# Papers

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SocArXiv papers

• The ‘New Jungle Law’: Development, Indigenous Rights and ILO Convention 169 in Latin America
This article explores the relationship between indigenous rights, international standards, and development in Latin America with a specific focus on ILO Convention 169 on the rights of indigenous and tribal peoples and its application in the region. Whereas, on the one hand, democratic change, constitutional reforms and the recognition of indigenous peoples signal the emergence of a new rights era, on the other hand, deep-running inequalities, persistent poverty and development conflicts reveal structural tensions and the ambiguities of recognition. While such ambiguity is often explained as a consequence of poor implementation and compromised rights standards, this article analyses trends in both orthodox and heterodox polities as well as in the international arena in order to draw further attention to how rights regimes are being renegotiated. Rights under this ‘new jungle law’ are no longer characterised by neglect and poor implementation, but through reappropriation, strategic attention and regulatory negotiations, revealing a sliding scale of potentialities between empowerment and normalisation.
• Transformative Treatments
Transformative Treatments
• Curating in the Open: A Case for Iteratively and Openly Publishing Curatorial Research on the Web
Through a case study of using social media tools to open up part of the curatorial research process for an online exhibit on the history of astronomy at the Library of Congress, I offer some initial ideas about how an open approach to sharing curatorial research could significantly expand the impact and reach of such work. Drawing on three distinct emerging conceptions and frameworks for the idea of “open” (open notebook science, linked open data, and open innovation) I suggest how this case study can be used to guide work with existing simple and inexpensive tools and how it could also inform the development of future tools, services and exhibit development methods. This work builds on an ongoing discussion of open data in libraries, archives, and museums. To date, most of that dialog is about object records and not about the stories and narratives cultural heritage institutions tell about them. I suggest ways to make the production of cultural heritage data, as well as the final outputs, part of an open and transparent process.
• Real-time causal inference
The paper highlights several areas on statistical measurement and causal inference in common real-time data environments. Treatment effects under real-time randomization within data streams are found estimable using controlled and natural experiments motivated by real-time regression analyses. A bias occurs as a result of ignoring concept drift when classical regression statistics are naïvely applied to real-time experimental data. An algorithm performs difference-in-difference estimation in real-time. A new Problem of Causal Inference is introduced for real-time data environments.
• The geometry of mortality change: Convex hulls for demographic analysis
We introduce convex hulls as a data visualization and analytic tool for demography. Convex hulls are widely used in computer science, and have been applied in fields such as ecology, but are heretofore underutilized in population studies. We briefly discuss convex hulls, then we show how they may be applied profitably to demography. We do this through three examples, drawn from the relationship between child mortality and adult survivorship (5q0 and 45p15 in life table notation). The three examples are: (i) using convex hulls for outlier identification; (ii) for studying sex differences in mortality; and (iii) for studying period and cohort differences. We find, respectively, that convex hulls can be useful in robust compilation of demographic databases, and that the gap/lag framework for sex differences or period/cohort differences is more complex when mortality data are arrayed by two components as opposed to a unidimensional measure such as life expectancy. The potential applicability of these methods goes beyond mortality.
• Geoprivacy
Location is uniquely sensitive in terms of the kinds of things that it reveals about us as individuals and the ways in which those disclosures are made. This chapter examines the ways in which the rapid proliferation and resulting pervasiveness of spatial media are radically reconfiguring norms and expectations around locational privacy. Existing definitions of locational are individualistic, emphasizing a negatively defined rights oriented approach to privacy – for example, the right to not have one’s location monitored. Privacy, however, is being relocated from the individual to the network, where privacy violations and harms increasingly occur beyond the site of the individual. Encompassing more than solely location, a broadened concept of ‘geoprivacy’ must account for the emergent complex of potential privacy harms and violations that may arise from a number of nascent realities of living in a spatial big data present: i) from the spatial-media enabled pervasive capture and repurposing of individuals’ personal spatial-relational and spatio-temporal data; ii) from the ways in which individuals cast digital footprints as they move across the numerous sensor networks of smart cities; iii) from the circulation and analytics of these data, which position individuals as spatially vulnerable in various and unprecedented ways; and, iv) from the inability of individuals to control highly personal flows of spatial information about themselves in networked device and data ecologies.
• OSMnx: New Methods for Acquiring, Constructing, Analyzing, and Visualizing Complex Street Networks
Urban scholars have studied street networks in various ways, but there are data availability and consistency limitations to the current urban planning/street network analysis literature. To address these challenges, this paper presents OSMnx, a new tool to make the collection of data and creation and analysis of street networks simple, consistent, automatable and sound from the perspectives of graph theory, transportation, and urban design. OSMnx contributes five significant capabilities for researchers and practitioners: first, the automated downloading of administrative place boundaries and building footprints; second, the tailored and automated downloading and constructing of street network data from OpenStreetMap; third, the algorithmic correction of network topology; fourth, the ability to save street networks to disk as shapefiles, GraphML, or SVG files; and fifth, the ability to analyze street networks, including calculating routes, projecting and visualizing networks, and calculating metric and topological measures. These measures include those common in urban design and transportation studies, as well as advanced measures of the structure and topology of the network. Finally, this paper presents a simple case study using OSMnx to construct and analyze street networks in Portland, Oregon.
• How Our Neighborhoods Lost Food, and How They Can Get It Back
Does food matter in neighborhood planning and design? Should it matter? The answer is yes, but decades of planning policy and practice seem to suggest otherwise. There are many proven benefits of healthy, accessible, affordable and sustainable food. Proper nourishment has been linked to better classroom performance. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention argue that walkable access to healthy food can reduce America’s growing obesity and diabetes epidemics. Locally-sourced food reinforces better dietary habits as consumers connect with the value chain and perceive eating as a more natural process.
• LEED-ND and Livability Revisited
This study examines LEED-ND’s criteria for Neighborhood Pattern and Design (NPD). LEED-ND was developed as a system for rating new neighborhoods on the sustainability of their planning. However, it has increasingly been adopted by cities as a de facto measure of “livable” neighborhood design and used to accelerate development processes. We hypothesize that these criteria do not accurately capture livability as defined by residents. Our study area is Temescal, a gentrifying neighborhood in Oakland, CA. Temescal could not achieve LEED-ND certification due to technical disqualifications yet residents of the neighborhood rated its livability very highly. Furthermore, residents consistently rated and ranked NPD characteristics quite differently than did LEED-ND, calling into question its validity as a universally codifiable rating system. We propose that a single set of weighted, prescriptive design guidelines may not be able to reflect the diverse values and desired amenities of different communities.
• The Effects of Inequality, Density, and Heterogeneous Residential Preferences on Urban Displacement and Metropolitan Structure: An Agent-Based Model
Urban displacement – when a household is forced to relocate due to conditions affecting its home or surroundings – is frequently caused by rising housing costs, particularly in wealthy, prosperous cities. However, its dynamics are complex and often difficult to understand. This paper presents an agent-based model (ABM) of urban settlement, agglomeration, displacement, and sprawl. New human settlements form around a natural amenity that draws initial, poor settlers to subsist on the resource. As the settlement grows, subsequent settlers of varying income, skills, and interests are heterogeneously drawn to either 1) the natural amenity or 2) the emerging human agglomeration. As the agglomeration grows and densifies, land values increase, and the initial poor settlers may be displaced away from the natural amenity on which they relied. Through path dependence, high-income residents remain clustered around this natural amenity for which they have no direct use or interest. The agent-based model presented here explores the dynamics of this process. In particular, it reveals how urban displacement and gentrification can be sensitive to income inequality, density, and varied preferences for different types of spatial amenities.
• Understanding Cities through Networks and Flows
Complexity theory has become a popular frame for conceptualizing and analyzing cities. The theory proposes that certain large systems are characterized by the nonlinear, dynamic interactions of their many constituent parts. These systems then behave in novel and unpredictable ways—ways that cannot be divined by examining the components of the system. Complexity theory problematizes traditional reductionist, linear methods of scientifically analyzing and predicting cities. It also opens up a new world of scholarship to researchers keen to formulate new kinds of sciences that take complexity into account. These attempts usually follow Kuhn’s theory of paradigm shifts: new evidence and modes of thinking undermine an established science, and a new science emerges to replace it.
• Prison Gangs
Although widely seen as unruly and predatory, prison gangs operate as quasi-governments in many American correctional facilities. Inmate groups enforce property rights, regulate illicit markets, and promote cooperation when the state is unable or unwilling to act. Prison gangs are relatively new to the United States, and are best understood as unintended consequences of recent shifts in inmate demographics and the gradual erosion of the convict code. The impact of prison gangs on street-level criminal activities and directions for further research are also discussed.
• Neighborhood Change, One Pint at a Time: The Impact of Local Characteristics on Craft Breweries
Cities have recognized the local impact of small craft breweries, in many ways altering municipal codes to make it easier to establish breweries and making them the anchor points of economic development and revitalization. Nevertheless, we do not know the extent to which these strategies impacted changes at the neighborhood level across the nation. In this chapter, we examine the relationship between growth and locations of craft breweries and the incidence of neighborhood change across the United States. In the first part of the chapter, we rely on a unique dataset of geocoded brewery locations that tracks openings and closings from 2004 to the present. Using measures of neighborhood change often found in literature on gentrification-related topics, we develop statistical models relying on census tract demographic and employment data to determine the extent to which brewery locations are associated with social and demographic shifts since 2000. The strongest predictor of whether a craft brewery opened in 2013 or later in a neighborhood was the presence of a prior brewery. We do not find evidence entirely consistent with the common narrative of a link between gentrification and craft brewing, but we see a link between an influx of lower-to-middle income urban creatives and the introduction of a craft breweries. We advocate for urban planners to recognize the importance of craft breweries in neighborhood revitalization while also protecting residents from potential displacement.
• Armed groups: problems of theory and classification
This paper argues in favor of a theory and classification of armed groups that sets them at the center of political and social sciences. Starting from the problem of order, it argues that without armed groups one cannot understand how stable societies form, function and reproduce themselves. It challenges the preeminence of concepts such as class and gender, which are seen as depicting later-formed social structures. It proposes a classification of armed groups based on their permanent or impermanent character, as well as the reasons for using violence, mostly extractive and ideological. The article also discusses armed groups operating within the state.
• Notice and Takedown in Everyday Practice
*Abstract:* It has been nearly twenty years since section 512 of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act established the so-called notice and takedown process. Despite its importance to copyright holders, online service providers, and Internet speakers, very little empirical research has been done on how effective section 512 is for addressing copyright infringement, spurring online service provider development, or providing due process for notice targets. This report includes three studies that draw back the curtain on notice and takedown: 1. using detailed surveys and interviews with more than three dozen respondents, the first study gathers information on how online service providers and rightsholders experience and practice notice and takedown on a day-to-day basis; 2. the second study examines a random sample from over 100 million notices generated during a six-month period to see who is sending notices, why, and whether they are valid takedown requests; and 3. the third study looks specifically at a subset of those notices that were sent to Google Image Search. The findings suggest that whether notice and takedown “works” is highly dependent on who is using it and how it is practiced, though all respondents agreed that the Section 512 safe harbors remain fundamental to the online ecosystem. Perhaps surprisingly in light of large-scale online infringement, a large portion of OSPs still receive relatively few notices and process them by hand. For some major players, however, the scale of online infringement has led to automated, “bot”-based systems that leave little room for human review or discretion, and in a few cases notice and takedown has been abandoned in favor of techniques such as content filtering. The second and third studies revealed surprisingly high percentages of notices of questionable validity, with mistakes made by both “bots” and humans. The findings strongly suggest that the notice and takedown system is important, under strain, and that there is no “one size fits all” approach to improving it. Based on the findings, we suggest a variety of reforms to law and practice. Note: This is an updated version of the original paper. It includes two new appendices and some minor updates and corrections. Also available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2755628
• The role of ego in academic profile services: Comparing Google Scholar, ResearchGate, Mendeley, and ResearcherID
Academic profiling services are a pervasive feature of scholarly life. Alberto Martín-Martín, Enrique Orduna-Malea and Emilio Delgado López-Cózar discuss the advantages and disadvantages of major profile platforms and look at the role of ego in how these services are built and used. Scholars validate these services by using them and should be aware that the portraits shown in these platforms depend to a great extent on the characteristics of the " mirrors " themselves.
• Narcissism Over Ideology: Revealed versus Stated Terrorist Preferences
What preferences motivate the severity of terrorist attacks? I investigate how some terrorists adjust their fatalities when unexpectedly deprived of public attention, relative to other terrorists that are not deprived of public attention. Losing public attention raises the severity of terrorism: Boko Haram terrorist fatalities surged following the rebasing of Nigeria's economy, which catapulted the country into Africa's largest and the top twenty-five worldwide. The largest spike in Boko Haram terrorist fatalities occurred in the wake of the Nigerian Ebola health crisis. Although Boko Haram claims an anti-education sentiment, their fatalities do not actually differ significantly from Al Shabaab fatalities during the Nigerian national basic education examination. Overall, terrorists consider well-being changes as threats that have more validity than the persuasiveness of their own claimed ideologies. The results are robust to acknowledging other conflict actors in Nigeria and Somalia that have distinct motivations. Terrorist groups do not significantly vary the severity of their attacks during Ramadan. Given extremists' vulnerable self-concepts, emphasizing revealed relative preferences may undermine terrorist credibility and recruitment.
• The unbalanced theoretical toolkit: Problems and partial solutions to studying culture and reproduction but not culture and mobility
Many theories explain how culture is linked to class reproduction but few explain how culture is linked to class mobility. This article argues that this theoretical imbalance is problematic as it ignores key stratification processes. The article then develops three concepts that link culture to downward mobility and three concepts that link culture to upward mobility. These concepts offer initial steps toward understanding how cultural differences between the classes are associated with class mobility as well as class reproduction.
The greater potential for engagement is enabling citizens to build new services on top of government systems, and to analyze the same data that government maintains for its internal use. This lets citizens not only comment to government, but co-produce government. To enable this, government leaders should: * Welcome the Civic Hackers - Local government leaders have had some notable successes cooperating with civic hackers to leapfrog the business-as-usual approach of government and its contractors. * Eat Your Own Dog Food - When a government leader makes her agency’s databases shareable with citizens, this will also make the databases more reliable for the agency. * Don’t Panic about Guerrilla Government - Technology is making off-the-clock engagement by government employees both inevitable and productive. Related informatoin is at http://www.PubAdmin.org
• Chefs Know More than Just Recipes: Professional Vision in a Citizen Science Game
The main purpose of this study is to investigate players’ professional vision and interpret their use of recipes during their gameplay. The main research question is: What do players observe and do when they use recipes in their gameplay? To address this question, we examined the choices made by players solving two different kinds of puzzles, a beginner’s puzzle and an advanced one. Specifically, we studied when, how and why the players ran recipes when solving the puzzles, and what actions those recipes performed in the gameplay.
• We Live in a Motorized Civilization: Robert Moses Replies to Robert Caro
In 1974, Robert Caro published The Power Broker, a critical biography of Robert Moses’s dictatorial tenure as the “master builder” of mid-century New York. Moses transformed the urban fabric and transportation system of New York in a profound way, producing the Brooklyn Battery Tunnel, the Verrazano Narrows Bridge, the Westside Highway, the Cross-Bronx Expressway, the Lincoln Center, the UN headquarters, Shea Stadium, Jones Beach State Park and many other projects. However, The Power Broker did lasting damage to his public image and today he remains one of the most polarizing figures in city planning history. On August 26, 1974, Moses issued a 23-page typed statement denouncing Caro’s work as “full of mistakes, unsupported charges, nasty baseless personalities, and random haymakers.” The statement went on to gainsay several of Caro’s assertions one at a time. Robert Moses’s typewritten response survives today as a grainy photocopy from the New York City Parks Department archive. To better preserve and disseminate it, I have extracted and transcribed its text using optical character recognition, and edited the result to correct transcription errors.
• Concurrent activation of two task sets by implicit and probabilistic contextual cues
• 3D Printing Jurassic Park: Copyright law, cultural institutions, and makerspaces
Case Note - Rimmer, Matthew (2016) 3D printing Jurassic Park: Copyright law, cultural institutions, and makerspaces. Pandora's Box. 1-12.
• The Maker Movement: Copyright Law, Remix Culture and 3D Printing
Article - Matthew Rimmer, 'The Maker Movement: Copyright Law, Remix Culture and 3D Printing' (2017) 41 (2) The University of Western Australia Law Review 51-84.
• Beasts of Prey or Rational Animals? Private Governance in Brazil's Jogo do Bicho
This work presents a rational choice account for the jogo do bicho ('animal game'), possibly the largest illegal lottery game in the world. Over 120 years, the jogo do bicho has grown into a multimillion-dollar business and exerted a significant impact on the Brazilian society. The lottery has been a major sponsor of the Carnival Parade in Rio de Janeiro, which is among the world's most famous popular festivals, and it has remained an important driver of state corruption in the country. This work investigates the institutions that have caused the jogo do bicho's notable growth and long-term survival outside the boundaries of the Brazilian law. It also explains the emergence of the informal rules that govern the game as well as their enforcement mechanisms. Keywords: Brazil; criminal organisations; gambling; jogo do bicho; private governance JEL Codes: D72, K42, P26, P37, Z00 DOI: https://doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/GYDNB BibTeX entry: @misc{freire2017jogodobicho, title={{Beasts of Prey or Rational Animals? Private Governance in Brazil's \emph{Jogo do Bicho}}}, howpublished = {\url{https://doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/GYDNB}}, publisher={SocArXiv}, author={Freire, Danilo}, year={2017}, month={Mar} }
• Reforming reform: public assessments of the affordability of health insurance policies
Background: Republicans have moved rapidly to repeal the Affordable Care Act, replacing progressive elements of the plan with regressive elements. We draw on an earlier affordability exercise to evaluate how Americans might view these elements of health care reform. Methods: Immediately prior to passage of the ACA, we conducted a telephone survey of a representative sample of U.S. households. Respondents were presented vignettes representing different insurance plans, each held by people with differing life characteristics. Respondents were then asked to assess the affordability of the presented plans given the characteristics of the policyholders. Results: Respondents felt that households should be expected to pay about 5% of income for health insurance coverage, irrespective of their income. They also tended to view older households as less able to afford coverage than younger households, and households with sicker occupants as less able to afford healthcare than households with healthy occupants. Results did not differ between respondents in red states and those in blue states. Conclusions: Most Americans, including those who reside in red states, believe that subsidies for health insurance premiums should be based on a fixed percentage of household income, not a fixed dollar amount. These perceptions may make it challenging to replace the ACA with a less costly alternative plan.
• The Unit of Translation
This paper tackles the topic of the Unit of Translation (UT) with the aim of making a number of suggestions that might bring up new insights into this thorny issue. UT has been differently tackled by scholars and related to general text types, or functions. In this paper, UT is related to the micro text levels and a number of text-functions. It concludes that the UT issue cannot be tackled in terms of wide generalizations of macro text types and that many practical factors interfere in the choice of UT such as text length, text complexity, time pressure, translator’s experience, and degree of conformity between SL &amp; TL languages and cultures.
• Intellectuals, Politicians, and the Public in Chinua Achebe’s A Man of the People: A Postcolonial Critique
This paper sheds light on the possible hope for the Nigerian situation in Chinua Achebe’s A Man of the People (1966), away from bankrupt intellectuals, corrupt politicians, and an ignorant public. This novel portrays two schools of ineffectual native educators who seem to be antagonists: the traditional old school and the new modern intellectuals. Postcolonial/race theories of Fanon, Appiah, Du Bois, and Woodson as well as Gramsci’s notion of the “organic intellectual” are employed to get a clearer image of the role of intellectuals and politicians in shaping the future of a country in the post-independence era. The article concludes that intellectuals with European education may contribute to the corruption of their country due to reasons like divided loyalties, miseducation, and lack of communication with the public. Additionally, Achebe is critical of the current politicians and the excluded public. So, our analysis employs Woodson’s concept of “the miseducation of the Negro” because such “miseducation” produces incompetent politicians like Chief Nanga, weak intellectuals like Odili Samalu, and ignorant people like the public in the novel. Real hope against governmental corruption in Achebe's satirical novel can be found in integrating the class of intellectual/political leaders and the public and in a different kind of indoctrination, neither colonial nor neo-colonial. The truly educated class and the “organic intellectuals” produced from the public are key solutions for a better "Nigeria." Hence, this article highlights the role of politicized education in post-independence nation building and tackles the mishaps of nascent nationalism.
• Unpacking Blockchains
The Bitcoin digital currency appeared in 2009. Since this time, researchers and practitioners have looked “under the hood” of the open source Bitcoin currency, and discovered that Bitcoin’s “Blockchain” software architecture is useful for non-monetary purposes too. By coalescing the research and practice on Blockchains, this work begins to unpack Blockchains as a general phenomenon, therein, arguing that all Blockchain phenomena can be conceived as being comprised of transaction platforms and digital ledgers, and illustrating where public key encryption plays a differential role in facilitating these features of Blockchains.
• Quantifying the Linguistic Landscape: A Study of Spanish-English Variation in Pilsen, Chicago
Study of speech and written texts has provided significant insight regarding linguistic variation and its social correlates. Variation in the representation or display of language, however, remains a relatively understudied phenomenon. With this in mind, we present a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the variation observed in the Linguistic Landscape (LL) of Pilsen, Chicago. A community undergoing perceived processes of gentrification, Pilsen is an active site of economic, sociocultural change as well as newly intensified language contact. To investigate Pilsen’s displayed language variation, we implement a series of logistic regression models that analyze the distribution of both language and contextual framing observed on signs in four key areas in Pilsen. In doing so, we present an informed means with which to understand the sociolinguistic context of Pilsen as a community undergoing change and provide a replicable framework for future study of LLs that experience similar dynamics.
• Chronotypography: Nostalgia and Modernity in South Delhi's Linguistic Landscape
The study of Linguistic Landscapes (LL) is an investigation of the multifaceted relationships between spaces and subjects: how subjects structure space through signs, how subjects themselves are ordered or affected by signs and how space and subject dynamics reflect, reproduce or refute various ideological configurations. Utilizing the perspective of visceral landscapes, this paper will explore the evocative potential of the Linguistic Landscape on viewing subjects by looking at the different semiotic strategies employed by signs to bring about affective engagement. To do so, we focus on particularized experiences of modernity and nostalgia referenced in the commercial signage of South Delhi, India to explore the ways in which specific configurations of time and space are used to produce the evocative. We engage the notion of chronotopes, conceptualized envelopes of time and space that enable the interpretation of semiotic arrangements or practices (Agha, 2007a; Bakhtin, 1981; Blommaert, 2015; Silverstein, 2005). In highlighting how chronotopes in South Delhi’s LL serve as “invokable histories” (Blommaert, 2015: 110), summoning images and senses of times, spaces and people, we show how signs may attempt at the visceral as well as contribute to the further quantification or flattening of such experiences (Kockelman, 2006).
• The Quality of Quantity
The field of Linguistic Landscapes has grown significantly from its beginnings in quantitative approaches concerned with the counting of languages and signs in the attempt to gauge linguistic vitality to a discipline in its own right, concerned not only with the documentation of languages’ public presence, but the complex relationship between language, place and people. This expansion in scope has, for the most part, moved away from quantitative methods in favor of more in-depth ethnographic approaches, situating the optimal analysis of the LL within careful consideration of the context(s) in which a sign may occur and/or bring about as well as the fluidity of interpretation researchers must allow in their assessments of signs’ significance (Banda and Jimaima 2015; Jaworski and Thurlow 2010; Malinowski 2010; Kallen 2010). In the face of such shifts towards contextualization over context or process over product, quantitative-based approaches which tend to rely on the establishment of discrete categories may be seen as problematic (Gorter and Cenoz 2015; Gorter 2006). This chapter, however, will argue that if enacted with caution and precision, quantitative methods – particularly the use of inferential statistics – continue to offer significant insight for LL research.
• Living Labs, vacancy, and gentrification
This paper evaluates smart city (SC) initiatives in the context of re-using vacant property. More specifically, we focus on living labs (LL) and vacancy in general, as well as on their potential role in fostering creative economy-fuelled gentrification. LL utilise Lo-Fi technologies to foster local digital innovation and support community-focused civic hacking, running various kinds of workshops and engaging with local citizens to co-create digital interventions and apps aimed at ‘solving’ local issues. Five approaches to LL are outlined and discussed in relation to vacancy and gentrification: pop-up initiatives, university-led activities, community organised venues/activities, citizen sensing and crowdsourcing, and tech-led regeneration initiatives. Notwithstanding the potential for generating temporary and independent spaces for transferring and fostering digital competences and increasing citizens’ participation in the SC, we argue that LL largely foster a form of participation framed within a model of civic stewardship for ‘smart citizens’. While presented as horizontal, open, and participative, LL and civic hacking are often rooted in pragmatic and paternalistic discourses and practices related to the production of a creative economy and a specific version of SC. As such, by encouraging a particular kind of re-use of vacant space, LL potentially contributes to gentrification pressures within locales by attracting the creative classes and new investment. We discuss these approaches and issues generally and with respect to examples in Dublin, Ireland.
• S.L. Frank and the Concept of Perezhivanie (Erlebnis)
In this paper, I will elucidate how perezhivanie (Erlebnis) is at the centre of Semyon Ludvigovich Frank’s (1877-1950) realism, and explain why the result of Frank’s theory is different from the relativism that is characteristic of Life-Philosophy, particularly that of the German philosopher Wilhelm Dilthey. I will also look at how Frank’s study of Goethe led him to attempt to overcome the idea that intuitive knowledge of reality and knowledge by means of reasoning are incompatible. I will try to explain how Frank attempts to avoid the trap of relativism into which life-philosophy such as that of Dilthey, who also studied Goethe, is prone to fall.
