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- Toward a Sociological Theory of Social PainA serious consideration of pain has largely been absent in sociology, especially physical pain's close neurobiological relative, social pain. Social pain is the process by which rejection and exclusion recruits similar neural circuits as physical pain, generating an affectual response that mirrors the response one feels from physical trauma. Pain is essential to any sociological analysis of motivation and action because, like many affective responses, it is a necessary ingredient in cognition and behavior; and, in many cases, it preconsciously commands and even controls how we think and act. While exploring this concept, it becomes apparent that sociology has an entire set of distantly related concepts that can be classified as different processes of social pain that reveal the structural, cultural, and situational conditions shaping the distribution of social pain. The paper concludes by thinking through the implications social pain portends for neuroscience and sociology.
- Does Children's Education Improve Parental Longevity? Evidence From Two Educational Reforms in EnglandParents of better-educated children are healthier and live longer. Is this a non-monetary return to education which crosses generational boundaries, or is this the consequence of unobserved factors (e.g. shared genes or living conditions) driving both children's education and parental health? Using data from the English Longitudinal Study of Aging (ELSA) and two educational reforms that raised the mandatory school-leaving age from age 14 to 15 years in 1947 and from age 15 to 16 years in 1972, we investigate the causal effect of children's education on parental longevity. Results suggest that both one-year increases in school-leaving age significantly reduced the hazard of dying for fathers as well as for mothers. We do not find a consistent pattern when comparing differences in the effects of daughters' and sons' education. Lower class parents benefitted more from the 1972 reform than higher class parents. We discuss these results against the backdrop of generational conflict and the specific English context.
- Ten Simple Rules for Serving as an EditorThe helpful Ten Simple Rules series in this journal (PLOS Computational Biology) does not yet offer a piece on the topic of "serving as an editor". By this phrase we mean that role which may variously be called 'handling editor', 'academic editor', 'scientific editor' and so on--in other words, the individual who oversees the process of shepherding a written piece of scientific work from the point of manuscript submission through to peer review and, ultimately, either publication or rejection. Therefore, the present work aims to offer guidance that can help you, the reader--in your current or future roles as a novice handling editor--be the type of editor whom you might have liked to have dealt with yourself, in your own experience and interactions thus far in publishing your work. In this work, we primarily focus on the mechanics and best practices of one's editorial responsibilities when handling a manuscript, starting at the initial point of being invited to serve as an editor.
- How do we tell what's true?As students, teachers, researchers, and citizens, how can we tell what's true? For people outside of academic disciplines, peer review is seen as a core quality - part of the definition of science many people learn. It has become part of the social contract between scientists and the public. In our highly-contentious social and political milieu, where researchers are sometimes depicted as just another interest group competing to establish their own self-serving version of truth, peer review sends an important signal that scientists aren't afraid of independent scrutiny of our work. However, a lot of research labeled "peer reviewed" is not a reliable source of true information, especially in cases of deliberate manipulation. The pandemic clearly showed we can't just choose to live in an idealized world of verified truths. But we should not elevate the formal peer review process to an unrealistically sacred status. The quality of our information is vitally important, and there are no easy solutions to the problem of deciding where to place our trust. Experts have to earn the trust they need to do their work effectively, and one way they do that is by engaging with the public in responsible and respectful ways.
- Policy Effects on Mixed-Citizenship, Same-Sex Unions: A Triple-Difference AnalysisAfter the U.S. Supreme Court struck down the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) in 2013, same-sex partners of U.S. citizens became eligible for spousal visas. Since then, the U.S. has a seen a rapid rise in same-sex, mixed-citizenship couples. However, this effect varies greatly depending on the LGB policy context of the non-citizen's country of origin. Using waves 2008 to 2019 of the American Community Survey, this study employs a triple-difference design to examine how the policy environment of the origin country moderates the effect of the end of DOMA. Quasi-Poisson models with two-way fixed effects show that, after 2013, individuals in mixed-citizenship, same-sex couples couples coming from countries with progressive LGB policy saw a more than 60-percent increase in incidence relative to those in different-sex or same-citizenship couples. Meanwhile, those from countries with regressive laws experienced no significant increase. These results are corroborated by analyses of individual policies. We argue that the country-of-origin policy context impacts and is impacted by local norms and attitudes as well as individuals' material circumstances. This nexus of factors leaves a lasting impact on immigrants that shapes migration decisions and responses to policy shifts.
- What if some people just do not like science? How personality traits relate to attitudes towards scienceAs societal discussion on the public opinion of science and technology continually ignites, understanding where such opinions are rooted is increasingly relevant. A handful of prior studies have pointed towards personality traits as potentially influential for individual attitudes towards science. However, these report mixed findings, and employ small student, convenience or scientist samples. This leaves considerable uncertainty regarding personality traits' relation to attitudes towards science. If in fact stable psychological predispositions play a role in public opinion of science, this has considerable implications for science policy and science communication. This paper investigates the relationship between the big five personality traits and science attitudes in Germany and the Netherlands. Findings indicate that personality traits are related to science attitudes but only weakly so, among them openness to experience and neuroticism are most notably related to science attitudes, whereas extraversion, in contrast to prior studies, shows no relation to science attitudes.
