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SocArXiv papers

  • Initial impacts of COVID-19 on youth offending: An exploration of differences across communities
    A number of international studies have found that the initial stages of the COVID-19 pandemic were associated with reductions in crime, primarily due to changes in the routine activities of the population. However, to date there has been no targeted exploration of how COVID-19 may have influenced youth offending, which may be more heavily impacted by the changes heralded by COVID-19 containment measures. This study examines changes in youth offending in an Australia jurisdiction, Queensland, following the implementation of COVID-19 containment measures from the period April to June, 2020. Additionally, differences in impacts across community types were explored. Findings from panel regression indicated significant declines in youth property offending, offences against the person and public order offences in this period, but no significant changes in illicit drug offences. There were also significant differences across communities according to socio-economic status, per cent Indigenous population, and the extent of commercial or industrial land use. Findings are explored with reference to environmental crime theories and the potential impacts of social, economic and policing changes that occurred in this period.
  • The Gendered Consequences of a Weak Infrastructure of Care: School Reopening Plans and Parents' Employment During the COVID-19 Pandemic
    The COVID-19 pandemic has upended in-person public education across the United States, a critical infrastructure of care that parents--especially mothers--depend on to work. To understand the nature and magnitude of school closures across states, we collected detailed primary data--the Elementary School Operating Status database (ESOS)--to measure the percentage of school districts offering in-person, remote, and hybrid instruction models for elementary schools by state in September 2020. We link these data to the Current Population Survey to evaluate the association between school reopening and parents' labor force participation rates, comparing 2020 labor force participation rates to those observed pre-pandemic in 2019. We find that, across states, the maternal labor force participation rate fell to a greater extent than that of fathers. In 2019, mothers' rate of labor force participation was about 18 percentage points lower than fathers'. By 2020, this gap grew by five percentage points in states where schools offered primarily remote instruction. We show that schools are a vital source of care for young children, and that without in-person instruction, mothers have been sidelined from the labor force. The longer these conditions remain in place, the more difficult it may be for mothers to fully recover from prolonged spells of non-employment, resulting in reduced occupational opportunities and lifetime earnings.
  • Jacques-Francois Boyve et son examen d'un candidat : L'oeuvre officieuse d'un legislateur
    Au XVIIIe siecle, le juriste Jacques-Francois Boyve redige un coutumier pour la principaute de Neuchatel. Il ne parvient pas a le faire officialiser et en publie une adaptation sous forme de questions et reponses, tel un catechisme. L'ouvrage donnant un acces facile au droit neuchatelois connait un important succes.
  • Degre de Romanite d'un droit successoral coutumier (XIIIe-XIXe s.) : approche interdisciplinaire d'un corpus de sources numeriques
    Analyse du degre de romanite du droit successoral coutumier dans la principaute de Neuchatel au moyen du portail numerique de la collection des sources du droit suisse.
  • Guardians of Democracy or Passive Bystanders? A Conjoint Experiment on Elite Transgressions of Democratic Norms
    Several studies indicate that citizens no longer unconditionally support central democratic principles. However, the underlying mechanisms underpinning this development remains largely unclear, especially outside of the US context. In particular, it remains unclear whether citizens are willing to defend democratic principles even when this entails abandoning favored policy positions or political ideology. It also remains unclear whether 'critical citizens' or those with high levels of democratic satisfaction are more eager to support democratic norms. We contribute to this emerging line of research with evidence from a conjoint experiment conducted in Finland. Our results show that citizens prioritize policy issues and ideological positions over key democratic norms, and may be willing to condone even blatant democratic violations if this brings them adjacent political benefits. We also find that the likelihood of supporting democratic principles is higher among citizens who are satisfied with the functioning of democracy rather than among those who are most critical of democratic institutions. These findings contribute to the literature on democratic support and political behavior in established democracies by showing that dangers of democratic deconsolidation appear even when there are few visible signs of political polarization among citizens.
  • De la coutume au code : Resistances a la codification du droit civil a Neuchatel sous l'Ancien Regime
    La codification du droit civil n'est pas une evolution naturelle, benefique et unanimement plebiscitee. La plupart, sinon la totalite de ces entreprises, ont rencontre des oppositions. Afin de mieux comprendre ce phenomene, Adrien Wyssbrod analyse pres de trois siecles de resistances dans la principaute de Neuchatel. Le regne de Frederic II en constitue le point culminant. Apres avoir defini qui resiste, pourquoi et comment, il utilise ses resultats comme un miroir de la societe d'Ancien Regime. Des paralleles tres varies, notamment avec l'elaboration du Code civil francais, la revolution kemaliste ou encore la restauration de Meiji ouvrent la reflexion sur le rapport des individus au droit et a sa formulation. L'ouvrage porte un regard nouveau sur la codification, les relations entre le prince, son administration et ses sujets, ainsi que la gestion d'un Etat a distance.
  • La collection des sources du droit suisse a l'ere numerique, un outil formidable
    Presentation des differents projets de la collection des sources du droit suisse et explication du fonctionnement de ces editions numeriques TEI/XML et de bases de donnees qui y sont liees.
  • Expert endorsement and the legitimacy of public policy. Evidence from Covid19 mitigation strategies.
    During a pandemic, the government requires active compliance by citizens. While these demands can be enforced with rewards and punishments, legitimacy allows the government to achieve the same results with greater cost effectiveness. In this article, we measure revealed legitimacy through support of three potential mitigation strategies against Covid19, when they are defended using expert endorsement, consultation by civil society, and mediation between opposing interests. We elicit approval of the supporting arguments and of the communication strategy. Our methodological choice was to randomly assign participants to either a non-conflicting priming or to one that emphasizes the risks involved, (e.g. connection between health and economy, uncertainty, and economic costs). The data come from an online experiment we conducted as part of a longitudinal study of several countries. The countries included are Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom. The results show that the support of experts in non-controversial domains is preferred (consensus of value, low uncertainty, diffuse rents). Contrary to our hypotheses, we found that citizen deliberation is not preferred under high epistemic uncertainty, and mediation is either indifferent or not preferred under conflict of value and conflict of interest.
