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- ?Es realmente la pluma mas poderosa que la espada? Instrumentos de escritura como arma en la historia y la literaturaFrom the time when, according to the Babylonian Talmud, Jewish students tried unsuccessfully to defend themselves from the swords of the Roman army with their writing styli, until the present, writing instruments have been used as weapons in real life, literature, cinema and television, but until now this history had not been compiled. In cinema, the first record is "The Naked Gun" (1988), with fountain pen, and the most recent, "John Wick: Chapter 2" (2017), with pencil. On television, the record goes from "CSI: Miami" (2010) to "Forever" (2015), both by pen wounds to the carotid. In real life, uses range from military weapons to opportunistic assassinations. In World War II, the British government developed pens with daggers and explosive pens; and gun pens have been used by governments and by criminals in Vietnam, Russia and North Korea. Recent cases include Jason Webster, the "pen killer" of the University of Hull, and the enigmatic Mr. Xu, the Chinese fountain pen air-pirate. However, in real life, the most famous person to give them this use was Julius Caesar in 44 BC.
- Developmental Idealism in Internet Search DataExisting scholarship on developmental idealism demonstrates that ordinary people around the world tend to perceive the level of development and characteristics of different countries similarly. We build on this literature by examining publics' perceptions of nations and development in internet search data, which we argue offers additional insights into publics' perceptions that survey data does not address. Our analysis finds that developmental idealism is prevalent in international internet searches about countries. A consistent mental image of national development emerges from the traits publics ascribe to countries in internet searches. We find a positive relationship between the sentiment expressed in Google searches about a given country and its position in the global developmental hierarchy. Diverse publics consistently associate positive attributes to countries ranked high on global development indices and negative characteristics to countries ranked low. We also find a positive correlation between the number of internet searches about a country and the country's position in indices of global development. These findings illustrate that ordinary people have deeply internalized developmental idealism and that this informs their views about countries worldwide.
- Literary co-creation (of Kalzhan Nurmakhanov and Chingiz Aitmatov)The article describes the relationship and personal friendship between K. Nurmahanov and Kyrgyz writer Ch. Aitmatov. The translation of the first novels of Chingiz Aitmatov is special with the wealth of the native Kyrgyz language all these facts were observed in the article. The article highlights interesting thoughts from the diary of the critic and private correspondence between Chingiz Aitmatov and K. Nurmakhanov. It is indicated that thanks to the skill of K. Nurmakhanov, the translations of the stories of Ch. Aitmatov reflected the national identity of the two nations: Kyrgyz and Kazakh, when indissoluble unity of their culture was born.
- Mutual Kazakh-Kyrgyz literary translationThe activity of the famous Kazakh literary critic Kalzhan Nurmakhanov was observed in the article; this great person began to study Kyrgyz literature in the 1950s of the twentieth century and was the author of numerous articles published in Kazakh and Kyrgyz press. The critic made a significant contribution to the development of mutual Kazakh - Kyrgyz literary translation.
- Tech Companies as Cybersecurity Norm Entrepreneurs: A Critical Analysis of Microsoft's Cybersecurity Tech AccordThe UN Group of Governmental Experts' (UN GGE) June 2017 failure to build upon its previous work regarding rules for state behavior in cyberspace is widely seen as the breakdown of the institutionalized state-led cyber norms process. Technology firm Microsoft has since led a campaign to convince states and firms to renounce certain cyber operations, advocating for what company President Brad Smith called a "Digital Geneva Convention." Microsoft's April 2018 "Cybersecurity Tech Accord" (CTA) now has 69 members spanning various industries and regions of the world, who have signed on to four principles that some see as the building blocks of an alternative norms process opposing state cyber operations. This paper asks two questions: (1) Why has Microsoft devoted financial and political capital to a cyber norm-building campaign, and (2) Why are other firms joining the CTA?
- The Construction of 'incompetency': Moving beyond embedded paternalism towards moral attitude and practice of 'respect'This article illustrates the less-acknowledged social construction of 'incompetency' and draws attention to the moral concerns it raises in healthcare encounters in the south Indian city of Chennai. Based on data drawn from qualitative study, it reveals that surgeons subjectively construct 'incompetency' through their understanding of the perceived circumstantial characteristics of the patients and family members. The findings suggest that surgeons dismiss their 'capacity' based on constructed assessments which leads to paternalistic practice. I illustrate how these assessments structure the surgeons' practice, and provide the moral and practical justification for their actions. The constructed knowledge becomes the source for drawing normative justification for surgeons' actions and along with socially enforced relationship, jeopardizes patients and family members as 'being persons' who are inured to disrespectful attitude. Drawing on existing philosophical analysis, I argue for the primacy of 'respect for persons', beyond the frameworks of 'capacity/autonomy', to practice 'respect' in hospital settings.
- Culpable ignorance in collective settingThis paper explores types of organisational ignorance and ways in which organisational practices can affect the knowledge we have about the causes and effects of our actions. I will argue that because knowledge and information are not evenly distributed within an organisation, sometimes organisational design alone can create individual ignorance. I will also show that sometimes the act that creates conditions for culpable ignorance takes place at the collective level. This suggests that quality of will of an agent is not necessary to explain culpable ignorance in an organisational setting.
