and future development goals.
  • The Influence of Partisan Media in the Face of Global Pandemic: How News Media Influenced COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy
    While vaccination against COVID-19 represents a clear path toward resuming "normal life," attitudes toward vaccination and vaccine uptake has been highly politically contentious. In this paper, we investigate (1) whether or not partisan news outlets covered COVID-vaccination issues in different ways, and (2) whether differences in coverage contributed to the vaccine politicization. We do this by bringing together novel sentiment-scored COVID vaccine stories (N > 17,000) from cable and mainstream news outlets, N > 180,000 vaccine adverse event reports to the Dept. of Health and Human Services (which we validate both here and in past research as a proxy for public vaccine sentiment), and six original surveys (N = 6,499) measuring vaccination intentions and media use behavior throughout the pandemic. We find that Fox News' vaccine-related coverage was significantly more negative than that of other cable and mainstream sources. Critically, these differences in tone influenced public opinion about vaccines. Adverse event reports tended to increase following heightened periods of negativity on Fox News, which robustness checks suggest is not likely to be a reverse causal effect. Correspondingly, self-reported Fox News exposure in the opinion data is associated with elevated levels of vaccine hesitancy throughout the pandemic. Collectively, the results provide new insights into the persuasive power of partisan media. While some might expect the promise of ending a global pandemic to interrupt conventional media effect processes, we find that differences in covered vaccine-related issues had both predictable and polarizing effects on public opinion.
  • Informality, innovation, and knowledge co-creation: characterising collaborative creativity and adaptation in rural development
    This article characterises informal knowledge creation and co-creation between development and pastoralist actors, drawing on qualitative data gathered during an in-depth case study in Northern Kenya. Using thematic analysis, this article identifies three intersecting narratives: knowledge and exchange, barriers and drivers, and risk and uncertainty. These concepts are interpreted using wider literature on knowledge dynamics and co-creation to evaluate the suitability of existing analytical frameworks for further research on pastoralist development. The study results highlight the value of cross-cultural informal knowledge co-creation for pastoralist development, and the need for more robust future research.
  • Media Personae as Informal Science Communicators on Social Media: An Explorative Study on the Potential of Para-Social Opinion Leadership
    It is a paradox that science helps us understand the world today better than ever before, while at the same time, science is under siege as misinformation and ,alternative facts' are spread in social media's filter bubbles and echo chambers. This paper presents an explorative key case study on media personae as potential science communicators on social media. By integrating the concept of para-social opinion leadership into the model of media personae as informal science communicators on social media, the paper explores how media personae can act as opinion leaders and advocate the understanding and communication of science in an informal and creative way.
  • Wealth 2D - An alternative approach to explore wealth effects
    The analysis of wealth as a predictor variable comes with several conceptual and methodological challenges with important consequences for results. We propose to employ Generalized Additive Models and jointly evaluating gross wealth and debt when exploring wealth effects to overcome the dependence of results on implausible assumptions. First, we conduct a simulation study and find that this new approach describes systematic wealth differences in more detail than the common approaches and is less likely to overfit random variation in the data. Next, we apply the new approach to re-analyze wealth gaps in educational attainment in the US. In contrast to existing research, we find that it is not negative net worth that is associated with the worst educational prospects but the combination of low gross wealth and low debt. Children in households with high gross wealth have the best prospects almost independent of household debt. The approach can be easily adapted to other research questions.
  • Rural-Urban Variation in COVID-19 Experiences and Impacts among U.S. Working-Age Adults
    This study investigates rural-urban continuum differences in COVID-19 experiences and impacts to physical and mental health, social relationships, employment, and financial hardship among U.S. working-age adults (18-64) from the National Wellbeing Survey collected in February and March 2021 (N=3,933). Most respondents (58%) reported that COVID-19 has had a negative impact on their lives. Residents of rural counties adjacent to metro areas reported the worst outcomes. They were more likely than residents of large urban counties to report testing positive for coronavirus, living with someone who tested positive, having a close friend or family member outside of the household test positive, having a close friend or family member hospitalized, seeking treatment for anxiety or depression, being late paying rent, mortgage, and other bills, not being able to afford groceries or other necessities, and getting a loan from family or friends. Recovery policies must consider geographic variation in COVID-19 vulnerability and impacts.