  • Revised findings for "Procedural justice training reduces police use of force and complaints against officers"
    Wood et al. (2020) studied the rollout of a procedural justice training program in the Chicago Police Department and found large and statistically significant impacts on complaints and sustained complaints against police officers and police use of force. This document describes a subtle statistical problem that led the magnitude of those estimates to be inflated. We then re-analyze the data using a methodology that corrects for this problem. The re-analysis provides less strong conclusions about the effectiveness of the training than the original study: although the point estimates for most outcomes and specifications are negative and of a meaningful magnitude, the confidence intervals typically include zero or very small effects. On the whole, we interpret the data as providing suggestive evidence that procedural justice training reduced the use of force, but no statistically significant evidence for a reduction in complaints or sustained complaints.
  • Content Creation, Dissemination and Preservation: Disrupting the Status Quo through Technological Interventions
    Disasters, either natural and man-made, adversely affect humanity including human lives and tangible assets. Knowledge as the indisputable gold standard for growth and progress of civilization also destroyed during such disasters. This should not impediment the creation of knowledge. Instead, efforts should be made to find measures which can ensure the longevity of resources for posterity. In this paper, the authors have discussed tools after evaluation and comparison which can use by learners and educators for creation, dissemination and preservation of e-content, especially multimedia. The tools acknowledged for this motive are either cost-free or the basic version is free, or it offers educators & learners some extended free versions. This paper also highlights the resistance of Indian educators to this changing essence of learning from conventional to online.
  • Technostress among Library Professionals: Possible Causes, Symptoms, Coping Strategies, and Future Proposals
    Technostress is the feeling of anxiety or mental pressure caused by working with multiple and rapidly changing computer systems and mediating between these systems and the demands of the organisation, users and personal life. This study investigated the nature and extent of technostress, the factors causing technostress, the effect of technostress on professional and social lives among the Library Professionals in India. The study further investigates the coping strategies to deal with technostress & also give a proposal of Positive Technology for technostress prevention and management. The study was carried through an online survey with a structured questionnaire designed on a Google form. Total of 500 respondents was selected for the study over four designated domain viz. Library Assistant, Assistant Librarian, Deputy Librarian and Librarian or University Librarian. Whereas 10 preferred causes and coping strategies, and 8 identified physiological & psychological symptoms are subjected in front of the library professionals to examine their preferability. The findings of the study may be used to develop strategies and policies which facilitate librarians to avoid, adapt to, or mitigate technostress.
  • A Meta-Analysis of Scholarly Research on Corona virus through Big Data Approach
    The purpose of the study is to examine the status of scholarly literature on Corona virus indexed in the big database, the Lens, taking into account, top-cited articles, top contributors, top active country region, most accepted study field and open access status. Relative growth rate (RGR) and Doubling time (Dt) calculation is also a major reflects of the paper. The study analyzes the status of scholarly publications on Corona virus research as indexed by Lens spanning a period from the oldest record until July 15, 2020. "Structured Search" was made under "New Scholar Search" using the term "Corona virus" and restrict the search result only for "Journal Article". Results obtained were imported through email (.csv file) for further analysis and visualization using spreadsheet software. The results of the study show that out of total 26628 scholarly outputs 2109 are cited in a patent while 15963 in another scholarly literature. "The University of Hong Kong" is the most productive university with 412 scholarly literature, "The United States" as a most contributing country provides 8433 publications, "Journal of Virology" is the most contributing journal with 1012 publications, "Kwok-Yung Yuen" contributed maximum as an individual author and "Elsevier" as a top journal publisher. Among the Lens indexed scholarly publications on Corona virus, 64.04% obtained open accessibility in terms of open access colour while 64.09% under an open-access. No previous study could be identified dealing with such meta-analysis using the Lens database.
  • Open Access Movement: A Probable Solution of Present Crisis in Scholarly Communications
    The spirit and philosophy of Open Access are in sync with FAIFE owing to its visible role in sharing intellectual freedom for building information democracy. But with the exponential increase of cost of scholarly research publication and capture of a huge portion of publication industry by for-profit publishers create a void between the research and researcher, information and seeker, educator and learner, query and the solutions. This paper illustrates the hidden cause of this crisis in scholarly communication and gives a brief understanding of total open access movement, from past initiative to future plans. Additionally, this paper thoroughly pointed out the tools and platforms which can be used by educators and researchers to promote this open access movement with great success. The paper reflects the value of open access movement in the way to eliminate the communication gap in terms of scholarly research work.
  • Organizational Practices and Workplace Relationships in Precarious Work: New Survey Evidence
    Organizational practices are important dimensions of the social contexts that shape relationship formation. In workplaces, the formation of relationships among coworkers are resources for personal outcomes, and they can be channels through which workers might identify common grievances, form workplace solidarity, and engage in collective action. Using a unique dataset of retail workers across the United States, The Shift Project, this paper examines two potential pathways by which organizational practices common in precarious jobs in the retail industry in the U.S. might shape the formation of workplace relationships. I find evidence of the role of both pathways: practices that limit the opportunities for regular contact and practices that negatively impact the conditions of contact among employees are both associated with fewer workplace ties. I discuss the implications of these findings for the study of collective action, and network ecology.
  • An Analysis of E-Content Modules of Indian OERs: A Case Study of E-Pg Pathshala
    OER is a distinct way of learning in the modern era, without any geographical barriers and money. There are two types of OER depending on how it approaches its user, Open Course Ware (OCW) and MOOCs. In India, e-PG Pathshala is such an innovation maintained by UGCINFLIBNET and funded by MHRD. As part of its National Education Mission through ICT (NME-ICT), it is a wide e-learning platform in terms of its subject material and breadth of use as well. In this context, the present study is an attempt to assess the status of e-content modules of e-PG Pathshala in the different subject discipline. The findings of the study identified that among the two broad subject category, AHSS field occupied 62% of total uploaded modules and rest 38% covered by STEMM. In consecutive divisions of the subject field into five major subject discipline reveals that "Social Sciences" and "Arts, Humanities and Languages" contribute double concerning e-content modules than "Engineering, Technology and Management", "Physical and Basic Sciences" and "Bio-Medical and Health Sciences". Additional statistical analysis (Pearson's Correlation test) shows that a strong positive correlation was observed between the two variables No. of Paper & No. of Uploaded Module (rp =0.683, p= <.001).