- X vs. Y: An Analysis of Intergenerational Differences in Transport Mode Use Among Young AdultsRecent research has contrasted the travel patterns of young adults of Generation Y (or, synonymously, the Millennial Generation) with the travel patterns of earlier generations of young adults such as those belonging to Generation X. Young adults of Generation Y are found to drive less and, in some contexts, are found to exhibit more multimodal travel patterns and to use public transit more often. Potential causes for these observed shifts in transport mode use have also been theorised: One view is that period effects in the form of contemporaneous changes in socio-cultural, socio-economic and socio-technical factors are responsible for the observed shifts in transport mode use; another view is that members of Generation Y have inherently different preferences and values due to formative socio-cultural, socio-economic and historical experiences. Motivated by this yet-to-be-resolved dialectic, this paper uses a hierarchical Bayesian multivariate Poisson log-normal model to examine intergenerational differences in transport mode use among young adults. The model is applied to 23 waves of the German Mobility Panel and captures between-cohort and between-period variation of parameters of interest. The trained model informs a counterfactual prediction exercise aiming to decompose intergenerational differences in transport mode use into demography-, cohort-, and period-specific effects. Our findings suggest that all three sets of effects account for intergenerational differences in transport mode use, while the absolute and relative importance of each set of effects vary across transport modes. For the period from 1998 to 2016, two thirds of the decline in car use can be ascribed to period effects; nearly all of the increase in public transit use and 42% of the increase in bicycling can be ascribed to cohort effects.
- How Many Justices Does it Take to Control the CourtThe literature on judicial politics has usually suggested that presidents could guarantee their influence over Supreme Courts' decisions provided that presidents nominate at least half of the bench. I argue, however, that this is not always the case, as in some courts, individual justices have primacy over the collective body. I develop a model that states that the control of the agenda power by individual justices is a determinant factor for understanding judicial independence. The Brazilian Supreme Court serves as a good case, as there are several institutional rules that allow each justice to pause or change the result of a judgment, without consulting his or her peers. My research design focuses on three cases studies of the court and 3,043 decisions, which I analyze using matching. Results show that, when the government has a strong interest in a particular lawsuit, the probability of this lawsuit being halted by a Supreme Court justice is higher. The fact that presidents can influence individual justices, and in turn these justices can affect the course of a lawsuit, sheds new light on the role that judicial independence has when considering presidents' influence over Supreme Court decisions.
- Enhancing Socio-technical Governance: Targeting Inequality in Innovation through Inclusivity MainstreamingSocio-technical governance has been of long-standing interest to science and technology studies and science policy studies. Recent calls for midstream modulation direct attention to a more complicated model of innovation, and a new place for social scientists to intervene in research, design and development. This paper develops and expands this earlier work to demonstrate how a suite of concepts from science and technology studies and innovation studies can be used as a heuristic tool to conduct real-time evaluation and reflection during the process of innovation - upstream, midstream, and downstream. The result of this new protocol is inclusivity mainstreaming: determining if and how marginalized peoples and perspectives are being maximally incorporated into the model of innovation, while highlighting common problems of inequality that need to be addressed.
- Alienation in a Four Factor WorldThis paper aims to reconstruct the concept of alienation as a live topic for active social theorizing. Joining Marxian and Simmelian ideas, it provides a multi-dimensional, formal, and synthetic theory of alienation. The paper develops a set of theoretical tools for articulating formal elements of action that make alienation possible, without giving conceptual priority to alienation in the sphere of production, or within that sphere to the alienation of labor. These tools make it possible to derive classical notions of alienation as specific, contingent combinations of multiple elements, theorizing them as concrete socio-historical configurations of a broader universe of possibilities. They also organize systematic reflection on various forms and relations of alienation; not only those between for instance labor and capital, but also among all four factors of production: land, labor, capital, and entrepreneurship. The paper accordingly develops an original, multi-dimensional theorization of alienation for a complex, pluralistic world.
- Debiasing in a minute or less, or too good to be true? The effect of micro-interventions on decision-making quality.In this study, the effects of a novel debiasing micro-intervention (an intervention that requires to training or instructions) are tested in three experiments. The intervention is epistemologically informed and consists of two questions that prompt the quantification of degrees of a belief (``How certain am I?'') and the justification of a belief (``Why?''). In all three experiments, this intervention was ineffective. Unexpectedly, however, when the micro-intervention consisted only of the justification question (``Why?''), there was a small, but noticeable positive effect in two experiments. Overall, even though the hypothesized effects were not observable, a justification prompt might be a potentially effective micro-intervention that should be explored in future research.
- Cardinality Constrained Portfolio Optimization Using bee Colony Algorithm (Case Study: Tehran Stock Exchange)One of the most studied variant of portfolio optimization problems is with cardinality constraints that transform classical mean-variance model from a convex quadratic programming problem into a mixed integer quadratic programming problem which brings the problem to the class of NP-Complete problems. Therefore, the computational complexity is significantly increased since cardinality constraints have a direct influence on the portfolio size. In order to overcome arising computational difficulties, for solving this problem, researchers have focused on investigating efficient solution algorithms such as metaheuristic algorithms since exact techniques may be inadequate to find an optimal solution in a reasonable time and are computationally ineffective when applied to large-scale problems. In this paper, our purpose is to present an efficient solution approach based on an artificial bee colony algorithm with feasibility enforcement and infeasibility toleration procedures for solving cardinality constrained portfolio optimization problem. Computational results confirm the effectiveness of the solution methodology. In this study, the ABC-I algorithm and the ABC-II algorithm, which are the modern meta-innovative models for solving optimization problems, have been used to optimize the investment portfolio with the goal of increasing returns and reducing risk. Of the 591 companies listed on the Tehran Stock Exchange, 150 companies were selected during the period from 2014 to 2018 using a systematic elimination method with limitation as the final sample. The data from these companies were analyzed using the algorithms used in the research and their performance was compared. The results of the research indicate that the ABC-II algorithm is more efficient than ABC-I for solving the stock portfolio optimization problem.