- Protestpotenzial in der EnergiekriseWerden die Menschen in Deutschland aufgrund der Inflation und der massiv steigenden Energiepreise im Herbst und Winter 2022 massenhaft auf die Strasse gehen? Drohen, wie vielfach befurchtet, ein ,,heisser Herbst" oder ,,Wutwinter" und eine ,,Querfront" aus linken und rechten Akteur*innen? Auf Basis einer reprasentativen Bevolkerungsbefragung des DeZIM.panels gehen wir den Fragen nach, wie gross das Protestpotenzial aktuell ist und wie dieses Potenzial mit soziodemographischen Merkmalen und politischen Faktoren zusammenhangt. Unsere Analysen zeigen, dass sich rund jede*r vierte Befragte vorstellen kann, aufgrund der hohen Energiepreise zu protestieren. Etwas uber die Halfte will deswegen nicht auf die Strasse gehen, knapp jede*r Funfte ist noch unentschlossen. Bei Personen, die die AfD wahlen wurden, ist das Protestpotenzial fast doppelt so hoch wie in der Gesamtbevolkerung. Daruber hinaus dokumentieren die Daten, dass diejenigen Befragten, die in der Vergangenheit gegen die Corona-Massnahmen protestiert haben, dreimal so haufig zum Protest in der Energiekrise bereit sind als der Rest der Bevolkerung,
- The Implications of Intergenerational Relationships for Minority Aging: A Review of Recent LiteratureThe purpose of this review is to understand how intergenerational relationships impact minority aging in the United States. We reviewed studies published in the last 5 years that examine both familial and non-familial intergenerational relationships. Intergenerational relationships can have positive and negative implications for minority aging. Minority older adults benefit most from these relationships when they increase social interaction and/or offer social support by reducing acculturative stress, providing emotional closeness, or increasing access to tangible resources. At the same time, these relationships can be sources of strain as they lead to burden among already disadvantaged groups. Future studies should explore the impact of intergenerational relations among more diverse subgroups of older adults and identify mechanisms linking intergenerational relationships to health-related outcomes among minority older adults. Further, longitudinal cohort studies and randomized trials are needed to test mechanisms and evaluate the effectiveness of promising intergenerational interventions.
- Symbolic Policy-Making and Economic Aspects of Return Migration: The South Tyrolean ExampleSymbolic policy-making and economic aspects are often intertwined and this is especially true for migration-related issues. Migration and remigration are about political, social, and economic matters, while public discourse and restriction policies are often intended to have a deterrent and symbolic effect. Thus, although economic issues and interests are less present in public discourse, they are not infrequently the main driving force behind political action. Using the specific example of South Tyrolean return migration from Austria and Germany to Italy after World War II, the so-called return option, this paper takes a closer look at the relationship between economic issues and (symbolic) political discourse and actions, both on the Austrian and the Italian side. From a methodological standpoint, this paper analyzes and evaluates political correspondences as well as statistical material concerning return option. Through a mixed methods analytical process, combining qualitative and quantitative approaches, digitized archival records from Austria, and Italy (including South Tyrol) will be examined in order to shed light on political discourses that accompanied the events at the close of the 1940s and beginning 1950s.
- Synthetic Data: A Very Short Primer for Social WorkersSocial workers regularly perform research with vulnerable populations. These populations require additional provisions to ensure they are not harmed or exploited. With the transformation of social science research towards open science and open data, social work must move forward. Synthetic data presents an opportunity to simultaneously protect vulnerable populations and create open data. This primer briefly introduces synthetic data, provides a high-level example, and why social workers should consider it.
- Linking Landlords to Uncover Ownership ObscurityDefining the ownership of rental housing can be a difficult task. In recent years there has been an increasing obscurity of ownership in administrative records as more property owners use Limited Liability Companies (LLCs) on deeds and in tax assessment records. In many cases, this obscures the nature and scale of ownership and makes research into property ownership, investors, and landlords more challenging. To overcome these challenges, we compare different text-matching methods within property tax assessment records in Boston, MA from 2004-2019. We show that the source of the difficulty in creating an accurate knowledge of landlords and their portfolios of properties has shifted in the past decade from the scale of data and the messy nature of administrative data to an intentional strategy of obscurity through LLCs. To do so, we incorporate linking to corporate records to uncover intentional ownership obscurity. We assess the prevalence of obscurity among landlords as well as the extent to which it is undermining our ability to observe patterns in rental housing in ways that cannot be accounted for solely with text-matching. These include how obscurity hides not only an increasing consolidation of property ownership in the past decade, but also concentrations of disorder and evictions. In doing so, we demonstrate a comprehensive method for uncovering this obscurity and show how this representation of property ownership can form the basis for understanding inequities in rental housing and the effects of property consolidation.
- Structural Racism in Switzerland: A Scoping ReviewIn a recent study, we presented an overview of the empirical evidence of structural racism in Switzerland (Mugglin et al. 2022). Here we provide further detail on the scoping review that was part of this study. N=1,350 records were screened via databases, and combined with a conventional literature review covering around N=1,500 records to yield N=304 empirical studies that treat structural racism in Switzerland broadly defined. These studies were classified by method, life sphere, how they classify the population, and a GRADE-style assessment of risk of bias. Drawing on a conceptual frame by Osta and Vasquez (2021) structural racism was approached with three components and connections between these components. All methods identify racial inequalities, racialized practices, or racist stereotypes across spheres and groups. Many studies draw on migration and nationality as classification, and most studies provide partial evidence. When considered jointly, the existing literature provides a clear picture consistent with structural racism.
- North American Waterfowl Management Plan Survey Regional Profile: Southeast RegionGaining a better understanding of the human dimensions of waterfowl management to inform the North American Waterfowl Management Plan is a valuable but challenging goal for the future success of waterfowl management. Increasing engagement with key stakeholder groups will lead to more support and effective waterfowl management. Social systems are complex because individual values and preferences may vary widely across geographical and cultural dimensions, so it is also important to describe those differences rather than only looking at national scale trends. Therefore, using broad engagement strategies that do not consider the differences between groups may do more harm than good. In this study, we stepped down the national scale responses of waterfowl hunters to the Southeast region and compared how those opinions differed across the Atlantic sub-flyway, the Mississippi sub-flyway, and the rest of the nation. By investigating these differences, we are seeking to provide waterfowl managers decision-making support and a better understanding of how waterfowl perceptions may differ in the Southeast and between the rest of the nation. The proportions of respondents from each group are visually presented for each area of investigation and statistical tests of homogeneity are included to inform how the differences may be considered.