  • Adjusted Bayesian Completion Rates (ABC) Estimation
    Estimating school completion is crucial for monitoring SDG 4 on education, and unlike enrollment indicators, relies on household surveys. Associated data challenges include gaps between waves, conflicting estimates, age misreporting, and delayed completion. Our Adjusted Bayesian Completion Rates (ABC) model overcomes these challenges to produce the first complete and consistent time series for SDG indicator 4.1.2, by school level and sex, for 153 countries. A latent random walk process for unobserved true rates is adjusted for a range of error and variance sources, with weakly informative priors. The model appears well-calibrated and offers a meaningful improvement in predictive performance.
  • Stichproben fur Telefonbefragungen in Deutschland: Ein Werkstattbericht
    In diesem Beitrag werden die gangigen Standards fur Stichprobenziehungen bei Telefonbefragungen in Deutschland daraufhin untersucht, inwieweit sie heute noch eine geeignete Basis fur bevolkerungsreprasentative Befragungsstudien darstellen. Dazu werden unter Ruckgriff auf die entsprechende Methodenliteratur zunachst die aktuellen Empfehlungen fur drei zentrale Bereiche der Stichprobenziehung bei Telefonbefragungen vorgestellt: das Stichprobendesign, die Stichprobenbereinigung durch HLR-Lookups und die Stichprobenausschopfung. Diese Empfehlungen werden anschliessend anhand einer im Herbst 2019 vom Weizenbaum-Institut fur die vernetzte Gesellschaft in Kooperation mit dem Institut fur Publizistik- und Kommunikationswissenschaft der Freien Universitat Berlin durchgefuhrten Telefonbefragung zu Burgernormen und politischer Partizipation in Deutschland forschungspraktisch evaluiert. Die Ergebnisse dieser Evaluation zeigen, dass erstens die Empfehlungen fur Stichprobenziehungen mit dualen Auswahlrahmen (,,Dual-Frame") dringend einer Aktualisierung bedurfen; dass zweitens das Verfahren des HLR-Lookups zumindest fur Telefonbefragungen mit automatischem Predialing keinen Mehrwert mehr bringt; und dass drittens repetitive Kontaktergebnisse fur eine bessere Einschatzung der Responseraten genutzt werden konnen.
  • Das Privacy Paradox aus psychologischer Perspektive
    Das Privacy Paradox besagt, dass Menschen beim Nutzen von Online-Diensten bereit sind, grosse Mengen personenbezogener Daten zu teilen - selbst dann, wenn ihnen Privatsphare wichtig ist und sie um diese besorgt sind. In den zwei einfuhrenden Abschnitten dieses Beitrages lege ich zunachst dar, was Privatheit aus psychologischer Perspektive bedeutet und anschliessend, wie sich menschliches Verhalten - ganz allgemein betrachtet - erklaren lasst. Anschliessend ubertrage ich diese allgemeinen Aspekte auf den Kontext des Internets. Hierbei stelle ich zuerst personenbezogene Faktoren vor, die Online-Verhalten erklaren konnen, gefolgt von umgebungsbezogenen. Im anschliessenden Teil widme ich mich dem Privacy Paradox aus einer spezifischen, primar akademischen Perspektive, indem die bisherige Forschungshistorie zusammengefasst und aktuelle Studienergebnisse analysiert werden. Abschliessend folgt eine Diskussion des Privacy Paradox unter Berucksichtigung gesellschaftlicher Implikationen, konkreter Handlungsempfehlungen sowie einem eigenstandigen Fazit.
  • Impact of Students Enrolled in Higher Education vis-a-vis Usage of e-PG Pathshala Resources: An Exploratory Study on Select Universities
    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to analyse the state-wise impact of uses of e-PG Pathshala by the students enrolled in higher education in India.The study examines the status of acceptance of e-PG Pathshala as an e-learning platform to among the students of higher education in different Indian states. Methodology: The total visitors of e-PG Pathshala were collected manually from the official website of e-PG Pathshala, list of total number of Universities were collected from official website of UGC and the data of total enrolment of higher education was collected from AISHE final report 2018-19. Analysis: Data analysis was done using spreadsheet software for enhanced visualization and to understand the arrangement and correlation between different variables of the data set. Result: The study result shows that, maximum number of e-PG visitors, universities and enrolled students in higher education belongs to the state Uttar Pradesh. The statistical findings also indicate a significant and positive correlation between the variables. Implications: The results of the study gave a clear picture of the acceptance of e-PG Pathshala among the students of different Indian states. And based on the value improvement and awareness programme can be done to those states where the number of e-PG visitors is very low. Originality: No previous study could be identified dealing with the finding of the study.
  • Mobile Librarianship: An Initiative of New Normal
    Coronavirus has a clear negative impact on academic and research activities. Issues created by such pandemic e.g. loss of communication; shut down of school, college and universities; disruption of the formal learning process etc provoke us for the transformation of the learning process from conventional to digital. The primary requirement of this transformation is the availability of a sophisticated, affordable and multitasking tool for providing library services. It is now challenging for the libraries to satisfy their user needs and time to rethink and remodel their services by adopting technological changes. Today mobile phones are becoming an integral part of everyday life and are changing the way one connects and interacts with the world. This paper presents an outline of the concept and the application of developments in mobile telecommunication systems, web technologies to provide ubiquitous, user-friendly, personalized and dynamic up to date information services to the users of a library. Also, further studies are expanded to provide insight into the benefits and challenges against the implementation of mobile technologies to support this 'new normal' in the libraries. The practical and theoretical implications of the results have been explored.