• Online Disclosure of Incriminating Information: Patterns of Risky Information Behavior in Two Drug Forums
• Rethinking Data Sharing and Human Participant Protection in Social Science Research: Applications from the Qualitative Realm
While data sharing is becoming increasingly common in quantitative social inquiry, qualitative data are rarely shared. One factor inhibiting data sharing is a concern about human participant protections and privacy. Protecting the confidentiality and safety of research participants is a concern for both quantitative and qualitative researchers, but it raises specific concerns within the epistemic context of qualitative research. Thus, the applicability of emerging protection models from the quantitative realm must be carefully evaluated for application to the qualitative realm. At the same time, qualitative scholars already employ a variety of strategies for human-participant protection implicitly or informally during the research process. In this practice paper, we assess available strategies for protecting human participants and how they can be deployed. We describe a spectrum of possible data management options, such as anonymization and applying access controls, including some already employed by the Qualitative Data Repository (QDR) in tandem with its pilot depositors. Throughout the discussion, we consider the tension between modifying data or restricting access to them, and retaining their analytic value. We argue that developing explicit guidelines for sharing qualitative data generated through interaction with humans will allow scholars to address privacy concerns and increase the secondary use of their data.
• How Movies with a Female Presence Fare With Critics
This study explores one potential mechanism contributing to the persistent underrepresentation of women in film by considering whether movie critics reward or penalize films with an independent female presence. Drawing on a sample of widely distributed movies from 2000 to 2009 (n=975), we test whether films that pass the Bechdel Test (two or more named women speak to each other about something other than a man) have higher or lower Metacritic scores net of controls including arthouse production label, genre, production budget, including a top star, and being a sequel. The results indicate that the mere inclusion or absence of an independent female presence has no effect on a film’s composite critical evaluation. These findings suggest that while critical reviews are not a major factor contributing to women’s exclusion from film, movie critics as a whole do not advocate for films with an independent female presence.
• Social Organisation and the City: The role of space in the reduction of social entropy
How can individual acts amount to coherent systems of action? In this article, we attempt to answer this key question by suggesting that there is a role for cities in the way we coordinate seemingly chaotic decisions. We look into the elementary processes of social organisation exploring a particular concept: ‘social entropy’, or how social systems deal with uncertainty and unpredictability in the transition from individual actions to action systems. Examining ideas that (i) actions rely on informational differences latent in their environments, and that (ii) the city itself is an informational environment to actions, we propose that (iii) the city produces differences in the probability of connections between actions, becoming an essential part of the reduction of social entropy as a way to advance social organisation. We investigate this process through simulations of distinct scenarios of action orientations and spatial conditions. Finally, we suggest that states and fluctuations of social entropy are a vital part of social reproduction, and reveal a deep connection between social, informational and spatial systems.
• Boudourides, Why and how culture matters in community interorganizational structure
Our aim here is to plead for the significance of cultural considerations of overlapping inter—attitudinal patterns right next to well established structural considerations of interorganizational networks based on overlapping membership patterns. In particular, we examine how the analytic methodological incorporation of cultural attributes or attitudes might enhance our understanding of structural community categorizations in interorganizational networks. For this purpose, we analyze data of the International Peace Protest Survey (IPPS) on the world—wide peace protests of February, 15, 2003, in or- der to manifest the added value offered by the consideration of the culture- structure duality in participation studies.
• Archaeology along the Ghaghar Basin in Hissar District, Haryana: A Recent Perspective
The good relation of Human to the land and environment is the first step of the stability in any culture. It makes them to find all suitability to survive, grow and develop. The search of basic requirement to fulfill the need of the man which makes a bound to stay at certain place but it is simultaneously true that man has always a tendency to not depend on anything. It always tried to overcome the problems and in course of the time they become adaptive. The story of the river is story of the civilization. Basically rivers are more or less behind the rise and fall of any civilization. The oldest civilization of Bharata is called as the Saraswati civilization or Indo- Saraswati civilization or Indus civilization. Although this is matter of debate as presently there is no Saraswati river flowing on and what was the name of the palaeochannel on which the number of sites have been discovered is not known again this is also not valid for Western UP and Gujarat region similarly only Indus civilization is also not correct as the number of the sites ratio is much lower than the palaeoriver course ratio.
• The Evolution and Consequences of Peer Producing Wikipedia’s Rules
Wikipedia’s policies, guidelines, and other rules can be revised edited by anyone at any time, creating a rule environment that has changed substantially over its 15-year history. Wikipedia provides a remarkable benchmark for understanding the potential and pitfalls of self-governance in a knowledge commons and empirically informing theories of networked governance and institutional analysis. Using a corpus of 725,000 revisions made to 2,012 pages about rules and rule discussions since 2001, we explore the dynamics of English Wikipedia’s rule-making and maintenance over time. Our analysis reveals a policy environment marked by on-going rule-making and deliberation across multiple regulatory levels more than a decade after its creation. This dynamism is however balanced by strong biases in the attention and length towards older rules coupled with a diminishing flexibility to change these rules, declining revision activity over time, and a strong shift toward deliberation.
• Reason and Nature - a Canadian Perspective
In the following essay, I will try to analyze the relationship between reason and nature, as it appears in the work of Canadian philosopher, William Lyall.
• Les effets imprévus de la diplomatie américaine dans le cadre du congrès pour la liberté de la culture
La diplomatie culturelle peut avoir des conséquences inattendues. Ce travail s'intéresse ici aux circulations des idées et aux divergences entre l'Europe et les USA dans le cadre du Congrès pour la liberté de la culture. Ce congrès est considéré aujourd’hui par un historien de la CIA comme une des opérations de la guerre froide les plus audacieuses et efficace.
• Evaluating the Effect of Homicide Prevention Strategies in São Paulo, Brazil: A Synthetic Control Approach
Although Brazil remains severely affected by civil violence, the state of São Paulo has made significant inroads into fighting criminality. In the last decade, São Paulo has witnessed a 70% decline in homicide rates, a result that policy-makers attribute to a series of crime-reducing measures implemented by the state government. While recent academic studies seem to confirm this downward trend, no estimation of the total impact of state policies on homicide rates currently exists. The present article fills this gap by employing the Synthetic Control Method to compare these measures against an artificial São Paulo. The results indicate a large drop in homicide rates in actual São Paulo when contrasted with the synthetic counterfactual, with about 20,000 lives saved during the period. The theoretical usefulness of the Synthetic Control Method for public policy analysis, the role of the Primeiro Comando da Capital as a causal mediator, and the practical implications of the security measures taken by the São Paulo state government are also discussed. Keywords: Brazil, homicides, PCC, synthetic control, urban violence Replication files: https://github.com/danilofreire/homicides-sp-synth Citation: Freire, Danilo. 2016. “Evaluating the Effect of Homicide Prevention Strategies in São Paulo, Brazil: A Synthetic Control Approach.” http://osf.io/8tmhe/ @misc{freire2016evaluating, title={{Evaluating the Effect of Homicide Prevention Strategies in São Paulo, Brazil: A Synthetic Control Approach}}, howpublished = {\url{https://osf.io/vxe56}}, publisher={Open Science Framework}, author={Freire, Danilo}, year={2016}, month={Dec} }
• Why Settlement Scaling Research is a Good Fit for Archaeology
This paper is for the 2017 Annual Meeting, Society for American Archaeology. Although initially developed to understand contemporary urban systems, the method and theory of settlement scaling are particularly appropriate for archaeological data. The scaling framework can be seen as an outgrowth of existing archaeological research on demography and settlement patterns. Although developed independently, the "social reactor" model that explains observed patterning is, in fact, well grounded in anthropological and archaeological theory. The key process that drives change is “energized crowding,” or the social interactions among individuals within the built environment. The scaling framework is general enough to apply to settlements in all types of human societies; it does not require the institutions or behaviors of the contemporary capitalist economy. This is a thoroughly empirical line of research that generates propositions that can be rigorously tested against archaeological data. Our positive findings to date contribute to a richer and broader fundamental understanding of human settlements, their generative character, and their changes over time.
• Conceptual and Methodological Aspects of Documenting the History and the Future of Monuments Restoration – Towards an Interdisciplinary Perspective
The objective of the paper is the methodological presentation of the basic principles towards a critical interdisciplinary approach for studying the history of monuments restoration, valid for different cultures. The proposed integrated framework offers the possibility to study and document monuments restoration in various spatial levels e.g. global, continental, international, national, regional, and local. The conceptual and methodological aspects are based on the following fundamental pillars a) the development of science and technology, including relevant history of education, b) the evolution of the restoration philosophy, c) the incorporation of the above in restoration projects at a lower level, d) the infiltration of the above in restoration interventions at the lowest level. The author expects that the above successive and/or parallel levels of scientific branches can contribute effectively to the analysis, synthesis and comparative assessment of the aspects and criteria that influenced monuments restoration timeline. The challenge for the researcher of the monuments restoration history is the adjustment of the whole process to his own –under research- level in such a way as to take advantage of all the interdisciplinary inputs creating, thus, inventive links and stimulating new information and knowledge. The above are briefly tested in the case study of Thessaloniki, Macedonia, Greece. Such an inductive approach will enable all disciplines to devote their finest efforts towards understanding, documenting and studying monuments restoration history and, thus, support effectively a sustainable future for the world’s cultural heritage.
• Spatialisations: Rhythmanalysis and spatial drawing
This paper presents ‘spatial drawing’ as a means of apprehending and intervening in the rhythms of urban life. Using a practice-led approach, it contributes to an emerging literature that develops Henri Lefebvre’s rhythmanalysis as a method for inquiry. It applies an experimental, recursive logic to the process of rhythm analysis in an attempt to reveal a temporal structure which is layered like the growth rings of a tree rather than laid out in lines or cycles, a dendrochronology of duration. The paper is organised into three distinct movements. The first aims to develop a rhythmanalytic method of drawing. Lefebvre gave only general principles when describing the process of rhythmanalysis. While Lefebvre and his interlocutors describe the disposition that rhythmanalysts must cultivate, they articulate few details and provide fewer examples of how an applied rhythmanalysis should proceed. In dialogue with Lefebvre’s portrait of the rhythmanalyst, I experiment with ‘spatial drawing’, that is, ephemeral drawing in three dimensions. The second movement of this paper turns the first inside out. Using a recursive logic, it applies rhythmanalysis to spatial drawing itself. Where the first movement developed drawing as a tool for rhythmanalysis, the second movement uses rhythmanalysis to theorise and critique the drawn artefact. Using a practice-led approach, the method will be illustrated in relation to the temporalities of Pembroke College, Cambridge. In a third movement, a further recursive application of rhythm analysis, the author produced a site-specific spatial drawing in situ during the week before the commencement of the conference. This drawing analysed and respond to the rhythms and flows on the grounds of the college. This drawing is evaluated and analysed.
• Does Opening Complaints Data Change Company and Consumer Behavior? Evidence from the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau
I analyze a technological change which improved the public monitoring of customer treatment in the financial industry. A unique policy exposed all US credit card complaints online while keeping mortgage-related complaints concealed. Exposed companies were more likely to close complaint files while providing explanations and relief to aggrieved consumers and in a timely manner. The transparency policy was not blunted by economic inequality. Consumers seem to procrastinate in reporting exposed banks while rewarding exposed banks for their improved behavior with new accounts, and debt remained generally stable. Other industries may be interested in the potential benefits of being exposed online.
• The invention, transmission and evolution of writing: Insights from the new scripts of West Africa
West Africa is a fertile zone for the invention of new scripts. As many as 20 have been devised since the 1830s (Dalby 1967, 1968, 1969, inter alia) including one created as recently as 2002 (Mbaye 2011). Talented individuals with no formal literacy are likely to have invented at least three of these scripts, suggesting that they had reverse-engineered the ‘idea of writing’ on the same pattern as the Cherokee script, i.e. with minimal external input. Influential scholars like Edward Tylor, A. L. Kroeber and I. J. Gelb were to approach West African scripts as naturalistic experiments in which the variable of explicit literacy instruction was eliminated. Thus, writing systems such as Vai and Bamum were invoked as productive models for theorising the dynamics of cultural evolution (Tylor [1865] 1878, Gelb [1952] 1963), the diffusion of novel technologies (Kroeber 1940), the acquisition of literacy (Forbes 1850, Migeod 1911, Scribner and Cole 1981) the cognitive processing of language (Kroeber 1940, Gelb [1952] 1963), and the evolution of writing itself (Gelb [1952] 1963; Dalby 1967, 2). This paper revisits the three West African scripts that are known to have been devised by non-literates. By comparing the linguistic, semiotic and sociohistorical contexts of each known case I suggest various circumstances that may have favoured their invention, transmission and diffusion. I argue that while the originators of scripts drew inspiration from known systems such as Roman and Arabic, they are likely to have drawn on indigenous pictorial culture and annotation systems to develop their own scripts. Once established, their creations were used to circumscribe an alternative politico-religious discourse in direct opposition to the discourses of colonial administrations. The appeal of these scripts were thus tied more to their relative indexical power than their apparent technological or cognitive advantages. Just as earlier theorists imagined, I contend that West African scripts do have the potential to illuminate historical processes of creativity, transmission and evolution, but only when local particularities are given due consideration.
• Death to the Archivist: John Lakenheath’s Register of Bury St Edmunds
John Lakenheath reorganized the archives of the Benedictine abbey of Bury St Edmunds in the 1370s, a key tool in his administrative work on its estates that was still in disorder after it was sacked by the townspeople in 1327. This culminated in the ‘Lakenheath Registry’ (London, British Library, Harley MS 743), an indexed directory of the Bury charters created in 1379–81. His preface to this book explaining its mode of operation, here edited and translated, provides a glimpse into the mind of a medieval archivist. The book led to personal disaster: he was beheaded by a mob during the Peasants’ Revolt in 1381.
• “Do not cross your legs” Islamic sociability, reciprocity and brotherhood in Turkey
Based on intense fieldwork inside the Islamic preaching-educational community of Fethullah Gülen in Istanbul, the paper explores the way Islamic sociability forms structure daily interactions and foster connectedeness into religious brotherhood herein. In a counterweight to what I see as an excess of emphasis that recent trends in the Anthropology of Islam have put on notions of Islamic discipline and ethical self-fashioning, I offer an alternative perspective from which to look at how devout Muslims experience Islam and come to inhabit particular conceptions of self and personhood.
• Investigating the Difference in Policy Responses to the 2004 and 2005 Hurricane Seasons and Homeowner Insurance Crises in Florida and Louisiana
In 2004 and 2005, a series of hurricanes caused record homeowner insurance losses in Florida and Louisiana. Despite comparably sized losses, the two states responded differently to these shocks. Florida expanded state subsidized homeowner insurance, breaking from a free market response, whereas Louisiana actively promoted private market supply. Comparing the two policy processes reveals that the politics and transformation of homeowner insurance evoked by extreme weather events depend on how concentrated the hurricane impact is and whether it effectively mobilizes homeowners into electoral politics. The broader distribution of losses in Florida prompted homeowners to exert sufficient electoral pressure to influence policy responses, fostering political dynamics emphasized by interest group theories of policy, and a break from the market. The more concentrated hurricane impact in Louisiana blocked homeowners from doing the same, leaving Louisiana’s policymakers free to draw on the institutionalized free-market logic to guide their response to hurricane damages and producing trajectories expected by structural-class theories. The findings highlight the contingency of different approaches to the politics of markets and policy, suggesting that the dynamics proposed by the two theories depend on the distribution and political impact of the problems and shocks involved.
• A Process for Original Cataloging of Theses and Dissertations
The purpose of this paper is to describe the reasoning, methodology, and impact behind a semi-automated cataloging process for electronic theses and dissertations, including explanations of the importance of retention and addition of cataloger created metadata. The authors explain an automated process that is generated by ProQuest and student entered data, and also the addition of metadata including the subject headings, classification number, etc. The study includes a survey of the public service librarians’ perceived usefulness of the cataloger and ProQuest generated metadata to describe theses and dissertations.
• Doja, Albert (2013) Invitation au terrain: Mémoire personnel de la construction du projet socio-anthropologique, Bruxelles: Peter Lang. doi:10.3726/978-3-0352-6299-5.
De l’organisation sociale aux discours et pratiques qui construisent la notion de personne chez les Albanais, en passant par les relations interethniques et les dynamiques interculturelles des valeurs morales dans l’ensemble des Balkans, l’auteur trace le parcours de ses recherches sur les processus symboliques qui structurent les identités sociales, les relations de parenté et de genre, ainsi que les idéologies nationales des cultures, des religions et des langages. Méthodologiquement, s’il a dû s’abstraire de sa propre société et s’en détacher complètement pour pouvoir l’étudier, comme socio-anthropologue, il a dû faire un effort supplémentaire: après en sortir, il a dû y entrer à nouveau afin de la re–connaître et l’expliquer socio-anthropologiquement. À ce niveau, l’expérience transculturelle souligne une conversion des complications et des incertitudes du travail de terrain ethnographique vers la stabilité relative de la connaissance socio-anthropologique. L’objectivité expérientielle d’une telle démarche permet de comprendre de façon plus intime la réalité qualitative exprimée dans les frontières symboliques des identités locales, dans une aire culturelle définie comme un champ composite et instructif. En définitive, si la construction identitaire et la dynamique interculturelle sont importantes, une meilleure appréhension plus précise et plus rigoureuse de la totalité sociale est obtenue via une nouvelle méthodologie permettant de construire un meilleur modèle d’explication théorique.
• Smart cities, urban technocrats, epistemic communities and advocacy coalitions
In this paper, we argue that the ideas, ideals and the rapid proliferation of smart city rhetoric and initiatives globally have been facilitated and promoted by three inter-related communities. A new set of ‘urban technocrats’ – chief innovation/technology/data officers, project managers, consultants, designers, engineers, change-management civil servants, and academics – many of which have become embedded in city administrations. A smart cities ‘epistemic community’; that is, a network of knowledge and policy experts that share a worldview and a common set of normative beliefs, values and practices with respect to addressing urban issues, and work to help decision-makers identify and deploy technological solutions to solve city problems. A wider ‘advocacy coalition’ of smart city stakeholders and vested interests who collaborate to promote the uptake and embedding of a smart city approach to urban management and governance. We examine the roles of new urban technocrats and the multiscale formation and operation of a smart cities epistemic community and advocacy coalitions, detailing a number of institutional networks at global, supra-national, national, and local scales. In the final section, we consider the translation of the ideas and practices of the smart city into the policies and work of city administrations. In particular, we consider what might be termed the ‘last mile problem’ and the reasons why, despite a vast and active set of technocrats and epistemic community and advocacy coalition, smart city initiatives are yet to become fully mainstreamed and the smart city mission successfully realized in cities across the globe. We illustrate this last mile problem through a discussion of plans to introduce smart lighting in Dublin.
The patent system could better achieve its primary mission of incentivizing technological innovation by moving away from the one-size-fits-all 20-year term for patents and moving to a system of varying durations for different categories of invention. The current patent duration is arbitrary, the result of entrenched historical accident. Allowing upward variance from the 20-year term in discrete categories of invention offers the prospect of boosting innovation in impoverished technological sectors. Allowing downward variance in other categories would benefit overall social welfare by removing needless technological monopolization and associated deadweight loss. Current economic models and available economic data do not allow for the academic calculation of optimal patent lifetimes in the real world. This paper proposes practical procedural mechanisms to gather and synthesize information about innovation incentives and returns, and to make use of that information in decision-making paradigms that would vary patent terms to make the patent system more economically beneficial than it currently is. An appendix to this paper uses theoretical evolutionary biology to criticize economic theorists who have suggested that very long or even infinite durations for patents may be optimal.
• Islamic Social Contract on Finance for Muslim Minorities
Any effort by Muslim minorities to enhance their economic condition and moving towards progress should be based on a social contract. When regulations and laws are not by their letter Islamic in their nature then only upholding an Islamic social contract on finance could help Muslim minorities to provide a solid base, confidence, trust, and foundation for their economic and business initiatives including investment and finance. The whole economic activity is actually investment and finance and it has to be based on such a special social contract.
• Review: Ontology after Carnap
Ontology after Carnap focusses on metaontology in the light of recent interest in Carnap’s ‘Empiricism, Semantics and Ontology’. That paper is at the centre of things, as it is where Carnap formulates his internal/external dichotomy. If you haven’t already encountered the dichotomy, then neither Ontology after Carnap, nor this review, is for you. My aim in this review is to try to tease out some of the book’s themes, thereby giving some sense of contemporary neo-Carnapianism.
• Enriching undergraduate experiences with outreach in school STEM clubs
The need for a more robust, well-trained STEM workforce is becoming increasingly acute in the U.S., and there is a clear need to recruit and retain a larger and more diverse population of undergraduate STEM majors. While numerous efforts to improve engagement and support in the traditional P-16 classroom have been implemented successfully, it is also critical to explore other types of activities that have potential for high impact. The STEM Club Leadership for Undergraduate STEM Education, Recruiting and Success (STEM-CLUSTERS) project at our large public research university in the Mountain West presents an outreach model to engage undergraduate STEM majors in developing and facilitating activities in local middle and high school STEM clubs. Through case studies, built upon data from reflective journals and semi-structured interviews, the project has identified a number of benefits to the first cohort of participants, which is comprised of eleven undergraduate students operating in interdisciplinary teams across five schools. In this paper we describe the essential elements of our outreach model and suggest benefits related to undergraduates’ content knowledge, metacognition, communication skills, and identity as a future STEM professional.
• Does conceptual overlap moderate misattribution of internal experiences?
To make sense of their environment, people attribute internal experiences to external objects (I feel excited because he is cute). When making a judgment, internal experiences triggered by an irrelevant distractor are sometimes misattributed to the judgment’s target. We examined how misattribution is moderated by the conceptual overlap between the distractor and the judgment question (would the distractor puppy have a larger effect on cuteness judgments or skill judgments?), and between the distractor and the target of judgment (would the distractor puppy influence judgment of pets more than judgment of humans?). When the overlap is large, concrete content (the puppy’s cuteness) can be misattributed. When the overlap is little, mainly abstract content (the puppy’s positivity) is misattributed. Using the Affect Misattribution Procedure (AMP), we found that conceptual overlap increases misattribution. Concrete content had a larger effect on misattribution than abstract content. The results highlight the importance of specific content in attribution and suggest that people do not engage in correction processes that improve attribution when the distractor’ specific content seems highly relevant to the judgment question or highly similar to the judgment’s target.
• The Development Benefits of Maternity Leave
Within developing countries, studies addressing the effects of maternity benefits on fertility, infant/child health, and women’s labor force participation are limited and provide contradictory findings. Yet, knowledge regarding the implementation of maternity provisions is essential, as such policies could significantly improve women and children’s well-‐being. We add to this literature by using fixed effects panel regression from 1999 through 2012 across 121 developing countries to explore whether different types of maternity leave policies affect infant/child mortality rates, fertility, and women’s labor force participation, and whether those effects are shaped by disparities in GDP per Capita and Secondary School Enrollment. Our findings demonstrate: 1) both infant and child mortality rates are expected to decline in countries that institute any leave policy, policies that last 12 weeks or longer, and policies that increase in duration and payment as a percentage of total annual salary, 2) fertility is expected to decline in countries that have higher weekly paid compensation, 3) maternity leave provisions decrease fertility and infant/child mortality rates most in countries with lower GDP per capita and countries with middle range secondary enrollment rates, and 4) labor force participation does not increase. Our results suggest that policy makers must consider the duration, compensation, and goals (addressing fertility versus mortality rates) of a policy alongside a country’s economic development and secondary school enrollment when determining which maternity leave provisions to apply within developing-‐country contexts.
• Vatandaş, Türkçe Konuş: Language Ideology in the Work of Ziya Gökalp
This paper uses a language ideology framework to look at the work of the early 20th century Turkologist Ziya Gokalp's work.
• Die vierte Dimension. Wissensdiskurse und Imagination in Alan Moores und Eddie Campbells "From Hell"
This article analyzes the role of William Gull, the Jack the Ripper figure in Alan Moore and Eddie Campbell's "From Hell", as a physician and scientist. A "mad scientist", Gull unites modern sciences and pre-modern forms of science like magic and divination. Lines are drawn to C.H. Hinton's theory of the 4th dimension, and ultimately to Moore's concept of imagination and the comics form.
• Una Aproximación Interdisciplinar del Análisis Crítico del Discurso (ACD) al Estudio de la Historia
El presente artículo tiene como objetivo introducir la consideración del nuevo campo del análisis crítico del discurso (ACD) como forma complementaria al estudio de la historia. Intenta abordar algunos conceptos interdisciplinares para la incorporación de este enfoque investigativo de reciente desarrollo, con orígenes en la teoría crítica, la lingüística crítica y el análisis del discurso al campo de la historia. Se presenta su característica central en la consideración del discurso como acontecimiento histórico, como expresión sociocultural condicionado por las estructuras sociales y de creencia de grupos de poder que dominan sobre otros haciendo del discurso, determinante del contexto social y a la vez transmisor de ideologías. Se presenta las prácticas sociales paralelamente a las prácticas discursivas existiendo una relación dialéctica entre ambas. Las relaciones de poder, dominio, hegemonía y especialmente la ideología son las áreas de trabajo en las que se concentra el ACD y cuyo campo de acción implica el recurso interdisciplinario y transdisciplinario en áreas como la psicología, la sociología, la economía, la política y la educación (entre otras) relacionándose con la historia para poder describir, interpretar y explicar a través de los discursos (escritos y orales) las relaciones históricas entre el lenguaje y la sociedad.
• The Intolerable Acts
A brief survey of the intolerable acts on the eve of the American revolution.
• Introduction to Informal Logical Fallacies from Islamic Perspective
This work is aimed at providing an Islamic perspective on few selected informal logical fallacies. It serves an introduction to the theme and opens ways of reflecting on it, which is the main portion of critical thinking as a subject. Informal logical fallacies are numerous in number and for the sake of convenience they are very often categorized under three classifications: relevance, presumption, and ambiguity. This work follows the same categories and discusses few, selected informal fallacies under each category.