- Synthetic Data: A Very Short Primer for Social WorkersSocial workers regularly perform research with vulnerable populations. These populations require additional provisions to ensure they are not harmed or exploited. With the transformation of social science research towards open science and open data, social work must move forward. Synthetic data presents an opportunity to simultaneously protect vulnerable populations and create open data. This primer briefly introduces synthetic data, provides a high-level example, and why social workers should consider it.
- Grambank reveals the importance of genealogical constraints on linguistic diversity and highlights the impact of language lossWhile global patterns of human genetic diversity are increasingly well characterized, the diversity of human languages remains less systematically described. Here we outline the Grambank database. With over 400,000 data points and 2,400 languages, Grambank is the largest comparative grammatical database available. The comprehensiveness of Grambank allows us to quantify the relative effects of genealogical inheritance and geographic proximity on the structural diversity of the world's languages, evaluate constraints on linguistic diversity, and identify the world's most unusual languages. An analysis of the consequences of language loss reveals that the reduction in diversity will be strikingly uneven across the major linguistic regions of the world. Without sustained efforts to document and revitalize endangered languages, our linguistic window into human history, cognition and culture will be seriously fragmented.
- Ten Meta Science Insights to Deal With the Credibility Crisis in the Social SciencesA decade of meta science research on social science research has produced devastating results. While the movement towards open science is gaining momentum, awareness of the credibility crisis remains low among social scientists. Here are ten meta science insights on the credibility crisis plus solutions on how to fight it.
- An Exchange Rate History of the United Kingdom, 1945-1992How did the Bank of England manage sterling crises? This book steps into the shoes of the Bank's foreign exchange dealers to show how foreign exchange intervention worked in practice. The author reviews the history of sterling over half a century, using new archives, data and unseen photographs. This book traces the sterling crises from the end of the War to Black Wednesday in 1992. The resulting analysis shows that a secondary reserve currency such as sterling plays an important role in the stability of the international system. The author goes on to explore the lessons the Bretton Woods system on managed exchange rates has for contemporary policy makers in the context of Brexit. This is a crucial reference for scholars in economics and history examining past and current prospects for the international financial system.
- Notions of Distributive Justice Across Europe: Fractionalization and Its Country Level FactorsThe paper is dedicated to the factors affecting which the degree of homogeneity or heterogeneity in the normative ideas about the justice in society. The research hypothesis is that the degree of divergence in normative ideas of justice is higher in countries with lower levels of economic wellbeing, with higher levels of inequality, with more intense redistribution of resources, and in ex-Communist countries. The hypothesis was tested by means of the data of Round 9 of the European Social Survey collected in 2018-2019 in 30 countries. The results indicate that diversity of views on the competing notions of justice, are to a greater extent affected by differences in worldviews, rather than to the amount of resources to be distributed of distributed resources or to the equality of their distribution and the intensity of redistribution.
- Human dimensions of Predator Free 2050: A literature overview of social and behavioral researchPredator Free 2050 (PF2050) was launched in 2016 with the aim of ridding New Zealand of the most damaging introduced predators--possums, rats, and mustelids (stoats, ferrets, weasels)--by 2050. However, it's overarching goal is more inclusive than predator eradication alone. Indeed, it has been acknowledged that, to achieve PF2050, it will be vital to have national collaboration across multiple agencies, organisations, iwi, communities, and individuals (Department of Conservation, 2020a, 2020b). To be able to work well with individuals and communities, however, it is important to understand the human dimensions of biodiversity conservation and related methods (i.e., pest control and predator eradication). The aim of the following report is to provide a 'snapshot' of research on or related to the human dimensions of PF2050 to aid subsequent research scoping and allow for more targeted research prioritisation. It does this by presenting an overview of the social science research to date, including some matauranga Maori works, on topics that could be of relevance to the programme.
- Securing Digital Rights for Libraries: Towards an Affirmative Policy Agenda for a Better InternetThis paper is the result of a series of surveys, research, and two workshops facilitated by the Internet Archive. The first workshop, called Libraries and the Digital Information Ecosystem: Towards an Affirmative Policy Agenda for a Better Internet, was held in person on June 23, 2022 at Georgetown Law Center in Washington, D.C. The second was held virtually on July 21, 2022, and included a mix of new and previous attendees. Between the two workshops, approximately 50 leading experts from libraries, academia, and civil society discussed the various challenges facing today's libraries, as well as what policies would be necessary to maintain their critical function of providing equitable access to trustworthy information. The discussions took place under the Chatham House Rule to encourage free and open exchange of ideas and information; to that end, specific views are not attributed to any particular person or organization throughout this report. The prevailing theme throughout our discussion was that an increasingly digital society needs libraries that meet people where they are--online. Many of our participants noted that digital technologies hold the promise of more robust and more convenient access for underserved communities and people. They imagined a world where digital technologies and content would allow libraries to better serve everyone--from residents in rural areas and tribal lands far away from urban or suburban library resources; to vulnerable youth seeking health information without fear of stigma; to incarcerated people educating themselves while they serve their time; to aspiring entrepreneurs researching new business ideas; to single parents in desperate need of an affordable way to entertain their kids. Unfortunately, although libraries have been able to expand their digital services and offerings to meet some communities' needs, the digital landscape they operate in today has in many ways failed to live up to its promise. This report is intended as a guide for meaningful policy discussions among librarians, public interest advocates, and lawmakers. It proceeds in four parts. Section I provides some necessary background on the traditional role libraries have played in society, and discusses some of the challenges libraries have faced as they work to expand access to digital materials and resources. Section II summarizes the results of our pre-workshop survey and the discussions from the workshops. It is not an exhaustive summary of every item discussed, but rather a synthesized collection of the challenges, opportunities, and policy ideas that shared some degree of consensus among participants. Section III distills the key takeaway from our consultation process: The rights that libraries have offline must also be protected online. As such, that section proposes a set of four digital rights for libraries, based on the core library functions of preserving and providing access to information, knowledge, and culture. Specifically, if libraries are to continue ensuring meaningful participation in society for everyone, they must have the rights to: * Collect digital materials, including those made available only via streaming and other restricted means, through purchase on the open market or any other legal means, no matter the underlying file format; * Preserve those materials, and where necessary repair or reformat them, to ensure their long-term existence and availability; * Lend digital materials, at least in the same "one person at a time" manner as is traditional with physical materials; * Cooperate with other libraries, by sharing or transferring digital collections, so as to provide more equitable access for communities in remote and less well- funded areas. Finally, the last section concludes by providing some potential next steps for the community and for policymakers.