  • Analyzing Effectiveness Of Learning Management System In Present Scenario: Conceptual Background And Practical Implementation
    Coronavirus is a widespread dangerous disease in recent months, originated in China but with a great impact at the global level. As a result, the education process is choked by shut down of college & universities and maintaining social distancing for reducing the outbreak from community transmission. The purpose of this study is to explore the effectiveness of Learning Management System (LMS) in higher education to support teaching and learning in this 'new normal' by providing a stand-alone platform for online & distance learning. LMS is a software application for administering, documenting, tracking, reporting, automating, and delivering educational, training, or learning and development programmes; which originated directly from the concept of e-learning. With the detailed conceptual approach of LMS, the study also associates with the practical implementation of Blackboard LMS in Chandigarh University. Additionally, the study also tastes a comparative analysis between Blackboard, Canvas & Moodle LMS.
  • Challenges and Strategies during Pandemic : An Indian Perspective
    The world history has been witnessed of number of pandemics including Russian flu in 1889, Spanish flu in 1918, Asian flu in 1957, HIV/AIDS (human immunodeficiency virus, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) in 1981, and SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) in 2003. Now, the human community is struggling against transmitting disease called COVID-19 (coronavirus disease). Many countries, including China, Italy, the United States of America, Spain, France and Iran, etc. experienced catastrophic COVID-19 attack and lost the lives of their many citizens. India, the world's second-largest population, has not yet experienced the outbreak of corona disease on a community level, but India is most likely to be affected. This paper presents a countryside discussion on the process and importance of a quick response of India as a remedy against COVID-19. This paper is based on secondary data from various resources of world health organization (WHO), the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India and other research documents. The analysis demonstrates the decline in the percent of COVID-19 infected people after proper social distancing implementation among the human community.
  • Survey Experiments in the Study of Religions
    Survey experiments are burgeoning in the study of religion/s. A survey experiment is simply an experiment conducted on a survey. Survey experiments address key limitations of non-experimental surveys and experiments on convenience samples. Surveys are great for speaking to patterns in a broader population, but are limited in their ability to examine causal mechanisms (i.e., what exactly causes what). Lab experiments speak to causality, but using convenience samples limits generalizability (i.e., the extent to which the patterns can be expected to apply to a wider population). Survey experiments combine strengths from survey methods and experimental methods, providing leverage on both generalizability and causality. By using population-based sampling frames from survey research, survey experiments can generalize to a broader population. And by using experimental methods, specifically randomly assigning people to experimental conditions, survey experiments can establish whether one thing causes another. Although survey experiments are becoming more common in the social scientific study of religion, we are only beginning to scratch the surface of the range of questions and contexts that could be explored with survey experiments.
  • Good news for whom? The Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine announcement reduced political trust
    The announcement of Pfizer/BioNTech's COVID-19 vaccine success on 9 November 2020 led to a global stock market surge. But how did the general public respond to such good news? We report results of a nation-wide natural experiment in the US and the UK on how the vaccine news influenced citizens' government evaluations, anxiety, beliefs and elicited behaviors. While most outcomes were unaffected by the news, trust in government and elected politicians (and their competency) saw a significant decline in both countries. As the news did not concern the government, and the government did not have time to act on the news, our results suggest a dispositional response to positive news more likely to be explained by a form of the psychological mechanism of motivated reasoning. They also offer a novel insight regarding the association between trust in government and compliance with its policies: anxiety might explain both.
  • Development of Content Representation (CoRe) Framework as Analysis Instrument of Pedagogical Content Knowledge Capability for Biology Teachers
    The results of the preliminary study were obtained from 15 prospective biology teacher students related to the initial abilities that must be possessed to become a teacher and the implementation of learning in science learning. In general, 15 prospective teachers were of the opinion that it was not so different about the ability to have to become a teacher. Based on the results of the preliminary study, prospective teacher students already know the abilities that need to be possessed to become a teacher and in the implementation of learning students must be active but still not showing knowledge related to knowledge that combines content and pedagogical knowledge. One way to analyze the ability of prospective teacher PCK is through filling in documents consisting of Content Representation (CoRe). The data presented in the form of student response questionnaire analysis related to CoRe in terms of education and language and the results of test the validity and reliability of items. For linguistic aspects of CoRe instrument in general CoRe instrument have very high frequency, meaning that CoRe instrument that have been developed are able to be accepted and used properly by prospective biology teacher students at Muhammadiyah Metro University with a percentage 70%. For educational aspects of the CoRe instrument in general CoRe instrument have very high criteria, meaning that the CoRe instrument that have been developed are able to be accepted and used properly by prospective biology teachers at the Muhammadiyah Metro University with a percentage 73,33%.
  • Educational Needs of Adult Refugees' Educators: A Greek Case Study
    In the present paper we tried to describe the educational needs of the adult refugees' educators in the area of Leros, Greece. To collect our data, we used the qualitative approach and conducted interviews throughout the avalanche sampling, so that the participants could express their ideas and perceptions. Our sample consists of adult refugees' educators working in NGO ECHO100PLUS, which is activated in Leros. The analysis of the data revealed the educators' inexperience and lack of training, At the same time, those areas where trainers need further training, as well as their preferences for trainers and the type of training, were recorded.
  • New Students' Perceptions on the Implementation of Zoning-Based PPDB
    This research aims to determine the perceptions of new students on the implementation of zoning-based PPDB (New Learner Admission Activities). The method in this research was mixed-method approach. Primary data was obtained through distributing questionnaires filled out by students. Samples were taken using purposive sampling technique in five cities, including Bandung, Surakarta, Surabaya, Pontianak and Serang. The data analysis technique used the Miles and Huberman model. The results show that the school which initially received the favourite label is still the favourite one because of the facilities and infrastructure and the implementation of the existing learning process in the school. The zoning system based on student perceptions does not reduce enthusiasm for learning. The zoning-based PPDB for junior high school and senior high school is more guaranteed for students who live close to the school to get the target school. The zoning system has been well implemented in four cities, including Surabaya, Bandung, Surakarta and Pontianak. In addition, the zoning system can save money.