• A Comparison of the Sensitivity of Four Indirect Evaluation Measures to Evaluative Information
Indirect evaluation measures are used as a dependent measure to assess the impact of experimental interventions on shifting pre-existing attitudes or creating new attitudes. In four experiments (total N = 13,894), we compared the sensitivity of four indirect evaluation measures to evaluative information about two novel targets. Evaluative sensitivity was strongest for the Implicit Association Test (IAT). Other measures were more similar in their sensitivity, but the pattern, from stronger to the weakest was the Affect Misattribution Procedure (AMP), the Sorting Paired Features (SPF), and then Evaluative Priming task (EPT). To the extent that these findings are generalizable to related research applications, these results suggest that the measures differ in their research efficiency (power). For example, to achieve 80% power to detect the evaluative learning effect in the present studies, direct self-report would require 10 participants, the IAT 28 participants, the AMP 57, the SPF 79, and the EPT 131.
• Differential Susceptibility of Peer Influences: Gene-Environment Interactions and Gene-Environment Correlations
This paper examines potential gene-environment interactions in responses to peer influences on tobacco use. Specifications found in the literature that link own use to school-level tobacco use suggest widespread interactive effects, where individuals with the short/short 5-HTT genetic variant have the largest responsiveness to peer smoking. However, I show that individuals are sorted into schools in ways that suggest important gene-environment correlations may confound these findings. Using an across-cohort, within school strategy to separate school level effects (including school selection bias) and grade-level peer effects, I find evidence of reversals of the baseline specifications, so that the results suggest that individuals with the long/long 5-HTT variant are most susceptible to peer influence, increasing the likelihood of smoking by 3 percentage points per 10% increase in peer smoking. These results are consistent with a broader concern that many gene-environment models may fail to fully account for gene-environment correlation.
• The Doxastic Status of Delusion and the Limits of Folk Psychology
Clinical delusions are widely characterized as being pathological beliefs in both the clinical literature and in common sense. Recently, a philosophical debate has emerged between defenders of the commonsense position (doxasticists) and their opponents, who have the burden of pointing toward alternative characterizations (anti-doxasticists). In this chapter, I argue that both doxasticism and anti-doxasticism fail to characterize the functional role of delusions while at the same time being unable to play a role in the explanation of these phenomena. I also argue that though a more nuanced view of belief in which mental states are more or less belief-like instills a healthy skepticism towards the precision of folk-psychological concepts, such a stance fails to be of use in building a theory of delusion that will be able to bridge different levels of explanation, such as the phenomenology and neurobiology of delusion. Thus, I advocate moving past the question ‘Are delusions beliefs?’ and their description as propositional attitudes toward the description of the processes that generate delusion, with a view toward explaining, rather than explaining away, the personal-level aspects of the phenomenon that have been made inscrutable by investing in doxastic terminology.
• Stanislavski, Shpet and the Art of Lived Experience
The purpose of the present paper is to suggest that the answer to the question of unserstanding Stanislavski in the English-speaking world is a problem not only of translation, but one of philosophical discovery. Hidden in Stanislavski’s practical approach is the philosophical question of “what is theatre as an art”, and “how does the actor fit into that art”. In America and throughout the English-speaking world, Stanislavski’s system was propagated as “the Method”; indeed it seems that one of the difficulties is that only a part of Stanislavski’s methodology was exported, leaving behind the underlying aesthetic assumptions that informed Stanislavski’s art. Before holding up any version or iteration of Stanislavski’s System as being more authentic, more work has to be done to understand the purpose for which he developed his approach, particularly around key concepts such as "experiencing" ("переживание")
• Understanding the Exclusionary Politics of Early Turkish Nationalism: An Ethnic Boundary-Making Approach
Turkish nationalism has long presented a study in contrasts. The nationalist movement that created the Republic of Turkey sought to define the nation in explicitly civic and inclusive terms, promoting a variety of integrationist reforms. At the same time, however, those same nationalist politicians endorsed other policies that were far more exclusionary, expelling many religious and ethnic minorities from the new nation and imposing harsh restrictions on those who remained. The seemingly contradictory nature of Turkish nationalist policies has been mirrored by much of the scholarship on Turkish nationalism, which has often viewed Turkish nationality through the lens of the “civic/ethnic divide,” with various scholars arguing that the Turkish nation is exclusively civic or ethnic. This article seeks to transcend this dichotomous way of looking at Turkish nationalism. I argue that the policies previously seen as being exclusively civic or ethnic are in fact both examples of boundary-making processes, designed to forge a cohesive nationalist community. Seen through a boundary-making perspective, the seemingly contradictory nature of Turkish nationalist policies in its early years are not paradoxical at all, but represent a multi-dimensional effort to construct a cohesive national community that could replace the defunct Ottoman state.
• The Sociology of Globalization, second edition, 2016 - Introduction
Introduction to second edition of The Sociology of Globalization, 2016
• More than feeling ‘a bit rocky’. Mal de Debarquement Syndrome (MdDS) Australia, quality of life survey 2016.
This report is the first study to investigate quality of life for those suffering with Mal de Debarquement Syndrome (MdDS). In June 2016, members of MdDS Australia were invited to participate in an anonymous online survey investigating their quality of life in regards to general health status; work and social activities; depression and fatigue; life enjoyment; and MdDS inference in daily activities. Sixty-three members (73% response rate) completed the survey over the four-week period. Average age of the respondents was 41 years, with 96% of the respondents being female. Time of onset to official MdDS diagnosis was 2 years. The general health of respondents was fair to good but there was noticeable response regarding the future of their health status in the future. MdDS has a notable effect on activities of daily living, and also the work environment (including housework), where many respondents noted that they have modified their working hours/load to accommodate MdDS. There was almost unanimous agreement that there is significant ignorance or misunderstanding of MdDS by clinicians and allied health workers. Also, the lack of understanding of MdDS in the wider community may also play an effect on the working environment for respondents. Overall, this preliminary survey has found that the multiple variables of ignorance/misunderstanding, modification of the working environment (including housework), and being unsure of the future, collectively contribute to constant anxiety and worry about MdDS which is likely to have an affect on cognitive abilities and the mental health of a majority of respondents. Future research should look at creating an individual quality of life score to understand how MdDS affects each person specifically.
• Small-scale agriculture as a way to achieve food sovereignty and environmental justice
The purpose of this essay is to analyze the ecoregion of Chaco-Formosa in Argentina from the beginnings of the XIX Century to the present. This ecoregion is one of the most damaged in Argentina due to several reasons: first, the lack of public investment that promotes and defends the benefits of small-scale agriculture and organic farming; second, the high rates of poverty, undernutrition, child labour, endemic diseases and cancer (caused by the chemicals that are needed for the effectiveness of the GMOs used in the extensive farming). We need to arrange public investment in small-scale agriculture in order to ensure food sustenance for the many families that are in the same situation; we also need to protect their natural right to be the owners of the land and to promote a productive system based on inclusion and development. According to biotechnological companies, their technology is more effective and they do not need so many people working on farms. However, the so-called benefit of this technology is fostering a deeper productive dependence of developed countries, fewer and richer landowners, soil contamination and water pollution and the destruction of the biodiversity of the region.
• ¿Nuevas culturas del aprendizaje? (Una conversación con Linda Castañeda)
Boletín de la Institución Libre de Enseñanza, No.104, pp.51-77 El texto que presentamos a continuación es una transcripción editada por Linda Castañeda de la conferencia de Neil Selwyn en la Institución Libre de Enseñanza el pasado mes de octubre de 2016, que transcurrió como una sesión en la que el conferenciante desarrolló su planteamiento en tres partes, cada una de las cuales fue seguida de un debate conducido por la editora.
• Profesores y tecnologia: repensar Ia digitalizacion de Ia labor docente
Boletín de la Institución Libre de Enseñanza, No.104, pp.27-36 Este articulo revisa los cam bios que acarrea Ia digitalizacion al trabajo de los profesores. Discute como, junto a las posibilidades que se supone que ofrecen para facilitar Ia labor docente, pueden las tecnologias digitales complicar y dificultar su practica profesional, examinando cinco tendencias que presenta el trabajo del docente con tecnologia.
• neoplatonic "Tree of Life"
In several versions of „Introduction to Aristotle's Categories“ („The Isagoge“) we find very intriguing diagram of the "Tree of Porphyry". This diagram is closely linked with the square of opposition (logical square), natural tree with vegetative ornaments and the anthropomorphic figure. Porphyry took over Aristotle's division into five predicables (quinque praedicabilia) and defined them through five classes (species, genus, differentia, propria, accidentia) and from them he created scala praedicamentalis (Arbor Porphyriana). The Neoplatonic-Aristotelianism of Porphyry influenced the return of interest in Aristotle's logic in the Middle Ages through translations of Boethius and Al-Farabi. Their works of logic were the basis for the study of many topics, especially those related to theology. Later diagrams with the natural tree and human figure (syndesmos) are found in the 13th century in "Tractatus" („Summulae Logicales“) written by Peter of Spain under different names such as: Tree of Love, Tree of Life, Tree of Science, Tree of Knowledge etc. Christian mysticism (Mystical theology), Islamic mysticism (Sufism) and Jewish mysticism (Kabbalah) was deeply influenced by Neoplatonic philosophy and within these mystical traditions we find different variations of the diagram aswell. Under the influence of the concept of Neoplatonic procession and reversion, mystic should be simultaneously involved in both Cataphatic and Apophatic theology to truly understand God. In other words, a spiritual person has to oscillate between affirming claims about the Tree of Life (the Being) and negation of those same claims to be able to have real knowledge of God.
• The Expansion and Contraction of the Journalistic Field and American Online Citizen Journalism, 2000-2012
While previous research has considered patterns of homogeneity and heterogeneity in the journalistic field, existing literature has largely ignored the factors that contribute to the growth and contraction of the field. Using citizen journalism (CJ) as a case study, we examine how four forces – organizational population dynamics, technological innovations, exogenous political events, and endogenous disruptions elsewhere in the field – shaped the growth of CJ over time and, consequently, the journalistic field. Using a snowball sampling method, we collected a “near-population” of U.S.-based, English-language CJ sites (n=1829) to measure yearly density and rates of foundings and mortalities. The population of CJ sites increased through most of the period, foundings declined after a spike in 2005, and mortalities rose dramatically after 2010. The results provide evidence that organizational population and technological change affected the size of the population of CJ sites, while political upheaval and disruptions within professional journalism held less sway.
• Prescribing Institutions Without Ideal Theory
It is conventional wisdom among political philosophers that ideal principles of justice must guide our attempts to design institutions to avert actual injustice. Call this the ideal guidance approach. I argue that this view is misguided— ideal principles of justice are not appropriate "guiding principles" that actual institutions must aim to realize, even if only approximately. Fortunately, the conventional wisdom is also avoidable. In this paper, I develop an alternative approach to institutional design, which I call institutional failure analysis. The basic intuition of this approach is that our moral assessment of institutional proposals is most effective when we proceed from a detailed understanding of the causal processes generating problematic social outcomes. Failure analysis takes the institutional primary design task to be obviating or averting institutional failures. Consequently, failure analysis enables theorists to prescribe more effective solutions to actual injustice because its focuses on understanding the injustice, rather than specifying an ideal of justice.
• Rationality, Perception, and the All-Seeing Eye
Seeing—perception and vision—is implicitly the fundamental building block of the literature on rationality and cognition. Herbert Simon and Daniel Kahneman’s arguments against the omniscience of economic agents—and the concept of bounded rationality—depend critically on a particular view of the nature of perception and vision. We propose that this framework of rationality merely replaces economic omniscience with perceptual omniscience. We show how the cognitive and social sciences feature a pervasive but problematic meta-assumption that is characterized by an "all-seeing eye." We raise concerns about this assumption and discuss different ways in which the all-seeing eye manifests itself in existing research on (bounded) rationality. We first consider the centrality of vision and perception in Simon’s pioneering work. We then point to Kahneman’s work—particularly his article "Maps of Bounded Rationality"—to illustrate the pervasiveness of an all-seeing view of perception, as manifested in the extensive use of visual examples and illusions. Similar assumptions about perception can be found across a large literature in the cognitive sciences. The central problem is the present emphasis on inverse optics—the objective nature of objects and environments, e.g., size, contrast, and color. This framework ignores the nature of the organism and perceiver. We argue instead that reality is constructed and expressed, and we discuss the species-specificity of perception, as well as perception as a user interface. We draw on vision science as well as the arts to develop an alternative understanding of rationality in the cognitive and social sciences. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of our arguments for the rationality and decision-making literature in cognitive psychology and behavioral economics, along with suggesting some ways forward
• The Impact of Restrictions on Farm Animal Housing on Egg Prices, Consumer Welfare, and Production in California
New animal welfare policies on the horizon in many states have prompted debates about the cost of achieving happier hens and hogs. A recent policy change in California offers a unique opportunity to measure the economic repercussions of minimum space requirements for egg-laying hens. We estimate the impacts of the California policy change on egg production in California as well as retail egg prices and consumer welfare in three major California markets (Los Angeles, San Francisco, and San Diego). Using forecasting methods and structural break tests as applied to 16 years of monthly data on egg production and input prices, we find that by July 2016 both egg production and the number of egg-laying hens were about 35% lower than they would have been as a result of the new regulations. Out-of-state eggs were able to compensate for falling California production until around the time of implementation of the new rules, at which point imports of eggs into California fell. For consumers, we estimate price impacts using panel structural break tests and difference-in-differences models, estimated with five years of scanner data from the retail shell egg market. We find that the average price paid per dozen eggs was about 22% higher from December 2014 through September 2016 than it would have been in the absence of the hen housing restrictions. The price impact fell over time, from an initial impact of about 33% per dozen to about 9% over the last six months of the observed time horizon. These price increases correspond to welfare losses of at least $117 million for the three California markets. Our results suggest annual average welfare losses of at least$2 per California household in future years.
• Preliminary report on the 2008 and 2009 excavation seasons at Jiyeh (Porphyreon)
Report from archaeological excavations in 2008 and 2009 carried out at the coastal site of Jiyeh in Lebanon, following up on earlier investigations, by Polish archaeologists.Remains of late Roman –Byzantine dwellings in the central part of the site, excavated originally by a Lebanese mission in 1975, were re-explored including documentation of finds in local museum collections, said to have come from these excavations. Testing in this part of the habitation quarter produced a provisional stratification, from the Iron Age (8th–7thcentury BC) directly on bedrock, through the Persian–Hellenistic period (5th–2nd centuries BC) to the late Roman–Byzantine age when the quarter has reoccupied. A curious feature consisting of pots sunk in the floor in several of the late Roman and Byzantine-age houses is discussed in the first of two appendices. The other appendix treats on stone thresholds from these houses, five types of which have been distinguished, reflecting different technical solutions used to close doors
• Preliminary report on the 2010 excavation season at Jiyeh
The archaeological fieldwork in 2010 at the site of Jiyeh (ancient Porphyreon), situated on the Mediterranean coast between ancient Berytus and Sidon, focused in on full-scale excavations of the Late Antique streets and residential quarter (4th–7th century AD ), uncovering 21 rooms and three alleys. The results contributed to a better understanding of the street network in the quarter and the nature of the architecture. The quarter comprising the 21 newly uncovered rooms taken together with 80 from earlier fieldwork in 2008 and 2009 formed an extensive residential complex, approximately 40 m by 35 m. It is a unique example of private domestic architecture illustrating everyday life in Roman and Byzantine Phoenicia. A bread oven (tannur) suggested the presence of a bakery in this part of the settlement.
• Economy of Hellenistic, Roman and Early Byzantine Settlement in Jiyeh (Porphyreon), Lebanon
Regular excavations of the ancient settlement in Jiyeh on the Phoenician coast, carried out by the Polish-Lebanese mission since 2008, as well as results of some earlier archaeological investigations there, allowed to discuss various aspects of economic activity of the local population in the Hellenistic, Roman and Early Byzantine times. The obtained materials justify putting forward several hypotheses concerning the agriculture, craffts and trade carried out by the inhabitants of the settlement. It seems that olive oil and wine, together with the locally manufactured coarse pottery vessels and other productts, sold within the territory of the neighbouring towns (Sidon and Berytus), could have been the main source of profit allowing the inhabitants to purchase imported goods, such as fine pottery and marble coming from different parts of the Mediterranean. Moreover, the settlement in Jiyeh, due to its favourable geographical location, may have played an important intermediary role in the trade exchange between the villages located to the east, on the slopes of Mount Lebanon, and urban centres along the Mediterranean coastline.
• Les miscellanea de la collection du père Jean Mécérian
Le présent article a pour objectif de présenter les petits objets archéologiques recueillis par le père Jean Mécérian, lors des recherches qu'il a menées au cours des années trente du XXe siècle, dans l'Antiochène occidentale, et conservés aujourd'hui à l'Université Saint-Joseph à Beyrouth. Ce lot comprend des eulogies en terre cuite, des moules métalliques, des petits objets en pierre, des récipeints en céramique et de nombreuses pipes ottomanes. Les plus anciens objets de la collection datent de la période hellénistique et les plus récents remontent au XIXe siècle. En raison de l'absence de renseignements précis sur le contexte de leur découverte, ces objets - publiés ici pour la première fois - ont avant tout valeur de pièces de musée. Ce lot comporte aussi quelques faux et des objets provenant du marché des antiquités. Bien qy'elle ne porte que sur une partie de la collection, la présente étude permet de compléter les informations sur la nature de cette dernière et de mettre en lumière les intérets scientifiques du père Jean Mécérian.
• Le Sanctuaire de Saint-Syméon-Stylite-le-Jeune au Mont Admirable à la lumière de la documentation photographique du père Jean Mécérian
Les résultats définitifs des fouilles menées sur le site du sanctuiaire de Saint-Syméon-Stylitr-le=Jeune au Mont Admirable par le père Jean Mécérian, dans les années trente du XXe siècle, ne furent jamais publiés. Nous ne disposons que de quelques rapports préliminaires de cette mission. Etant donné la disparition d'une partie de la documentation de fouilles, dont les journaux, des photos d'archives de la campagne représentent souvent le seul témoignage sur les structures du sanctuaire, aujourd'hui inexistantes, qui ne figurent dans aucun rapport préliminaire. Ces photos ainsi que les résultats de recherches ultérieures constituent une base documentaire, qui permet d'entreprendre la reconstitution de l'évolution et de la tranformation du sanctuaire. Cette documentation révèle des changements dans la disposition des pièces, jusqu'à présent méconnus, ayant eu un impact important sur la vie de la communauté monastique et des pèlerins. On peut constater sur les photos de père Jean Mécérian que ces changements sont le résultat d'une volonté de réorganiser l'espace existant du sanctuaire en fonction de l'évolution des besoins. Le présent article a pour objectif de faire le point sur l'état actuel des connaissances relatives à l'architecture du sanctuaire de Saint-Symeon-Stylite-le-Jeune au Mont Admirable, ainsi que de les compléter à l'aide des documents photographiques d'archives, dont les publications parues jusqu'à présent n'ont pas tenu compte.
• Marble vessels from Jiyeh (Porphyreon)
Imported marble vessels from Jiyeh (Porphyreon), a site on the Phoenician coast, could not be easily identified in terms of function and dating for lack of sound stratigraphic evidence. An examination of parallels from other sites in the Eastern Mediterranean was needed in order to determine the chronology and uses of these objects. Virtually all of the Jiyeh vessels were thus dated to the early Byzantine period. Forms included utilitarian mortars and plates, as well as tentative liturgical tabletops. The repertoire represents standard exports of vessels of these shapes to Syro-Palestine from Greece and Asia Minor. Their distribution in Syro-Palestine was conditioned by geographical factors, as well as the affluence of settlements that imported such objects.
• Grave Monuments from Jiyeh (Porphyreon) and the Sepulchral Art of Sidon's Chora
Hellenistic steles and Roman cippi and sarcophagi discovered in the course of salvage excavations in Jiyeh (ancient Porphyreon) opened the way to the discussion of the artictic culture of Sidon and the northern part of its hinterland. The form and decoration of these grave monuments find no parallels outside the Sidonian cemeteries, pointing to very strong artistic ties between the metropolis and the villages in its chora. Compared to the output of other Syro-Palestinian sculptural centers, the products from Sidonian territory demonstrate exceptional originality, foremost in the choice of decorative motifs, but also concerning the stone material: local sandstone conglomerate and limestone. The steles, cippi and sarcophagi from Jiyeh enable us to date more precisely the locality's northern necropolis that functioned, in the light of the presented evidence, from the Hellenistic to the early Byzantine period. Moreover; the dating of the monuments leads to the assumption that the early phase of the cemetery coincided with the operation of nearby pottery workshops.
• Porphyreon through the Ages. The Fading Archaeological Heritage of the Lebanese Coast
Ancient Porphyreon (Jiyeh/Nebi Younis) was a large rural settlement located on the coast of modern-day Lebanon, near the Phoenician city of Sidon. This article presents the initial research results of the stratigraphic data, extending from at least the eighth century BC to the seventh century AD, and how Phoenician village functioned. Analysis proves that it played a significant role in the local economy—on the one hand, providing for the city of Sidon and, on the other, mediating the exchange of goods with rural settlements, scattered across the mountainous hinterland. Uncovering the mysteries of this coastal settlement is extremely important, especially in light of the increasing threat to the archaeological heritage of Lebanon.
• The Marble Wall Decoration of the Presbytery of the Late Antique Basilica in Jiyeh (Porphyreon) - Lebanon
Podczas wykopalisk w Jiyeh natrafiono na dowody wskazujące na wykorzystanie kamiennych okładzin ściennych do dekoracji murów późnoantycznego kościoła. Są to znaleziska marmurowych płytek, kotew ze stopu miedzi służących do ich mocowania oraz otwory na kotwy w murach prezbiterium bazyliki. Niniejszy artykuł ma na celu prezentację tego materiału oraz próbę rekonstrukcji tej dekoracji.
• A Hybrid Style Terracotta Protoma from Porphyreon
The paper presents the best preserved of four terracotta protomai found recently in a secondary deposit in Porphyreon (Jiyeh, Lebanon). A detailed stylistic analysis indicates that the described protoma combined the Phoenician and Greek art traditions of the Persian/Archaic period.
• EARLY BYZANTINE RESIDENTIAL ARCHITECTURE IN JIYEH (PORPHYREON) AFTER EXCAVATION SEASONS IN 2012 AND 2013
This article presents the results of current studies of Early Byzantine residential architecture in Jiyeh (ancient Porphyreon) that represents the best preserved remains of architecture of this period on the Lebanese coast. This preliminary characteristic is based on fi eldwork carried out in 2012 –13 in the northern, southeastern and western parts of the important housing quarter in Sector D, extended to include the investigations in Sector E in 2013. The discussion draws upon the results of earlier excavation work in Jiyeh (Porphyreon), also taking into account parallels from other Syro-Palestinian sites.
• Maternal Age and Infant Mortality for White, Black,and Mexican Mothers in the United States
This paper assesses the pattern of infant mortality by maternal age for White, Black, and Mexican mothers using the 2013 Period Linked Birth/Infant Death Public Use File from the Centers for Disease Control. The results are consistent with the “weathering” hypothesis, which suggests that White women benefit from delayed childbearing while for Black women early childbearing is adaptive because of deteriorating health status through the childbearing years. For White women,the risk (adjusted for covariates) of infant death is U-shaped—lowest in the early thirties—while for Black women the risk increases linearly with age. Mexican-origin women show a J-shape, with highest risk at the oldest ages. The results underscore the need for understanding the relationship between maternal age and infant mortality in the context of unequal health experiences across race/ethnic groups in the US.
• The Emotional Life of Cultural Objects
What is it that people do with objects? And what is it that objects do to people? This chapter explores the dialectic between processes of objectification and subjectification, exploring how they intertwine through the manifold ways in which the description, refinement, punctuation and solidification of what a subject is are attached to a parallel process with regard to how things become objects.
• Sensorimotor Theory and the Problems of Consciousness
The sensorimotor theory is an influential account of perception and phenomenal qualities that builds, in an empirically-supported way, on the basic claim that conscious experience is best construed as an attribute of the whole embodied agent’s skill-driven interactions with the environment. This paper, in addition to situating the theory as a response to certain well-known problems of consciousness, develops a sensorimotor account of why we are perceptually conscious rather than not.
• Remediating the irremediable: the Munich air crash and its different narrations
On 6th February 1958, an air crash at the Munich airport claimed the lives of eight Manchester United footballers, putting the overwhelming rise of a team of young talented players to a tragic end. The squad had been built by Scottish manager Matt Busby, so they were popularly known as the ‘Busby Babes’. They were returning from a victorious European Cup tie against Red Star Belgrade, when their airplane crashed in atrocious weather whilst attempting to take off for the third time from Munich-Riem Airport, on the last leg of their journey home. People used to call their boys also ‘The Flowers of Manchester’: they were the best loved team there has ever been. This sporting and human tragedy was keenly felt all over Britain; it was an event etched in the memory of a generation. Such a dramatic circumstance obviously earned itself a particular place in British popular culture. It has therefore been the subject of many narrations, in the following years, and different media have been used to tell it: starting from the first news taken from the press, the television and the newsreels – and using the testimony of survivors and contemporaries – books have been written, documentaries and films have been realised, even songs have been composed on this matter. Each media exploited its own peculiarities to stress different aspects of this modern-day myth. In this perspective, two examples of the mixed film genre called docudrama (which is usually a fictional and dramatized recreation of factual events in form of a documentary) appear particularly interesting. The aim of this paper is to analyse how the different remediations of this irremediable incident emphasise many cultural aspects linked to it.
• Stalling for Time
Carel Fabritius left behind few but important works of art. We are concerned here with the View in Delft, and attempt to make two points about it. The first is that this small painting manages to break away from the classical perception of perspective, an endeavor informed mostly by new findings in the field of optics of the time. The second point, theoretically related to the first, stresses compositional elements that would bring View in Delft closer to a meditation on the fleetingness of life, making it a "town-scape" vanitas.