  • Who tweets climate change papers? Investigating publics of research through users' descriptions
    As social issues like climate change become increasingly salient, digital traces left by scholarly documents can be used to assess the resonance of scientific knowledge outside academia. Our research describes a method to assess the publics of research on Twitter by focusing on perceived users who shared highly tweeted climate change papers. It examines users through eight categories (academia, communication, political, professional, personal, organization, bots and publishers) associated to specific expressions in Twitter profile descriptions. Results indicate how diverse publics may be represented in the communication of scholarly documents on Twitter. Supplementing our word detection analysis with qualitative assessments of the results, we highlight how the presence of unique or multiple categorizations in textual Twitter descriptions provides evidence of the publics of research in specific contexts. The notion of perceived users allows to circumvent some issues about the construction of profiles through specific identity markers. Furthermore, the flexibility of our method provide means for research assessment that take into account the contextuality and plurality of publics involved on Twitter.
  • Personal Jurisdiction Based on the Location of a Server: Chinese Territorialism in the Internet Era?
    Whether a court can exercise personal jurisdiction based on the location of a server in internet tort cases is a controversial issue. Its significance comes from the paradox that the internet is de-localized because it is ubiquitous, but servers are indispensable to the internet and every server has a geographic location. Since 2001, Chinese law has allowed courts to exercise personal jurisdiction solely based on the location of a server or other computing equipment in intellectual property infringement cases. Recently, it has extended this jurisdiction rule to all internet torts. This paper asks whether the location of a server should be considered as the place where the tort occurs and whether this territorial-based jurisdiction rule can suffice its public-law legislative goal. It may enrich current research about technology-mediated legal challenges to private international law in two aspects. Firstly, it conducts a broad international survey by looking into laws in China, the US, Australia and the EU. It also analyzes where the tort occurs when servers are owned by an infringer, a third party or an infringee in domain name registration, service outsourcing, platform, cloud computing, commercial spams, etc. It concludes that in legal theory, the location of the server is not the place where an internet tort occurs. Secondly, by analyzing China's experience, it argues that, in the internet era, states have to look for private-international-law tools to advance their public policy claims. However, the practice shows that the territorial-based jurisdiction rule is limited in fulfilling its pubic-law legislative goal.
  • Chasing Provenance: Legal Dilemmas for Protecting States with a Verifiable Link to Underwater Cultural Heritage
    This paper demonstrates the legal dilemmas for protecting rights of states with a verifiable link to underwater cultural heritage (UCH) at doctrinal and practical levels and from international and domestic perspectives. The dilemmas include vague definitions, time-consuming procedures, weak remedies for violation, jurisdiction conflicts, and legal vacuum. It argues that domestic legislations are limited in offering protection to states with a verifiable link to UCH. More international cooperation is necessary. However, existing international conventions are insufficient in this aspect. Therefore, states are strongly encouraged to conclude bilateral or regional UCH treaties to protect themselves.
  • Comparison of E-Commerce Regulations in Chinese and American FTAs: Converging Approaches, Diverging Contents, and Polycentric Directions?
    Insufficient WTO regulation of cross-border e-commerce confronts China and the US with three legal challenges: ambiguous classification of digital products, inadequate consumer and privacy protection, and weak protection of cross-border flow of information. China and the US have adopted converging approaches to address these challenges: inserting e-commerce chapters into their FTAs. However, the substance of these chapters is diverging. Firstly, US FTAs categorise digital products separately from goods and services and provide national treatment and most favoured nation treatment to products and their suppliers. China's FTAs still offer no solutions to the classification of digital products and their treatment. Secondly, although China's FTAs still provide weak protection for consumers and privacy, Chinese domestic law has converged towards US FTAs to provide better protection. Thirdly, US and China FTAs are significantly divergent in their regulation of the free flow of information. In the post-TPP era, a polycentric direction will emerge in the regulation of the free flow of information between China and the US.