  • Tourism Activities in the Traditional Balinese House: The Challenges of Designing a Homestay in Gianyar Bali
    The development of the tourism sector has had various effects on Balinese people's traditional practices, including the traditional Balinese house. Since the increase of Bali's tourist activities, the traditional houses for the Balinese that demonstrated not only a way of shelter but also complex cultural links have become objects of transformation. This transformation tended to fade its meanings and values, even though the Balinese have tried to maintain their culture as tourism resources. This phenomenon is an architectural challenge for the people to produce an innovative design of the transformed house. A descriptive exploratory approach with qualitative methods was used in this paper. Using interviews, field works and architectural examination in Taro, Kendran, and Ubud, this paper explores innovative designs that not only can accommodate traditional functions of the houses but also address the new demands of tourists. Some alternative models of pavilions have been built in many parts of the house, such as in the backyard, adjacent to old pavilions, or by demolishing the old pavilions.
  • Inequality in employment trajectories and their socio-economic consequences during the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic in Germany
    This paper evaluates the inequalities in employment trajectories during the first COVID-19 pandemic lockdown in Germany. We assess individual-level panel data collected weekly between 20 March and 25 June (N=2,297), which allows us to examine the risks of short-time work, furlough, and job loss, as well as changes between working on-site and from home. Using sequence analysis, we detect typical patterns of employment trajectories and analyse how these vary between socio-demographic groups. Finally, we relate the types of employment trajectories to changes in income, subjective job security (compared to values in January and February 2020), and COVID-19 infection risks. Our results show clear gradients in employment risks: low-wage workers were severely affected by furlough and job loss, while highly qualified employees were able to work from home. Furthermore, in contrast to previous crises, service sector and female employees were more affected by short-time work; however, its timing and duration differs compared to male workers in manufacturing. Income loss was pronounced among those who became unemployed and those continuously in short-term work, while everybody--including employees continuously working from home--experienced a significant reduction in subjective job security compared to employees whose employment hours or location have not changed. The infection risk was only increased for individuals who changed from furlough to working on-site.
  • Short-run and long-run ideologies: Calculating curves for Christianism and Sovietism
    The research framework of this study is related to the problem of why and how the population's beliefs born, develop and, finally extinct. In previous work, the kinetics of the groups that remain constant in their empire's nationalistic ideologies was developed. Now, this research tries to calculate how beliefs diminish until disappearing. Founded in basic historical data of two ideologies, Christianism and Sovietism, the aim of this work is to establish that the populations increase is inversely proportional to the difference between that population and the maximum Nm that could reach, dN / (Nm - N), and the elapsed time 1dt, where1 is a coefficient greater than zero. As an eternal duration is impossible, a decrement factor Nmexp (-2t) is introduced. This produces a differential equation that can be interpreted mechanically as the initial impulse that pushes and made it works. The conclusion can be desegregated in three parts: first, in terms of formal equations; second, in sociological terms, to say, religious beliefs are more important than political beliefs; and finally, in terms of political change, that is, slow transformations last very much longer than rapid ones.
  • Rural Safety Net Use During the Covid-19 Pandemic
    Despite unparalleled government relief spending, many households have fallen into financial distress during the Covid-19 pandemic. At the same time, reports of non-governmental forms of disaster aid - both from organizations and among individuals - are widespread. Given that formal government programs have not fully met the material needs of many households across the United States during the pandemic, we build on disaster scholarship to compare utilization of three distinct forms of disaster support to better understand how households are getting by: (1) government safety net programs, (2) not-for-profit support, and (3) informal social support. We focus our study on a large, yet especially vulnerable and under-researched population: rural residents across the Western U.S. Drawing on results from a representative survey fielded during the summer of 2020, we find that informal social support was the most widely used safety net, with over half of all residents giving or receiving some form of informal support. However, differences in age, education, sex, race, ethnicity, and homeownership status variously predicted different types of safety net use, demonstrating the unevenness of pandemic impacts and access to relief resources across demographic groups. Finally, rural residents who experienced the worst pandemic impacts were the most likely to utilize any of the three forms of safety nets examined. Despite identified limitations to government relief, both formal government programs and informal social support systems were utilized by those most affected by the pandemic.
  • Decline in rate of divorce and separation filings in Denmark in 2020 compared to previous years
    BACKGROUND The radical changes to everyday life brought on by the COVID-19 pandemic and its related lockdowns and restrictions may have substantial implications for key demographic processes. The closure of non-family social spheres in particular may have impacted marriage dynamics. OBJECTIVE We provide evidence on the monthly rates of initiation of divorce and separation filings in Denmark for the period 2016-2020 to examine how filing behavior changed during 2020 compared to the four previous years. METHODS We combine administrative data on monthly number of married couples in Denmark from population registries with newly obtained data on initiation of divorce and separation filings provided by the Danish Agency of Family Law to calculate monthly rates for the period 2016-2020. We then calculate monthly and annual p-scores to compare 2020 to previous years. RESULTS Rates of initiation of divorce filings declined in 2020 to the lowest level in the period 2016-2020. On average, monthly rates in 2020 were 7 percent lower than 2019 rates and 20 percent lower than 2016 rates. There is little indication of the COVID-19 pandemic having an immediate influence on divorce dynamics, although filing rates appear slightly more depressed during lockdown periods. CONTRIBUTION The study provides up to date indications of the divorce intentions in 2020, showing that for one of the less affected countries when it comes to the COVID-19 pandemic, there is so far no indication of an increase in divorce rates coinciding with the pandemic.