• A experiência de observador militar da ONU no Saara Ocidental
A questão do Saara Ocidental constitui o caso de descolonização mais recente, duradouro e não-resolvido do continente africano, em pleno século XXI. Trata-se de um território não-governado, localizado na porção noroeste da África Saariana e encontra-se sob custódia da ONU desde 1991, quando da implantação da MINURSO. Nesse contexto, o presente artigo tem como principal motivação comunicar a experiência no exercício da função de observador militar da ONU, sublinhando aspectos peculiares e práticos, bem como percepções no desempenho dessa função. É uma visão interna da realidade de uma Operação de Paz, do indivíduo e do profissional da Organização. Para tanto, o artigo utiliza abordagem qualitativa na metodologia empregada e aspectos da observação participante e do estudo de caso descritivo. É composto por uma introdução, que visa ambientar o leitor à questão, uma caracterização da área, uma revisão histórica do caso, uma seção de exposição da metodologia e a experiência de um dos autores como observador militar da ONU no Saara Ocidental propriamente dita. Por fim, são realizadas considerações finais na conclusão.
• Word vayuna in Rigveda
A new interpretation of word vayuna as occurring in Rigveda is given with translation of all rik-s containing it.
• CARMIGNANI CARIDI Settimio - Curia romana enti canonici operanti nello Stato della Città del Vaticano o negli immobili immuni enti vaticani Incerti confini ecc. 2014
Vatican City State and Italian Judges
• Arqueología urbana en Ceuta (2000-2005)
Recent archaeological projects in Ceuta (Spain) from Prehistory to Modern Age
• Bureaucratic politics and the prevention of leaks in the European Commission
The European Commission, much like other executives and public administrations in Western Democracies, is frequently faced with leaks. Even though executive leaders often criticize this practice as unwanted breach of confidentiality and secrecy, research has shown that leak prevention is usually not taken seriously beyond public complaints. This paper analyses the phenomenon of leaking in the European Commission and the efforts the Commission makes to prevent leaks from its own ranks. It finds that leaking and leak prevention are regularly discussed at the highest level of the Commission. However, a survey with leak recipients suggest that leaks seem so widely distributed and frequent at various stages of internal decision-making that the existing prevention efforts seem ineffective. Analysing the rules and practices of leak prevention, the paper shows that, while there are anti-leak rules in place, there have been very few cases in which Commission leakers have been administratively sanctioned. The explanation for these observations builds on the argument that leaking is part of regular bureaucratic politics and that leak prevention therefore is not meant to be effective, except for a few important cases.
• Corrigenda to Essays on Gödel's Reception of Leibniz, Husserl, and Brouwer
A list of corrections to the book Essays on Gödel's Reception of Leibniz, Husserl, and Brouwer (Springer, 2015).
• Intuition, iteration, induction
In Mathematical Thought and Its Objects, Charles Parsons argues that our knowledge of the iterability of functions on the natural numbers and of the validity of complete induction is not intuitive knowledge ; Brouwer disagrees on both counts. I will compare Parsons' argument with Brouwer's and defend the latter. I will not argue that Parsons is wrong once his own conception of intuition is granted, as I do not think that that is the case. But I will try to make two points: (1) Using elements from Husserl and from Brouwer, Brouwer's claims can be justified in more detail than he has done; (2) There are certain elements in Parsons' discussion that, when developed further, would lead to Brouwer's notion thus analysed, or at least something relevantly similar to it. (This version contains a postscript of May, 2015.)
• Troelstra's Paradox and Markov's Principle
A prominent problem for the Theory of the Creating Subject is Troelstra's Paradox. As is well known, the construction of that paradox depends on the acceptability of a certain impredicativity, of a kind that some intuitionists accept and others do not. After a presentation of the Theory of the Creating Subject and the paradox, I argue that the paradox moreover depends on Markov's Principle, in a form that no intuitionist should accept. A postscript discusses a new version of the paradox that Troelstra has proposed in reaction to my argument.
• Kant and real numbers
Kant held that under the concept of √2 falls a geometrical magnitude, but not a number. In particular, he explicitly distinguished this root from potentially infinite converging sequences of rationals. Like Kant, Brouwer based his foundations of mathematics on the a priori intuition of time, but unlike Kant, Brouwer did identify this root with a potentially infinite sequence. In this paper I discuss the systematical reasons why in Kant's philosophy this identification is impossible.
• Sunni Islam's Internal Ethnic Conflict: The Cognitive Dissonance between Universal Faith and Ethnic Origination
Few major religions tie the ethnic and historical identity of their first messengers and adherents to their central tenets as effectively as Islam. My awareness of this aspect of Islam began during time spent living within the contested divide between Arab and African versions of the Muslim ummah. Night after night, the Muslims conversing would argue their respective positions in circular logic with each position seeming to be rooted in a particular ethno-cultural perspective. Their clashing approaches appeared to conflict with attempts made by the Prophet Mohammed to raise his newly revealed message above the thick boundaries of the ties of blood and marriage. An enduring ethno-cultural divide in Muslim identity seemed to be evidenced by the ongoing dissonance of Islamic application in this non-Arab setting.
• Marxist Explanations for Financialization: A Critical Review
The paper provides a critical review of the main Marxist explanations for financialization of the US economy. It also contributes to the Marxist literature by emphasizing the link between neoliberalism and financialization, and flexible accumulation and financialization. Specifically, we argue that investment bankers played a leading role in initiating the constitution of neoliberalism in the face of the geographical reorientation of the industrial capital, and that the shareholder principle that came to dominate the corporate governance has led to the changes in the organizational and employment structure of big corporations contributing to the formation of flexible labor market structure.
• Loisir et éducation. La formalisation éducative des jeux dans un accueil périscolaire
À partir d’une enquête ethnographique menée par observation directe dans un accueil périscolaire, cet article explore les différentes formalisations des activités ludiques, qu’elles soient à l’initiative d’enfants ou d’animatrices. En premier lieu, et après avoir présenté la démarche ethnographique adoptée, il s’agit de démêler l’enchevêtrement des cadres qui organisent les espaces et les temps périscolaires en fonction de la distribution des engagements des enfants et des animatrices. En second lieu, l’article analyse plus avant comment cette distribution est structurée par une formalisation plus ou moins éducative des activités ludiques à travers l’exemple de la ludothèque et des « vraies règles ». Ainsi, les formes ludiques donnent à voir les signes, valorisés, d’une forme éducative construite par les animatrices à côté de formes récréatives dépréciées laissées à l’initiative des enfants.
• A Theory of Racialized Organizations
This paper develops a theory of racialized organizations. Scholars of organizational theory typically see organizations as racially neutral bureaucratic structures. Scholars of race and ethnicity have largely neglected the role of organizations in the social construction of race. The theory developed in this paper bridges these subfields by seeing race as a schematic Sewellian “deep-structure” connecting organizational rules to resources. Race is constitutive of organizational foundations, hierarchies, and processes. Thus, racialization theories should account for how both the state policy and individual attitudes are filtered through—and changed by—organizations. Organizations are meso-level arbiters of racial processes. I conclude with an examination of the endogenous and exogenous sources of racial change in organizations and comments towards a research program on racialized organizations.
• Os cinco macacos e o pensamento crítico
De tempos em tempos, alguém faz circular a famosa estória motivacional dos cinco macacos. E sempre resulta em muitos comentários positivos. Várias postagens, em diferentes redes, lembraram a estória que estimula as pessoas a pensarem diferente do senso comum. Uma espécie de convite ao pensamento crítico. Mas, por outro lado, a simplicidade com que a estória é contada ( e repassada ) parece indicar também o contrário, mais do mesmo. Uma postura criativa e inovadora, requer de fato um pensamento crítico. E pensamento crítico significa rever conceitos pré-estabelecidos. Mas o pensamento crítico se faz a partir do acúmulo de conhecimento, não da negação da experiência adquirida como indiretamente sugere a estória dos cinco macacos. Mais importante do que isso, as instituições têm um papel fundamental na criação do ambiente inovador.
• Embedding Citizen Science in Research: Forms of engagement, scientific output and values for science, policy and society
This paper addresses emerging forms of Citizen Science (Citizen Science), and discusses their value for science, policy and society. It clarifies how the term Citizen Science is used and identifies different forms of Citizen Science. This is important, since with blurred distinctions there is a risk of both overrating and underestimating the value of Citizen Science and of misinterpreting what makes a significant contribution to scientific endeavour. The paper identifies three main forms of citizen science 1) Citizen Science as a research method, aiming for scientific output, 2) Citizen Science as public engagement, aiming to establish legitimacy for science and science policy in society, and, 3) Citizen Science as civic mobilization, aiming for legal or political influence in relation to specific issues. In terms of scientific output, the first form of Citizen Science exceeds the others in terms of scientific peer-reviewed articles. These projects build on strict protocols and rules for participation and rely on mass inclusion to secure the quality of contributions. Volunteers are invited to pursue very delimited tasks, defined by the scientists. The value of the three distinct forms of Citizen Science –for science, for policy and for society, is discussed to situate Citizen Science in relation to current policy initiatives in Europe and in the US. In quantitative terms the US, and particularly the NSF have so far taken a lead in allocating research funding to Citizen Science projects (primarily of the first form), however, the White House has recently issued a memorandum addressing societal and scientific challenges through citizen science covering all three forms discussed in this paper. As Citizen Science is currently being launched as a way to change the very landscape of science, important gaps in research are identified and policy recommendations are provided, in order for policy makers to be able to assess and anticipate the value of different forms of Citizen Science with regard to future research policy.
• Freshwater reservoir effect and the radiocarbon chronology of the cemetery in Ząbie, Poland
In the 3rd millennium BC an island on the Łańskie Lake in north-eastern Poland was seasonally settled by a group of people practicing a syncretic burial ritual, exhibiting indigenous and foreign patterns. They left behind a small cemetery consisting of at least six graves. 14C dates made for samples of human bones until 2009 did not coincide with the expected age of the graves. Under a new pilot program in 2010–2013, a series of radiocarbon measurements was made for the human bones and an artefact of red deer antler, along with analyses of the stable isotopes ratios of carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) in the collagen. The results indicate a significant proportion of freshwater food in the diet, which caused the radiocarbon dates to be too old due to the freshwater reservoir effect (FRE). Based on the dating of the antler, unaffected by FRE, and comparative analysis, the reservoir offset for one of the graves was estimated to 740 radiocarbon years. The results, although limited by a low number of investigated humans and animals, indicate indirectly a specialization in the exploitation of local water resources. Such an economic strategy seems to be characteristic for the societies inhabiting the coasts of the Baltic Sea and littoral zones of large lakes in the Final Neolithic and at the beginning of the Early Bronze Age.
• Early Modern Human Lithic Technology from Jerimalai, East Timor
Jerimalai is a rock shelter in East Timor with cultural remains dated to 42,000 years ago, making it one of the oldest known sites of modern human activity in island Southeast Asia. It has special global significance for its record of early pelagic fishing and ancient shell fish hooks. It is also of regional significance for its early occupation and comparatively large assemblage of Pleistocene stone artefacts. Three major findings arise from our study of the stone artefacts. First, there is little change in lithic technology over the 42,000 year sequence, with the most noticeable change being the addition of new artefact types and raw materials in the mid-Holocene. Second, the assemblage is dominated by small chert cores and implements rather than pebble toolsand choppers, a pattern we argue is common in island SE Asian sites as opposed to mainland SE Asian sites. Third, the Jerimalai assemblage bears a striking resemblance to the assemblage from Liang Bua, argued by the Liang Bua excavation team to be associated with Homo floresiensis. We argue that the near proximity of these two islands along the Indonesian Island chain (c.100km apart), the long antiquity of modern human occupation in the region (as documented at Jerimalai), and the strong resemblance of distinctive flake stone technologies seen at both sites, raises the intriguing possibility that both the Liang Bua and Jerimalai assemblages were created by modern humans.
• Adaptations to sea level change and transitions to agriculture at Khao Toh Chong rockshelter, Peninsular Thailand
Published in: Marwick, B., Van Vlack, H.G., Conrad, C., Shoocongdej, R., Thongcharoenchaikit, C., Kwak, S. 2016 Adaptations to sea level change and transitions to agriculture at Khao Toh Chong rockshelter, Peninsular Thailand, _Journal of Archaeological Science_
• As linguas minorizadas en España
• The Journalistic Field in a Time of Mediatization
The rise of digital technologies is having a profound impact on the practice and profession of journalism. As a consequence, scholars from a variety of disciplines have fashioned unique but complimentary perspectives to help explain the nature and significance of this transformation. Field theory is a prominent lens through which media sociologists have viewed the dynamics and transformations surrounding the practice and profession of journalism. More recently, communications scholars have developed theories of mediatization to explain the transformations brought about by the ubiquity of media throughout social life. While Pierre Bourdieu’s field theory offers a well-developed toolkit to address the dialectical relationship between structures and practices, its treatment of technology and conceptualization of the field are arguably less well suited to explain the convergent, hyper-mediated nature of contemporary social relations. By contrast, more recent theories of mediatization offer a less developed and less grandiose conceptualization of specific sociological dynamics, instead opting to shed light on the apparent emergence of a new ‘media logic’. By drawing on the most revealing aspects of each perspective, this paper searches for parity between the two through an examination of a prominent case study: the converging fields of contemporary journalism and activism as seen on Twitter. After reviewing the core components of each perspective and applying them to the case of study, the paper argues for the conceptualization of a mediatized superstructure to explain the ongoing hybridity and convergence across a variety of social fields.
• I Don’t Make Objects, I Make Projects: Selling Things and Selling Selves in Contemporary Artmaking
Forthcoming in Cultural Sociology
• Non-consensual porn and the responsibilities of online intermediaries
This paper considers the legal options of victims of the non-consensual distribution of sexually explicit media - sometimes known as 'revenge porn'. The ALRC has called for Australia to introduce a new tort for serious invasions of privacy, and the Senate Legal and Constitutional Affairs Committee has recently reinforced the need for stronger penalties. A private members' Bill was introduced in the last Federal parliament, but has since lapsed. Each of these proposals focuses primarily on the wrongful acts of the perpetrator. As a deterrent and a strong signal of social opprobrium, they may be partially effective. They do not, however, consider in detail how victims may be able to seek some relief once material has already been posted online. In this paper, we consider explicitly what role internet intermediaries should play in responding to abuse online. The challenge in developing effective policy is not only to provide a remedy against the primary wrongdoer, but to impose some obligations on the platforms that host or enable access to harmful material. This is a difficult and complex issue, but only by engaging with this process are we likely to develop regulatory regimes that are likely to be reasonably effective.
• Roads, value, and dispossession in Baja California Sur, Mexico
This article utilizes theories of value and space, along with Harvey’s notion of “accumulation by dispossession,” to critically investigate the histories and social effects of the commodification of place on the East Cape of Baja California Sur, Mexico. The article defines value as the product of specific social relations and examines how places are created, valued, commodified, and co-opted in the development process. The actual process of co-optation, however, is highly contingent on the development of infrastructure, particularly roads, which play a vital yet ambivalent role in shaping how different people not only access but also value the East Cape.
• Gender, Domestic Violence, and Patterns of Conviction: Analysis of India’s Supreme Court Rulings
Purpose: The practices and arrangements within a family can create grounds for violence. Although we agree that family processes are important, we think that these explanations downplay the structure of families (nuclear, extended) and thereby the ways in which gender relations are organized. In this paper, domestic violence is explored as an intra-family dynamic that extends beyond the intimate partner relationship and which seeps into court rulings of cases of such violence. Methodology/approach: Using archival data from 164 Supreme Court case decisions on domestic violence in India for the period 1995–2011, we examine both the patterns of conviction and the complexities of gender relations within the family by systematically coding the Court’s rulings. Findings :Analysis of court rulings show that mothers-in-law were convicted in 14% cases and the husband was convicted in 41% cases. We call attention to the collective nature of the domestic violence crime in India where mothers-in-law were seldom convicted alone (3% of cases) but were more likely to be convicted along with other members of the family. Two dominant themes we discuss are the gendered nature of familial relations beyond the intimate partner relationship and the pervasiveness of such gendered relationships from the natal home to the marital family making victims of domestic violence isolated and “homeless.” Research limitations/implication:Future research may benefit from using data in addition to the judgments to consider caste and class differences in the rulings. An intersectionality perspective may add to the understanding of the interpretation of the laws by the courts. Social implications: Insights from this paper have important policy implications. As discussed in the paper, the unintended support for violence from the natal family is an indication of their powerlessness and therefore further victimization through the law will not help. It is critical that natal families re-frame their powerlessness which is often derived from their status as families with daughters. Considering that most women in India turn to their natal families first for support when they face violence in their marriages, policy must enable such families to act and utilize the law. Originality/value : By examining court rulings on cases of domestic violence in India we focus on the power exerted by some women particularly within extended families which is central to understanding gender relations within institutions. These relations are legitimized by the courts in the ways they interpret the law and rule on cases.
• Después de los estudios sociales de la ciencia y tecnología: recomponiendo lo psicológico y la experiencia ante la bifurcación de la naturaleza
En este artículo presento una discusión teórica sobre cómo se pueden entender lo psicológico y la experiencia luego de los desafíos a los que dichas nociones han sido sometidas por los estudios sociales de ciencia y tecnología (CTS). Los CTS han desarrollado una forma de crítica constructivista que se opone a lo que han denominado “bifurcación de la naturaleza”, es decir, la división del mundo entre cualidades primarias -lo material, la realidad en sí-, y cualidades secundarias -experiencia, conciencia y asuntos humanos. Tomando como guía interrogantes surgidas durante una investigación empírica sobre la “experiencia de ser paciente” en usuarios policonsultantes de salud pública, planteo que la crítica a la bifurcación de la naturaleza suele asumir nociones de lo psicológico y la experiencia humana que las sitúan como un callejón sin salida. Argumento entonces que la filosofía de procesos presenta argumentos útiles para rebatir esta simplificación, entendiendo lo psicológico como un flujo de constante co-afectación entre lo humano y el mundo, donde la experiencia no resulta separada de la naturaleza.
• Are Phonetically Similar Korean Words Also Semantically Similar?
In connection with the recent research trend in sound-meaning regularity, this article takes several novel approaches. In an effort to extend the current scope to non-European languages, the study focuses on Korean, including its comparatively new orthography. By choosing 74 Swadesh words as its sample, it not only looks at fundamental aspect of the language, but also facilitates future research to compare various languages. To measure them more precisely, criteria for Korean phonology and orthography were created. For semantic distances, Latent Semantic Analysis was used considering its ability to capture authentic dynamics of language. A significant, negative correlation was found between sounds and meanings as well as orthography and meanings, particularly within the semantic space of younger readers. Distinct sounds to indicate potentially confusing objects are considered to be an adaptive mechanism for children to acquire language. The study also numerically revealed how well Korean orthography represents its sounds.
• Online Learning Solves Sturdy Problems in Education Experiments
Although online double-blind randomized controlled field experiments (A/B tests) are widely and intensively used for web page optimization, the field of large-scale online learning seems slow to adopt the method. We aim to contribute to this emerging field by reporting on a recent A/B test in Math Garden, a computer adaptive practice system with over 150,000 active primary school children. The experiment was designed to eliminate an opportunity to game the system and promote active and effortful practice. Indeed, the results show more effortful practice, without having adverse effects on engagement. We give several reasons for the low dissemination of A/B tests in online learning, and demonstrate and discuss its advantages, such as the unique opportunity to apply truly blind randomized field experiments in educational science.
• A new method to reduce overestimation of thresholds with observational network data
Networks of interdependent nodes support phenomena such as epidemics, product adoption, cascading failure, ecosystem collapse, congestion, and bandwagon effects. We consider the problem of using observational data to estimate the sensitivity of individual nodes to the activation of their network neighbors. We prove that—in the case of binary activation decisions—activation thresholds are impossible to correctly measure for some nodes in virtually all contagion processes on complex networks. This result holds even when each step of the process is observed. Measurement error always produces an overestimate of a node's true activation threshold. We develop a condition for determining which node thresholds are correctly measured and demonstrate that modeling activation thresholds as a function of node-level factors reduces the error compared to existing approaches.
• Discussion quality diffuses in the digital public square
Studies of online social influence have demonstrated that friends have important effects on many types of behavior in a wide variety of settings. However, we know much less about how influence works among relative strangers in digital public squares, despite important conversations happening in such spaces. We present the results of a study on large public Facebook pages where we randomly used two different methods—most recent and social feedback—to order comments on posts. We find that the social feedback condition results in higher quality viewed comments and response comments. After measuring the average quality of comments written by users before the study, we find that social feedback has a positive effect on response quality for both low and high quality commenters. We draw on a theoretical framework of social norms to explain this empirical result. In order to examine the influence mechanism further, we measure the similarity between comments viewed and written during the study, finding that similarity increases for the highest quality contributors under the social feedback condition. This suggests that, in addition to norms, some individuals may respond with increased relevance to high-quality comments.
• 2006 | «emancipación frustrada. sobre el concepto de historia en marx» de c. mesa (buchbesprechung, in: 'das argument. zeitschrift für philosophie und sozialwissenschaften' 267/2006)
josé m. garcía gómez del valle: «emancipación frustrada. sobre el concepto de historia en marx» de ciro mesa (buchbesprechung/ book review, in: 'das argument. zeitschrift für philosophie und sozialwissenschaften' 267/2006)
• "Las almenas en la ciudad antigua de Teotihuacan (versión corregida)" (2015)
NOTE: This paper was published in Mexicon 37 (5):118-125. I was told that some last-minute changes (from discovery of new boxes of artifacts in the ASU lab at Teotihuacan) would be incorporated into the published paper. But then the paper was published without the changes. This version on SocArXiv is the corrected version.
• ‘There's no way that you get paid to do the arts’. Unpaid labour across the cultural and creative life course
Unpaid or ‘free’ labour is an important element of how precarity has been theorized. It is also an issue that is often seen as endemic to cultural and creative work, rightly attracting a range of criticism. Questions as to the role of unpaid work, for example internships, have become central to understanding the social exclusiveness of many cultural and creative jobs. This paper develops this existing analysis by comparing and contrasting the meaning of 'free' work over the life course of a range of creative occupations, historicising the impact of unpaid labour on the creative sector and showing how it has been stratified by social class, age and career stage. The paper uses two datasets drawn from the Panic! What happened to social mobility in the arts? project, to outline the differing experiences of unpaid labour in cultural and creative occupations. By demonstrating the stratification of unpaid work as a form of precariousness in cultural jobs, along with the social distribution of benign narratives of unpaid work, the paper aims to offer new empirical evidence for those seeking to resist precarious forms of labour.
• Bayesian Estimation of Total Fertility from a Population's Age-Sex Distribution
We investigate a modern statistical approach to a classic deterministic demographic estimation technique. When vital event registration is missing or inadequate, it is possible to approximate a population's total fertility (TFR) from information about its distribution by age and sex. For example, if under-five child mortality is low then TFR is often close to seven times the child/woman ratio (CWR), the number of 0--4 year olds per 15--49 year old woman. We analyze the formal relationship between CWR and TFR to identify sources of uncertainty in indirect estimates. We construct a Bayesian model for the statistical distribution of TFR conditional on the population's age-sex structure, in which unknown demographic quantities in the standard approximation are parameters with prior distributions. We apply the model in two case studies: to a small indigenous population in the Amazon region of Brazil that has extremely high fertility rates, and to the set of 159 counties in the US state of Georgia. A statistical approach yields important insights into the sources of error in indirect estimation, and their relative magnitudes.
• Assisted Reproductive Technology in Europe: Usage and Regulation in the Context of Cross-Border Reproductive Care
This chapter reviews assisted reproductive technologies (ART) usage and policies across European countries, and scrutinizes emerging issues related to cross-border reproductive care (or “reproductive tourism”). Although Europe is currently the largest market for ART, the extent of usage varies widely across countries, largely because of differences in the laws, the affordability, the types of reimbursement, and the norms surrounding childbearing and conception. Since 2009, the regulation of ART has been expanding in Europe, and all countries now have some form of ART legislation. Countries where the treatments are completely covered by national health plans have the highest level of ART utilization. Being in a legal marriage or a stable union is often a prerequisite for access to ART. Currently, only half of European countries allow single women to use ART, and even fewer grant access to lesbian women. Surrogate motherhood is strictly prohibited in many countries in Europe, and where it is allowed, strong restrictions against commercial surrogacy are in place. While restrictive national legislation can be easily circumvented by crossing national boundaries for ART treatments, questions of equity of access have been raised, as not all prospective parents can afford to travel for treatment.
• Uncanny Robots and Affective Labour in the Oikonomia
This essay offers a reading of current Australian politics by way of the concepts of the uncanny, the oikos and oikonomia.
• Subjective Socioeconomic Status and Health in Cross-National Comparison
Research has established a robust association between subjective socioeconomic status (SES) and health outcomes, which holds over and above the associations between objective markers of SES and health. Furthermore, comparative research on health inequalities has shown considerable variation in the relationship between different objective markers of SES and health across countries. Drawing on data from 29 countries, we present the first cross-national study on the subjective SES–health relationship. For two health outcomes, namely self-rated health (SRH) and psychological wellbeing, we are able to confirm that subjective SES is related to health in all countries under study, even when income, education, and occupational prestige are accounted for. Furthermore, we document considerable variation in the strength of the subjective SES–health association across countries. This variation however is largely independent of country differences in income inequality and country affluence. The health benefits of a high subjective SES appear to be slightly larger in more affluent countries, but only for SRH, not for psychological wellbeing.
• Sammells, Clare A. 2011. The Aymara Year Count: Calendrical Translations in Tiwanaku, Bolivia. Ethnology 50.3: 245-258.
This article considers the Aymara year count that appeared in Bolivian newspapers in 1988 in connection with June solstice celebrations at the pre-Columbian archaeological site of Tiwanaku. The Aymara year communicates politico-temporal meanings; its numbers are evocative, which is why it has gained traction as an accepted part of solstice celebrations in the media and with the Bolivian public. The Aymara year count is a numeric expression of three implicit interrelated political statements. First, it shows that the Aymara have a history that reaches far deeper than their involvement with European conquerors. Second, it links Aymara history to broader pan-indigenous histories. Finally, it demonstrates to non-indigenous audiences that Aymara history, astronomy, and mathematics are rational and sophisticated. This final claim is achieved by using timekeeping to translate very real Tiwanakota accomplishments into an idiom understandable to national and international audiences. The Aymara year count is not used as a method of quantitative timekeeping. Instead, it forms part of the politics that invoke the past.