- Accountability in Artificial IntelligenceThis work stresses the importance of AI accountability to citizens and explores how a fourth independent government branch/institutions could be endowed to ensure that algorithms in today's democracies convene to the principles of Constitutions. The purpose of this fourth branch of government in modern democracies could be to enshrine accountability of artificial intelligence development, including software-enabled technologies, and the implementation of policies based on big data within a wider democratic regime context. The work draws on Philosophy of Science, Political Theory (Ethics and Ideas), as well as concepts derived from the study of democracy (responsibility and accountability) to make a theoretical analysis of what artificial intelligence (AI) means for the governance of society and what are the limitations of such type of AI governance. The discussion shows that human ideas, as cement of societies, make it problematic to enshrine governance of artificial intelligence into the world of devices. In ethical grounds, the work stresses an existing trade off between greater and faster advancement of technology, or innovation on the one hand, and human well being on the oher, where the later is not automatically guaranteed by default. This trade off is yet unresolved. The work contends that features of AI offer an opportunity to revise government priorities from a multilevel perspective, from the local to the upper levels.
- Social vulnerability indicators to the Health Impacts of Climate Change: A Scoping ReviewThis paper is a scoping review of social vulnerability to the health effects of climate change. The review provides an overview of the state of literature on social vulnerability indicators published in English between 2012 and 2022. An initial corpus of 1307 studies were identified from four bibliographic databases (Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed and CAB direct) and after screening 205 relevant studies were identified that contained social vulnerability indicators that mediated between climate change impacts and health outcomes. A frequency analysis was conducted to show the overall scope of the research and a thematic analysis of the results was conducted to examine substantive trends within the literature. A total of 125 indicators of social vulnerability were identified yet a relatively small set of indicators received most of the attention. Indicators that operationalized social vulnerability beyond individual and demographic characteristics were found to be under-researched and needed to further support climate resilience and adaptation planning.
- High-stakes team based public sector decision making and AI oversightOversight mechanisms, whereby the functioning and behaviour of AI systems are controlled to ensure that they are tuned to public benefit, are a core aspect of human-centered AI. They are especially important in public sector AI applications, where decisions on core public services such as education, benefits, and child welfare have significant impacts. Much current thinking on oversight mechanisms revolves around the idea of human decision makers being present 'in the loop' of decision making, such that they can insert expert judgment at critical moments and thus rein in the functioning of the machine. While welcome, we believe that the theory of human in the loop oversight has yet to fully engage with the idea that decision making, especially in high-stakes contexts, is often currently made by hierarchical teams rather than one individual. This raises the question of how such hierarchical structures can effectively engage with an AI system that is either supporting or making decisions. In this position paper, we outline some of the key contemporary elements of hierarchical decision making in contemporary public services and show how they relate to current thinking about AI oversight, thus sketching out future research directions for the field.
- Antiracism and its Discontents: The Prevalence and Political Influence of Opposition to Antiracism among White AmericansFrom calls to ban critical race theory to concerns about "woke culture," American conservatives have mobilized in opposition to antiracist claims and movements. Here, we propose that this opposition has crystallized into a distinct racial ideology among white Americans, profoundly shaping contemporary racial politics. We explore opposition to antiracism (or anti-antiracism) across five studies (total N=6,076). We find anti-antiracism is prevalent among white Americans, particularly Republicans, is a powerful predictor of several policy positions, and is strongly associated with--though conceptually distinct from--various measures of anti-Black prejudice (Study 1). Indeed, among whites, anti-antiracism is more strongly related to support for Donald Trump than political ideology, socioeconomic variables, or several measures of racial prejudice, including scores on the Implicit Association Test. Next, we demonstrate in two pre-registered survey-experiments that anti-antiracism predicts whites' responses to policy frames (Study 2a) and political candidates (Study 2b). Finally, however, we find whites high in anti-antiracism update their beliefs about the severity of anti-Black discrimination when presented with authoritative data (Quillian et al. 2017; Studies 3a-3b). These findings show opposition to antiracism is widespread and influential among white Americans, such that this racial ideology represents a critical axis of political polarization in the contemporary US.
- Protecting Sensitive Data Early in the Research Data LifecycleHow do researchers in fieldwork-intensive disciplines protect sensitive data in the field, how do they assess their own practices, and how do they arrive at them? This article reports the results of a qualitative study involving 36 semi-structured interviews with qualitative and multi-method researchers in political science and humanitarian aid/migration studies. We find that researchers frequently feel ill-prepared to handle the management of sensitive data in the field and that formal institutions provide little support. Instead, they use a patchwork of sources to devise strategies for protecting their informants and data. We argue that this carries substantial risks for the security of the data as well as their potential for later sharing and re-use. We conclude with some suggestions for effectively supporting data management in fieldwork-intensive research without unduly adding to the burden on researchers conducting it.