  • Student Engagement Level in e-Learning Environment: Clustering Using K-means
    E-learning platforms and processes face several challenges, among which is the idea of personalizing the e-learning experience and to keep students motivated and engaged. This work is part of a larger study that aims to tackle these two challenges using a variety of machine learning techniques. To that end, this paper proposes the use of k-means algorithm to cluster students based on 12 engagement metrics divided into two categories: interaction-related and effort-related. Quantitative analysis is performed to identify the students that are not engaged who may need help. Three different clustering models are considered: two-level, three-level, and five-level. The considered dataset is the students' event log of a second-year undergraduate Science course from a North American university that was given in a blended format. The event log is transformed using MATLAB to generate a new dataset representing the considered metrics. Experimental results' analysis shows that among the considered interaction-related and effort-related metrics, the number of logins and the average duration to submit assignments are the most representative of the students' engagement level. Furthermore, using the silhouette coefficient as a performance metric, it is shown that the two-level model offers the best performance in terms of cluster separation. However, the three-level model has a similar performance while better identifying students with low engagement levels.
  • The Spending Responses to Adverse Health Shocks: Evidence from a Panel of Colombian Households
    We analyze the effect of adverse health shocks on households' different expenditure shares using a difference in differences approach. We find that households engage in substitution between health and food spending in response to the negative health shocks. We find substantial heterogeneity in this trade-off between current and future health mediated by access to social protection, job contract type, and location (urban-rural). Households from rural areas, with heads holding informal jobs, and without access to safety nets, are more vulnerable than others. We discuss several policy implications.
  • Central Bank Reserves during the Bretton Woods Period: New data from France, the UK and Switzerland
    This paper presents new daily data on central bank reserves during the Bretton Woods period. It is the first paper to provide daily data for the Bank of France, Bank of England and Swiss National Bank directly from these central bank's archives. I discuss some of the issue with these data and make them available to other researchers for further analysis.
  • Questionable Research Practices and Open Science in Quantitative Criminology
    Objectives. Questionable research practices (QRPs) lead to incorrect research results and contribute to irreproducibility in science. Researchers and institutions have proposed open science practices (OSPs) to improve the detectability of QRPs and the credibility of science. We examine the prevalence of QRPs and OSPs in criminology, and researchers' opinions of those practices. Methods. We administered an anonymous survey to authors of articles published in criminology journals. Respondents self-reported their own use of 10 QRPs and 5 OSPs. They also estimated the prevalence of use by others, and reported their attitudes toward the practices. Results. QRPs and OSPs are both common in quantitative criminology, about as common as they are in other fields. Criminologists who responded to our survey support using QRPs in some circumstances, but are even more supportive of using OSPs. We did not detect a significant relationship between methodological training and either QRP or OSP use. Support for QRPs is negatively and significantly associated with support for OSPs. Perceived prevalence estimates for some practices resembled a uniform distribution, suggesting criminologists have little knowledge of the proportion of researchers that engage in certain questionable practices. Conclusions. Most quantitative criminologists in our sample use QRPs, and many use multiple QRPs. The substantial prevalence of QRPs raises questions about the validity and reproducibility of published criminological research. We found promising levels of OSP use, albeit at levels lagging what researchers endorse. The findings thus suggest that additional reforms are needed to decrease QRP use and increase the use of OSPs.
  • The Role of Mindset in Education : A Large-Scale Field Experiment in Disadvantaged Schools
    This article provides experimental evidence of the impact of a four-year inter-vention aimed at developing students' growth mindset and internal locus ofcontrol in disadvantaged middle schools. We find a 0.07 standard deviationincrease in GPA, associated with a change in students' mindset, improved be-havior as reported by teachers and school registers, and higher educational andprofessional aspirations. International empirical benchmarks reveal that theintervention is at least ten times more cost-effective than the typical educa-tional intervention. However, while reducing between-school inequality whentargeted to disadvantaged schools, the program benefits less to more fragilestudents, therefore increasing within-school inequality.
  • Palavras como flores, conceitos como cercas: literacia da informacao, desigualdades sociais no ensino superior
    Some concepts of literacy are presented and their operability in information literacy in higher education training programs is questioned. The selection of conceptual approaches is based on the requirement that their paradigmatic framing should allow social inequalities in learning processes to be addressed. The concepts developed by Paul G. Zurkowski, Paulo Freire and Walter Mignolo are presented, and their relevance to this problematics is commented.
  • Mapping India's Language and Mother Tongue Diversity and its Exclusion in the Indian Census
    In this article, we critique the process of linguistic data enumeration and classification by the Census of India. We map out inclusion and exclusion under Scheduled and non-Scheduled languages and their mother tongues and their representation in state bureaucracies, the judiciary, and education. We highlight that Census classification leads to the delegitimization of 'mother tongues' that deserve the status of the language and official recognition by the state. We argue that the blanket exclusion of languages and mother tongues based on numerical thresholds disregards the languages of about 18.7 million speakers in India. We compute and map the Linguistic Diversity Index of India at the national and state levels and show that the exclusion of mother tongues undermines the linguistic diversity of states. We show that the Hindi belt shows the maximum divergence in Language and Mother Tongue Diversity. We stress the need for India to officially acknowledge the linguistic diversity of states and make the Census classification and enumeration to reflect the true Linguistic diversity.
  • City Minimum Wages and Spatial Equilibrium Effects
    Local minimum wage laws are becoming common across U.S. cities, and their effects may be different from the effects of state or national minimum wage policies. This paper studies the effect of changes in the minimum wage on spatial equilibriums in local labor markets. Using residence and workplace data for the United States, I analyze how commuting, residence, and employment locations change across city and state borders if the minimum wage changes on one side of the border. I find that areas in which the minimum wage increases receive fewer low-wage commuters. A 10 percent increase in the minimum wage reduces the inflow of low-wage commuters by about 2.5 percent. Rises in the minimum wage are also associated with employment relocation across borders toward areas that did not witness an increase in the minimum wage. I formulate a spatial equilibrium gravity model to explain the distribution of workers between low- and high-minimum wage areas. I calculate counterfactual equilibriums with a higher minimum wage for U.S. counties with cities considering an increase, highlighting the role of commuting and migration responses. About two-fifths of the counties considering increases would receive fewer low-wage commuters. Employment relocation away from high-minimum wage areas drives the commuting losses.