  • The Latest Generation of SEZs: Consumer-Oriented Unilateralism in China's E-commerce Trade
    WTO multilateralism is driven by manufacturers. However, in China, Cross-border E-commerce Retail Import ('CERI') has spurred a new, consumer-oriented trade unilateralism. CERI prospers within China's National Cross-Border E-commerce Pilot Cities, which are Special Economic Zones aimed at using unilateral trade liberalization to meet consumers' growing demands for high-quality foreign products. CERI enhances consumer benefits beyond reducing customer formalities and tax rates and lowering product prices. It re-conceptualizes consumer protection by treating consumers as diverse individuals rather than as a homothetic group. It also empowers consumers by making them 'importers' to minimize behind-the-border trade barriers. CERI warrants a rethinking of WTO multilateralism from its initial focus on corporations and capital owners to a revised focus on consumers.
  • Chinese Private International Law and Online Data Protection
    This paper explores how Chinese private international law responds to online data protection from two aspects: jurisdiction and applicable law. Compared with foreign laws, Chinese private international law related to online data protection has two distinct features. Chinese law for personal jurisdiction is still highly territorial-based. The "target" factor and the interactive level of a website have no play in Chinese jurisprudence. Regarding applicable law, Chinese legislators focus more on the domestic compliance with data regulations rather than their extra-territorial application. Moreover, like foreign countries, China also resorts to Internet intermediaries to enhance enforcement of domestic law. These features should be understood in the Chinese contexts of high-level data localization and Internet censorship.
  • Internet (Un)Immunity: Where Does China Stand?
    This paper focuses on Internet intermediaries' civil liabilities for contents produced by third parties. By comparing Chinese law with the laws of the US and EU, it argues that the US law grants broad civil immunity to Internet intermediaries, and the EU and China restrict civil immunity to intermediaries but in different ways. This is on account of how, in the US, Internet intermediaries enjoy civil immunity as long as they do not become content providers. In the EU, aside from mere conduit intermediaries, all other intermediaries are subject to the notice-and-take-down mechanism before enjoying civil immunity. In contrast, in China, even after an intermediary properly follows the notice-and-take-down mechanism, it may still be subject to civil liability under Chinese Consumer Law. Further, this paper argues that the policy priority for the law for Internet intermediaries varies fundamentally in the three jurisdictions. The US law for intermediaries' liability focuses on protecting freedom of speech. The EU emphasises the protection of personal information as a fundamental human right. Contrastingly, Chinese policy priority is unclear. Consumer protection has boomed in public popularity and increasingly attracted the attentions of the legislature and judiciary in China. However, it is doubtable that the protection of consumers can provide a prevailing policy support for Chinese law in the same way that freedom of speech and the protection of personal information does under the laws of the US and EU, respectively.
  • Implement the ECFA: Prospects of a Bilateral Investment Agreement between Mainland China and Taiwan
    After Ma Yingjeou's re-election in 2012, Mainland China and Taiwan will continue cooperation in economic fields. Concluding a Bilateral Investment Agreement (BIA) will be a priority. Based on the similarities of current laws and the investment protection agreements concluded by Mainland and Taiwan with other countries respectively, Mainland China and Taiwan can possibility agree upon major provisions of a BIA. Solutions are provided to both macro and micro challenges against a successful BIA.
  • Reciprocal Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments in China: Promising Developments, Prospective Challenges and Proposed Solutions
    Consistent developments since 2016 demonstrate that China is determined to depart from its traditional practice - rejecting reciprocity-based judgment recognition and enforcement (JRE). This is strongly endorsed by China's 'One Belt, One Road' Initiative. To develop the Chinese system of reciprocity-based JRE, China will make two efforts. First, it is likely to propose unbinding memos, like the China-Singapore Memo, to the supreme courts in countries alongside the OBOR. Second, Chinese Supreme People's Court will issue a judicial interpretation to clarify the scope, requirements of, and defences against reciprocity-based JRE.