- Poverty Alleviation; Social Worker InterventionPoverty has become a major issue in most developing countries in the world. Under this circumstance, governments in third-world countries perpetually endeavour to introduce many programs in order to control the obnoxious results of poverty. Even though the issue of poverty has been a severe crisis, authorities pay more attention to controlling poverty in society because poverty leads to creating many issues not only for individuals but also for the community differently. Even if a government focuses to maintain sustainable development in society, poverty always makes an obstacle to the persistence of society. Even though many approaches have been applied to reduce poverty from society by governments around the world, poverty is a tremendous issue worldwide. Therefore, all governments must focus to find the most suitable and fruitful ways and means to help people in need. In the issue of poverty, a social worker can bear a huge responsibility to intervene for alleviating poverty in society.
- Telecommunications and Politics in the United States and Spain (1875-2002)PRESENTATION & CONTRIBUTION This book was published in Spanish in 2002, and it received the Award for the Best Book of the year in Political Science and Public Administration in 2003 by AECPA (National Political Science Association in Spain). The publication in Spanish has made the diffusion of this eight year full time research effort very restrictive, and the author considers that nowadays it is useful in two ways 1) to understand the history of telecommunications from the outset and 2) it can also be very useful as a contribution to adapt and to analyze tech sectors such as artificial intelligence nowadays. The work was directed by Profs. Jonathan Hartlyn (UNC, USA), and Prof. Colin Crouch (Oxford College, EUI, Florence, Italy). It was written as a Master and later on a PhD thesis (1992-2000), and finally published in Spanish. SUMMARY A theoretical and conceptual framework was developed in order to analyze and compare tech regulated sectors and to understand the role of regulatory institutions in tech markets. This framework is applied to two cases, in the telecommunications sector over a century, from 1875 to 2002. The theoretical framework allows for the comparison of countries with different levels of development and different institutional regimes. It does so by showing the effect of these political institutions on the market sector. The empirical cases studied, United States and Spain, revealed differences in policy changes that occur in the short term, which could be punctuated or even drastic. The book also shows that institutional changes are accompanied by changes in power resources available to the actors and firms, and changes in their interests. The book also explains "who receives what, when, and how"--the distributional dilemma, and digital divides along the way.
- BEYOND THE BURIAL VASE, THE COMMUNITY? A SIMILARITY NETWORK ANALYSIS OF BELL BEAKER DECORATION DIVERSITY IN CAMINO DE LAS YESERAS (MADRID, SPAIN)In the archaeological literature, the Bell Beaker archetypal is usually suggested as a male and warrior ideology, especially through grave goods. However, it does not reflect a monolithic cultural identity during the second half of the third millennium BCE, but rather real blended cultural practices reconciled at regional levels through ongoing interactions between collective and individual symbolic concepts. In Central Iberia, recent studies of the Bell Beaker funerary contexts have revealed recurrent practices, such the excavations of artificial caves and hypogea and the post-depositional extraction and movement of some human bones, as in the well-known Camino de las Yeseras site (San Fernando de Henares, Madrid). Our aim in this contribution is to investigate the correlations between the distribution of Bell Beaker patterns and ceramics in the graves, and their potential significance for the community. In this way, are we able to establish relationships between the decoration of Bell Beaker vases and the individuals buried in single or collective graves, using similarity indexes between ceramics and network representations? Some decorative patterns are age- or gender-specific? Do stylistic identities have any relation to DNA heritage? To address these questions, we have performed a "Similarity Network Analysis". The degree of similarity between the decorations executed on the vases from single graves and those deposited in collective graves could help to highlight specific burial categories or individuals involved in the spread of particular decorative patterns. Network analysis tools can lead us to visualise these intra-site interactions, and gain greater understanding of the social context and the diversity of burial dynamics. The vessels analysed belong to eight Bell Beaker tombs documented in Camino de las Yeseras. With this approach, we want to highlight the presumed impact of intra-site relations on the Bell Beaker practices and funerary rituals within the first metallurgical societies of Central Iberia.
- Schools for Muslims in Japan: A comparative study of school accreditation with reference to cases in the Netherlands and EnglandWith the recent increase in the number of Muslims in Japan, there is a shared concern among the Muslim communities regarding the education of second-generation children. This has led to a new trend to establish Islamic schools. This article provides an overview of the history and the current situation of these schools. It also addresses, through a comparison with Islamic schools established in the Netherlands and England, the issues surrounding school accreditation. Through these studies, the paper identifies and analyses the challenges Islamic schools must face in Japan.
- Competitive Effects of Resale Price Maintenance Through Inventory: Evidence from Publishing IndustryThis paper examines the competitive effects of resale price maintenance (RPM) through inventory decisions under demand uncertainty. We focus on the Japanese publishing industry where RPM is allowed. We develop and estimate a model of RPM in which price and inventory are determined before demand is realized. Counterfactual simulations show that the RPM model would yield a higher consumer surplus than a wholesale model due to a sufficient inventory and a lower price of new titles. Moreover, we show that the price ceiling due to RPM plays a welfare-enhancing role, whereas the price floor is irrelevant in the industry.