  • Does Diversity Undermine Trust and Cooperation? Theory and Evidence
    Abstract. It is often argued that diversity depletes the social capital of trust and cooperation. We argue there is no compelling theoretical reason for supposing that trust and cooperation will move together in response to diversity; and we provide new causal evidence that they do not. While diversity undermines trust, we find that people in more diverse societies are, surprisingly, better able to cooperate in both new aggregate and individual level observational data and in laboratory experiments. These results caution against the suggestion that diversity creates trade-offs for society: e.g. between innovativeness and solidarity or between freedom of movement and welfare state generosity.
  • Understanding Zero Deforestation and the High Carbon Stock Approach in a highly forested tropical country
    "Zero deforestation" commitments are pledges by companies to avoid deforestation when producing palm oil. Zero deforestation can be implemented using the High Carbon Stock Approach (HCSA), a tool that distinguishes forests from degraded land which can be developed. In highly forested countries like Gabon, zero deforestation may conflict with national economic goals involving palm oil and other agricultural commodities. We investigated perspectives of stakeholders in Gabon about zero deforestation and the HCSA using Critical Systems Heuristics, a systems thinking methodology. In 25 interviews with government, NGOs, companies, and research institutions, and two focus groups with rural communities, we identified three contrasting perspectives on forest conservation and agro-industrial development: international, national, and local. Zero deforestation represents an international perspective that marginalises issues from a national perspective. This may produce unintended consequences that undermine the legitimacy of zero deforestation, including conversion of Gabon's savannahs and disincentives for sustainable business development. From a local perspective, zero deforestation is embedded in an agro-industrial vision that marginalises value judgments concerning forests and traditional livelihoods. Gabon's National Land Use Plan could help reconcile the three perspectives but requires recognition by international standards. Adapting the HCSA should also be considered. Research is required to ensure proposed institutional arrangements deliver equitable multi-stakeholder participation in land-use planning. Gabon's case shows the applicability of zero deforestation to all highly forested countries cannot be assumed. Improved international understanding of national contexts, and flexibility in applying "zero deforestation", is important for designing effective and equitable international standards for sustainable agricultural production.
  • Citizens, Madmen and Children: Equality, Uncertainty, Freedom and the Definition of State.
    In this paper, I argue that a fundamental tradeoff between freedom and equality in human social organization is, in fact, a learnable schedule for the management of uncertainty for an individual agent operating in a social world pervaded with randomness. This implies that political organization and state structures may be viewed as different ways of handling uncertainty, each trading off freedom and equality in a slightly different manner, but each with an equivalent, and theoretically symmetric, balance between the two. I will argue that uncertainty in an intelligent agent arises from one of three primary sources. First, the agent's logical, objective, mental model of the environment may be noisy. Second, subjective, affective appraisals, of other individuals, their behaviours, and their intentions may present substantial randomness. Finally, the relationship between the objective, real, external world, to the subjective, internal world of the agent may be blurry. As I will show, in any basic two-level Bayesian model of reasoning, these same three sources of uncertainty naturally arise as three learnable parameters. These three parameters govern the operation of the model, but must be traded-off against each other. Furthermore, I will give these three dimensions of uncertainty some theoretical validity, by showing how they pervasively occur across a wide swatch of literatures as three dimensions of political freedom and equality. The relationship between the parameters and the freedoms is a key step in gaining a better understanding of political movements. For example, I discuss how the transition from mechanical solidarity to organic solidarity during the industrial revolution in the 19th century, as described by Durkheim, is in fact a shift in the management of uncertainty to one focused on immediate meanings to one focused on trust. Further, such shifts may be purposefully initiated by politically interested groups, by spreading new narratives or introducing new policy. Viewed as uncertainty management, any shifts so induced should be carefully evaluated in terms of what freedoms it compromises, with smoother transitions assured for shifts that remain in a position of equilibrium with respect to freedom and equality.
  • Socioeconomic disparities in school absenteeism after the first wave of COVID-19 school closures in Scotland
    Key Points - Student absences after the first wave of Covid-19 school closures were higher than in previous years - Higher rates of absenteeism after school lockdown were due to COVID-19 related reasons - Overall, non-Covid-19-related absence rates are similar to trends observed in earlier years - Socioeconomic inequalities in school absenteeism were higher post-lockdown than in previous years - This increase can be attributed to rising disparities in school absenteeism due to Covid-19-related and non-Covid-19 reasons - The rise in socioeconomic inequality in non-Covid-19related absenteeism was not only due to higher absence rates among students from the most deprived areas but also due to lower absence rates among students from the least deprived areas - Addressing the disproportionate short- and long-term impact of the pandemic on the most vulnerable children needs to be at the forefront of policy agenda - We need greater monitoring and evaluation of o inequalities in home learning during the second round of school closures o inequalities in academic achievement after school reopening o policy interventions designed to mitigate the consequences of Covid-19 on achievement gaps.
  • Teachers' Beliefs and Practices of Motivational Strategies in EFL Classrooms and Learners' Attitudes
    This study reports on EFL teachers' personal beliefs regarding motivational strategies, and details how teachers apply motivational strategies in the EFL Saudi classrooms. A discussion is included about the extent to which motivational strategies influence EFL learners' attitudes toward language learning, because of the need of using motivational strategies in EFL classrooms at Taif university, this research used a mixed approach research design, and accordingly, the researcher used one questionnaire that was adapted Dornyie & Cheng (2007) to ask about eighteen teachers' beliefs concerning motivational strategies and used a similar questionnaire with 150 first-year students to evaluate how their teachers apply the motivational strategies in the EFL classroom. Students' attitudes toward L2 learning were further measured by another adapted questionnaire of Eshghinejad (2016). Also, 10 students divided to high and low achievement were interviewed to provide in-depth investigation and to seek reliable results. The findings revealed that the EFL teachers believed in and used motivational strategies in their classrooms. In addition, there was a statistically significant correlation between what they believe and what they practice. From the data on learners' attitudes, results reflected that the students have positive attitudes toward language learning especially in the emotional aspects. The interviews revealed that high and low achieving students reported positive attitudes to the behavioral and cognitive aspects, while they showed little to the emotional aspects of language learning.