- Out of Tune: How People Understand Social Exclusion at ConcertsPrevious work has studied the exclusive nature of legitimate cultural contexts, such as art museums and classical concerts. I offer a more comprehensive view by considering social exclusion in cultural settings varying in terms of legitimacy and by studying how people differ in their understanding of social exclusion (that is, criteria used to draw social boundaries demarcating certain cultural settings as inappropriate for some people). I scrutinize the centrality of modes of consumption in these understandings of social exclusion. Using survey data representative for the Flemish population (n=3,144), I inductively analyse attitudes towards classical and pop/rock concerts. I uncover four understandings of social exclusion that are present with regard to both types of concerts. These understandings differ (a) in whether they stem from an insiders' or outsiders' perspective and (b) in how they use modes of consumption as criteria for social exclusion. Additionally, I find that people's understanding of social exclusion--i.e., which criteria people consider relevant for social exclusion--drives what cultural contexts they perceive as socially exclusive.
- The potential of new technologies to disrupt housing policyThis study examined disruptive digital technologies, investigating their potential for reshaping housing markets and reconfiguring housing policy. It provides housing policy makers and practitioners with a nuanced understanding of how technology is already restructuring housing markets and affecting housing assistance programs, as well as insights into likely future developments.
- When National Unity Governments are neither National, United, nor Governments: The Case of TunisiaIs power-sharing an effective way for endangered transitional democracies to reduce political tensions and improve government performance? We provide one of the first quantitative tests of this question in Tunisia, the Arab Spring's only success story. We argue that power-sharing may reduce polarization for a limited time, but at the cost of undermining democratic institutions. To measure polarization, we examine all rollcall votes from Tunisia's first and second post-transition parliaments. We employ a time-varying ideal point model and examine whether power-sharing agreements led to convergence in political parties' ideal points. Our analysis reveals that Tunisia's national unity government in 2015 temporarily moderated political tensions and allowed for parliamentary activity to resume. However, despite a broadening of the coalition in mid-2016, polarization reemerged and crucial legislation stalled. Moreover, longitudinal survey data suggest that the failure of power-sharing in Tunisia contributed to disillusionment with political parties, parliament, and democracy.
- Valuing the Cause: A Theory of Authenticity in Social MovementsScholars of contentious politics expect that social movement organizations (SMOs) are valued according to their ability to craft resonant frames or to enact displays of worthiness. We offer an alternative, relational perspective highlighting the critical role of authenticity in shaping an SMO's perceived value. Unlike frames and intentional displays, calculated efforts to proclaim authenticity often backfire. We distill two orthogonal types: grassroots (in)authenticity, based on idealized notions of civil society, and institutional (in)authenticity, rooted in cultural-cognitive schemas used to judge fit with established SMO categories. Grassroots authenticity benefits an SMO's fundamental legitimacy, while lacking it entirely (i.e. "astroturfing") severely harms public support. Institutional authenticity increases resources and survival chances, intelligibility to elite observers, and clarity of collective identities; still, lacking this (via hybridity) may assist in recruitment and outreach. We build propositions that elaborate these expectations and argue that authenticity should become a more central concept in social movement research.
- How the techniques of molecular biology are developed from natural systemsA striking characteristic of the highly successful techniques in molecular biology is that they are derived from natural systems. RNA interference (RNAi), for example, utilises a mechanism that evolved in eukaryotes to destroy foreign nucleic acid. Other examples include restriction enzymes, the polymerase chain reaction, green fluorescent protein and CRISPR-Cas. I propose that biologists exploit natural molecular mechanisms for their effectors' (protein or nucleic acid) activity and biological specificity (protein or nucleic acid can cause precise reactions). I also show that the developmental trajectory of novel techniques in molecular biology, such as RNAi, is four characteristic phases. The first phase is discovery of a biological phenomenon, typically as curiosity driven research. The second is identification of the mechanism's trigger(s), the effector and biological specificity. The third is the application of the technique. The final phase is the maturation and refinement of the molecular biology technique. The development of new molecular biology techniques from nature is crucial for biological research. These techniques transform scientific knowledge and generate new knowledge.
- Detecting Footnotes in 32 million pages of ECCOIn "An Answer to the Question: What is Enlightenment?", the eighteenth-century German philosopher Immanuel Kant responded to a big question buried in a little footnote. But you wouldn't know it, because contemporary editions of Kant's famous essay no longer reproduce the parenthetical directive that Kant's original essay printed right under the essay's title in the December issue of the Berlinische Monatsschrift in 1784: "S. Decemb. 1783. S. 516." (See December 1783, p. 516). And, in fact, page 516 in the December volume of the Berlinische Monatsschrift 1783 has a footnote: "What is Enlightenment? This question is nearly as important as: what is truth? And should certainly be answered before one starts to enlighten! But I have yet to find it answered anywhere."
- Visualizing Individual Outcomes of Social Mobility Using HeatmapsResearch on the consequences of social mobility usually draws on information about a categorical origin and destination variables as well as an outcome variable. I discuss several ways to visualize such data and show an example of a heatmap created in Stata.
- Exposure to Global Cultural Scripts through Media and Attitudes toward Violence against WomenGlobal cultural scripts about what is right and wrong are spreading to lay people around the world and affecting their attitudes. The sources of information that expose people to these scripts contain far more diversity in content than recognized. I focus on the exposure mechanism of media and examine the effects of various types of media on people's attitudinal rejection of violence against women in Malawi. Combining five national surveys between 2000 and 2016 with a new dataset capturing local newspaper content, I show that media effects are heterogeneous. Personal radio use, especially listening to programs that criticize violence against women, increases rejection of such violence. Conversely, television consumption decreases rejection, as much of the content available comes from foreign sources that depict violent behavior. The publication of newspaper articles condemning violence increases rejection of violence against women net of personal newspaper use. Moreover, people's odds of rejection increased after the country's only tabloid newspaper, which normalized violence and negatively portrayed women, abruptly shut down. These results support the conclusion that different types of media have divergent influences on people's attitudes toward violence against women. The effects of different mechanisms of global cultural diffusion is contingent on the content therein.