- University of California PhD Pay is Among the Lowest in the U.S. After Accounting for Cost of LivingHow much do PhD students earn in university pay and how far does this income go toward basic cost of living? In this paper, we describe the PhD workforce, focusing on their wages and cost-of-living adjustments. We present nationwide data and a focused comparison to University of California wages. We find that after adjusting for cost-of-living in the county where a school is located, the UC's wages are among the lowest at top institutions in the country. This trend holds when the UCs are compared against both public and private peer institutions. We find that even if UC PhD pay were 7% higher, it would still fall near the bottom of the pay distribution for peer institutions. We also examine the cost of housing alone, and we find that at most of the UCs, a fair-market rent in the school's county is roughly 100% of the average total PhD income
- The Brazilian digital platform economy: a first approachThe digital platform economy has grown in the past decade and has caught the attention of policy-makers and scholars. There is evidence in the literature that this new configuration of economic activities has implications for the sovereignty of data produced within a national frontier, market concentration, competition patterns, and data privacy. Despite this relevance, empirical knowledge about the landscape of digital platforms and their main features is still scant. In general, a few cases of digital platforms draw public and scholarly attention. The lack of empirical knowledge about what constitutes, in fact, the platform economy is worrying, mainly due to the regulatory advances that have been proposed in the world and followed by Brazil. In this study, our goal is to provide a descriptive overview of the digital platform economy in Brazil by assessing aggregate characteristics of digital platform companies founded in the country, such as geographic distribution, sector and source of financing. Using Crunchbase data, we found 556 digital platform firms, demonstrating that the Brazilian national private sector followed the global trend of developing digital platforms. The gross majority of them are small companies concentrated in the "commerce and shopping" sector and centralized in the South and Southeast regions, whose epicentre is Sao Paulo metropolitan area.
- Income Change, Gender, and Attitudes Towards Right-Wing Populist Parties in the NetherlandsThe rise of right-wing populist [RWP] parties around the world is one of the major current political issues. RWP parties' voters tend to be citizens whose situation has been directly threatened by recent economic changes, with income change being a possible way of measuring these changes. However, previous contributions that had examined the effect of income change on support of RWP parties find little evidence. This paper challenges previous findings by taking into account gender. Women and men diverge in their political behaviour, even in case they share the same economic properties, particularly regarding support of RWP parties. Our research questions are (1) whether income change leads to changing attitudes towards RWP parties, and (2) whether this effect is different between men and women? We hypothesize a negative relationship between personal and household income change and sympathies towards RWP parties and expect income change for men to be more influential for their attitudes towards RWP parties. We implement fixed-effects multilevel linear regression models on individual-level panel data (the Dutch Longitudinal Internet Studies for the Social Sciences) collected between 2007 and 2021 (N = 7,801, n = 44,076). This design allows establishing temporal order and accounting for competing explanations. We find that only for men, personal income change, both absolute and relative, is negatively and causally linked with sympathies towards RWP parties. For both men and women, we find that absolute, but not relative, household income change is negatively and causally linked with sympathies towards RWP parties. Implications are discussed.
- Jeunes, Communication & Climat. Diversite des enjeux climatiques aupres des 15-24 ans en BelgiqueComment les jeunes Belges envisagent-ils leur avenir ? Fil conducteur de cette recherche, cette question nous permet d'interroger les perspectives d'une jeunesse diverse. Ces perspectives touchent a la fois leur comprehension et leur perception des phenomenes associes aux changements climatiques, leurs manieres de s'informer sur la question, ainsi que leur vision concernant l'education qu'ils ont recue et l'avenir que leur reserve le marche du travail. Pour apprehender empiriquement ces questions, une double enquete de terrain a ete conduite. Une premiere partie quantitative a permis de degager des tendances de pratiques et de perceptions des differentes categories de jeunes pretries selon des criteres sociodemographiques. Une seconde partie qualitative a permis d'affiner ces donnees grace a des focus groups sondant l'opinion des jeunes Belges les plus precaires. Ce travail de terrain confirme la pertinence de considerer une grande diversite au sein du groupe social > (15-24 ans), puisque des differences considerables sont observees, notamment entre les categories socioeconomiques, mais aussi entre les classes d'age. Pour depasser ces constats et approfondir l'analyse segmentee des jeunes, des personae ont ete constitues. Ainsi, sept profils de jeunes exclusifs les uns des autres sont degages, non pas dans l'objectif de ranger les jeunes dans des cases, mais pour proposer des solutions personnalisees en fonction de leurs differentes pratiques et valeurs. Les resultats de cette recherche permettent la formulation de recommandations concernant aussi bien les perspectives de communication climatique a l'egard des jeunes que les perspectives politiques a mettre en oeuvre pour encourager leur participation. Ces recommandations sont formulees de maniere generale, mais aussi specifiquement pour chaque persona identifiee. Enfin, les recommandations emanant autant des jeunes eux-memes que des experts ayant realise l'etude.
- Key challenges for the participatory governance of AI in public administrationAs artificial intelligence (AI) becomes increasingly embedded in government operations, retaining democratic control over these technologies is becoming ever more crucial for mitigating potential biases or lack of transparency. However, while much has been written about the need to involve citizens in AI deployment in public administration, little is known about how democratic control of these technologies works in practice. This chapter proposes to address this gap through participatory governance, a subset of governance theory that emphasises democratic engagement, in particular through deliberative practices. We begin by introducing the opportunities and challenges the AI use in government poses. Next, we outline the dimensions of participatory governance and introduce an exploratory framework which can be adopted in the AI implementation process. Finally, we explore how these considerations can be applied to AI governance in public bureaucracies. We conclude by outlining future directions in the study of AI systems governance in government.
- Public participation in China and the WestThis work shows differences in public participation in China and Western countries, conceptually and empirically. To do so, the different philosophical and public administration traditions are outlined. Main contributions are tables and dashboards that allow for general comparisons and to differentiate contexts in both political settings, and are useful for other settings. The tables included are: 1) Main features of context in China, 2) Deliberative democracy, 3) Main features of context in the west, 4) The Gil Dashboard, helping to outline the endogenous foundations for change both in China and the West.