  • Conflicts between Civil Law and Common Law in Judgment Recognition and Enforcement: When is the Finality Dispute Final?
    Very little literature concerns conflicts between civil law and common law requirements for judgment recognition and enforcement (JRE) and grounds for refusing JRE. This paper intends to fill this gap by using the finality dispute between Mainland China and Hong Kong as an example. It compares relevant Chinese law, Hong Kong law, U.S. law, and EU law. It also analyzes Mainland judicial statistics from 1999 to 2010. It argues that Hong Kong courts inappropriately apply the law of the requested court to determine the finality of a Mainland judgment in the judgment recognition and enforcement proceedings. It proposes three solutions to solve the finality dispute between Mainland China and Hong Kong: amend Hong Kong law, amend Mainland law, or adopt interregional law approaches.
  • COVID-19 and Applicable Law to Transnational Personal Data: Trends and Dynamics
    The recent COVID-19 outbreak has pushed the tension of protecting personal data in a transnational context to an apex. Using a real case where the personal data of an international traveller was illegally released by Chinese media, the paper identifies that three trends have emerged at the each stage of conflict-of-laws analysis for lex causae: (1) the EU, the US, and China characterize the right to personal data differently, (2) the spread-out unilateral applicable law approach comes from the fact that all three jurisdictions either consider the law for personal data protection as a mandatory law or adopt connecting factors leading to the law of the forum, and (3) the EU and China strongly advocate de-Americanisation of substantive data protection laws. The trends and their dynamics provide valuable implications for developing the choice of laws for transnational personal data. First, this finding informs parties that jurisdiction is a predominant issue in data breach cases because courts and regulators would apply the forum law. Second, currently there is no international treaty or model law on choice-of-law issues for transnational personal data. International harmonization efforts will be a long and difficult journey considering how the trends demonstrate not only the states' irreconcilable interests, but also how states may consider these interests as their fundamental values that they do not want to trade off. Therefore, for states and international organisations, a feasible priority is to achieve regional coordination or interoperation among states with similar values on personal data protection.
  • From sequences to variables -Rethinking the relationship between sequences and outcomes
    Sequence analysis (SA) has gained increasing interest in social sciences for the holistic analysis of life course and other longitudinal data. The usual approach is to construct sequences, calculate dissimilarities, group similar sequences with cluster analysis, and use cluster membership as a dependent or independent variable in a linear or nonlinear regression model. This approach may be problematic as the cluster memberships are assumed to be fixed known characteristics of the subjects in subsequent analysis. Furthermore, often it is more reasonable to assume that individual sequences are mixtures of multiple ideal types rather than equal members of some group. Failing to account for these issues may lead to wrong conclusions about the nature of the studied relationships. In this paper, we bring forward and discuss the problems of the "traditional" use of SA clusters and compare four approaches for different types of data. We conduct a simulation study and an empirical study, demonstrating the importance of considering how sequences and outcomes are related and the need to adjust the analysis accordingly. In many typical social science applications, the traditional approach is prone to result in wrong conclusions and so-called position-dependent approaches such as representativeness should be preferred.
  • The casual effect of fertility: The multiple problems with instrumental variables for the number of children in families
    Studies investigating how the number of children in a family affects the parents or the children face problems because the variable of interest is endogenous in the model. The currently accepted solution to this problem is to use instrumental variables (IVs), for example, based on twin births. In this paper, I review and add to the critique of IVs based on twin births and show that that there are so many issues--major and minor--with these IVs that results based on them are not reliable or interpretable. I also review other IVs used in the literature, for example IVs based on the sexes of the firstborn children, and conclude that there are, as of yet, no credible IVs for the number of children. We need to disregard results from studies applying these IVs, reevaluate the current state of knowledge, and develop new, more credible methods.