- The Melting-Pot Problem? The Persistence and Convergence of Premigration Socioeconomic Status During the Age of Mass MigrationA long-standing debate is concerned over how long premigration socioeconomic differences persisted for immigrants and their descendants who entered at the turn-of-the-twentieth century. Some researchers argue that differences exist today, over 100 years after first arrival, while others argue that most differences disappeared after the third generation. However, none of this research has directly measured pre-migration socioeconomic status nor has it directly linked immigrants to their children. I create a new panel dataset that follows immigrants and their children from the sending country through settlement. Specifically, I link ship manifest records to census records to track how long premigration socioeconomic differences persist across generations. Passenger records provide a wealth of information of individuals including the occupation before arrival. I analyze how long premigration differences persist within and between groups. Whereas premigration socioeconomic status is associated with the first generation's economic outcomes after settlement, many of these differences disappear by the second generation. These results suggest that background is not destiny for immigrant descendants. As scholars and politicians debate about whether countries should admit primarily high-skilled or low-skilled immigrants, the results from this article tell us whether such selection policies are necessary to ensure strong migrants' performance in a period of open borders.
- Experience Does not Eliminate Bubbles: Experimental EvidenceWe study the role of experience in the formation of asset price bubbles. Therefore, we conduct two related experiments. One is a call market experiment in which participants trade assets with each other. The other is a learning-to-forecast experiment in which participants only forecast future prices, while the trade, which is based on these forecasts, is computerized. Each experiment comprises three treatments that vary the amount of information about the fundamental value that participants receive. Each market is repeated three times. In both experiments and in all treatments, we observe sizable bubbles. These bubbles do not disappear with experience. Our findings in the call market experiment stand in contrast to the literature. Our findings in the learning- to-forecast experiment are novel. Interestingly, the shape of the bubbles is different between the two experiments. We observe flat bubbles in the call market experiment and boom-and-bust cycles in the learning-to-forecast experiment.
- Are there negative consequences of workforce diversity? Investigating the effect of group faultlines on turnover and organizational performanceThere is strong empirical evidence that workforce diversity is beneficial for organizations. The theoretical concept of faultlines stresses, however, that diversity can also have negative consequences. This is the case when the sub-groups differ not just with regard to one characteristic but with regard to several characteristics simultaneously. This paper is the first to examine the negative consequences of faultlines with large-scale data on organizations in the public and private sector. Fixed-effects regressions are used to investigate the impact of functional (working time, tenure, qualification) and demographic (age, gender, nationality) faultlines on turnover and organizational performance. We also consider the interaction between firm size and faultlines. Regarding turnover, we do not find the expected negative effects of demographic and only limited evidence for functional faultlines. The effects of demographic faultlines on performance, in turn, are negative for small organizations and become positive for organizations with more than 10 members.
- Work-Family Reconciliation Policies and Women's and Mothers' Labor Market Outcomes in Rich DemocraciesProminent research has claimed that work-family reconciliation policies trigger "tradeoffs" and "paradoxes" in terms of gender equality with adverse labor market consequences for women. These claims have greatly influenced debates regarding social policy, work, family, and gender inequality. Motivated by limitations of prior research, we analyze the relationship between the two most prominent work-family reconciliation policies (paid parental leave and public childcare coverage) and seven labor market outcomes (employment, full-time employment, earnings, full-time earnings, being a manager, being a lucrative manager, and occupation percent female). We estimate multi-level models of individuals nested in a cross-section of 21 rich democracies near 2005, and two-way fixed effects models of individuals nested in a panel of 12 rich democracies over time. The vast majority of coefficients for work-family policies fail to reject the null hypothesis of no effects. The pattern of insignificance occurs regardless of which set of models or coefficients one compares. Moreover, there is as much evidence that significantly contradicts the "tradeoff hypothesis" as is consistent with the hypothesis. Altogether, the analyses undermine claims that work-family reconciliation policies trigger tradeoffs and paradoxes in terms of gender equality with adverse labor market consequences for women.
- What explains the negative effect of unemployment on health? An analysis accounting for reverse causalityThe unemployed are often in poorer health than their employed counterparts. This cross-sectional correlation is often attributed to a causal effect of unemployment on health. Resent research analyzing longitudinal data, however, often supports alternative explanations, such as spurious correlation and/or selection of unhealthy workers into unemployment (i.e., reverse causality). In this paper, we apply a dynamic panel data estimator (system GMM) to account for both unobserved confounders and reverse causality. Despite some evidence for health selection, we still find strong support for the causality thesis. Furthermore, we show that the adverse health effect is partially explained by the loss of self-perceived social status due to unemployment but not by the loss of household income or social contacts.
- Science, technology and innovation policies in Latin-America: fifteen years of scientific output, impact and international collaborationDuring the 2000s, several changes in the science, technology and innovation (STI) policies guidelines occurred in Latin-American (LA) countries. In this study, we explore the effects of STI policies on the state of research in Argentina, Brazil, Colombia and Mexico using the scientific output and impact as well as the level of international collaboration indicators.