• The Goldilocks Theory
Oman-Reagan Michael P. "The Goldilocks Theory." The Winnower. 2:e142974.49132. DOI: 10.15200/winn.142974.49132
• Xenolinguistics, SETI, and Pre-Colonial Anthropology
Oman-Reagan, Michael P. 2015. "Xenolinguistics, SETI, and Pre- Colonial Anthropology." The Winnower. 2:e142974.49864, DOI: 10.15200/winn.142974.49864
• Emergence of climate change ecology
Term “climate change ecology” is discussed. Areas of ecology, covered by the term, are described. Examples of findings of climate change ecology are given. Methods of climate change ecology are presented. Status and trends of climate change ecology are drawn.
• Relationship dynamics around depression in gay and lesbian couples
Research on intimate relationship dynamics around depression has primarily focused on heterosexual couples. This body of work shows that wives are more likely than husbands to offer support to a depressed spouse. Moreover, when wives are depressed, they are more likely than husbands to try and shield their spouse from the stress of their own depression. Yet, previous research has not examined depression and relationship dynamics in gay and lesbian couples. We analyze in-depth interviews with 26 gay and lesbian couples (N = 52 individuals) in which one or both partners reported depression. We find evidence that dominant gender scripts are both upheld and challenged within gay and lesbian couples, providing important insight into how gender operates in relation to depression within same-sex contexts. Our results indicate that most gay and lesbian partners offer support to a depressed partner, yet lesbian couples tend to follow a unique pattern in that they provide support both as the non-depressed and depressed partner. Support around depression is sometimes viewed as improving the relationship, but if the support is intensive or rejected, it is often viewed as contributing to relationship strain. Support is also sometimes withdrawn by the non-depressed partner because of caregiver exhaustion or the perception that the support is unhelpful. This study points to the importance of considering depression within gay and lesbian relational contexts, revealing new ways support sustains and strains intimate partnerships. We emphasize the usefulness of deploying couple-level approaches to better understand depression in sexual minority populations.
• Foreign aid allocation from a network perspective: The effect of global ties
This article examines competing explanations for foreign aid allocation on the global level and argues for a new approach to understanding aid from an institutionalist perspective. Using network data on all official bilateral aid relationships between countries in the period from 1975 through 2006 and data on recipient country ties to world society, the article offers an alternative explanation for the allocation of global foreign aid. Fixed effects negative binomial regression models on a panel sample of 117 developing countries reveal that global ties to world society in the form of non-governmental memberships and treaty ratifications are strong determinants of the network centrality of recipient countries in the global foreign aid network. Countries with a higher level of adherence and connection to world society norms and organizations are shown to be the beneficiaries of an increased number of aid relationships with wealthy donor countries. The findings also suggest that prior explanations of aid allocation grounded in altruist or realist motivations are insufficient to account for the patterns of aid allocation seen globally in recent years.
• Preferences, constraints, and the process of sex segregation in college majors: A choice analysis
The persistence of horizontal sex segregation in higher education continues to puzzle social scientists. To help resolve this puzzle, we analyze a sample of college entrants in Germany with a discrete choice design that allows for social learning from the experiences of others. We make at least two contributions to the state of research. First, we test whether essentialist gender stereotypes affect major selection mostly through internalization or rather as external constraints that high school graduates adapt their behavior to. Empirically, we find that internalized vocational interests better explain gendered major choices than conformance with friends’ and parents’ expectations does. Second, we scrutinize whether segregation results from women’s anticipation of gendered family roles or from their anticipation of sex-based discrimination, but we find no evidence for either of these hypotheses. As in most previous studies, differences in mathematics achievement fail to explain gendered patterns of selection into college majors.
• Is the Association Between Education and Fertility Postponement Causal? The Role of Family Background Factors
A large body of literature has demonstrated a positive relationship between education and age at first birth. However, this relationship may be partly spurious because of family background factors that cannot be controlled for in most research designs. We investigate the extent to which education is causally related to later age at first birth in a large sample of female twins from the United Kingdom (N = 2,752). We present novel estimates using within–identical twin and biometric models. Our findings show that one year of additional schooling is associated with about one-half year later age at first birth in ordinary least squares (OLS) models. This estimate reduced to only a 1.5-month later age at first birth for the within–identical twin model controlling for all shared family background factors (genetic and family environmental). Biometric analyses reveal that it is mainly influences of the family environment—not genetic factors—that cause spurious associations between education and age at first birth. Last, using data from the Office for National Statistics, we demonstrate that only 1.9 months of the 2.74 years of fertility postponement for birth cohorts 1944–1967 could be attributed to educational expansion based on these estimates. We conclude that the rise in educational attainment alone cannot explain differences in fertility timing between cohorts.
• Hip-Hop and Cultural Citizenship on Kenya’s ‘Swahili Coast’
The Muslim-dominated ‘Swahili coast’ has always served as a conceptual as well as physical periphery for post-colonial Kenya. This article takes Kenyan youth music under the influence of global hip-hop as an ethnographic entry into the dynamics of identity and citizenship in this region. Kenyan youth music borrows from global hip-hop culture the idea that an artist must ‘represent the real’. The ways in which these regional artists construct their public personae thus provide rich data on ‘cultural citizenship’, in Aihwa Ong’s (1996) sense of citizenship as subjectification. I focus here on youth music production in the Kenyan coastal city of Mombasa between 2004 and 2007. During this time, some local artists adopted a representational strategy that subtly reinscribed the symbolic violence to which members of the coast’s Muslim-Swahili society have long been subjected. I examine the representational strategies that were adopted during this period by Mombasan artists who happened to be members of the Muslim- Swahili society (‘subjects of the Swahili coast’, as I name them), with an ethnographic eye and ear trained on what they say about the ways in which young subjects of the Swahili coast are objectified and subjectified as ‘Kenyan youth’ in the twenty-first century.
• The Art of War: Instability, Insecurity, and Ideological Imagery in Northern Ireland’s Political Murals, 1979-1998
This article examines the purpose behind, and rhetorical content of, political wall murals produced during the Troubles in Northern Ireland. I utilize a semiotic approach to analyze the ways that the symbolic content and physical placement of Northern Irish murals were used by actors on both sides of the conflict. I examine the major thematic traditions utilized by muralists on each side and situate them within the historical and political contexts of the conflict in Northern Ireland. This approach highlights the ways that murals did more than simply champion ideological causes, as earlier scholarship has argued, but served an active role in efforts to catalyze cultural support for organizations' political goals. I argue that murals played a key role for organizations on both sides of the conflict, as they each struggled to craft a communal self-identification and legitimizing central narrative that furthered their ideological goals. Organizations on both sides used murals to mobilize cultural support for their political and military struggles. In this regard, murals functioned as a form of mythic speech, attempting to depoliticize highly political ideologies and make the rhetoric used by the competing groups seem natural and pure. The grassroots nature of the mural traditions is particularly telling in this regard, exposing the deep-seated insecurity of organizations on both sides. This insecurity is further reflected by, and served as a catalyst for, the paramilitary violence that was a defining characteristic of Northern Ireland for so long.
• How Homeland Politics Affect In-group Differences in Identity Formation among Contemporary Chinese-Speaking Immigrants
The immigrant identity literature, which describes various routes to a range of identity claims, suffers from an assumption of mutually exclusive “categorical identities.” In this study the author re-conceptualizes immigrants’ identity formation as a historical causal process involving relational “identity categories.” The sample consists of 56 highly achieving Taiwanese and Chinese immigrants with at least twenty-year lengths of stay. They respectively represent precedents and followers of contemporary Chinese-speaking migrants to the U.S. A major finding is that while Taiwanese immigrants tend to develop an exclusive identity formation process, the Chinese process entails inclusivity. I argue that this within-group difference has its roots in pre-migration conditions. Ethnic polarization in Taiwan has generated and sustained a political form of hyphenated-American identity, a process in which “Taiwanese,” “Chinese” and “Asian” are perceived as mutually exclusive categories of identity. The lack of an equivalent pre-migration event for Chinese immigrants has resulted in the formation of a culturally hyphenated identity in which “Chinese” is interpreted as a symbolic ethnicity that complements Asian panethnicity. By addressing the enduring effects of homeland politics on immigrant identity, this study challenges existing ideas on associations among time/length of stay, culture/common language, and immigrant integration.
• Universals
Musical universals generally refer to aspects of music that are common across humankind, as opposed to aspects that are culture-specific. The existence of musical universals has implications for diverse areas, such as evolution, aesthetics, and cross-cultural understanding, and has thus been a major focus of debate in ethnomusicology and related disciplines. For reasons of space and expertise, this article focuses on debates about musical universals in the mainstream ethnomusicological canon and their broader connections with concepts of human universals in the Western academic tradition, without intending to diminish the value of alternative approaches developed outside of these traditions. Scale tunings and other aspects of pitch structure were long assumed to be universal. During the 20th century, ethnomusicology embraced relativism, emphasizing cross-cultural differences in musical meaning and behavior. However, a 21st century renewal of interest by music psychologists has seen a return to an empirical middle-ground that seeks to move beyond universal/relative dichotomies. Instead, recent research attempts to characterize the degrees to which different aspects of music are more or less common cross-culturally, and to understand the biological and cultural factors underlying this spectrum. Existing evidence suggests a statistically universal set of basic building blocks that may reflect pan-human biological constraints, but each culture may combine and develop these building blocks in unique ways to construct music that can mean different things to different listeners.
• 2010 American Community Survey Match Study
• Dynamics of Race: Joining, Leaving, and Staying in the American Indian/Alaska Native Race Category between 2000 and 2010
Each census for decades has seen the American Indian and Alaska Native population increase substantially more than expected. Changes in racial reporting seem to play an important role in the observed net increases, though research has been hampered by data limitations. We address previously unanswerable questions about race response change among American Indian and Alaska Natives (hereafter “American Indians”) using uniquely-suited (but not nationally representative) linked data from the 2000 and 2010 decennial censuses (N = 3.1 million) and the 2006-2010 American Community Survey (N = 188,131). To what extent do people change responses to include or exclude American Indian? How are people who change responses similar to or different from those who do not? How are people who join a group similar to or different from those who leave it? We find considerable race response change by people in our data, especially by multiple-race and/or Hispanic American Indians. This turnover is hidden in cross-sectional comparisons because people joining the group are similar in number and characteristics to those who leave the group. People in our data who changed their race response to add or drop American Indian differ from those who kept the same race response in 2000 and 2010 and from those who moved between a single-race and multiple-race American Indian response. Those who consistently reported American Indian (including those who added or dropped another race response) were relatively likely to report a tribe, live in an American Indian area, report American Indian ancestry, and live in the West. There are significant differences between those who joined and those who left a specific American Indian response group, but poor model fit indicates general similarity between joiners and leavers. Response changes should be considered when conceptualizing and operationalizing “the American Indian and Alaska Native population.”
• ausal Interaction and Effect Modification: Same Model, Different Concepts
Social scientists use the concept of interactions to study effect dependency. Such analyses can be conducted using standard regression models. However, an interaction analysis may represent either a causal interaction or effect modification. Under causal interaction, the analyst is interested in whether two treatments have differing effects when both are administered. Under effect modification, the analysts investigates whether the effect of a single treatment varies across levels of a baseline covariate. Importantly, the identification assumptions for these two types of analysis are very different. In this paper, we clarify the difference between these two types of interaction analysis. We demonstrate that this distinction is mostly ignored in the political science literature. We conclude with a review of several applications.
• Ethnoracial and Mental Health Disparities in How Fatal Police-Public Encounters are Initiated
WORKING PAPER This paper examines how police-public encounters that resulted in the fatal shooting of 1,312 civilians were initiated. Fatalities that occurred between January 1, 2015 and December 31, 2016 are examined. Results indicate that African-Americans, regardless of mental health status, are approximately half as likely to have fatal police contact due to a family member or friend calling 911 than Whites fatally shot by police. Implications of these findings are explored such as a low incidence of mental illness among African-Americans killed by police, and differences in the quality of information available to police officers prior to public contact for different races/ethnicities. This paper also provides insight into research on racial/ethnic disparities in the volume of 911 calls at the neighborhood-level by examining the relationship between those who initiate police contact and those who are the object of police contact. To the author's knowledge, this study is the first to examine disparities in how police contact is initiated using individual-level data.
• Bantar Gebang: An Urban-Refuse Waste Picker Community at Indonesia's Largest Landfill
This paper discusses Bantar Gebang, a landfill site twenty miles east of Southeast Asia's largest city Jakarta, Indonesia and considers the landfill as an extension of Jakarta's urban residential space. The discussion includes geography and political economy of the landfill and of Indonesia, as well as the lives of Indonesian Waste Pickers, and other related communities. Documentary films about Global waste picker communities as well as political organization among these communities are analyzed. Keywords: Waste, Indonesia, Landfills, Trash, Refuse Please cite as: Oman-Reagan, Michael P. 2012. “Bantar Gebang: An Urban-Refuse Waste Picker Community at Indonesia's Largest Landfill.” SocArXiv, Open Science Framework. Manuscript, submitted January 23, 2017. osf.io/preprints/socarxiv/pq7p2
• Unfolding the Space Between Stars: Anthropology of the Interstellar
In this anthropological account of the “interstellar” – the vast expanses of outer space between the stars – I take interstellar travel as an object of ethnographic study. First, I examine three interstellar space projects: NASA’s Voyager 1 spacecraft; 100 Year Starship’s manifesto on their quest to travel to another star; and SETI’s search for life in the universe. Finally, I turn to corresponding examples of interstellar travel in speculative fiction. In 2013, NASA announced a transmission from the Voyager 1 spacecraft as the “sound of interstellar space” and marked it as crossing a boundary into the “space between stars.” Organizations like 100 Year Starship and the Interstellar Message Composition program at SETI describe interstellar travel in terms of spacecraft, listening for signals, and active transmission. Fiction and science also co-render humans into interstellar scale via speculative technologies like artificial intelligence, instantaneous travel across the universe by “folding space,” and the “generation ship,” in which generations of crewmembers live and die during a multi-year voyage to another star. This ethnography of interstellar ontologies across multiple sites and scales builds on feminist science studies (Haraway), recent work on abstractions as scientific things (Helmreich), and the concept of hyperobjects – non-human entities that are massively distributed in time and space (Morton). As interstellar space moves between abstraction, text, place, and object, I find that it unfolds to reveal a constellation of potentially inhabited worlds inscribed by both scientists and speculative fiction; what was remote, insensate, and desolate becomes intimate, poetic, inhabited. Keywords: Science; Speculative Fiction; Object-Oriented Ontology; Deconstruction; Space Please cite as: Oman-Reagan, Michael P. 2015. “Unfolding the Space Between Stars: Anthropology of the Interstellar.” SocArXiv, Open Science Framework. Manuscript, submitted February 4, 2017. osf.io/preprints/socarxiv/r4ghb/ A version of this paper was presented as: Oman-Reagan, Michael P. 2015. Unfolding the Space Between Stars: Anthropology of the Interstellar. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Anthropological Association, Denver, November 21.
• Writing Worlding: Turning to Ontology at the Dead End of “Culture”
Attention to ontology-oriented theory over the past few decades has been framed as a “turn to ontology” in anthropology. This paper considers the "turn to ontology" as a Derridian deconstruction of the culture concept, and proposes the concept of Writing worlding as an ethnographic practice which makes no claim to translation or to ultimately meaningful signification. Keywords: Anthropology, Philosophy, Ontology, Rhetoric, Culture, Jacques Derrida, Derridean Deconstruction, Translation Please cite as: Oman-Reagan, Michael P. 2015. “Writing Worlding: Turning to Ontology at the Dead End of ‘Culture.’” SocArXiv, Open Science Framework. Manuscript, submitted January 23, 2017. osf.io/preprints/socarxiv/mvaev
• David Vetter and the Children of Mars
This paper considers the life and experiences of David Vetter, a child born with SCID (severe combined immunodeﬁciency), and the implications of his experience for the future of humanity in space. David’s life was mediated by technology developed by the space exploration industry and managed by specialists. His condition became known as “bubble boy disease” following extensive media coverage of David as he lived his entire life in a sterile bubble-like chamber. Keywords: Space Settlement, Medical Anthropology, Immunology, Environmental Anthropology, Anthropology of Space, Ecology, STS, Social Studies of Science Please Cite as: Oman-Reagan, Michael P. 2016. “David Vetter and the Children of Mars.” SocArXiv, Open Science Framework. Manuscript, submitted February 1, 2017. osf.io/preprints/socarxiv/9aazd
• Archipelagic Nationalism and Chinese Food Culture in New Order Indonesia: Making Indonesian Food, Erasing Chinese Food
This paper examines the history of Indonesian nationalism in terms of relationships with Chinese food culture. The paper explores how colonial inheritances, assimilationist ideology and the emergence of an archipelagic nationalism included and excluded Chinese foodways in New Order era embargoes on and erasures of Chinese cultural expression. By looking at the way food was and was not included in the bans on public performances of Chinese culture, I explore how Chinese-Indonesian culture was constructed, produced, and framed in the New Order era in light of the culture bans. I do this by first looking for the historical roots of New Order nationalism and assimilation and seeking to understand how these relations of power informed what was considered Indonesian and what was considered Chinese. I then look at how the Chinese origin of Indonesian food culture was erased from collective memory by these processes. I propose that an archipelagic nationalism was produced in Indonesia through a claim to “unity in diversity” which relied on the exclusion of groups within Indonesia’s boundaries from that unification. Keywords: Southeast Asian Studies, Chinese Studies, Anthropology of Food, Nationalism, Malaysia, Communism, Indonesia, China, Empire Please cite as: Oman-Reagan, Michael P. 2013. “Archipelagic Nationalism and Chinese Food Culture in New Order Indonesia: Making Indonesian Food, Erasing Chinese Food.” SocArXiv, Open Science Framework. Manuscript, submitted January 23, 2017. osf.io/preprints/socarxiv/cm7eu
• Queering Outer Space
How can queer and other minority or marginalized people stake a claim in human futures in space? This paper reflects on the challenges, opportunities, scenarios, and interventions involved as we try to queer the increasingly corporate and military human exploration of and engagement with outer space. I suggest that we must go further than academically interrogating the military and corporate narratives of space “exploration” and “colonization.” We must also water, fertilize, and tend the seeds of alternative visions of possible futures in space, not only seeking solutions to earthly problems of the moment, but actively queering outer space and challenging the future to be even more queer. Keywords: Queer Theory, Space, Anthropology, Colonialism, Mars, SETI Please Cite as: Oman-Reagan, Michael P. 2015. “Queering Outer Space.” SocArXiv, Open Science Framework. Manuscript, submitted January 22, 2017. osf.io/preprints/socarxiv/mpyk6/
• Through the Ol, and What the Maya Found There: Sacred Cenotes as Portals to the Otherworld
This article explores the origins and role of the portal in the ancient religion of the Maya, beginning with a possible naturally occurring archetype for the circular passageway, the cenote (tz’onot). I explore possible connections between the cenote and Mayan portal iconography with Yucatán geography, geology, and an asteroid impact crater (Chicxulub crater). Keywords: Geography, Latin American Studies, Archaeology, Geology, Maya Archaeology, Maya Art, Maya History, Mexico, Mexico, Ancient Religion Please cite as: Oman-Reagan, Michael P. 2006. “Through the Ol, and What the Maya Found There: Sacred Cenotes as Portals to the Otherworld.” SocArXiv, Open Science Framework. Manuscript, submitted January 23, 2017. osf.io/preprints/socarxiv/mhbdf
• Do Algorithms Dream of “Data” Without Bodies?
The question whether algorithms dream of “data” without bodies is asked with the intention of highlighting the material conditions created by wearables for fitness and health, reveal the underlying assumptions of the platform economy regarding individuals’ autonomy, identities and preferences and reflect on the justifications for intervention under the General Data Protection Regulation The article begins by highlighting key features of platform infrastructures and wearables in the health and fitness landscape, explains the implications of algorithms automating, what can be described as “rituals of public and private life” in the health and fitness domain, and proceeds to consider the strains they place on data protection law. It will be argued that technological innovation and data protection rules played a part in setting the conditions for the mediated construction of meaning from bodies of information in the platform economy.
• The (in)security of smart cities: vulnerabilities, risks, mitigation and prevention
In this paper we examine the current state of play with regards to the security of smart city initiatives. Smart city technologies are promoted as an effective way to counter and manage uncertainty and urban risks through the effective and efficient delivery of services, yet paradoxically they create new vulnerabilities and threats, including making city infrastructure and services insecure, brittle, and open to extended forms of criminal activity. This paradox has largely been ignored or underestimated by commercial and governmental interests or tackled through a technically-mediated mitigation approach. We identify five forms of vulnerabilities with respect to smart city technologies, detail the present extent of cyberattacks on networked infrastructure and services, and present a number of illustrative examples. We then adopt a normative approach to explore existing mitigation strategies, suggesting a wider set of systemic interventions (including security-by-design, remedial security patching and replacement, formation of core security and computer emergency response teams, a change in procurement procedures, and continuing professional development). We discuss how this approach might be enacted and enforced through market-led and regulation/management measures, and examine a more radical preventative approach to security.
• Individuals as problems: psychology between individuation and the 'illusion of subjectivity'
This presentation experiments with the proposition that, rather than understanding 'individual psychic life', psychology should devote itself to the analysis of 'individuals as problems' (Tucker, 2012). Such an invitation seeks to provide psychology with a non-reductionist and processual understanding of experience. Moreover, it encourages efforts to deploy the specific patterns of processes of heterogeneous relations that compose specific and perceivable forms of individuation. It is tempting to celebrate this new way of understanding the possibilities of psychology since it avoids what can be understood as the 'illusion of subjectivity' (Duff, 2014), i.e. it's evanescent and mediated character. Under that scope, subjectivity is an illusion psychology frequently grounds in an equally illusory reified, single-bounded, autonomous subject. What this paper seeks to propose is that along with embracing the idea of psychology as the task of experimenting with individuals as problems -and the new forms of subjectivity that might entail- we would do well by asking what kind of problems individuals are, and what does it mean to cultivate 'individuals as problems' as the raison d'etre of its work, and wonder about what 'the psychological' might become under such endeavour.
• Seeing like a market
What do markets see when they look at people? Information dragnets increasingly yield huge quantities of individual-level data, which is analyzed to sort and slot people into categories of taste, riskiness, or worth. Developed to better understand and improve customer experience, these tools deepen the reach of the market and define new strategies of profit-making. We present a new theoretical framework for understanding them. We argue that (1) modern organizations follow an institutional data imperative to collect as much data as possible; (2) as a result of the analysis and use of this data individuals accrue ubercapital, a form of capital flowing from their positions as measured by various digital scoring and ranking methods; and, (3) the facticity of these scoring methods makes them organizational devices with powerful classifying effects. They offer firms new opportunities to structure and price offerings to consumers. For individuals, they create classification situations that identify shared life-chances in product and service markets. Finally, these new market lenses, and especially the self-quantification tools they rely upon, are also presented, and experienced, as a moralized system of opportunities and just deserts.
• O Corrupira e seus vizinhos na Terra da Uva: a família rural jundiaiense e a urbanização.
Este artigo tem por objetivo apresentar os avanços, mesmo que modestos, no projeto etnográfico de iniciação cientifica em bairros tradicionalmente ligados à produção agrícola do município de Jundiaí, São Paulo. Nele serão expostas as diferentes forças em ação na consolidação de um a nova configuração espacial e social em um a cidade em desenvolvimento em franco processo de elitização e diversificação de sua economia. A grande pergunta que orientou o pesquisador, e que deve ser mantida pelo leitor deste trabalho, é com o famílias de origem colona italiana se identificam e interpretam as mudanças que afetam o seu mundo – aí incluídos o espaço físico, a vizinhança e seu entendimento por cidade.
• Social Science and Archaeological Inquiry
This is an "debates" essay that critiques the common archaeological construct that our scholarship is divided between the humanities and the natural sciences. I argue that the social sciences provide a third alternative that is particularly germane to archaeological goals of reconstructing past societies. Deficiencies of post-processual archaeological perspectives are highlighted.
• Percent Black: Regionalism, Urbanism and Group Threat as Explanations for Racial Disparities in Imprisonment 1985-2001
Black prison admission rates &amp; Black/White disparities in prison admissions 1985-2001 were lower in the Old South than in the North. Detailed examination shows a threshold effect: the minimum Black imprisonment rate was uncorrelated with percent Black, but very high Black imprisonment rates occurred only where the percent Black was relatively low. This is not explained by the statistical instability of small populations: although there is more instability where the percent Black is low, the pattern holds up for places with large Black populations. It is also not explained by urbanity as the pattern replicates for metropolitan areas. In addition, the assumption that imprisonment is basically an urban phenomenon is wrong: Whites have higher imprisonment rates in rural areas, and the urban-rural difference for Blacks declined to a low level by the end of the study period. Other minorities are briefly discussed, showing that each has a distinctive pattern. Overall the data refute simplistic theories of group threat and support social control theories that consider both the capacity and desire for social control.
• Prison Sentence Trends By Area Type 1985-2001
National-level trends in racial patterns of incarceration hide the fact that different trends were happening in different kinds of places. Overall, the national Black prison admission rate leveled off after 1995 while the White rate continued to rise. Detailed investigation of types of places reveals that the national trend for Blacks hides a steep decline in Black prison admissions in a few large metropolitan areas coupled with a continued rise in other places, especially those where Blacks were a smaller percentage of the population. White prison admission rates were consistently low and relatively stable in the large metropolitan areas. The growth in White prison admission was concentrated in rural areas and smaller cities that were overwhelmingly White. These trends have not been noticed in the prior literature and require further research.
• Of Rutherford Dust: The Allegory of Dirt and the End of Terroir
Unfolds the use of allegory in consumer culture through an examination of wine culture's use of terroir to mediate the social relations of production.