- Superiority Bias and Communication Noise Can Enhance Collective Problem SolvingError affects most human judgments and communications. Here we consider two types of error: unbiased noise and directional biases, and consider their effects in the context of collective problem solving. We studied an agent-based model of networked agents collectively searching for solutions to simple and complex problems on an NK landscape. We implemented superiority bias as a reluctance to adopt solutions used by others unless they were substantially better than one's own solution. We implemented communication error by injecting noise into solutions learned from others. These factors both reduce the short-term efficiency of social learning, as individuals are less likely to faithfully copy superior solutions. We find that when a team faces complex problems, both communication noise and superiority bias have a positive effect on the overall quality of the team's collective solution, at the cost of increased time and resource usage. We find that when a team faces simple problems, a moderate level of communication noise leads to a decrease in the required time and resources for a team. We discuss these results in terms of tradeoffs between the quality of a collective solution and the time and resources needed to reach that solution.
- The rise of statism in contemporary India: an institutional perspectiveIn the recent past, India has seen a rise of a strong state which made its presence felt through a series of difficult measures such as demonetization, abolition of Triple-Talaq practice and article 370 even though none of these are particularly welfare enhancing for the majority population of India. I reckon that these measures merely act as signalling devices; signalling the emergence of a new kind of statism, different from the old, Nehruvian statism. I further argue that the promise of such statism was instrumental in the recent political success of Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) who won the consecutive parliamentary elections held in 2014 and 2019. In this paper, I show that historically, the state and the communities in India keep contesting over the legal framework critical for resource allocation. But the nature of their conflict got disrupted with a rise in economic inequality induced by liberalisation and that, in turn led to an increased demand for a strong state and BJP's subsequent electoral success.
- How Can We Learn from Borrowers' Online Behaviors? The Signal Effect of Borrowers' Platform Involvement on Their Credit RiskA growing number of borrowers are applying for digital credit through Internet platforms due to the integration of digital credit services the Internet. However, further empirical evidence is needed to explore how a borrower's platform behaviors affect its credit risk. As such, our study uses signaling theory as the theoretical foundation to explore the overall effects of a borrower's platform involvement intensity on its credit risk based on a large consumer credit application dataset. The main finding shows the increase in a borrower's involvement intensity reduces its likelihood of defaulting. We attribute it to the platform's belief that borrowers with high involvement intensity have the higher value to the platform. In addition, we examine how a borrower's involvement intensity is moderated by several factors, such as the stability of its platform involvement intensity and its credit history. Due to the importance of digital credit services in microfinance, we have provided useful implications for achieving win-win outcomes in the credit market for the stakeholders.
- Unfulfilled promises: Tensions in mission statements of for-profit colleges and universitiesWhile collegiate missions of non-profit institutions have been extensively studied, missions of for-profit colleges in the United States have received less attention. This study examines the mission statements of 98 degree-granting for-profit colleges to articulate how these colleges describe their educational purposes. Our content analysis found that these institutions emphasize post-graduation opportunities and outcomes while also describing the curricula available, highlighting the contradictions of promoting access while seeking profit. We advance a deeper understanding of these institution's self-ascribed purposes so that policymakers can ensure adequate student protections at for-profit colleges.
- The effect of real-world proactive policing on crimeThis study expands research that analyzes the relationship between proactive policing and crime by assessing this dynamic association over several years, at a large jurisdictional level, and across multiple types of crime and proactivity. Cross-lagged panel modeling techniques are used to assess the dynamic relationship between rates of proactivity and crime within police beats in Seattle, WA from 2014-2019. Results indicate that rates of proactivity a year ago are associated with crime rates the following year. However, the relationship between proactivity and crime is highly dependent on the type of proactive strategy employed and the type of crime. This relationship can depend on the rates of overall enforcement as well. This study advances our understanding of the effect of policing on crime by focusing on everyday proactive policing activities rather than intervention-based initiatives that dominant the literature base.
- Access to Opioid Agonist Treatment during COVID-19 Public Transport DisruptionsPublic transport disruptions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic had wide-ranging impacts on the ability of individuals to access health care. Individuals with opioid use disorder represent an especially vulnerable population due to the necessity of frequent, supervised doses of opioid agonists. Focused on Toronto, a major Canadian city suffering from the opioid epidemic, this analysis uses novel realistic routing methodologies to quantify how travel times to individuals' nearest clinics changed due to public transport disruptions from 2019 to 2020. This analysis uses entirely open-source data sources to estimate the vulnerable populations that were impacted by the largest transport disruptions in the city's history. Individuals seeking opioid agonist treatment face very constrained windows of access due to the need to manage work and other essential activities. As even small changes to travel times can lead to missed appointments and heighten the chances of overdose and death, understanding the distribution of those most impacted can help inform future policy measures to ensure adequate access to care.
- Regulation of residential tenancies and impacts on investmentThis research reviews the evidence-base about factors impacting and shaping rental investment; reviews the state of residential tenancies laws across Australia; and presents options for a renewed reform agenda. The regulation of the Australian private rental sector (PRS) directly affects about 40 per cent of Australian households: the 26 per cent who live in private rental housing as tenants, and the 14 per cent who own it as landlords. Reform of regulation of residential tenancies processes are underway or have recently concluded in different jurisdictions. These processes, however, have mostly been uncoordinated at a national level and significant divergences and gaps have opened up in the laws. The research finds little evidence that Australian residential tenancies law has impacted investment in private rental housing. On the contrary, Australian residential tenancies law has accommodated, even facilitated, the long-term growth of the PRS and of its particular structure and dynamic character. However, the small-holding, frequently-transferring character of the PRS presents basic problems for tenants trying to make homes in it. The research also presents a number of issues that could be considered as part of a national agenda for residential tenancy law reform.