- Socialization, Identity and Psychological Resilience among Arab-Palestinian and Jewish High School Students in IsraelThe aim of the present research study was to compare the relationships between identity (nationalistic, religious and ethnic), socialization processes (home and school), and psychological resilience (self-esteem, self-efficacy, and well-being) of Arab-Palestinian and Jewish high school students in Israel. 317 tenth and eleventh grade students (163 Arab-Palestinian students including 93 girls and 70 boys; and 154 Jewish students including 70 girls and 84 boys) participated in the study. The research was conducted in two state Arab-Palestinian schools, one state secular-Jewish school, and one state religious-Jewish school. The research employed a series of questionnaires. First, a background questionnaire was used to collect basic data about the students; a second questionnaire assessed the nationalistic and religious socialization of the Jewish teenagers and the nationalistic, religious, and ethnic socialization of the Arab-Palestinian adolescents; a third questionnaire assessed the salience of national and religious identity among the Jewish participants, and the salience of national, religious, and ethnic identity among the Arab-Palestinian participants; a fourth questionnaire examined indices of psychological resilience, namely self-esteem, self-efficacy, and the sense of well-being of the Arab-Palestinian and Jewish students. The research findings indicate differences between the socialization processes experienced by the Arab-Palestinian students and those experienced by the Jewish students. The nationalistic socialization experienced by the Jewish adolescents was stronger than that experienced by the Arab-Palestinian adolescents, while the Arab-Palestinian adolescents experienced stronger religious socialization than that experienced by the Jewish adolescents. In addition, the level of religious identity was higher among the Arab-Palestinian participants than among the Jewish participants. On the other hand, there were no significant differences between the two groups regarding salience of national identity. The findings did not indicate differences between the two groups with regard to self-esteem and well-being. However, the self-efficacy of the Arab-Palestinian students was found to be higher than that of the Jewish students.
- An Empirical Study of Surveillance AnxietyWe use the natural lab of music festivals to examine attendee attitudes towards surveillance and escalations or introductions of surveillance into formerly unpoliced space. Festivals are liminal spaces that free participants from the constraints of everyday life--social norms and regulations. A number of accidental festival deaths, drug confiscations, pick pockets, molesters and a terroristic mass shooting have been widely reported in the media (e.g., 2014 Coachella, 2011 Electric Daisy, 2017 Las Vegas Harvest Festival). In response, festival organizers have felt socially and governmentally compelled to introduce or escalade security measures to ensure attendee safety. We are interested in the fundamental conflict between the festival as liminal and outside the rules of everyday life and the festival as a surveilled/policed space. There is already a natural tension between feeling safe and feeling policed in everyday life and the use of festivals as a microcosm of changes in the balance between these two elements provides an ideal opportunity to assess whether or not increased security is welcome and makes people feel safer. The speed at which change takes place in the festival microcosm (compared to the slower pace of urban surveillance) allows a static but intense moment of data capture that may inform the larger social debate surrounding surveillance technologies.
- Housing, homelessness and mental health: towards systems changeThis research progresses the priority areas identified by the National Mental Health Commission and provides evidence about the systemic issues and policy levers to provide housing and services for people with lived experience with mental ill health.
- Coordinated ShirkingIn the financial crisis of 2008, losses on popular new securitized products far exceeded predictions. This paper studies this episode with a model of technology adoption: a principal tries to induce costly effort from a group of agents charged with vetting new technology. The principal is unwilling to simultaneously punish large groups of agents, so they shirk when coordination is possible. Widely applicable technology expands productive possibilities but also provides an opportunity for coordinated shirking, and can thus lead to widespread production failure. Furthermore, even agents who learn that they are using flawed technology may continue to do so.
- TOPONYMS AS PROXY OF CULTURAL ECOSYSTEM SERVICES: AN EXAMPLE USING CHILEAN MUNICIPALITY NAMESEcosystem services, the benefits people obtain from ecosystems, have been shown to have a positive relationship with biodiversity. The relationship of cultural ecosystem services (CES) with biodiversity is unclear because CES requires subjective evaluations that are difficult to quantify. Toponyms, the places name, reflect human assessment of the natural environment components, such as species composition, that may be reflexed in the place designation. Therefore, regions with greater biodiversity (e.g. species richness) might be expected to exhibit a greater proportion of toponyms related to biotic elements that places with lower biodiversity. We assessed this prediction using the meaning of 346 municipalities in Chile. Specifically, we analyzed the relationship between species richness and the proportion of toponyms that reference biotic elements at two spatial scales: coarse-grained (regions) and fine-grained (municipalities) scales. Toponyms were categorized according to language origin as being either native (non-Spanish, mainly from Mapuche and Quechua people) or non-native (Spanish). At the coarse-grained scale, we found a positive correlation between species richness and the proportion of toponyms associated with biotic elements (e.g. species names). This relation was maintained when only native language toponyms were considered. At the fine-grained scale, only toponyms with native origin showed a marginal relationship between species richness and the probability that toponyms carry a meaning related to biotic elements. We observed that biodiversity is reflected in the name of places, reinforcing the cultural importance of biodiversity, especially among native people. We propose that toponyms could be incorporated into models used to measure the relative importance of Cultural Ecosystem Services.
- Remaining childless or postponing first birth?Childlessness has received attention in the past decades, as it may indicate a new lifestyle and has substantial influences on many aspects of the female life course. An increase in the number of childless people has been observed throughout Europe, North America, and Japan. Accompanying this trend, the mean age at first childbirth has increased. However, whether the phenomenon of remaining childless or that of postponing first childbirth is the main contributor has not been clearly investigated. The aim of this study is to quantify those effects using a decomposition method. We employ the classical life table method to measure changes in first childbirth behavior. Life expectancy is normally used in mortality research to represent the average number of years people live. In childlessness (first childbirth) research, life expectancy signifies the expected number of years without children, as the event of focus is first childbirth. Thus, we define the expected years without children as age 15 to age 50 (EYWC) using the Coale-McNeil model. To avoid the problems of truncation and censoring, only completed cohort fertility data of eight selected countries from the Human Fertility Database are examined. EYWC is decomposed into three factors: remaining childless, postponing first childbirth, and expansion of the standard deviation of mean age at first childbirth. Results of the decomposition show that postponement is mainly occurred in North America and Northern European countries. Contrarily, remaining childless is observed as the main contributor in Japan and Portugal.