  • Communication challenges: Saudi EFL Speaking Skills and strategies to overcome speaking difficulties
    The purpose of this study to present the findings of research conducted to challenges faced by Saudi English as foreign language (EFL) learners and to formulate some strategies to overcome their speaking difficulties. In Saudi Arabia, there is a widely held perception that it is possible for the EFL learners to attain the high levels of proficiency in writing reading and listening, but they cannot speak English as compared to their peers from around the globe. This is quite concerning as these students have selective and compulsory English courses that run through their almost ten years of compulsory school education. The challenges to speaking by these students had formerly been addressed by sorting out the challenges of deficiencies in teacher development and teacher education, learners' autonomy lack of material and technology in the EFL classes and anxiety in learning a foreign language. The purpose is to seek answers to the challenges of speaking English from the Saudi speaking EFL students themselves. In order to do that a sample of 66 students who have enrolled in year one of intensive preparatory English class will be used. A mixed method research design will be used in the triangulation of the findings for higher validity. Quantitative data will be analyzed with software for data analysis while qualitative data will be analyzed by making use of descriptive analysis. The findings will help to identify the reasons why speaking English is a challenge for Saudi EFL students which will help in the formulation of strategies to overcome such challenges.
  • Gender Representation in Saudi EFL Textbooks: A Study of the Family and Friends Series
    The aim of the present study was to investigate the gender representation in the English as a Foreign Language textbook, Family and Friends 6 KSA second edition, that is designed internationally and widely used in private Saudi elementary schools. To achieve the study goals, a mixed method was used, content analysis and a compiling quantitative data in which the corpus of the English textbook was analyzed; frequencies and percentages of gender appearances and activities were also calculated. The major findings of the study were as follows: First, women were underrepresented in terms of appearance. Second, males were dominant of the reading passages and dialogues topics. Third, there is an overall higher tendency for females to be referenced in sentences before males. forth, males were presented in a wider range and overall a higher level of employment and enjoyed a wider range of spare time and leisure activities than females. Fifth, however, the distribution of household responsibilities was equal between females and males and female activities were not restricted to passive indoor activities. Recommendations and suggestions for further studies are presented at the end of the results section of this paper.
  • The Role of Social Media (YouTube and Snapchat) in Enhancing Saudi EFL Learners' Listening Comprehension Skills
    Despite of the importance of listening in EFL learning and teaching, this skill is not getting as much attention as other skills. Therefore, learners are less motivated to depend on their listening comprehension as a tool to help them in the process of language learning. Social media, especially YouTube and Snapchat, can be effectively used as a pedagogical tool to enhance the listening skills of EFL learners, compared with other traditional audio recording tools. The objective of this research is to investigate the role of social media (YouTube and snapchat) as a method of teaching, in order to enhance EFL Saudi learners' listening comprehension skills. The primary goal of this study is to know whether social media is capable of developing EFL listening comprehension skills, and gaining the deeper understanding of the presented materials. In addition, using these tools makes them familiar with the target language culture and it's native speakers. In order to achieve this objective; the researcher used a mixed method to ensure the research validity: a questionnaire and a post-test.The participants of the study were 50 female students studying in English Language Centre at Taif University. They were randomly selected and they divided into two groups: the experiment group consisted of 20 female students and the control group consisted of 30 female students. The experiment group was instructed using (YouTube and Snapchat) as the control group using traditional audio method. Then there is a post-test is given to both groups to measure their listening comprehension performance. The findings of the study showed that using social media (YouTube and Snapchat) can enhance the listening skill of Saudi EFL leaners. The researcher recommends conducting more studies on other samples from different studies, age levels and from different environments like the schools or training institutes.
  • Integrating Vermeer's Skopos Theory into Newmark's Strategies for Exploring Cultural Problems in Subtitles: A Case Study of the American series Thirteen Reasons Why
    The present study explored some basic cultural problems that translators face during subtitling audiovisual texts, particularly TV series from English into Arabic. The study also provided functional analysis of the solutions occasionally chosen by professional Netflix subtitlers to overcome those cultural problems. The study aimed at showing whether the strategies frequently chosen by the subtitler to deal with particular problematic cultural features were equally successful in achieving functional adequacy in the TT. The researcher integrated Vermeer's functionally based Skopos theory into Newmark's translation procedures to provide a descriptive functional analysis of 44 examples taken from the American series, Thirteen Reasons Why. The content-analysis led to two main findings. The first was related to the most frequent strategies used to render the intended skopos (functions) of the source cultural features; paraphrase being the highest in use since it was used 18 times out of 44. The second finding was that the rate of frequency of strategies chosen correlated strictly with the rate of functional adequacy of these strategies. Paraphrase achieved its intended functions adequately in 15 out of 18 examples
  • Student Teachers' Development of Reflective Practice concerning Teaching Philosophy and Peer Observations
    This study examined the effect of utilizing e-portfolio reflection-enhancing tasks in a practicum course on developing student teachers' level of reflection. It sought to answer how engaging EFL student teachers in writing a teaching philosophy and peer observation affect their understanding of and appreciation for reflective practice and its influence on developing their reflection level and teaching performance. A mixed-methods study design was implemented where both quantitative and qualitative data were collected within this study. Eight female Saudi student teachers enrolled in a teacher education program at a public university in Saudi Arabia participated in this study while completing an 11-week teaching practicum course at a public secondary school in Riyadh. Each participant was tasked with completing a teaching philosophy and six peer observations with other participants within the study. Each task was analyzed for its reflection level based on a rubric developed by El- Okda (2009). Data were also collected through a semi-structured interview with each of the participants. This study demonstrated that while the participants struggled throughout the practicum to develop a cogent teaching philosophy, their level of reflection for the peer observation tasks improved throughout the teaching practice. Their enthusiasm for these tasks and the process of reflection itself was very positive. The results of this study will help teacher educators to create an informative account of reflection in teaching practice programs in ways that encourage reflective practice among student teachers. Future research could continue to explore more reflective tasks that encourage reflection among student teachers.