• Reaction to Safety Equipment Technology in the Workplace and Implications: A Case Study of the Firefighter's Hood
In the 1990s the firefighter’s hood became a standard article of safety equipment worn by municipal firefighters, eliciting a negative reaction among many of these firefighters. Using data from inter-views with 42 firefighters, this research sought to explain why this reaction occurred. Data analysis revealed that negative reactions ultimately stemmed from the hood’s disruption of autonomy, repudiation of the complex mental and physical skill needed to perform tasks required of firefighters, and hindrance in negotiating the life-threatening environment created by a fire. These findings indicate that when introducing new safety equipment technology to emergency response workers, their reaction to this equipment, and its effect on their autonomy and ability to complete complex occupational tasks, may have important prevention implications.
• Connecting Online Work and Online Education at Scale
Education is one of the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDG) of the United Nations. Considerable interest has been displayed in online education at scale, a new arising concept to realize this goal. Yet connecting online education to real jobs is still a challenge. This CHI workshop bridges this gap by bringing together groups and insights from related work at HCOMP, CSCW, and Learning at Scale. The workshop aims at providing opportunities for groups not yet in the focus of online education, exemplified by students who have not have equal access to higher education, compared to typical students in MOOCs.The focus is on theoretical and empirical connections between online education and job opportunities which can reduce the financial gap, by providing students with an income during their studies. The workshop explores the technological analogue of the concept of ‘apprenticeship’, long established in the European Union, and education research [2]. This allows students to do useful work as an apprentice during their studies. This workshop tackles such questions by bringing together participants from industry (e.g., platforms similar to Upwork, Amazon Mechanical Turk); education, psychology, and MOOCs (e.g., attendees of AERA, EDM, AIED, Learning at Scale); crowdsourcing and collaborative work (e.g., attendees of CHI, CSCW, NIPS, AAAI’s HCOMP). Krause, M., Hall, M., Williams, J. J., Paritosh, P., Prpić, J., &amp; Caton, S. (2016, May). Connecting Online Work and Online Education at Scale. In Proceedings of the 2016 CHI Conference Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems (pp. 3536-3541). ACM.
• Crowd Capital in Governance Contexts
To begin to understand the implications of the implementation of IT-­mediated Crowds for Politics and Policy purposes, this research builds the first-­known dataset of IT-­mediated Crowd applications currently in use in the governance context. Using Crowd Capital theory and governance theory as frameworks to organize our data collection, we undertake an exploratory data analysis of some fundamental factors defining this emerging field. Specific factors outlined and discussed include the type of actors implementing IT mediated Crowds in the governance context, the global geographic distribution of the applications, and the nature of the Crowd derived resources being generated for governance purposes. The findings from our dataset of 209 on-­going endeavours indicates that a wide-­diversity of actors are engaging IT-mediated Crowds in the governance context, both jointly and severally, that these endeavours can be found to exist on all continents, and that said actors are generating Crowd-derived resources in at least ten distinct governance sectors. We discuss the ramifications of these and our other findings in comparison to the research literature on the private-­sector use of IT-­mediated Crowds, while highlighting some unique future research opportunities stemming from our work. Prpić, J., &amp; Shukla, P. (2014). Crowd Capital in Governance Contexts. Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford - IPP 2014 - Crowdsourcing for Politics and Policy.
• Experiments on Crowdsourcing Policy Assessment
Can Crowds serve as useful allies in policy design? How do non-expert Crowds perform relative to experts in the assessment of policy measures? Does the geographic location of non-expert Crowds, with relevance to the policy context, alter the performance of non-experts Crowds in the assessment of policy measures? In this work, we investigate these questions by undertaking experiments designed to replicate expert policy assessments with non-expert Crowds recruited from Virtual Labor Markets. We use a set of ninety six climate change adaptation policy measures previously evaluated by experts in the Netherlands as our control condition to conduct experiments using two discrete sets of non-expert Crowds recruited from Virtual Labor Markets. We vary the composition of our non-expert Crowds along two conditions: participants recruited from a geographical location directly relevant to the policy context and participants recruited at-large. We discuss our research methods in detail and provide the findings of our experiments. Prpić, J., Taeihagh, A., &amp; Melton, J. (2014). Experiments on Crowdsourcing Policy Assessment. Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford - IPP 2014 - Crowdsourcing for Politics and Policy.
• The Fundamentals of Policy Crowdsourcing
What is the state of the research on crowdsourcing for policymaking? This article begins to answer this question by collecting, categorizing, and situating an extensive body of the extant research investigating policy crowdsourcing, within a new framework built on fundamental typologies from each field. We first define seven universal characteristics of the three general crowdsourcing techniques (virtual labor markets, tournament crowdsourcing, open collaboration), to examine the relative tradeoffs of each modality. We then compare these three types of crowdsourcing to the different stages of the policy cycle, in order to situate the literature spanning both domains. We finally discuss research trends in crowdsourcing for public policy and highlight the research gaps and overlaps in the literature. Prpić, J., Taeihagh, A., &amp; Melton, J. (2015). The Fundamentals of Policy Crowdsourcing. Policy &amp; Internet, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 340-361.
• A Framework for Policy Crowdsourcing
What is the state of the literature in respect to Crowdsourcing for policy making? This work attempts to answer this question by collecting, categorizing, and situating the extant research investigating Crowdsourcing for policy, within the broader Crowdsourcing literature. To do so, the work first extends the Crowdsourcing literature by introducing, defining, explaining, and using seven universal characteristics of all general Crowdsourcing techniques, to vividly draw-out the relative trade-offs of each mode of Crowdsourcing. From this beginning, the work systematically and explicitly weds the three types of Crowdsourcing to the stages of the Policy cycle as a method of situating the extant literature spanning both domains. Thereafter, we discuss the trends, highlighting the research gaps, and outline the overlaps in the research on Crowdsourcing for policy, stemming from our analysis. Prpić, J., Taeihagh, A., &amp; Melton, J. (2014). A Framework for Policy Crowdsourcing. Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford - IPP 2014 - Crowdsourcing for Politics and Policy.
• A Computational Model of Crowds for Collective Intelligence
In this work, we present a high-level computational model of IT-mediated crowds for collective intelligence. We introduce the Crowd Capital perspective as an organizational level model of collective intelligence generation from IT-mediated crowds, and specify a computational system including agents, forms of IT, and organizational knowledge. Prpić, J., Jackson, P., &amp; Nguyen, T. (2014). A Computational Model of Crowds for Collective Intelligence. Collective Intelligence 2014. MIT Center for Collective Intelligence.
• Health Care Crowds: Collective Intelligence in Public Health
For what purposes are crowds being implemented in health care? Which crowdsourcing methods are being used? This work begins to answer these questions by reporting the early results of a systematic literature review of 110 pieces of relevant research. The results of this exploratory research in progress reveals that collective intelligence outcomes are being generated in three broad categories of public health care; health promotion, health research, and health maintenance, using all three known forms of crowdsourcing. Stemming from this fundamental analysis, some potential implications of the research are discussed and useful future research is outlined. Prpić, J., (2015). Health Care Crowds: Collective Intelligence in Public Health. Collective Intelligence 2015. Center for the Study of Complex Systems, University of Michigan.
• How To Work A Crowd: Developing Crowd Capital Through Crowdsourcing
Traditionally, the term ‘crowd’ was used almost exclusively in the context of people who self organized around a common purpose, emotion, or experience. Today, however, firms often refer to crowds in discussions of how collections of individuals can be engaged for organizational purposes. Crowdsourcing– defined here as the use of information technologies to outsource business responsibilities to crowds–—can now significantly influence a firm’s ability to leverage previously unattainable resources to build competitive advantage. Nonetheless, many managers are hesitant to consider crowdsourcing because they do not understand how its various types can add value to the firm. In response, we explain what crowdsourcing is, the advantages it offers, and how firms can pursue crowdsourcing. We begin by formulating a crowdsourcing typology and show how its four categories–—crowd voting, micro-task, idea, and solution crowdsourcing —can help firms develop ‘crowd capital,’ an organizational-level resource harnessed from the crowd. We then present a three-step process model for generating crowd capital. Step one includes important considerations that shape how a crowd is to be constructed. Step two outlines the capabilities firms need to develop to acquire and assimilate resources (e.g., knowledge, labor, funds) from the crowd. Step three outlines key decision areas that executives need to address to effectively engage crowds. Prpić, J., Shukla, P.P., Kietzmann, J.H., &amp; McCarthy, I.P. (2015). How to Work a Crowd: Developing Crowd Capital Through Crowdsourcing. Business Horizons, Volume 58, Issue 1, Pages 77-85.
• The Contours of Crowd Capability
In this work we use the theory of Crowd Capital as a lens to compare and contrast a number of IS tools currently in use by organizations for crowd-engagement purposes. In doing so, we contribute to both the practitioner and research domains. For the practitioner community we provide decision-makers with a convenient and useful resource, in table-form, outlining in detail some of the differing potentialities of crowd-engaging IS. For the research community we begin to unpack some of the key properties of crowd-engaging IS, including some of the differing qualities of the crowds that these IS application engage. Prpić, J., &amp; Shukla, P. (2014). The Contours of Crowd Capability. Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences #47. January 2014, Big Island, Hawaii, USA. IEEE Computer Society Press. Best Paper Nomination.
• The Theory of Crowd Capital
We are seeing more and more organizations undertaking activities to engage dispersed populations through IS. Using the knowledge-based view of the organization, this work conceptualizes a theory of Crowd Capital to explain this phenomenon. Crowd Capital is a heterogeneous knowledge resource generated by an organization, through its use of Crowd Capability, which is defined by the structure, content, and process by which an organization engages with the dispersed knowledge of individuals –the Crowd. Our work draws upon a diverse literature and builds upon numerous examples of practitioner implementations to support our theorizing. We present a model of Crowd Capital generation in organizations and discuss the implications of Crowd Capital on organizational boundary and on IS research. Prpić, J., &amp; Shukla, P. (2013). The Theory of Crowd Capital. Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences #46. January 2013, Maui, Hawaii, USA. IEEE Computer Society Press.
• Project Risk Management Incorporating Knight, Ellsberg &amp; Kahneman
This work investigates the Practice Standard for Project Risk Management (PSPRM) in light of the fundamental organizational risk research. As a result of this investigation, the work finds that the PSPRM is lacking some key concepts from the extant organizational risk literature and that other fundamental risk concepts are not applied in a manner consistent with the literature. Building on these findings, the work illustrates how project risk management and project risk research might be effected by these deficiencies and recommends some simple measures that could be implemented to usefully augment the PSPRM and project risk research. Prpić, J., (2016). Project Risk Management Incorporating Knight, Ellsberg &amp; Kahneman. Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences #49. January 2016, Kauai, Hawaii, USA. IEEE Computer Society Press
• Policies, Skills and Earnings: How Educational Inequality Affects Earnings Inequality
We study the impact of dispersions in education (both in student test scores and final educational attainment) on earnings inequality, in a country-cohort design. Neo-classical economic theory would predict a positive association between skill inequality (as measured in student test scores) and earnings inequality, while educational attainment inequality adds little on top of skills inequality. A sociological theory of social closure, however, argues that inequality in educational attainment is more important than skills inequality in the prediction of earnings inequality. Using educational policies as instruments, we find causal effects of skills inequality and educational attainment inequality, suggesting that a simple human capital model is insufficient to explain rising earnings inequalities. Nevertheless, skills inequality appeared a more important predictor of earnings inequality than educational attainment inequality. Some educational policy reforms (like public preschool provision or introducing standardised tests) led to reduced educational dispersions, and thereby reduced earnings inequality in adulthood.
• Urban informatics, governmentality and the logics of urban control
In this paper, we examine the governmentality and the logics of urban control enacted through smart city technologies. Several commentators have noted that the implementation of algorithmic forms of urban governance that utilize big data greatly intensifies the extent and frequency of monitoring populations and systems and shifts the governmental logic from surveillance and discipline to capture and control. In other words, urban governmentality is shifting from subjectification – molding subjects and restricting action – to modulating affects, desires and opinions, and inducing action within prescribed comportments. We examine this contention through an examination of two forms of urban informatics: city dashboards and urban control rooms and their use in urban governance. In particular, we draw on empirical analysis of the governmental logics of the Dublin Dashboard, a public, analytical dashboard that displays a wide variety of urban data, and the Dublin Traffic Management and Incident Centre (TMIC) and its use of SCATS (Sydney Coordinated Adaptive Traffic System) to control the flow of traffic in the city. We argue that there is no one governmentality being enacted by smart city technologies, rather they have mutable logics which are abstract, mobile, dynamic, entangled and contingent, being translated and operationalized in diverse, context-dependent ways. As such, just as disciplinary power never fully supplanted sovereign power, control supplements rather than replaces discipline.
• Race, Power and Economic Extraction in Benton Harbor, MI
My dissertation investigates twin financial interventions—urban development and emergency management—in a single small town. Once a thriving city drawing blacks as blue-collar workers during the Great Migration, Benton Harbor, Michigan has suffered from waves of out-migration, debt, and alleged poor management. Benton Harbor’s emphasis on high-end economic development to attract white-collar workers and tourism, amidst the poverty, unemployment, and disenfranchisement of black residents, highlights an extreme case of American urban inequality. At the same time, many bystanders and representative observers argue that this urban redevelopment scheme and the city’s takeover by the state represent Benton Harbor residents’ only hope for a better life. I interviewed 44 key players and observers in local politics and development, attended 20 public meetings, conducted three months of observations, and collected extensive archival data. Examining Benton Harbor’s time under emergency management and its luxury golf course development as two exemplars of a larger relationship, I find that the top-down processes allegedly intended to alleviate Benton Harbor’s inequality actually reproduce and deepen the city’s problems. I propose that the beneficiaries of both plans constitute a white urban regime active in Benton Harbor. I show how the white urban regime serves its interests by operating an extraction machine in the city, which serves to reproduce local poverty and wealth by directing resources toward the white urban regime and away from the city.
• Datos personales y Cloud Computing
• Nuevas vías de depósito, nuevos proyectos: consolidación del repositorio institucional RODERIC
The aim of this paper is to present new projects institutional repository of the University of Valencia, RODERIC, and new ways of deposit of research documents. To do this, we analyse the different activities within the research section of the repository. First, the focus in the area of journals published in the UV, the retrospective thesis digitization projects and publication of actual theses, and finally the CRIS system integration with the repository. It ends with the description of a series of improvements that are planned to be available in the second half of 2013.
• Faculty Diversity at the Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs): A Preliminary Snapshot
We present a preliminary snapshot of the social composition of faculty at the Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs). We find that the faculty body at these institutions is drawn from a very narrow spectrum of Indian society. We argue that by not paying attention to faculty diversity, IIMs engender a crisis of relevance and legitimacy.
• The Natural and Infrastructural Capital Elements of Potential Post-Electrification Wealth Creation in Kenya
While it is widely accepted that electricity is a “necessary but not sufficient condition” for development, there is little research that explores the conditions under which electrification might lead to wealth creation post-electrification. Using Kenya as a case study, this paper uses natural capital (NC) and infrastructural capital (IC) to compare the enabling environments of entrepreneur vs. government run off-grid electrification projects, explores the role that NC and IC can play in determining wealth creation post-electrification, and develops a micro-enterprise development (MED) index indicating regions in Kenya that could be well positioned for wealth creation (and thus, persistent demand) post-electrification. A comparison between the MED index and a nightlights GDP per capita proxy finds that their local differences are informative towards the management and use of local resources, suggests that a nightlights proxy could provide a large underestimate, and sheds light towards regions where the gap between achieved and unrealized potential may be large. We hypothesize that the large discrepancy between our MED index and the night lights income proxy is due to an underestimate of economic activity by night lights (most of the economic activity in rural areas happens during the day), the nature of the MED index being a measure of ‘potential’, and several other factors that could affect both variables such as local climate and environmental conditions, population stress on natural resources, quality of infrastructural capital (not only access), local corruption, and ethnic favoritism. We discuss these at length throughout our paper.
• Submarine Statutes
I define as “submarine statutes” a category of statutes that affect the meaning of later-passed statutes. A submarine statute calls for courts to apply future statutes differently than they would have otherwise. An example is the Religious Freedom Restoration Act, which requires, in some circumstances, exemptions for religious exercise from otherwise compulsory statutory requirements. A new statute can only be understood if its interaction with RFRA is also understood. While scholars have debated the constitutionality of some statutes like these, mainly analyzing the legitimacy of their entrenching quality, I argue that submarine statutes carry an overlooked cost. Namely, they add complexity to the legal background of which a legislator must be aware if he or she is sensibly to express an intention in a new piece of legislation. The thicker the legislative waters are with submarines, the more legislatures are called to make common-law-like surveys of the legal landscape in order to understand the legislation they draft. I discuss several options for controlling the cognitive cost submarines impose on future legislation, including quasi-constitutionalization, super-statutization, and segregation.
• Black Protest in US News Wire Stories 1994-2010: Voices From the Doldrums
There is a dearth of systematic information about the Black movement and Black protests between 1995 and its reemergence in Black Lives Matter in 2012. Using a new automated system, we identified 226 events relevant to Black protest between 1994 and 2010 in 167 articles in news wire stories in the Annotated English Gigaword file. While doubtless incomplete, these data provide insight into Black activism in the “doldrums” of the Black movement and identify themes that are salient for the later resurgence of the Black movement, as well as recent political events. These news wire stories highlight the ongoing symbolic and discursive struggle about the meaning of US racial history embodied in Civil Rights memorials and the Confederate flag, as well as ongoing challenges to discrimination via corporate boycotts and ongoing local conflicts about police violence, schools, and race relations. The conclusion stresses the need for more data about the “doldrums” of the Black movement for understanding the underpinnings of the recent resurgence and trajectories for the future. (NOTE: includes minor corrections to data &amp; results 1/21/17.)
• Impact of credit risk (NPLs) and capital on liquidity risk of Malaysian banks
We investigate the relationship between bank liquidity risk and credit risk and the impact of bank capital on liquidity risk. Using 19 Malaysian commercial banks data over 2002-2011 and applying dynamic panel data GMM estimation after controlling for bank-specific and macroeconomic variables, empirical results document a positive relationship between liquidity and credit risk and a non-linear U-shaped relationship between bank capital and liquidity risk.
• The Ethnic Dimensions in Social Movements
This paper draws on work in the social construction of race and ethnicity to explain why race/ethnic divisions are so often axes of domination and why these divisions are central to social movements. (1) Ethnic/racial groups are constructed in political processes that are tied to state formation and social movements. Many states (including the United States) have an ethnic/racial bias or footprint in their construction. Ethnic/racial groups that are numerical majorities have an advantage in determining state policies and state actions that advantage dominant groups over subordinate groups, create chains of interrelations that amplify differences in power and privilege, and take actions to prohibit or prevent reparations or redress for these past actions. (2) Network isolation and intergenerational transmission interact with structures of domination to reproduce domination over time. “Ethnicity” matters when ethnic boundaries are relatively sharp, consequential, and highly correlated with domination structures and social networks. Strong “ethnic” boundaries tend to divide societies into majorities and minorities. (3) Dominant groups develop and reproduce cultures of domination that include both hostile and benign paternalistic relations with other groups. Subordinate groups develop and reproduce cultures that intermingle opposition and submission. Collective identities are both imposed from without by the actions of others and asserted from within. Identities and cultural practices are developed collectively within social networks and influenced by the actions and speech of political actors, including social movements. (4) Regardless of whether their goals are group-oriented or issue-oriented, all movements in an ethnically-divided or ethnically-hierarchical society have an “ethnic” dimension in the sense that they draw from or map onto one or more ethnic groups. Movements arising from privileged “ethnic” majorities have different dynamics from movements by disadvantaged “ethnic” minorities or mixed-ethnic movements. Processes of group formation derived from theories of the social construction of ethnicity illuminate other movement-relevant group formation processes, including class formation and political subcultures. Lying at the intersection of the sociology of social movements and the sociology of race and ethnicity, the “ethnic” dimensions are revealed as a lens for understanding the general problems of group and identity formation and collective mobilization that lie at the heart of both areas. Presented at the 2016 meeting of the American Sociological Association.
• The Proliferation of Men: Markets, Property, and Seizure in Jordan
Spurred on by massive influxes of Palestinian refugees in previous de- cades, the 1970s and 1980s were marked by acute struggles over land and housing in Jordan. This article places those struggles within the context of a historical look at property in Jordan spanning from the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire to more recent waves of refugees from Syria and Iraq. Drawing on recent research in the social studies of finance and feminist substantivist critiques of “the economy,” I argue for more attention to the role of violence and war in the formation of markets and property regimes. Moving between a World Bank squatter settlement standardization pro- gram and interviews with contemporary planners, speculators, homeown- ers, and construction workers, I argue that the sublimation of violent con- testation over property has required subtle but important transformations in gender norms that privilege new strategies of accumulation. Yet many of my interlocutors insist that this novel “proliferation of wealth” remains sub- ordinate to the role of large agnatic kin groups in the communal defense of land (“the proliferation of men”). Ongoing struggles between financiers, agnatic kin groups, and the Jordanian state illustrate the ways in which seizure is key to the work of market formation.
• Infrastructures of legitimacy: The political lives of marriage contracts in Jordan
Documentary practices legitimizing marriage in what is now Jordan have taken different forms from the late Ottoman period to the present. I analyze the formal characteristics and materiality of these practices to show how initiatives to standardize, aggregate, and circulate information about marriage introduce new notions of personhood, state, and society. Such legitimizing infrastructures entail new forms of accountability that go beyond and even challenge the intentions of those who promulgate such initiatives. The shift in emphasis in Jordan from oral to written contracts and the subsequent aggregation and circulation of those records reifies categories of individual, state, and society while drawing them into a wide array of gendered, generational, and political conflicts. Ironically, the state’s legitimation of marriage may even draw its own legitimacy into question.
• Attitudes to Immigrants of the Moderate Left in Switzerland
Objective: Describe the attitudes of the moderate left in Switzerland. Methods: Descriptive statistics from the 2015 Swiss Electoral Study (SELECTS). Results: The moderate left is more open to foreigners than other respondents on all measures of attitudes and for all definitions of the moderate left used. Conclusion: Attitudes of the moderate left on immigration are distinctive from everyone else.
• The Geography of a rapid rise in mortality in England and Wales, 2014-15
Since at least the early 1900s almost all affluent nations in the world have continually experienced improvements in human longevity. These were driven by falling mortality rates across all age groups, but initially mostly amongst the young. Using ONS mid-year population and deaths estimates for Local Authorities for England and Wales, we show that these improvements have recently reversed. There have been especially high increases in mortality rates within the elderly, a group which we choose to focus our analyses on. In England and Wales, we estimate that there were 39,074 more deaths in the year to July 2015 as compared to the year to July 2014 (32,208 of these additional deaths were of individuals aged 80+). Exploring changes in mortality rates by 5 year age band and sex, we demonstrate that these increases have been felt everywhere geographically; in poor and affluent areas, in rural and urban areas. We explore some possible explanations for the increases and find that few individual factors on their own appear able to explain the patterns we observe. The implications of our findings are profound given what has come before them, combined with the current political climate of austerity. The size, scale and lack of spatial pattern in these changes in 2015 (particularly in comparison to previous years) suggests that something wider is occurring at the population level than simply a one-off event. Are the elderly today merely the 'canaries in a coal mine'?
• Urban Science: A Short Primer
This paper provides a short introductory overview of urban science. It defines urban science, details its practioners and their aims, sets out its relationship to urban informatics and urban studies, and explains its epistemology and the analysis of urban big data. It then summarizes criticism of urban science with respect to epistemology, instrumental rationality, data issues, and ethics. It is concluded that urban science research will continue to grow for the foreseeable future, providing a valuable means of making sense of cities, but that it is unlikely it will become a new paradigm, producing an integrative approach that replaces the diverse philosophical traditions within urban studies.
• Why Do Women's Fields of Study Pay Less? A Test of Devaluation, Human Capital, and Gender Role Theory
As men are overrepresented in lucrative fields and women disproportionately graduate from disciplines that yield low wages in the labor market, horizontal sex segregation in higher education contributes significantly to economic gender inequality. But what underlies the association between sex composition and wages in fields of study? We draw on data from the German HIS Graduate Panel Study 1997 (N=4092) and use hierarchical linear models to adjudicate between devaluation theory and explanations based on differential sorting processes: human capital and gender role theory. The resulting evidence for both human capital and devaluation theory is scant. Consistent with gender role theory, differences in the attractiveness of fields to students with a careerist approach to higher education and the labor market in turn explain most of the association between field of studies’ sex composition and wage levels. We therefore conclude that gendered patterns of self-selection which derive from men’s socialization into the breadwinner role rather than valuative discrimination or rational anticipation of career interruptions underlie the association between fields’ sex composition and wage levels.
• Scratch Commuinty Blocks: Supporting Children as Data Scientists
In this paper, we present Scratch Community Blocks, a new system that enables children to programmatically access, analyze, and visualize data about their participation in Scratch, an online community for learning computer programming. At its core, our approach involves a shift in who analyzes data: from adult data scientists to young learners themselves. We first introduce the goals and design of the system and then demonstrate it by describing example projects that illustrate its functionality. Next, we show through a series of case studies how the system engages children in not only representing data and answering questions with data but also in self-reflection about their own learning and participation.
• A Modern ‘Family Income’: An Experimental Test of Attitudes about Money within Families
The symbolic meaning of money entering households has transformed with the increasing diversity of families and changing gender norms. Modern couples are more likely to withhold money from a common pot, but explanations for this trend are muddled. Using original data from a vignette survey experiment (n = 3,986), this article investigates norms about the ideal integration of income between partners within a variety of family structures. Findings show that despite differences in a hypothetical couple’s marital and parental status, the majority of respondents viewed all couples as ideally pursuing some level of autonomy within their relationship. Respondents also believed the higher relative earner in a partnership ought to hold back a greater absolute value of their earnings, which would reproduce unequal labor market conditions within families. Compared with male breadwinning, when women were presented as the higher relative earner, the ideal level of withholding earnings was slightly larger in magnitude. These results suggest normative support for women’s self-determination in lieu of a push for gender equality. The findings challenge the notion that marriage distinctively establishes a unitary family interest and have implications for understanding persistent gender inequality within families.