- Agency Correlates of Police Militarization: The Case of MRAPsIn 2014, protests in Ferguson, Missouri (MO), and the subsequent law enforcement response, shined a light on police militarization--the adoption of military styles, equipment, and tactics within law enforcement. Since 1990, the U.S. Department of Defense has transferred excess military equipment to domestic law enforcement agencies via the federal 1033 program. This article examines transfers of mine-resistant ambush-protected vehicles or MRAPs. Designed to withstand explosive blasts during U.S. military occupations in Iraq and Afghanistan, surplus MRAPs have been shipped to more than 800 domestic law enforcement agencies. This article uses national data on law enforcement agencies and on 1033 program transfers to analyze the pattern of MRAP distribution. The results show that MRAPs are disproportionately acquired by agencies that have warrior tendencies and rely on asset forfeiture to generate revenue. This pattern of militarization is consistent with a model of governance that views citizens as both opportunities and threats.
- Carbon fueling complex global value chains tripled in the period 1995-2012Complex global value chains are those involving more than two countries and imply that a country imports products as capital goods or intermediate inputs to the production of its exports. When tracing the life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of traded products, for example for border carbon adjustments, such emissions are counted at each border crossing. The prevalence and dynamics of this phenomenon have been poorly understood. This paper shows that GHG emissions associated with the production of imports that enter export production have risen rapidly from 1995, peaking 2012 and declining slightly to 2016. They now constitute a total of 4.4 PgCO2equ. or 10% of global emissions. The most important exported products in terms of emissions associated with imported inputs are chemicals, vehicles, machinery, and ICT products. Crude petroleum, iron and steel, chemicals, and ICT components are the imported products being used for this export production. A decomposition analysis indicates that in industrialized countries, the declining domestic value added in exports (VAX) and increasing share of exports in GDP have contributed most to this development, while in emerging economies, the growth of GDP itself has been an important driving factor, while declines in the energy intensity of export production have provided a weak counterbalance. The importance of transiting carbon raises questions of how climate policies affect industrial competitiveness and how a potential border tax regime would account for such emissions.
- Mathematical Modeling and Inference for Degree-capped Ego-centric Network SamplingThe structure of social networks is usually inferred from limited sets of observations via suitable network sampling designs. In offline social network sampling, for practical considerations, researchers sometimes build in a cap on the number of social ties any respondent may claim. It is commonly known in the literature that using a cap on the degrees begets methodologically undesirable features because it discards information about the network connections. In this paper, we consider a mathematical model of this sampling procedure and seek analytical solutions to recover some of the lost information about the underlying network. We obtain closed-form expressions for several network statistics, including the first and second moments of the degree distribution, network density, number of triangles, and clustering. We corroborate the accuracy of these estimators via simulated and empirical network data. Our contribution highlights notable room for improvement in the analysis of some existing social network data sets.
- Review, replication, and re-analysis of a recent study on the impact of abortion law on maternal mortality in Mexico - Maintaining rigor and research integrityThis report provides a review, replication, and re-analysis of an study by Darney et al (Contraception. 2017;95(1):105-111) on the association between maternal mortality ratio (MMR, number of maternal deaths per 100,000 live births) and abortion legislation in Mexico City compared with 31 other states. In their study, Darney et al disputed evidence from our study (Koch et al, BMJ Open 2015;5(2):e006013), which found a null association between abortion laws and MMR, and reported their own conclusion of a negative association between abortion availability and MMR. After replicating their dataset and statistical analysis, we found that the beta coefficient (effect size) for abortion legislation was apparently misinterpreted by Darney et al to support the conclusion that legislation allowing abortion on request in Mexico City was associated with a 22.49-unit decrease in MMR. In fact, their analysis showed the opposite result: after multivariable adjustments, Mexico City was associated with a 22.49-unit increase in MMR compared with the 31 states with restricted access to abortion. Moreover, Darney et al did not report the initial time-adjusted effect size, where the 95% CI supports the hypothesis of null association (beta = 4.17; 95%CI -7.19 to 15.54; p=0.470). In our re-analysis of their data, estimates were highly unstable in multiple regression models, and the initial effect size (4.17) for the association between abortion legislation and the MMR was inflated up to 5-fold (22.49) as a result of a 'tipping effect' on coefficients and multicollinearity among covariates. In conclusion, our reanalysis of Darney et al's study provides evidence of serious methodological flaws, faulty statistical analysis and misinterpretation of regression coefficients, ultimately resulting in an invalid conclusion.
- Balance zwischen Erwerbstatigkeit und Familienleben. Eine vergleichende Studie unter Eltern in vier europaischen LandernDie Autoren untersuchen in ihrer Studie zum Thema Work-Life-Balance die komplexen Wechselwirkungen zwischen Familienleben und Arbeitswelt. Grundlage hierzu bilden Analysen des Konfliktpotentials sowie der Moglichkeit einer gegenseitigen Bereicherung. Als Bezugssysteme stehen neben Deutschland auch Grossbritannien, Schweden und Ungarn im Fokus, da diese vier als Reprasentanten unterschiedlicher Wohlfahrtsstaatsregime zu betrachten und dementsprechend zu vergleichen sind. Zudem gehen die Autoren auf die Ressourcenbelastungstheorie nach Voydanoff (2004) ein, die einen wichtigen theoretischen Grundbaustein fur die abschliessende Auswertung der Ergebnisse darstellt.
- Reforming the Common European Asylum System: enough rainbow for queer asylum seekers?Since the 1990s, the European Union (EU) has slowly developed an increasingly sophisticated body of asylum law and policy, known as the Common European Asylum System (CEAS). This framework - both in the shape of legislative instruments and case law - has inevitably also affected those asylum seekers who claim asylum on the basis of sexual orientation and/or gender identity (SOGI). This has been vividly demonstrated by particular norms in EU asylum instruments and judgments of the Court of Justice of EU (CJEU). The current CEAS can be said to have several shortcomings in relation to SOGI claims, including in relation to: accelerated procedures; country of origin information; the notion of 'safe country of origin'; the burden of proof and the principle of benefit of the doubt; the concept of a 'particular social group'; and the definition of persecution. A new set of proposals for reform of the CEAS was put forward in 2016, and these also affect SOGI asylum claims in precise and acute ways. This contribution scrutinises these proposals of reform, including the different positions of the Commission, Parliament and Council, where relevant. In particular, this contribution will assess the extent to which these proposals and different institutional positions address, ignore or aggravate the issues that currently affect SOGI asylum seekers.