- Opportunity Hoarding and Elite Reproduction: School Segregation in Post-Apartheid South AfricaSchool integration is an important indicator of equality of opportunity and racial reconciliation in contemporary South Africa. Despite its prominence in public and political discourse, however, there is no systemic evidence on the levels and patterns of school segregation. Drawing on the literature on the post-apartheid political settlement and sociological theories of opportunity hoarding, we explain how the small White minority and, to a lesser extent, the new Black middle class monopolized access to South Africa's most prestigious schools following the abolition of de jure segregation in 1994. Using the 2021 Annual School Survey--an administrative dataset covering all South African schools--and the 2019 TIMSS school survey, we find very high levels of school segregation along racial as well as socioeconomic lines. White students almost exclusively attend former White schools, have little exposure to the low-income Black majority, and are vastly overrepresented in elite public and private schools. We argue that in South Africa and other contexts with under-resourced education systems, elite capture of the few high-performing schools serves to reproduce race and class privilege.
- Transformation und Krise der SorgearbeitIn diesem Artikel beschaftigen wir uns mit der Transformation und Krise der Sorgearbeit. Dabei gehen wir auf die historischen Kontexte ein, aus der die Spaltung zwischen offentlicher (bezahlter) und privater (unbezahlter) Sphare resultiert und den Grundstein fur die bis heute beobachtbaren geschlechterspezifischen Ungleichheiten (am Arbeitsmarkt) legt. Im Anschluss daran beschaftigen wir uns mit den gesellschaftlichen Transformationsprozessen, den technischen Entwicklungen, den Folgen des Wandels und dem daraus resultierenden Paradigmenwechsel - der beide Spharen nahhaltig verandert hat.
- Efforts and their FeelingsEffort and the feeling of effort play important roles in many theoretical discussions, from perception to self-control and free will, from the nature of ownership to the nature of desert and achievement. A crucial, overlooked distinction within the philosophical and scientific literatures is the distinction between theories that seek to explain effort and theories that seek to explain the feeling of effort. Lacking a clear distinction between these two phenomena makes the literature hard to navigate. To advance in the unification and development of this area, this article provides an overview of the main theories of the nature of effort and the nature of the feeling of effort, and then discusses how efforts and their feelings are related. Two key takeaways emerge. First, there is widespread agreement that efforts are goal-directed actions. Second, one of the main philosophical issues to be decided is whether feelings of effort should be defined by reference to efforts (effort-first approach), or whether efforts are defined by reference to the feeling of effort (feeling-first approach).
- Institutional context and life satisfaction: Does the rule of law moderate well-being inequalities?An emerging strand of research emphasizes the role of the macro institutional context in shaping the social distribution of well-being. This article examines the variations in the association between political power and subjective well-being by how the rule of law is instituted across societies. Two hypotheses of the rule of law role are tested: (a) power-tempering and (b) power-enhancement hypotheses. We use a unique dataset of 30,491 individuals from 27 countries with diverse social and political characteristics. We first confirmed the relationship between individuals' perceptions of their positions in the power hierarchy and their overall satisfaction with their lives using models with country-level fixed effects. Moreover, this relationship significantly varies across countries, and the Rule of Law Index explains part of the variation, as indicated by random-effects models. In societies with well-defined, universally applicable, and fair laws, the association of one's position of power and subjective well-being is reduced. Our study illustrates that institutions of better quality and functioning may equalize access to well-being.
- Rethinking marriage metabolism: The declining frequency of marital events in the United StatesPrevious research has employed an inadequate measure of marriage metabolism, but the concept may be useful for understanding the system of marriage. This paper addresses changes in the incidence of marital events in the United States from 2008 to 2020. I offer a measure, the Total Rate of Marital Events (TRME), that captures the lifetime experience of marital transitions (marriage, divorce, and widowhood) for a life table cohort. I find that the TRME declined steeply over this relatively short period: 25 percent for men and 23 percent for women. All three components declined in every age group below 90. I suggest that the slowing churn of the marriage system reflects the diminished social presence of marriage in daily life - if not its declining importance - which coincides with the increasingly selective status of married life. A higher status marriage system is a smaller, slower, and more stable marriage system.
- Stratified Entry into Illegality: How Immigration Policy Shapes Being UndocumentedResearch shows that legal status is a critical axis of stratification in the United States but is less clear about the variably permeable boundaries around illegality and the systematic ways in which migrants are channeled into and out of the liminal states of illegality. Drawing on analysis of 105 interviews with a diverse group of undocumented or formerly undocumented immigrant young adults in New York City collected in 2018-19, we introduce the concept of stratified entry into illegality to illustrate how migrants' nationality, race, and socioeconomic status shape their mode of entry which, in turn, shapes opportunities to adjust legal status. Our comparison of migrants who entered the US without inspection and those who overstayed visas reveals key differences in experience of illegality, including fear of deportation and future plans. We discuss the role of mandatory re-entry bans and hardship waivers on immigrants' relationships, the "fix" of advance parole for the more privileged DACA recipients, and the gendered and racialized risks and pressures faced by visa overstayers seeking to adjust their status through marriage. Our comparison of undocumented young adults with and without DACA across mode of entry demonstrates how DACA serves as a class- and race-based filtering mechanism. We embed analysis of stratified entry into illegality within the US immigration regime and a global regime of racialized criminalization of migrants rooted in colonial and neocolonial relations of power and extraction.
- Um tambor sami restituido: culturas originarias europeias e colonialismo no ArticoThe restitution of a Sami drum confiscated in 1691 in Karasjok, present-day Norway, was made in early 2022. This good incorporates historical meaning, culture and own values as well as marks of colonization and inequalities in Sapmi. It can talk about the long coloniality and racist invisibilization in the far north of Europe and about the historical resistances and current processes for justice and reparation. A bibliographical synthesis is presented on the Eurocentric invention of races operated from the center of Europe in which it aimed particularly at the Sami populations, their lands and cultures, with colonial, patriarchal and capacitist demarcations. Possible lines of intervention and reconfiguration of the work on biographical and bibliographical sources that sustain, encourage and disseminate the incorporation of knowledge inherited and to be passed on by originary cultures with recognition and justice.