  • A Sentiment Analysis Model of a Civil Service Performance Evaluation Using a Feminist Framework
    The aim of this article is to explore using sentiment analysis to assess the openness of governments and establish a dynamic evaluation mechanism to supervise governments, and consequently improve the administrative law on a feminist basis. I build a sentiment analysis model based on communication between me and governments, discuss the implication of the model, and propose potential improvements to the administrative law in China.
  • Overlooked and Unaddressed: A narrative review of mental health consequences of child marriages.
    Child Marriage (before the age of 18) affects over 12 million young women globally, annually. Despite acknowledgement of the negative impacts of the practice on reproductive health, mental health consequences are largely overlooked. Given the ability for poor mental health to intensify other health and social challenges, understanding the mental health consequences linked to child marriage is vital. Our study is the first to examine how mental health is approached in current literature on child marriage. Our conceptual framework was informed by a rapid assessment of key issues in the field. Systematic searches of papers published between 2000-2020 were completed on four electronic databases with no language restrictions. Our protocol was registered on Prospero (CRD42019139685). Articles were assessed using PRISMA guidelines, and their quality assessed using the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Tools. Of the 4,457 records identified, 21 papers meeting inclusion criteria were analysed using narrative synthesis. The final sample included 5 qualitative, 1 mixed-methods and 15 quantitative studies (14 cross-sectional and 1 longitudinal study) reporting on data from 12 countries, largely in the global south. Intimate partner violence, poverty, challenges in childbirth and isolation were identified as social factors linked to emotional distress by those married as children. Depression was the most reported mental disorder. Anxiety, phobias, psychological distress, substance misuse, negative well-being and anti-social personality disorder were reported less frequently. Findings highlight that while significant emotional distress and specific mental health conditions are linked to child marriage, gaps in our understanding remain. Future studies are needed to; clarify directionality in these relationships; understand the mental health needs of young men, LGBTQI communities and those in humanitarian settings. Given the well documented cyclical relationship between social determinants and mental health conditions, we outline a series of community-oriented interventions which blend psychological, social and structural support to promote mental health and wellbeing in the contexts of child marriage.
  • Understanding Gun Ownership in the Twenty-First Century: Why Some Americans Own Guns, But Most Do Not
    The gun ownership literature is vast, with dozens of studies seeking to explain who owns guns and why. We build on this literature in two key ways. First, we introduce a new variable into the fold: moral concern about harming others. We theorize that this concern actively inhibits gun ownership. Second, we direct theoretical and empirical attention to a predictor of gun ownership that has frequently been overlooked in the contemporary gun literature: childhood socialization. Using data from a national sample of 1,100 adults, we find that moral concerns about harm represent a barrier to gun ownership and limit the number of guns people own. By contrast, childhood socialization has the opposite effect. Furthermore, we find that childhood socialization is not only the strongest predictor of owning guns but also fully mediates the relationship between gender and gun ownership.
  • Gender-inclusive language in pregnancy-related research: Why and how to improve current practices
    Individuals who have a uterus but are not cisgender women may carry pregnancies; however, academic language around pregnancy remains largely (cis-)woman-centric. There is a dearth of data on the use of (cis-)woman-centric and gender-inclusive language alternatives in research on pregnancy. Furthermore, while the need to include trans, non-binary and gender-diverse people in all steps of the research process has been discussed in the recent scientific literature, there remains a lack of awareness in the field that all research on pregnancy can contribute to inclusiveness through language and terminology. Accordingly, we first review the recent literature to examine the state of gendered language in pregnancy-related research. Second, we discuss why gender-inclusive language should be seen as essential in pregnancy-related research. Third, we provide guidance for gender-inclusive language practices in future research on pregnancy. We reviewed 500 randomly selected publications from a search for the MeSH-major topic "pregnancy" in PubMed with a restriction for publications from the last year on July 23, 2021, human research, and the English language. This review of recent literature showed that 98.8% of publications used (cis-)woman-centric language and 1.2% used gender-inclusive language. We explain how this ubiquitous use of (cis-)woman-centric language contributes to (1) the erasure of gender diversity and (2) inaccurate scientific communication, and (3) has a societal impact, for example by being picked up by students, practitioners, clinicians, policymakers, and the media. We follow with recommendations for gender-inclusive language in every section (i.e., introductions, methods, results, discussions) of research articles on pregnancy. The erasure of gender-diverse people in the rhetoric of research about pregnant people can be addressed immediately, including in the dissemination of results from ongoing studies that did not take gender into consideration in the design phase. This makes gender-inclusive language a crucial first step towards the inclusion of gender-diverse people in health research more globally.