• A cultural evolution approach to digital media
Digital media have today an enormous diffusion, and their influence on the behaviour of a vast part of the human population can hardly be underestimated. In this review I propose that cultural evolution theory, including both a sophisticated view of human behaviour and a methodological attitude to modelling and quantitative analysis, provides a useful framework to study the effects and the developments of media in the digital age. I will first give a general presentation of the cultural evolution framework, and I will then introduce this more specific research program with two illustrative topics. The first topic concerns how cultural transmission biases, that is, simple heuristics such as "copy prestigious individuals" or "copy the majority", operate in the novel context of digital media. The existence of transmission biases is generally justified with their adaptivity in small-scale societies. How do they operate in an environment where, for example, prestigious individuals possess not-relevant skills, or popularity is explicitly quantified and advertised? The second aspect relates to fidelity of cultural transmission. Digitally-mediated interactions support cheap and immediate high-fidelity transmission, in opposition, for example, to oral traditions. How does this change the content that is more likely to spread? Overall, I suggest the usefulness of a "long view" to our contemporary digital environment, contextualised in cognitive science and cultural evolution theory, and I discuss how this perspective could help us to understand what is genuinely new and what is not.
• Cultural complexity and demography: the case of folktales
We investigate the relation between cultural complexity and population size in a non-technological cultural domain for which we have suitable quantitative records: folktales. We define three levels of complexity for folk narratives: the number of tale types, the number of narrative motifs, and, finally, the number of traits in variants of the same type, for two well known tales for which we have data from previous studies. We found a positive relationship between number of tale types and population size, a negative relationship for the number of narrative motifs, and no relationship for the number of traits. The absence of a consistent relation between population size and complexity in folktales provides a novel perspective on the current debates in cultural evolution. We propose that the link between cultural complexity and demography could be domain dependent: in some domains (e.g. technology) this link is important, whereas in others, such as folktales, complex traditions can be easily maintained in small populations as well as large ones, as they may appeal to universal cognitive biases.
• Interculturality in ESP Classrooms: A Contributing Strategy to Meet the Job-Market Expectations
In the present time’s globalized atmosphere, the need for intercultural communicative competence in the workplace runs high. Accordingly, in the area of foreign language education, English teachers need more than ever to incorporate intercultural awareness and cross-cultural understanding in their syllabi. This article reports on a case study that involves the use of many research instruments including questionnaires, classroom observation, and assessment of assignments and exam sheets. This paper tends to suggest a cultural teaching based on standards for intercultural learning elicited from related literature in an English for Specific Purposes (ESP) setting, addressed to English as a Foreign Language (EFL) Master students approaching the end of their course of study and getting ready to enter the world of job-market. It proposes ways of instilling multicultural awareness into these language learners through the implementation of intercultural activities, helping them better understanding diversity and developing positive attitudes in the workplace. The research goals comprise increasing students’ intercultural global awareness, promoting their tolerance, and helping them remedy negative attitudes towards the target culture and other alien cultures. Findings of the study show that the proposed intercultural approach stimulates students’ thinking, helps them better comprehend how to immerse in diverse perspectives on complicated international issues, and how to become global citizens able to deal effectively with multiculturalism in the work environment.
• Brute force effects of mass media presence and social media activity on electoral outcome
In this study, we analyze whether the mere volume of presence in mass media and the mere volume of activity on social media convey advantages to candidates in parliamentary elections. Based on the theoretical model of bounded rationality, we call these potential effects brute force effects. During the last month of the election campaign of the Swiss federal election of 2015, we have tracked the presence of all 873 candidates in the canton of Zurich, the most populous canton, in a broad sample of mass media. Additionally, we have tracked those candidates' activity on Facebook and Twitter. The results of our multilevel Bayesian estimates show that mass media presence has a consistent non-trivial impact on different aspects of electoral outcome. Furthermore, social media activity also has a non-trivial impact, but only in terms of resonance (reactions to candidates' social media activity). Overall, our results suggest that brute force effects of of mass media presence and social media activity can have substantial impact on voting behavior.
• Understanding the State: Right to Food Campaign in India
Marginalized peoples’ struggle for subsistence rights in the neoliberal era has theoretical implications for understanding the role of the state in a globalized world. Variations in power exercised by state institutions at the local and national level have implications for the tactics that movements adopt. We examine the Right to Food Campaign in India, an informal network of organizations and individuals across local and national levels, which targets the state for entitlement to food. Using the interim orders of the Supreme Court in 2001, the campaign converted welfare initiatives for children into legal entitlements for access to nutritious food by holding state officials accountable at the local level; it also worked towards the enactment of the National Food Security Act of 2013. The campaign impacts local, national and global institutions, such as the WTO which expressed its disagreement with welfare provisions in the NFSA. Our analysis has three main implications. First, we note that the state is not a monolithic whole but comprises institutions at national and subnational levels (country, state, county or district, and village), all of which may not always work towards the same goal. Second, we argue that the state’s implementation of neoliberal policies that deny subsistence rights of the poor results in localized resistances that are linked to national and global protests. Third, a temporal lens on local and national politics is important to understanding the dynamics between local struggles and state institutions. More Info: Preethi Krishnan and Mangala Subramaniam
• Goldilocks and the South China Sea: Why Vietnam is Hedging Against a Rising China
When Richard Samuels raised the prospect of a ‘Goldilocks Consensus’ in regards to Japan’s relationship vis à vis China, he was positing the idea that Japan should hedge. Samuels identified a need for Japan to grow stronger whilst avoiding growing sufficiently powerful as to pose a threat to China, while simultaneously positioning itself not too close and not too far from the United States, its security guarantor. In short, Japan should aim to get the relationship ‘just right’, hence the faerie—tale analogy. Moving further south within Asia, an examination of the evolving relationship between Vietnam and China shows this is precisely the strategy Vietnam is adopting vis à vis China, albeit within an entirely different security dynamic. In essence, Vietnam's hedging strategy, comprising what Goh has defined as a form of “triangular politics” between Vietnam, China and the United States, is a strategy predicated on working for the best whilst preparing for the worst. It is a strategy that seeks to combine a mixture of balancing, containment, engagement and enmeshment as a form of insurance against an uncertain strategic future. This paper will argue that, due to Thayer’s “tyranny of geography’ – where Vietnam's shared northern continental border and their long snaking eastern littoral coastline bordering the South China Sea have inevitably thrown Vietnam's and China's interests together – Vietnam is more threatened by China's rise than any other regional state. As Goh states, “the tyranny of geography renders the two countries strategic rivals.” Consequently, as China continues to rise, this paper argues that Vietnam will increasingly seek to hedge with the United States, increasing military and security ties with the western hegemon as part of a nuanced strategy, which also includes engagement with China (particularly through growing trade and economic ties); which seeks to enmesh China in multilateral institutions within the regional security architecture; and which seeks to strengthen its own security position through a program of military modernisation and selective military expansion. This nuanced strategy we shall call hedging.
• Which groups are mostly responsible for problems in your neighbourhood? The use of ethnic categories in Germany
Why and under which conditions do people employ ethnic categories rather than others (such as age, class, gender, and so on) to conceptually organize their social environment? This paper analyses an open-ended question on who is seen as responsible for neighbourhood problems taken from a recently conducted large-scale survey in Germany. Thereby, this study tries to give novel insight on native German’s use of ethnic folk classifications and aims to identify contextual factors that might explain why people characterize problem-groups in ethnic terms. This paper shows that drunkards, elderly and especially teenagers are more frequently seen as problem-group than any ethnic minority. Conditions of economic decline and out-group size are analysed as to whether they are associated with a higher likelihood to use ethnic categories. The findings suggest that the effects of out-group size are diminishing in their impact, whereas the effects of economic decline are accumulating in strength.
• Informal urban green space as anti-gentrification strategy?
Access to urban greenspace is vital for urban residents’ wellbeing. Yet investment in new parks can trigger housing price inflation through a process termed environmental gentrification. This can in turn potentially displace marginalized and vulnerable residents. In this chapter, we examine cases from Japan and Australia, investigating how informal urban greenspaces (IGS) (e.g. vacant lots, street or railway verges, brownfields, and power line corridors) could function as an ‘anti-gentrification’ urban greening strategy. Employing conceptual insights from political ecology and environmental justice, we use spatial and statistical analysis to test whether IGS is socio-spatially differentiated by (dis)advantage, and whether factors such as income and education affect residents’ perception and use of IGS. Results suggest that IGS holds considerable potential as a ‘just green enough’ intervention, because it does not appear to trigger gentrification as occurs with more ‘intentional’ green spaces. We argue that a key difference between intentional and informal greenspaces is the apparent empowerment of residents as co-creators, designers, managers and users of greenspace – not as passive consumers. Informal greenspaces may thus fulfill recreational needs while avoiding demands for a ‘return on investment’, a driver of environmental-gentrification. Insights from Japan suggest that planners and urban managers should identify and reduce IGS use barriers, provide better information (e.g. IGS maps), and work with residents to promote its use.
• HUMAN DEVELOPMENT AND WELL BEING AT BOLIVIA. Migration of young indigenous to the cities
Is a Master Thesis about the migration of young indigenous to the cities in Bolivia. The main issue is the believes about the well being in the context of human development theories and the Bourdieu sociological theories. The work show how the well being it is a invention of indigenous intellectuals of Bolivia (the young people talk about progress or economic development) but it is a real opportunity to think how the indigenous conception of society and nature are some kind of GPS for the contemporaneous values of the modern societies of the world.
• Open Science in Archaeology
In archaeology, we are accustomed to investing great effort into collecting data from fieldwork, museum collections, and other sources, followed by detailed description, rigorous analysis, and in many cases ending with publication of our findings in short, highly concentrated reports or journal articles. Very often, these publications are all that is visible of this lengthy process, and even then, most of our journal articles are only accessible to scholars at institutions paying subscription fees to the journal publishers. While this traditional model of the archaeological research process has long been effective at generating new knowledge about our past, it is increasingly at odds with current norms of practice in other sciences. Often described as ‘open science’, these new norms include data stewardship instead of data ownership, transparency in the analysis process instead of secrecy, and public involvement instead of exclusion. While the concept of open science is not new in archaeology (e.g., see Lake 2012 and other papers in that volume), a less transparent model often prevails, unfortunately. We believe that there is much to be gained, both for individual researchers and for the discipline, from broader application of open science practices. In this article, we very briefly describe these practices and their benefits to researchers. We introduce the Society of American Archaeology’s Open Science Interest Group (OSIG) as a community to help archaeologists engage in and benefit from open science practices, and describe how it will facilitate the adoption of open science in archaeology.
• A Sociology of Foreign Aid and the World Society
This article highlights an emerging research agenda for the study of foreign aid through a World Society theory lens. First, it briefly summarizes the social scientific literature on aid and sociologists' earlier contributions to this research. Next, it reviews the contours of world society research and the place of aid within this body of literature. Finally, it outlines three emergent threads of research on foreign aid that comprise a new research agenda for the sociology of foreign aid and its role in world society globalization.
• Inter-Ethnic Neighbourhood Acquaintanceships of Migrants and Natives in Germany: On the Brokering Roles of Inter-Ethnic Partners and Children
Since Allport, social scientists emphasise the importance of personal inter-ethnic contact for overcoming prejudices and enhancing social cohesion in mixed societies. But why do some people have more contact to their neighbours of other ethnicity? Using new data from a large-scale German survey, I analyse the brokering roles of children and inter-ethnic partners in explaining inter-ethnic neighbourhood acquaintanceships. Even on a contextual level, my results suggest that people living in regions with larger shares of children have more inter-ethnic neighbourhood acquaintances, which expands earlier findings on the general integrating function of children. However, I also argue that we should recognise brokering to be context-specific and exemplify this by showing how the brokering role of inter-ethnic partners shows particularly in interaction with inter-ethnic encounters at local bars and restaurants, while that of children shows particularly given frequent inter-ethnic encounters at public parks and playgrounds. More importantly, the brokering role of children only shows in interaction with the frequency of inter-ethnic encounters at local parks and playgrounds. On a theoretical level, my results demonstrate the importance of studying the interaction of mechanisms in explaining personal (inter-ethnic) contact.
• Measuring Entrepreneurship: Measurement Choices Can Influence Empirics
This article examines the role that measurement conventions play in shaping the results of survey-based empirical research on entrepreneurship. Researchers typically use one of two criteria to identify entrepreneurs in survey data: a self-employed labor market status or reported possession of an owner-operated business. We explore how alternative methods for identifying entrepreneurs affect estimates of entrepreneurship’s prevalence and the demographic makeup of the entrepreneurial community. We find that many households that would be identified as engaged in entrepreneurship by conventional methods have little to no business sales or assets, and take in very modest – if any – profit. The demographic makeup of the entrepreneurship community seems to vary, depending on how one defines the concept.
• Academic work in the digital age
This paper makes a case for questioning, challenging and critiquing how digital technology is shaping academic work. Focusing on the increased digitization of academic publishing, teaching and administration, the paper argues for changing the conversations that academics have about technology in higher education Transcript of a talk given at the ‘Disrupting Higher Education Dialogues’ conference - Deakin University, Melbourne (25.11.16)
• Toward a digital sociology of school
The proliferation of digital technologies into schools clearly merits renewed and sustained sociological attention. This chapter outlines some of the key ways in which digital sociology can help us make better sense of contemporary school.
• Movement of lithics by trampling: An experiment in the Madjedbebe sediments
Understanding post-depositional movement of artefacts is vital to making reliable claims about the formation of archaeological deposits. Human trampling has long been recognised as a contributor to post-depositional artefact displacement. We investigate the degree to which artefact form (shape-and-size) attributes can predict how an artefact is moved by trampling. We use the Zingg classification system to describe artefact form. Our trampling substrate is the recently excavated archaeological deposits from Madjedbebe, northern Australia. Madjedbebe is an important site because it contains early evidence of human activity in Australia. The age of artefacts at Madjedbebe is contentious because of the possibility of artefacts moving due to trampling. We trampled artefacts in Madjedbebe sediments and measured their displacement, as well as modelling the movement of artefacts by computer simulation. Artefact elongation is a significant predictor of horizontal distance moved by trampling, and length, width, thickness and volume are significant predictors of the vertical distance. The explanatory power of these artefact variables is small, indicating that many other factors are also important in determining how an artefact moves during trampling. Our experiment indicates that trampling has not contributed to extensive downward displacement of artefacts at Madjedbebe.
• Does mindset affect children’s ability, school achievement, or response to challenge? Three failures to replicate.
Mindset theory states that children’s ability and school grades depend heavily on whether they believe basic ability is malleable and that praise for intelligence dramatically lowers cognitive performance. Here we test these predictions in 3 studies totalling 624 individually-tested 10-12-year-olds. Praise for intelligence failed to harm cognitive performance and children’s mindsets had no relationship to their IQ or school grades. Finally, believing ability to be malleable was not linked to improvement of grades across the year. We find no support for the idea that fixed beliefs about basic ability are harmful, or that implicit theories of intelligence play any significant role in development of cognitive ability, response to challenge, or educational attainment.
• Between a Rock and a Hard Place: International NGOs and the Dual Pressures of Donors and Host Governments
Review of: - The Taming of Democracy Assistance: Why Democracy Promotion Does Not Confront Dictators. By Sarah Sunn Bush. (Cambridge University Press, 2015.) - Help or Harm: The Human Security Effects of International NGOs. By Amanda Murdie. (Stanford University Press, 2014.) - Civil Society under Authoritarianism: The China Model. By Jessica C. Teets. (Cambridge University Press, 2014.)
• Predictors of returns to work following retirement: A prospective analysis of Germany, Russia and the United Kingdom
Aims: Individuals may return to paid work following retirement, a phenomenon described as “unretirement”. By following recent retirees over time in Germany, Russia and the United Kingdom, we examined whether unretirement is more common for people who are facing financial hardship. Methods: Data are drawn from four prospective surveys: the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (1991–2013), the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (1994–2013) and, for the United Kingdom, the British Household Panel Survey (1991–2008) and Understanding Society (2010–2014), harmonized ex post. Unretirement behaviour was examined using Cox regression in relation to demographic covariates, as well as education, health and financial adequacy. Findings: The cumulative hazard of unretirement attained around 17% among German participants, 26% among British participants and 42% among Russian participants after 20 years of follow-up. Males, younger and more educated retirees, in better health and with higher incomes were generally more likely to return to work. Participants who were more concerned about their finances were not more likely to unretire in Russia or the United Kingdom and were only more likely to return to work in Germany following adjustment for the other covariates. Conclusions: Unretirement was common, confirming previous largely North American studies depicting retirement as a fluid and flexible process. These results suggest that retired people represent a substantial pool of potential labour, but there was little indication that those most in need were unretiring, particularly in Russia and the UK. This suggests that encouraging greater reliance on employment in later life may cause hardship among older people unable to find suitable work and potentially exacerbate social inequalities.
• Book Review: “Theater in a Crowded Fire: Ritual and Spirituality at Burning Man”
Book Review of "Theater in a Crowded Fire: Ritual and Spirituality at Burning Man." Lee Gilmore. Berkeley: University of California Press. 2010. xiii + 237 pp. + DVD (30 minutes). Paperback, \$24.95 USD, £16.95 GBP. ISBN: 978-0-520-26088-7. Keywords: Ethnography, Spirituality, Ritual, Ritual Theory, Book Review, Burning Man Festival Please cite as: Oman-Reagan, Michael Paul. 2010. “Theater in a Crowded Fire: Ritual and Spirituality at Burning Man by Lee Gilmore.” Alternative Spirituality and Religion Review 1 (2): 163–67.
• Anthropology of Outer Space: Familiar Scales, Strange Sites (CFP, AAA 2015)
This panel aims to investigate the meanings, limits, and possibilities of expanding our anthropological fieldwork into space. At stake is an understanding of how human activity in space increasingly shapes possible human futures both on and off planet Earth. We ask: What are the constraints and potentialities of interrogating outer space in this emerging era of science, imagination, exploration, and settlement? Keywords: Robotics, History, Future Studies, Geography, Environmental Science, Physics, Space Sciences, Economics, Anthropology, Medical Anthropology, Political Economy, Ontology, Tourism Studies, Social Sciences, Political Ecology, Astrobiology, Exoplanets, STS, Environmental Sustainability, Social Studies Of Science, Astrophysics, Astronomy, Astroanthropology, Infrastructure, Call for Papers Please cite as: Oman-Reagan, Michael P. and Kira Turner. 2015. Call for Papers: “Anthropology of Outer Space: Familiar Scales, Strange Sites.” 114th Annual Meeting of the American Anthropological Association; Denver, Colorado. 18-22 November.
• Making Outer Space Intimate: Familiar Scales and Strange Sites (Panel, AAA 2015)
Building on anthropology’s attunement to multiple registers of inquiry, this panel finds intimate engagements with outer space in studies of: the imaginaries of astronomical image making; the politics of otherworldly analog and simulation science; views from the ground and views from space in climate science; the inscription of interstellar space as a site of travel, communication, and speculation; indigenous people’s cosmologies, spaceport construction, and space tourism; and ontologies of space debris in locales both proximate and remote to spacecraft launch sites. These intimate encounters with space shift the cosmos from something remote ‘out there’ into a familiar locale with attendant earthly consequences from awe and hope to conflict and danger. At stake is an understanding of how our activity in space increasingly shapes the ways we imagine and plan for human futures both on and off planet Earth. Keywords: Geography, Archaeology, Space, Interstellar, Tourism Studies, Technology, Climate Change, Space and Place, Political Ecology, Environmental Studies, History of Science, Astrobiology, Exoplanets, STS, Astrophysics, Astronomy, Anthropocene, Science and Technology Studies Please cite as: Oman-Reagan, Michael P. and Kira Turner. 2015. Making Outer Space Intimate: Familiar Scales and Strange Sites. Paper session reviewed by General Anthropology Division. 114th Annual Meeting of the American Anthropological Association; Denver, Colorado. 18-22 November.
• The Social Lives of Plants, in Space
Oman-Reagan, Michael P. 2015. “The Social Lives of Plants, in Space.” Astrosociological Insights 4 (2): 4–8.
• Occupying Cyberspace: Indonesian Cyberactivists and Occupy Wall Street (MA Thesis)
As the Occupy Wall Street movement went global, activists in Indonesia adopted an Occupy discourse, in part, through creation of and participation in Facebook groups. These groups afforded opportunities for Indonesian Facebook users participating in local activism online to join a globalizing Occupy movement within a familiar online activism framework. Despite a history of colonial occupation, Indonesian cyberactivists embraced expanded meanings of the word occupy as they joined a global social movement and formed local Occupy networks. During two years of multi-sited ethnographic fieldwork online and in Indonesia, this research explored what constitutes “occupation” for online participants in the Indonesian Occupy movement, and what it means for activists to “occupy” in (post)colonial Indonesia. Also includes: Appendixes: "A Brief History of Occupy and Online Activism" and "Theorizing an Anthropology of Cyberspace". Key words: Activism, anthropology of cyberspace; empire; engaged anthropology; indigeneity; (post)colonialism; social movements; technology; Indonesia. Please cite as: Oman-Reagan, Michael P. 2013. Occupying Cyberspace: Indonesian Cyberactivists and Occupy Wall Street. M.A. Thesis, Department of Anthropology, Hunter College, City University of New York.
• Curricular Tracking and Social Inequality in Mathematics Achievement: A Comparative Reform Study
Between-school segregation is high on the agenda of academic researchers and policy makers. Especially between-school tracking is heavily debated, as early tracking is said to enhance social inequalities in learning opportunities. Contemporary debates on the relevance of comprehensive education in the United States, the Netherlands, Belgium, England and Germany, may learn from changes in educational inequalities that have emerged after past reforms from early tracking to comprehensive systems. We study educational inequalities by socioeconomic background in nine countries, across time. Using a comparative reform study and international student assessment data collected among eigth-graders, it is demonstrated that social inequalities more strongly reduced in systems that have transformed their educational system from tracked to comprehensive education than in systems without this reform.
• Institutional logics
*Abstract: *We survey research on institutional logics, which are systems of cultural elements (values, beliefs, and normative expectations) by which people, groups, and organizations make sense of and evaluate their everyday activities, and organize those activities in time and space. Although there were scattered mentions of this concept before 1990, this literature really began with the 1991 publication of a theory piece by Roger Friedland and Robert Alford. Over the past twenty years, it has become a large and diverse area of organizational research. Several books and thousands of papers and book chapters have been published on this topic, addressing institutional logics in sites as different as climate change proceedings of the United Nations, local banks in the United States, and business groups in Taiwan. Next, we review this literature, beginning with a detailed explanation of the concept and the theory surrounding it. To show how this literature developed over time within the broader framework of theory and empirical work in sociology, political science, and anthropology, we evaluate several intellectual precursors to institutional logics. We then sample papers published in ten major sociology and management journals in the United States and Europe between 1990 and 2015, and analyze this sample of papers to identify trends in theoretical development and empirical findings. After we detail these trends, we conclude by suggesting three gentle corrections and potentially useful extensions to this literature to guide future research: (1) limiting the definition of institutional logic to cultural-cognitive phenomena, rather than including material phenomena; (2) recognizing both “cold” (purely rational) cognition and “hot” (emotion-laden) cognition; and (3) developing and testing a theory (or multiple related theories), meaning a logically interconnected set of propositions concerning a delimited set of social phenomena, derived from assumptions about essential facts (axioms), that details causal mechanisms and yields empirically testable (falsifiable) hypotheses, by being more consistent about how we use concepts in theoretical statements; assessing the reliability and validity of our empirical measures; and conducting meta-analyses of the many inductive studies that have been published, to develop deductive theories.
• Dialogue on Alternating Consciousness: From Perception to Infinities and Back to Free Will
Can we trace back consciousness, reality, awareness, and free will to a single basic structure without giving up any of them? Can the universe exist in both real and individual ways without being composed of both? This dialogue founds consciousness and freedom of choice on the basis of a new reality concept that also includes the infinite as far as we understand it. Just the simplest distinction contains consciousness. It is not static, but a constant alternation of perspectives. From its entirety and movement, however, there arises a freedom of choice being more than reinterpreted necessity and unpredictability. Although decisions ultimately involve the whole universe, they are free in varying degrees also here and now. The unity and openness of the infinite enables the individual to be creative while this creativity directly and indirectly enters into all other individuals without impeding them. A contrary impression originates only in a narrowed awareness. But even the most conscious and free awareness can neither anticipate all decisions nor extinguish individuality. Their creativity is secured.
• Grassroots Expertise at a New York City Community Board
Democratic theory predicts that the use of expert knowledge can conflict with democratic participation in policy-making, but neighborhood-level participatory bodies in U.S. cities frequently deploy quantitative analysis and other forms of expertise as they engage land use processes. An ethnographic approach permits us to investigate the fine-grained human interactions around one such potentially problematic instance. Participatory observation and in-depth interviewing of board members and staff from a New York City community board in a low-income neighborhood show that they can partially overcome the challenge of expertise by developing their own technical capacity. Expertise enhances board members’ influence, but members nevertheless encounter difficulties, including the problem of simultaneously performing advisory and representative roles.
• #mysanfrancisco: Social Media and the Conceptual Linguistic Landscape
Recent attempts to advance the field of Linguistic Landscapes (LL) have emphasized the importance of contending with the ‘actors’ of the LL and their role in interpreting or interacting with language in place (Waksman and Shohamy 2016; Barni and Bagna 2015; Malinowski 2009). This paper addresses this interest in what I refer to as the LL’s interpretant (a` la Peirce 1955) or conceptual aspect by analyzing representations of physical space posted on Instagram, a popular photo sharing platform. Using a corpus of Instagram posts geotagged within the Mission District in San Francisco, California, I employ methods such as topic modeling and sentiment analysis to investigate the ways individuals are seen to engage with the semiotic land- scape of the neighborhood and explore how the Mission itself is discursively constructed through these subjective recontextualizations. In doing so I aim to highlight aspects of the relationship between social media and physical place and the ways language is seen to mediate this dynamic. I argue geo- graphically tagged social media is not representative of an LL but productive, viewing the selective and subjective displays found online to be as much a part of the LL context as a potential key to understanding it.