- Restrictive Immigration Law and Birth Outcomes of Immigrant WomenUnauthorized immigration is one of the most contentious policy issues in the United States. In an attempt to curb unauthorized migration, many states have considered restrictive laws intended to make life so difficult for unauthorized immigrants that they would choose to leave the country. Arizona's Senate Bill 1070, enacted in 2010, was a pioneering example of these efforts. Using population-level natality data and causal inference methods, we examined the effect of SB1070 on infants exposed before birth in Arizona. Prenatal exposure to the bill resulted in lower birth weight among Latina immigrant women, but not among US-born white, black, or Latina women. The decline in birth weight resulted from exposure to the bill being signed into law, rather than from its (limited) implementation. The findings indicate that the threat of a punitive law, even in the absence of implementation, can have a harmful effect on the birth outcomes of the next generation.
- The multiple meanings of translational research. Negotiating medical scienceWe begin this essay by sketching out the emergence of the translational research terminology in different settings such as biomedical research and nursing science. We then discuss some theoretical concepts that might help us to sharpen our analytical focus for answering our research questions, and follow this by presenting our methodology and discussing our results. Finally, we conclude with some insights into the challenge that translational research provides for a current understanding of research practices and research objects in medical science.
- Intergenerational exchange of health encouragement: Consideration of ancestry and disease riskImproving diet is a prime target for the prevention and management of chronic disease. Using network data from 69 Australian families from three ancestry groups (Anglo, Italian, and Asian) with varied family health histories, the present study used social network analysis to identify patterns of intergenerational encouragement of healthful eating behavior within families, and assess whether patterns varied by family ancestry or disease risk. Findings indicated variation in patterns of health encouragement by ancestry. Asian-Australian families were unique in their demonstration of intergenerational solidarity patterns. While there was no main effect of familial disease risk, Italian-Australian families demonstrated encouragement patterns from the sandwich generation in the context of lower family-history based risk. These results provide important context for future family-based interventions that leverage normative patterns of intergenerational transfer of encouragement or aim to modify such patterns in an effort to improve family health.
- Extreme Child Poverty and the Role of Social Policy in the United StatesThis paper applies improved household income data to reevaluate the levels, trends, composition, and role of social policy in extreme child poverty in the U.S. from 1997-2015. Unlike prior research, we correct for the underreporting of means-tested transfers and incorporate the Supplemental Nutritional Assistance Program (SNAP). Doing so reduces the share of children below $2 per day from about 1.8% to 0.1%. That said, we acknowledge use of survey data omits the estimated 1.3 million homeless children in 2014-2015. We find that three different measures of extreme child poverty have declined since 1997. Unlike prior literature's focus on single motherhood, citizenship status is the more consequential characteristic. Between 58-73% of children in extreme poverty live in households headed by non-citizens. Simulations granting them access to the median SNAP benefit reduce their extreme poverty substantially. Two-way fixed effects models show that higher state-level generosity and take up of SNAP and TANF significantly reduce extreme poverty. Unlike prior research's focus on the decline of TANF, we show SNAP has grown in generosity and take-up. In turn, changes to social policy since 1997 have probably had offsetting effects on extreme child poverty.
- Autism: is there a place for reattach therapy?Review of the book Autism: is there a place for ReAttach therapy? edited by Paula Weerkamp-Bartholomeus. The book Autism: is there a place for ReAttach therapy? edited by Paula Weerkamp-Bartholomeus is new monograph in the field of psychotherapy and support for patients with mental health problems. The content of the book has contributions by international professionals working in the field of clinical psychology, psychiatry, immunology as well as genetics. It is organised into a preface and five separate chapters, which are briefly analysed below, presenting a differentiated but coherent perspective of the ReAttach approach proposal.
- Autistic child and his mother: marker molecules of blood and reflection of molecular and cellular disturbancesAutism is gradually becoming an epidemic. The frequency of this disorder now is one per 60-80 infants, against 1:5000-10000 approximately 60-70 years ago. Because epidemics of genetic disease do not occur, this confirms that most cases of autism are not associated with the genome problems but rather with the progressive deepening of environmental problems. Environmental pressure may be barely noticeable for an adult, but this could disturb the development of a much more fragile foetus. A variety of industrial and agricultural pollutants, heavy metals, pathogenic bacteria, etc. may be involved in the pathogenesis of autism. All of them cause similar persistent changes in the production of autoantibodies and cytokines influencing the foetal development. Moreover, trans-placental transfer of the excess of some maternal auto-antibodies of IgG class leads to pre-birth 'tuning' of the immune system of the foetus by mechanisms of maternal immune imprinting. This phenomenon could be an additional factor in the pathogenesis of autism. It is noted that the environment-induced immune changes are mostly adaptive for the mother; however, for the unborn child, they can often be the factors of pathogenesis. Discuss the possibility of the study of repertoires of maternal autoantibodies for the prediction of normal or abnormal development of the foetus and the birth of the newborn with congenital disorders that are not caused by gene defects.