  • ,,IMAGINE Responsible Robotics" - A Card-Based Engagement Method
    In this text we introduce a card-based engagement method we call "IMAGINE Responsible Robotics". The basic purpose of this method is to facilitate reflection and exchange about societally relevant issues in research, development and design (RDD) of robotic technologies, particularly also in increasingly inter- and transdisciplinary contexts of robotics. A basic precondition for such an exchange and collective reflection is mutual understanding. Before this background, we have developed a card-based engagement setting that in a first step(,) facilitates the exchange and mutual understanding on different value-laden perspectives on robotic technologies, in a second step the application of these perspectives to a specific context of application and, in a final step, the co-development of situated ways of practicing responsible and - from a societal perspective - trustworthy robot development. Ideally, in this way new ideas on how to consider societal issues and concerns in robot RDD are generated. The method is particularly designed to be a resource for idea generation amongst (academic and other) researchers, developers and designers at relatively early stages of research endeavours. It builds on the sense that reflections on the societal responsibility involved in research and innovation can open up often black-boxed assumptions about the societal relevance of robotics and thus be an ideation resource in creative innovation processes. Since the development of robotic technologies is often a multi-stakeholder-process, the last phase is particularly designed to reflect on and gather ideas on what kinds of stakeholders would ideally need to be included and what kinds of collaborations would make sense for a specific research idea to be specified and carried out. We argue that while such tool-based methods can easily be misused as one-point interventions with little effect on actual research practices, they can be of great value when applied in the context of comprehensive approaches to robot RDD such as care-centred value-sensitive design, participatory design or integrative social robotics (ISR). Card design and discussion map are available for download in the supplementary material!
  • State-led agricultural subsidies drive monoculture cultivar cashew expansion in northern Western Ghats, India
    Agricultural commodity production is an important source of livelihood for farmers but is a major driver of tropical deforestation and biodiversity loss. While the socioecological effects of agricultural commodities such as palm oil, cocoa and coffee have been well studied, the effects for other commodities such as cashew (Anacardium occidentale) have received less attention. Global cultivated area for cashew increased rapidly from 526,250 ha in 1980 to ~5.9 million ha in 2018. India is the world's second largest cashew producer, with cashew farms often occurring adjacent to ever dwindling cover of remnant forests. To mitigate cashew expansion at the expense of forests, it is necessary to understand land use policies that drive the expansion of cashew cultivation and the land management practices in present-day cashew farm systems. Through semi-structured interviews (n=65) and a literature review on agricultural policies in India, we evaluated the role of state-led land use policies in cashew expansion and characterised present-day cashew farming systems in the Sawantwadi-Dodamarg landscape in a biodiversity hotspot in northern Western Ghats. Agricultural subsidies introduced from 1980 to 1990 encouraged cultivar cashew expansion and influenced land use conversion from rice and privately owned forest to cashew. Farmers grew a mix of common and cultivar cashew but the latter was preferred as they produced high yields over short duration, even though they required agrochemical inputs and are more susceptible to pests and wildlife-induced losses. About 80% of farmers had cashew farms that were planted over forests in the past 30 years and expressed interest to continue forest clearing for cultivar cashew expansion. Although farmers incurred high losses from crop depredation on cultivar cashew, they avoided applying for government-sponsored compensation for these losses and chose to expand cultivar cashew into forested areas. Our study deepens the understanding of how government-led agricultural subsidies drive farmers' uptake of cashew cultivars, farmers' practices on cashew management, and how these factors at the state and farm level drive deforestation in this landscape. We recommend further research in cashew farming systems to devise sound conservation planning that is inclusive of stakeholders for the protection of privately owned forests and sustainability standards for the cashew industry.