• The Marriage Wealth Premium Revisited
This study examines the association between marriage and economic wealth of women and men. Going beyond previous research, which focused on household wealth, I examine personal wealth which allows identifying gender disparities in the association between marriage and wealth. Using unique data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (2002, 2007, 2012), I apply random-effects and fixed-effects regression models to test my expectations. I find that both, women and men, experience substantial marriage wealth premiums not only in household but also in personal wealth. I do not find consistent evidence for gender disparities in these general marriage premiums. Additional analyses indicate, however, that women’s marriage premiums are substantially lower than men’s premiums in older cohorts and when only considering non-housing wealth. Overall, this study provides new evidence that women and men gain unequally in their wealth attainment through marriage.
• Medicare Coverage and Reporting: A Comparison of the Current Population Survey and Administrative Records
Medicare coverage of the older population in the United States is widely recognized as being nearly universal. Recent statistics from the Current Population Survey Annual Social and Economic Supplement (CPS ASEC) indicate that 93 percent of individuals aged 65 and older were covered by Medicare in 2013. Those without Medicare include those who are not eligible for the public health program, though the CPS ASEC estimate may also be impacted by misreporting. Using linked data from the CPS ASEC and Medicare Enrollment Database (i.e., the Medicare administrative data), we estimate the extent to which individuals misreport their Medicare coverage. We focus on those who report having Medicare but are not enrolled (false positives) and those who do not report having Medicare but are enrolled (false negatives). We use regression analyses to evaluate factors associated with both types of misreporting including socioeconomic, demographic, and household characteristics. We then provide estimates of the implied Medicare-covered, insured, and uninsured older population, taking into account misreporting in the CPS ASEC. We find an undercount in the CPS ASEC estimates of the Medicare covered population of 4.5 percent. This misreporting is not random - characteristics associated with misreporting include citizenship status, year of entry, labor force participation, Medicare coverage of others in the household, disability status, and imputation of Medicare responses. When we adjust the CPS ASEC estimates to account for misreporting, Medicare coverage of the population aged 65 and older increases from 93.4 percent to 95.6 percent while the uninsured rate decreases from 1.4 percent to 1.3 percent.
• Black and Hispanic Representation in Policing: Organizational and Local Labor Market Context
Recent events, such as highly visible police shootings, have highlighted the underrepresentation of racial minorities in U.S. policing. Past research has found a strong relationship between the local concentrations of a racial minority group and increased representation among police, as well as evidence of the disparate treatment of Blacks and Hispanics by White police officers. Using confidential, establishment-level public employment data on police departments from the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, linked to Census local labor market data, we examine how department size and local demographic dynamics are associated with Black/Hispanic underrepresentation in policing. We find that police departments in labor markets with larger Black and Hispanic populations, and those with a greater number of officers on their force, are more likely to report underrepresentation of Black and Hispanic officers relative to the labor market. However, the effect of local population composition is reduced for bigger departments, suggesting a positive effect of organization visibility on minority police integration. In addition, the presence of Blacks and Hispanics in top leadership positions is positively associated with proportional representation, suggesting that minorities in leadership positions may have a beneficial impact on Black and Hispanic officer hiring.
• Partisan Governance and Policy Implementation: The Politics of Academy Conversion Amongst English Schools
This article demonstrates that party-political orientations within governance communities can have strong effects on policy implementation. Empirical evidence is drawn from the Academy conversion scheme for secondary schools in England that was recently pursued by the Conservative and Liberal Democrat coalition government. The opt-in nature of the reform makes it possible to discern the impact that nominally apolitical school governors have on the implementation of the policy. Academy conversion is disproportionately found in more Conservative-voting constituencies due to varying school-level propensities to apply to convert, rather than varying propensities for the Department for Education to authorize conversions. Further, applications to convert are significantly more likely from schools in Conservative parliamentary seats that are under the control of Labour local authorities. Thus, nominally apolitical policy participants appear to act in rather political ways, which has implications for our understanding of the involvement of civil society in the provision of public services.
• Acting Right? Privatization, Encompassing Interests, and the Left
I present a theoretical account of the politics of privatization that predicts left-wing support for the policy is conditional on the proportionality of the electoral system. In contrast to accounts that see privatization as an inherently right-wing policy, I argue that, like trade policy, it has the feature of creating distributed benefits and concen- trated costs. Less proportional electoral systems create incentives for the Left to be responsive to those who face the concentrated costs, and thus for them to oppose privatization more strongly. More proportional systems reduce these incentives and increase the extent to which distributed benefits are internalized by elected representatives. Hypotheses are derived from this theory at both the individual and macro-policy level, and then tested separately. Quantitative evidence on public opinion from the 1990s and privatization revenues from Western European countries over the period 19802005 supports the argument.
• The Declaration of Unity and Union
This is a declaration. The identity of mathematics and number theory or arithmetics. I have defined a pattern here that shows consciousness is a pure unique entity that is present everywhere and whole the existence is a graphical manifestation that has been phenomenoned over to enclose it and I hermetically simplify my intuition to transfer it to curious ones. Since explaining the methodology requires in thousands of pages, the final concluded statements and equations are only declared here. We are living in a calculational system of Information that has an algorithm which is explained here.
• Assimilation and Coverage of the Foreign-Born Population in Administrative Records
• Work-Family Calendars for Family Sociology Research
We present an active learning exercise for students in family sociology, gender, or population studies. The main contribution is to introduce a standard work-family history calendar which students use to structure inter-views with women ages 34-65. We offer details on the exercise, the attendant research paper assignment, and suggestions for class activities and discussions to enhance the learning experience. Feedback from students suggests the calendar exercise helps organize the interview, recognize patterns in the data, and develop an ar-gument for the research paper. Finally, we present a simple quantitative data manipulation, based on several hundred student calendars, as an example of the potential benefit of aggregating the calendars within or across classes performing the exercise.
• MPEDS: Automating the Generation of Protest Event Data
Large-scale research of social movements has required more detailed, recent, and specific data about protest events. Analyses of these data allow for new insights into movement emergence, consequences, and tactical innovation and adaptation. One of the issues with this kind of analysis, however, is that the generation of event data is incredibly costly. Human coders must pore through news sources, looking for instances of protest and coding many variables by hand. Because of the high labor costs, projects are typically limited to one or two newspapers per country. This, in turn, exacerbates issues of selection and description biases. This article aims to address this issue with the development, validation, and application of a system for automating the generation of protest event data. This system, called the Machine-Learning Protest Event Data System (MPEDS), is the first of its kind coming from within the social movement community. MPEDS uses recent innovations from machine learning and natural language processing to generate protest event data with little to no human intervention. The system aims to have the effect of increasing the speed and reducing the labor costs associated with identifying and coding collective action events in news sources, thus increasing the timeliness of protest data and reducing biases due to excessive reliance on too few news sources. Work on MPEDS is ongoing, and to that end, the system will also be open, available for replication, and extendable by future social movement researchers, and social and computational scientists.
• Can competing diversity indices inform us about why ethnic diversity erodes social cohesion? A test of five diversity indices in Germany
An ever-growing number of studies investigates the relation between ethnic diversity and social cohesion, but these studies have produced mixed results. In cross-national research, some scholars have recently started to investigate more refined and informative indices of ethnic diversity than the commonly used Hirschman-Herfindahl Index. These refined indices allow to test competing theoretical explanations of why ethnic diversity is associated with declines in social cohesion. This study assesses the applicability of this approach for sub-national analyses. Generally, the results confirm a negative association between social cohesion and ethnic diversity. However, the competing indices are empirically indistinguishable and thus insufficient to test different theories against one another. Follow-up simulations suggest the general conclusion that the competing indices are meaningful operationalizations only if a sample includes: (1) contextual units with small and contextual units with large minority shares, as well as (2) contextual units with diverse and contextual units with polarized ethnic compositions. The results are thus instructive to all researchers who wish to apply different diversity indices and thereby test competing theories.
• ISLAMIC BANKING AND FINANCE AS AN ETHICAL ALTERNATIVE: A SYSTEMATIC LITERATURE REVIEW
Despite huge global growth rates and a rapidly increasing importance of Islamic banking and finance, research in this area still needs to be classified as nascent. Recent economic events have led to an increasingly critical attitude towards the conventional banking and finance system, whereas Islamic banking is considered to be an ethical alternative not only in Muslim economies but also progressively in the “western” world. As their business models have their origins in religious and ethical ideals, Islamic banks struggle to observe the foundational Shariah principles while simultaneously meeting applicable guidelines such as Basel III and flexibly adapt to the ever changing customer demands. Due to the increasing importance of Islamic banking and finance, this article aims to analyse and summarise various aspects of current research and sets out to identify both, congruence and inconsistencies between the implied promise of an “ethical” alternative and the actual market.
• How Experts Can, and Can’t, Change Policy: Economics, Antitrust, and the Linked Evolution of the Academic and Policy Fields
During the 1970s, U.S. antitrust policy shifted dramatically from a high-enforcement position to a laissez-faire¬ one, where it has largely remained. At the same time, economics displaced law as the dominant form of antitrust expertise. While these developments are related, the former cannot be reduced to the latter: the median position in economics itself shifted from high-enforcement to low-enforcement during this period, and by its end was moving back toward more enforcement. To understand the relationship between these changes, this paper conceptualizes academic economics and antitrust policy as linked fields with relative autonomy. Though economics came to play a key role in antitrust policy, its influence was in some ways limited. The academic field was itself shaped, though not determined, by outside political interests. In addition, not all academically influential ideas translated equally well into policy. A wide range of economists shared a commitment to efficiency as the main purpose of antitrust, however, which delegitimized other historical goals of antitrust policy and constrained political possibilities in lasting ways.
• This I Believe Speech &amp; Essay
3 minute: This I Believe speech and essay about parts of success, including key points to dream big, to work hard, and to stay humble.
• Rückkaufvereinbarungen und 'contra proferentem'-Regel unter dem UN-Kaufrecht (Repurchase Agreements and Interpretation 'Contra Proferentem' under the UN Sales Convention (CISG))
Internationales Handelsrecht (2014), 173–179 German Abstract: Der Aufsatz nimmt die sog. "Bowlingbahnen-Entscheidung" des Bundesgerichtshofs (Urteil vom 28. Mai 2014 - VIII ZR 410/12) zum Anlass, eine Reihe dadurch aufgeworfener Fragestellungen zum UN-Kaufrecht (CISG) näher zu untersuchen. Im Einzelnen wird zunächst das bislang kaum thematisierte Verhältnis zwischen den beiden Anwendungsalternativen des Art. 1 Abs.1 lit. a CISG und des Art. 1 Abs.1 lit. b CISG erörtert und gefragt, ob der Rechtsanwender die freie Wahl zwischen diesen beiden Vorschriften hat, um die Anwendbarkeit des UN-Kaufrechts zu begründen. In dieser Hinsicht sprechen gute Gründe für die Annahme, dass das in Art. 7 Abs. 1 CISG vorgegebene Auslegungsziel der möglichst einheitlichen Anwendung des Übereinkommens auf die Wahl zwischen den beiden Anwendungsalternativen durchschlägt und daher diejenige Vorschrift anzuwenden ist, die in concreto zur einheitlicheren Geltung des UN-Kaufrechts führt. Des Weiteren geht der Aufsatz auf die Anwendbarkeit des UN-Kaufrechts auf vertragliche Rückkaufvereinbarungen ein, die der BGH zu Recht bejaht hat. Schließlich wird die Anwendbarkeit der contra preferentem-Regel unter dem UN-Kaufrecht untersucht, die der BGH ohne nähere Begründung angenommen hat. Obgleich dieses Ergebnis letztlich Zustimmung verdient, bedarf es einer dogmatisch belastbaren Basis für diese Auslegung, zumal Art. 8 CISG in seinem Wortlaut keine Grundlage für eine contra preferentem-Interpretation von Parteierklärungen zu bieten scheint. Der vorliegende Aufsatz spricht sich vor diesem Hintergrund für die Herleitung eines allgemeinen, dem Übereinkommen zugrunde liegenden Grundsatzes aus, auf den sich die contra preferentem-Regel stützen lässt. English Abstract: The article discusses a number of issues raised in the 'bowling alley' decision of the German Supreme Court (Bundesgerichtshof) of 28 May 2014 - docket number VIII ZR 410/12 which concerned an international contract for the sale of twenty bowling alleys from the German bowling alley manufacturer to a Belgian leasing company. The contract was governed by the 1980 United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG). In particular, the article addresses the relationship between Article 1(1)(a) and Article 1(1)(b) CISG, asking whether courts may freely choose which of these two provisions they base the application of the Sales Convention on. It argues that the general goal of a uniform application of the Convention (Article 7(1) CISG) should lead to the use of the provision which results in the more uniform application in the particular case. Furthermore, the application of the Sales Convention to contractual repurchase agreement is scrutinized. Lastly, the applicability of the 'contra conferentem' rule as a rule of interpretation under the Sales Convention is discussed. The article agrees with the German Supreme Court's decision that considered the rule to apply under the Convention, but criticizes that no basis for that assumption was named (given that the wording of Article 8 CISG does not seem to accommodate the contra proferentem principle). It then goes on to identify a general principle underlying the Convention that may serve as a theoretical basis for the application of the contra proferentem rule.
• Freedom of Contract: Comparison Between Provisions of the CISG (Article 6) and Counterpart Provisions of the PECL
6 Vindobona Journal of International Commercial Law and Arbitration (2002), pp. 257-266 The parties' freedom of contract ranks as one of the most important general principles embodied in the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods of 11 April 1980 (CISG) as well as in a number of other sets of rules pertaining to international commercial law. The present paper analyzes if and how the Principles of European Contract Law (PECL) may be used in order to interpret Article 6 CISG (the provision in the Sales Convention that deals with the freedom of contract) and discusses some pertinent problems that have arisen in court practice in this area.
• Three Letters that Move the Markets: Credit Ratings between Market Information and Legal Regulation
Journal of Applied Research in Accounting and Finance, Vol. 6, No. 1 (2011), pp. 14-30 As demonstrated by the market reactions to downgrades of various sovereign credit ratings in 2011, the credit rating agencies occupy an important role in today’s globalized financial markets. This article provides an overview of the central characteristics of credit ratings and discusses risks arising from both their widespread use as market information and from the increasing references to credit ratings contained in laws, legal regulations and private contracts.
• The Validity of International Sales Contracts: Irrelevance of the 'Validity Exception' in Article 4 Vienna Sales Convention and a Novel Approach to Determining the Convention's Scope
in: Ingeborg Schwenzer and Lisa Spagnolo (eds.), Boundaries and Intersections: The 5th Annual MAA Schlechtriem CISG Conference, The Hague: Eleven International Publishing (2014), pp. 95-117 Throughout the history of uniform law for international sales, the rules governing the validity of cross-border sales contracts have proven particularly difficult to harmonize because they differ greatly between the various domestic laws. This dilemma inter alia resulted in the "validity exception" in Article 4 sentence 2(a) of the United Nations Convention for Contracts for the International Sale of Goods of 11 April 1980 (CISG) being adopted as compromise, a provision that supposedly excludes such matters from the scope of the uniform sales law. The present article attempts to demonstrate that this provision in fact provides little assistance in deciding which validity-related matters are governed by the Convention and which are not, and that the "validity exception" is therefore in truth irrelevant. It continues by outlining a novel two-step approach to determining the CISG's scope with respect to validity issues. According to this approach, a domestic law rule (pertaining to validity matters or other issues) is displaced by the Convention if (1) it is triggered by a factual situation which the Convention also applies to (the "factual" criterion), and (2) it pertains to a matter that is also regulated by the Convention (the "legal" criterion). Only if both criteria are cumulatively fulfilled, the domestic law rule concerned overlaps with the Convention’s sphere of application in a way that will generally result in its preemption. In the last part of the article, three issues that may be viewed as concerning the "validity" of international sales contracts are discussed, each in turn being viewed through the traditional lenses of Article 4 CISG and the alternative two-step approach. These issues are: Mistakes and their effect upon CISG contracts; Consumer rights of withdrawal; The so-called "button solution" under recent e-commerce laws.
• Untersuchungspflichten und Vertretenmüssen des Händlers bei der Lieferung sachmangelhafter Ware
Juristenzeitung (2010), 495-499 Schadensersatzansprüche des Käufers scheitern unter dem BGB nach herrschender Ansicht immer dann an dem fehlenden Vertretenmüssen des Verkäufers (§ 437 Nr. 3 i.V.m. § 280 Abs. 1 Satz 2 BGB), wenn ein produktionsbedingter Sachmangel vorliegt, der Verkäufer jedoch ein bloßer Händler (und nicht der Hersteller der Ware) ist. Der vorliegende Beitrag begründet, warum dieser Ansatz seit der Schuldrechtsreform 2001 nicht länger haltbar ist, und schlägt eine differenzierende Lösung vor. Under German domestic sales law, buyers' claims for damages for non-conformity of the goods depend on the seller's fault ("Vertretenmüssen") for the non-conformity. German courts have traditionally denied such fault when the goods delivered had been incorrectly manufactured by a third-party producer, i.e. when the seller was a mere trader. The present paper argues that it has become inconvincing to except sellers from liability since the German law of sales was reformed in 2001, and develops a more appropriate solution.
• Defining the Borders of Uniform International Contract Law: The CISG and Remedies for Innocent, Negligent, or Fraudulent Misrepresentation
58 Villanova Law Review (2013), 553-587 The exact definition of the substantive scope of the United Nations Convention on Contracts für the International Sale of Goods (CISG) of 11 April 1980 is a difficult but necessary task: Necessary because the scope determines over which domestic rules of law the Convention prevails, thereby preempting the concurrent domestic law’s application, and difficult because the CISG itself provides limited guidance about the method through which this definition is to be achieved. This article commences by discussing two approaches used in this regard in case law and legal writings on the Convention: (1) the reliance on Article 4 CISG, and (2) the use of dogmatic categories of domestic law such as "contract" and "tort". Both are found wanting, in particular in light of Article 7(1) CISG calling for an internationally uniform interpretation of the Convention’s scope. Against this background, the article develops a novel two-step approach with Article 7(1) CISG in mind. According to this approach, a domestic law rule is displaced by the Convention if (1) it is triggered by a factual situation which the Convention also applies to (the "factual" criterion), and (2) it pertains to a matter that is also regulated by the Convention (the "legal" criterion). Only if both criteria are cumulatively fulfilled, the domestic law rule concerned overlaps with the Convention’s sphere of application in a way that will generally result in its preemption. In third part of the article, the two-step approach is being applied to remedies for misrepresentation known in Common law jurisdictions, in turn dealing with remedies for innocent misrepresentation, negligent misrepresentation and fraudulent misrepresentation and thus defining their relationship towards the uniform law rules of the Sales Convention.
• Backbone or Backyard of the Convention? The CISG's Final Provisions
in: Camilla Baasch Andersen &amp; Ulrich G. Schroeter (eds.), Sharing International Commercial Law Across National Boundaries: Festschrift for Albert H. Kritzer on the Occastion of his Eightieth Birthday, London: Wildy, Simmonds &amp; Hill (2008), pp. 425-469 This book chapter provides a comprehensive discussion of the 'Final Provisions' in Articles 89-101 of the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods of 11 April 1980 (CISG). After a brief introduction to the purpose of the Final Provisions, it focusses on the Interpretation of Articles 89-101 CISG; the reservations contained therein (inter alia the conditions under which a reservation may be made under the CISG and the legal consequences when such a condition is not (or no longer) satisfied, the time at which a reservation may be made, the legal effects of reservations made, and unclear reservations (and how to avoid them)), 'interpretative declarations' under the CISG (examples of such declarations, their legal consequences under the CISG, and interpretative declarations and interpretative domestic legislation); succession of States and the CISG (how uniform law operates in a world of shifting borders, the effect of State successions upon the status as a CISG 'Contracting State', and successions and reservations); the Convention's relationship with other international instruments: Articles 90, 94 CISG and European Community law; and future accessions to the CISG and the limitation to 'States' (Article 91(3) CISG).
• The Status of Hong Kong and Macao under the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods
16 Pace International Law Review (2004, 307-332 The applicability of the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods of 11 April 1980 (CISG), the most important international convention unifying matters of international contract law, to an international sales contract according to Article 1(1)(a) CISG depends on both parties having their place of business in different Contracting States. The People's Republic of China was among the first States to ratify the CISG, meaning that all companies residing in the PRC do have - at least at first sight - their place of business in a Contracting State of the CISG. This result, however, causes difficulties when companies from Hong Kong and Macao are concerned, as these two territories were originally colonies of two States that did ratify the CISG (i.e. the United Kingdom and Portugal), and when returning to the PRC in 1997 resp. 1999, Hong Kong and Macao were given the status of Special Administrative Regions with a high degree of autonomy also in legal matters. Against this background, the present paper discusses the question of Hong Kong and Macao are to be treated as parts of a Contracting State under the CISG. It argues that the answer must be in the affirmative as Article 97 CISG expressly provides that a Contracting State comprising different territorial units has to make an express declaration if it selects not to apply the CISG to certain of its territorial units, and the PRC has not done so.
• Economic Factors and Relationship Quality Among Young Couples: Comparing Cohabitation and Marriage
Are economic resources related to relationship quality among young couples, and to what extent does this vary by relationship type? To answer these questions, we estimated regression models predicting respondent reports of conflict and affection in cohabiting and married partner relationships using the National Longitudinal Study of Youth, 1997 (NLSY97, N = 2, 841) and the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health, N = 1, 702). We found that economic factors are an important predictor of conflict for both married and cohabiting couples. Affection was particularly responsive to human capital rather than short-term economic indicators. Economic hardship was associated with more conflict among married and cohabiting couples.
• The Cross-Border Freedom of Form Principle Under Reservation: The Role of Articles 12 and 96 CISG in Theory and Practice
33 Journal of Law and Commerce (2014), 79–117 The United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods of 11 April 1980 (CISG) incorporates the freedom of form principle, allowing the conclusion of international sales contracts as well as their later modification to be made without regard to any form. The Convention does provide, however, for the possibility of individual Contracting States declaring a reservation against this principle, the scope and effect of which are described in Articles 12 and 96 CISG. Eleven among the current Contracting States to the Convention have made such a declaration, making the reservation to the freedom of form principle the most popular among the reservations permitted under the CISG. This article addresses a number of questions and difficulties in interpretation that have arisen under Articles 12 and 96 CISG, and proposes answers and solutions. It covers inter alia the reservation's drafting history, the current reservation states including recent signs for upcoming withdrawals of reservations, the prerequisites for making a declaration under Article 96 CISG and the consequences of such prerequisites lacking in certain reservation States. In its central part, it focusses on the effects of an Article 96 CISG reservation for the Convention's practical application, introducing the distinction between the reservation's 'negative' effect (i.e. the removal of Contracting States' public international law obligation to apply the freedom of form principle) and its disputed 'positive' effect (i.e. the question whether the reservation in itself leads to the applicability of the form requirements of the reservation State - a question that should be denied). It furthermore elaborates on the determination of the law governing the formal validity of CISG contracts in accordance with rules of private international law, and on the inadmissibility of the parties excluding the 'negative' effect through party agreement (Article 12 second sentence CISG).
• A Time-Limit Running Wild? Article 39(2) CISG and Domestic Limitation Periods
Mads Bryde Andersen &amp; René Franz Henschel (eds.), A tribute to Joseph M. Lookofsky, Copenhagen: Djøf Publishing (2015), 335-362 Article 39(2) of the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods of 11 April 1980 (CISG) imposes a cut-off period on the buyer's remedies for the delivery of non-conforming goods, depriving the buyer of all remedies under the CISG if he has not given notice of non-conformity to the seller within two years after the goods were handed over. Despite the fact that the CISG contains no rules on the limitation of actions (prescription), courts in various jurisdictions have held that Article 39(2) CISG preempts the application of limitation periods under domestic laws that are shorter than two years. The present article challenges this approach and argues that the prevailing interpretation of Article 39(2) CISG misunderstands the provision's purpose. If construed correctly, no conflict exists between the CISG's two-year cut-off rule and shorter domestic limitation periods.
• The Modern Travelling Merchant: Mobile Communication in International Contract Law
Contratto e impresa/Europa (2015), pp. 19-43 The use of mobile communication devices like mobile phones, smartphones, tablet computers or notebooks with access to the internet has become an everyday phenomenon in today’s business world. However, whenever mobile communications are used for purposes of contract formation, i.e. the mobile dispatch of offers or acceptances, the mobility of the communicating parties raises important difficulties for the application of traditional legal rules: The fact that messages transmitted via phone, e-mail or SMS can be dispatched and received at virtually any place on earth challenges the categories of private international law and international contract law, which are based on the (unspoken) assumption that parties communicate from their home country. The existing legal framework for cross-border contracts therefore hardly takes into account the possibility that parties may move across borders, and that the place of their communications may accordingly vary. The present article addresses the legal difficulties and uncertainties that cross-border mobile communication raises under international rules of law, covering both conflict of laws rules and substantive law rules. It elaborates on the traditional role of the place of communication in this context before scrutinizing how ‘mobility-friendly’ the provisions of the relevant conventions developed by the United Nations, the Hague Conference for Private International Law and other organisations are. In doing so, it critically discusses in particular Article 10(3) of the UN Electronic Communications Convention of 2005, the most recent attempt at regulating mobile communications. Finally, it identifies a number of problems that have hitherto been overlooked (as notably the interaction of Article 10(3) of the UN Electronic Communications Convention with traditional private international law rules on the formal validity of contracts or with Article 3(2) of the Hague Convention on the Law Applicable to International Sales of Goods of 1955), and proposes appropriate solutions.