- Plasma Concentration of Immunoglobulin Classes and Subclasses in Children with Autism in the Republic of Macedonia: Retrospective StudyAim. To examine plasma concentration of IgA, IgM, IgG classes, and IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4 subclasses in children with autism. Methods. Infantile autism was diagnosed by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV and the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 criteria. Plasma samples were collected from 35 autistic subjects, and their 21 siblings (biological brothers and sisters)who served as healthy controls. Plasma samples were separated by centrifugation and stored at -20 C until the determination. Plasma immunoglobulin classes (IgM, IgA, IgG) and subclasses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4) were determined using a nephelometer. Results. Plasma concentrations (mean standard deviation) of IgM and IgG in autistic children (1.36 0.31 g/L and 13.14 1.27 g/L, respectively) were significantly higher (p=0.031 and p=0.023, respectively) in comparison with their healthy brothers or sisters (1.20 0.15 g/L and 12.39 0.96 g/L, respectively). Children with autism had significantly higher plasma concentrations of IgG4 (p<0.001) compared to their siblings (healthy brothers or sisters). Plasma concentration of IgA, IgG1, IgG2, and IgG3 were similar in autistic children and their healthy brothers or sisters. Increased plasma concentration of IgG1 was found (p=0.027) in autistic males (8.06 2.40), as compared with their healthy brothers (5.24 4.13 g/L). Plasma concentrations of IgG (14.28 3.66 g/L), and IgG1 (9.41 2.20 g/L) in autistic females were increased (p=0.012 and p=0.021, respectively) in comparison with IgG (11.07 2.07) and IgG1 (6.37 3.38g/L) in their healthy sisters. Conclusion. Children with autism have increased plasma concentration of immunoglobulines. Increased immunoglobulines in children with autism could be a result of impaired development of the immune system, and/or genetic factors connected with defense mechanism in these children.
- An Overview of the History and Methodological Aspects of PsychometricsIntroduction: The use of psychometric tools such as tests or inventories comes with an agreement and acceptance that psychological characteristics, such as abilities, attitudes or personality traits, can be represented numerically and manipulated according to mathematical principles. Psychometrics and its close relation with statistics provides the scientific foundations and the standards that guide the development and use of psychological instruments, some of which are tests or inventories. This field has its own historic foundations and its particular analytical specificities and, while some are widely used analytical methods among psychologists and educational researchers, the history of psychometrics is either widely unknown or only partially known by these researchers or other students. Objectives: With that being said, this paper provides a succinct review of the history of psychometrics and its methods. From a theoretical approach, this study explores and describes the Classical Test Theory (CTT) and the Item Response Theory (IRT) frameworks and its models to deal with questions such as validity and reliability. Different aspects that gravitate around the field, in addition to recent developments are also discussed, including Goodness-of-Fit and Differential Item Functioning and Differential Test Functioning. Conclusions:This theoretical article helps to enhance the body of knowledge on psychometrics, it is especially addressed to social and educational researchers, and also contributes to training these scientists. To a lesser degree, the present article serves as a brief tutorial on the topic.
- Reattach within neurorehabilitation: a case reportINTRODUCTION: Physiotherapists pay more and more attention to improving sensory integration when treating people with a brain injury. It is also more common for physiotherapists to pay attention to cognitive rehabilitation and psychosocial factors. ReAttach is a short-term multimodal intervention combining: a) sensory integration, b) cognitive rehabilitation and c) systemic work. Recently ReAttach was introduced in the field of neuro-rehabilitation and therefore it is professionally applied by medics (physiotherapists, speech therapists and occupational therapists) and by neuropsychologists as well. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this case-study is to evaluate the effectivity of ReAttach in a patient with CVA by applying the intervention which includes stimulation of sensory integration and cognitive rehabilitation. Can this patient with CVA benefit from ReAttach? METHOD: Five ReAttach sessions were applied to a patient with CVA in both hemispheres. Also his wife received five ReAttach sessions as part of the systemic approach. Pre- and post- measurements on functional skills, balance, fatigue and global condition were conducted to evaluate results. Follow up after 2 months. RESULTS: The results of this case-study suggest that by simultaneously stimulating sensory integration, cognitive rehabilitation and influencing environmental factors (ReAttach) a significant positive change can be achieved in a patient with CVA. CONCLUSION: Although this result is promising, more research is needed to further investigate the effectivity of ReAttach in larger controlled samples in neuro-rehabilitation. This case-study must be interpreted as a first positive impression.
- Reducing symptoms of social anxiety in a young adult: a case study on reattachIntroduction: ReAttach is a new, multi-modal psychological intervention based on the theoretical principles of arousal regulation, information processing and schema therapy. Practical research indicates that ReAttach significantly reduces psychological problems in both adults and children. Theories on ReAttach state that this is done by creating functional schemas, which in turn create more effective coping styles in clients and decrease psychological distress. Objectives: This article aims to provide a better understanding of ReAttach theory and give insight in the treatment process. Methods: This is done by linking theory to the treatment process of a young adult (N=1) with symptoms of social anxiety. Results: The psychological distress in the client decreased from 32 (serious problems) to 12 (no problems). Conclusion: ReAttach decreased symptoms of anxiety in the young adult and the theoretical principles of arousal regulation, information processing and schema therapy seem applicable to the case.
- Effectiveness of reattach therapy in management of emotional dysregulation with OCPD, PTSD, anxiety and stress in young adultsEmotional dysregulation has three major components which contribute to some of the major symptomatology in disorders like Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, anxiety and stress. These components are: excessive intensity of emotions, poor processing of emotions and negative reactivity to emotions, which overlap as well as distinct symptoms with possible manifestations of emotional dysregulation like angry outbursts or behaviour outbursts such as destroying or throwing objects, aggression towards self or others, and threats to kill oneself, especially in young adults. These patients have a chronically and ongoing difficult time with the level of cooperation and social ability required for a healthy and fulfilling existence. ReAttach Therapy through its Multiple Sensory Integration Processing by Cognitive Bias Modification, has been found to be very helpful in the effective management of maladaptive emotions and helps developing interpersonal effectiveness, emotion regulation skills (expressing emotions effectively), behaviour control and distress situations management skills, which in turn helps the overall decrease in symptomatology of the above mentioned disorders.