  • Bandits, Militants, and Martyrs: Sub-state Violence as Claim to Authority in Late Antique North Africa
    Fourth Century North Africa was a site of intense religious and political conflict. Emerging from a period of persecution and newly legitimized by the Roman state, the Christian Church immediately fractured into two competing camps. Now known as the Donatist schism, this fracture was the result of competing claims to religious authority between two camps of bishops, but the doctrinal debate at its core precipitated a specific form of violence: attacks on clergy and property perpetrated by roving groups of militant bandits. Known as circumcellions, these bands acquired a perverse reputation for religious zeal, a desire for martyrdom, and what their opponents described as the 'madness' and 'insanity' of their violence. Here I analyze sources produced by both Donatists and Catholics to trace patterns of circumcellion violence. I draw on borderland theory and research on non-state violence to argue that such acts were not mad, but rather the result of strategic efforts to consolidate religious and political power. In this, Donatism and the sectarian violence that accompanied it provide important insights into how banditry and peasant rebellions can se.rve as alternate sources of social and political power, avenues through which heterodox movements challenge the power state and religious hierarchies alike
  • Cross-cultural variation in child and adolescent time allocation to work and play in twelve hunter-gatherer and mixed-subsistence societies
    Understanding how socioecology affects contemporary children's learning and work opportunities can help researchers better model the selection pressures which have shaped the evolution of human life history and social organization. Here, we compiled a global time allocation dataset for children and adolescents from hunter-gatherer and mixed-subsistence societies. We investigated how society-level variables including adult sexual division of labour, ecological risk, and climate related to variation in childcare, food production, domestic work, and play. We found that adult sexual division of labour predicted increased sex differences in time allocation, especially childcare. Children in safer ecologies allocated more time to childcare and domestic work, but ecological risk did not strongly predict participation in food production. Climate did not predict child and adolescent time allocation. We argue that by coordinating labour across age and sex, children may simultaneously learn to navigate challenges in their environment while safely participating in productive activities.
  • Abstraction in Archaeological Stratigraphy: a Pyrenean Lineage of Innovation (late 19th-early 21th century)
    Methodological innovations have a special status in disciplinary histories, because they can be widely adopted and anonymised. In the 1950s, this occurred to Georges Laplace's innovative use of 3-dimensional metric Cartesian coordinate system to record the positions of archaeological objects. This paper proposes a conceptual and social history of this process, with a focus on its spatial context, the Pyrenean region (Spain, Basque Country, and France). Main results of this research based on archives, publications, and bibliometric data, include: 1) a critical discussion of the notions concerning authorship of such methodological innovations; 2) a presentation of the lesser-known aspects of Laplace's method, showing its contribution to the abstraction and formalisation of archaeological observations and data recording; and 3) the identification of an international Pyrenean intellectual lineage of innovation regarding stratigraphy and excavation methods, from the late 19th century to the early 21th century.
  • English phonology in a globalized world: Challenging native speakerism through listener training in universities in Sweden and the US
    English phonetics and phonology often focus on improving learners' pronunciation. However, phonological processing is 'a two-way street' involving both speaker and listener. Thus, pronunciation instruction in this globalized time needs to be complemented with ways to help listeners understand a wide range of accents, thereby challenging the native speakerism and standard language ideology of more traditional English teaching. In this paper, we share our experiences of promoting listener abilities in university courses in Sweden and the US, two very different teaching contexts. In Sweden, Jeong takes a truly phonetic approach, starting from students' own pronunciations rather than a 'standard' model, and focuses on ability to comprehend diverse accents. In the US, Lindemann uses native-speaking students' complaints about supposedly incomprehensible instructors, not as justification for further training of instructors who are already proficient English users, but as an opportunity to offer listener training to the students. Put together, these experiences provide a basis for reflection on the teaching of L2 phonetics and pronunciation in other languages such as Swedish, and the benefits of shifting some of the focus from speaker to listener in order to begin to overcome native speakerism and standard language ideology.
  • Dynamics of Contention in the Gig Economy: Rage Against the Platform, Customer, or State?
    Protest in the gig economy has taken many forms and targets (platforms, customers, and state officials). However, researchers are yet to adequately account for this diversity. We use a European survey of Upwork and PeoplePerHour platform workers in the remote gig economy to investigate worker orientation towards different forms of protest. Results reveal that worker anger, dependence, and digital communication shape contention in the remote gig economy. Support for collective organisation is associated not only with anger at platforms but also workers' dependence on the platform and communication with other workers. Whereas individual action against clients is associated only with anger and communication but not communication and support for state regulation is associated only with anger but not dependence or communication. We conclude that despite the novelty of these emergent social relations, the relational approach entailed by Mobilisation Theory can aid explanation of contention in the gig economy by shedding light on the dynamic process by which solidarity and dependence alter the perceived costs and benefits of particular remedies to injustice
  • Journal lists in social sciences and the spectrum of quality standards
    The social sciences involve multiple literatures, including journals with a more international and those with a more local orientation. Quality standards in research assessment have largely been borrowed from STEM fields and generally favour internationally oriented journals with high international visibility and scientific impact, to the detriment of other quality dimensions, such as relevance to local communities and researchers or openness of research. In journal lists, this complex spectrum of quality standards is simplified into a one-dimensional arrangement. We provide a typology to characterize journal lists and discuss the usage of journal lists in research assessment, arguing that their values and criteria deserve careful scrutiny and can be studied through systematic comparison.
  • To be or not to be an author in a publication related to Amazon fires--A Foucauldian dichotomy of author anonymity.
    Abstract In a recent publication on Amazon fires, the acknowledgement section mentions some authors withdrew their names apprehensive of their career growth being stifled. In this short communication , this unusual author anonymity concerning climate change is presented as a Foucauldian dichotomy.
  • Is Cancer Immune from Partisan Polarization? How Partisan Identity Motivates Opposition to Preventative Cancer Vaccination in the U.S.
    As one of the leading causes of death in the United States, cancer impacts the lives of Democrats, Republicans and Independents alike. Correspondingly, we might expect experimental cancer preventatives to be more-or-less "immune" to partisan polarization. Experiences with the deadly COVID-19 pandemic, however, suggest that even amid an unprecedented public health threat, some Americans were nevertheless motivated by political partisanship - particularly on the ideological right - to reject life-saving preventatives. In this study, I investigate whether tying partisan accomplishments in funding cancer prevention research to vaccine development might influence public acceptance of "personalized cancer vaccines," which prevent the onset of cancer using tumor detection and mitigation mechanisms informed by one's DNA. In a pre-registered analysis plan and survey experiment, I find that Republicans are less likely (in the absence of elite cues) to intend to receive personalized cancer vaccines and/or recommend that others do the same. Experimentally, I find that when respondents are exposed to information wherein Democrats claim credit for taking action to fund cancer research, polarization tends to increase; such that Republicans become even less likely to intend to receive a vaccine. I conclude by discussing how these findings can motivate effective political communication aimed at resolving one of the greatest public health crises of our time.
  • Disziplinare Entdifferenzierung durch Leistungsbewertung? Der Fall Geschichtswissenschaft in Grossbritannien
    The contribution examines whether systematic research assessments go hand in hand with a dedifferentiation of disciplinary cultures. The case of application for this question is the British Research Excellence Framework (REF). The analysis reveals that history departments in the upper rank groups of the REF publish first and foremost articles in high impact journals, while those departments that are not rewarded by the assessment publish mainly contributions to edited volumes. The contribution concludes that research assessments that are generically applied across disciplines and that are both symbolically and materially efficacious go hand in hand with a dedifferentiation of disciplinary cultures in terms of publication activities.