Papers

Papers on SocArXiv appear here as they are posted, with the latest first. This is intended both to show the latest papers and also to demonstrate the potential of our platform.


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SocArXiv papers

  • On the Sociodynamics of Choice and Group Stability: A Bridge Over the Micro/Macro Divide
    This paper explores a sociological paradox born of the following axioms: 1) Individuals, their circumstances and their interactions are heterogeneous and subject to constant change; 2) Individuals and their interactions make up groups; 3) Groups are normally very stable, lacking change. After defining social stability and reviewing current rational choice theorizing, this paper contends that neither past nor current sociological thinking sufficiently explains how social stability can come from the arbitrariness of individual interactions. It then posits that all choices have accompanying ‘entrained' choices, subsumed to conscious decision-making, one being for ‘predictability’; a ubiquitous yet useful characteristic of sociodynamics that addresses the problem above in a testable, falsifiable way, and could be a sociological ‘constant’ for use in further research.
  • Reconciling Religion and LGBT Rights: Christian Universities, Theological Orientations, and LGBT Inclusion
    Why do some Christian colleges and universities approve lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) groups and inclusive nondiscrimination policies while others resist them? Scholars are beginning to develop models to explain LGBT inclusion in schools, but they have undertheorized the role of religion in facilitating or impeding LGBT inclusion. In this article, I draw from the literature on religion and the “culture wars,” especially insights into religions’ theological orientations, to explain Christian colleges and universities’ inclusion of LGBT students. I show that communal orientations—theological emphases on social justice—strongly predict the adoption of LGBT groups and inclusive nondiscrimination policies at Christian colleges and universities. By contrast, individualist orientations—theological emphases on personal piety—impede the adoption of such groups and policies. Importantly, I find little support for alternative explanations of Christian colleges and universities’ inclusion of LGBT students that focus on liberal or conservative teachings on same-sex relationships. Beyond bridging literatures on the political sociology of LGBT rights and religion and the culture wars, the article supports an emerging theoretical framework for understanding the role of religion in a wide range of social justice debates.
  • Reconciling Religion and LGBT Rights
    Christian Universities, Theological Orientations, and LGBT Inclusion
  • What do we learn from an equivalence study without statistical power?
    A recent randomized trial claims to provide evidence supporting the safety of omitting pelvic examinations for women with confirmed intrauterine pregnancies. In light of previous studies questioning the utility of the pelvic exam, this trial addresses a critical question for patients with threatened abortion. We identify methodological issues that raise questions about whether emergency clinicians can make reliable inferences from this study.
  • Premarital Cohabitation and Marital Dissolution in Postreform China
    Cohabitation and Divorce in China
  • Premarital Cohabitation and Marital Dissolution in Post-Reform China
    The author uses cohabitation data from the 2010 Chinese Family Panel Studies to analyze the association of premarital cohabitation with subsequent divorce of first marriage. After balancing selection factors that influence premarital cohabitation through propensity score matching, the author uses Cox proportional hazards models to examine the selection, causation, and diffusion perspectives on the relationship between premarital cohabitation and marital dissolution. The results show that premarital cohabitation is positively associated with divorce for those married in the early‐reform period (1980–1994) when cohabitation was uncommon. However, this relationship disappears for those married in the late‐reform period (1995–2010) when cohabitation became more prevalent. The findings suggest variation in the link between premarital cohabitation and divorce across different marriage cohorts and provide strong evidence for the diffusion perspective in postreform China. Supplemental sensitivity analyses support the robustness of the conclusion.
  • Men Set Their Own Cites High: Gender and Self-citation across Fields and over Time
    How common is self-citation in scholarly publication, and does the practice vary by gender? Using novel methods and a data set of 1.5 million research papers in the scholarly database JSTOR published between 1779 and 2011, the authors find that nearly 10 percent of references are self-citations by a paper’s authors. The findings also show that between 1779 and 2011, men cited their own papers 56 percent more than did women. In the last two decades of data, men self-cited 70 percent more than women. Women are also more than 10 percentage points more likely than men to not cite their own previous work at all. While these patterns could result from differences in the number of papers that men and women authors have published rather than gender-specific patterns of self-citation behavior, this gender gap in self-citation rates has remained stable over the last 50 years, despite increased representation of women in academia. The authors break down self-citation patterns by academic field and number of authors and comment on potential mechanisms behind these observations. These findings have important implications for scholarly visibility and cumulative advantage in academic careers.
  • Male and FemaleHeCreated Them: Gender Traditionalism, Masculine Images of God, and Attitudes Toward Same-Sex Unions
    CHURCH ATTENDANCE IN THE UNITED STATES
  • Crafting Culture: ‘Tradition,’ Art, and Music in Disney's “It's A Small World”
  • Identity Versus Identification: How LGBTQ Parents Identify Their Children on Census Surveys
    LGBTQ Parent-Child Identities and Identification
  • His and Hers: Economic Factors and Relationship Quality in Germany
    Economics and Relationship Quality in Germany
  • ‘Development’ as if We Have Never Been Modern : Fragments of a Latourian Development Studies
    Focus: Fragments of a Latourian Development Studies
  • 'It's Reducing a Human Being to a Percentage'; Perceptions of Justice in Algorithmic Decisions
    Data-driven decision-making consequential to individuals raises important questions of accountability and justice. Indeed, European law provides individuals limited rights to 'meaningful information about the logic' behind significant, autonomous decisions such as loan approvals, insurance quotes, and CV filtering. We undertake three experimental studies examining people's perceptions of justice in algorithmic decision-making under different scenarios and explanation styles. Dimensions of justice previously observed in response to human decision-making appear similarly engaged in response to algorithmic decisions. Qualitative analysis identified several concerns and heuristics involved in justice perceptions including arbitrariness, generalisation, and (in)dignity. Quantitative analysis indicates that explanation styles primarily matter to justice perceptions only when subjects are exposed to multiple different styles---under repeated exposure of one style, scenario effects obscure any explanation effects. Our results suggests there may be no 'best' approach to explaining algorithmic decisions, and that reflection on their automated nature both implicates and mitigates justice dimensions. Comment: 14 pages, 3 figures, ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI'18), April 21--26, Montreal, Canada
  • Fairness and Accountability Design Needs for Algorithmic Support in High-Stakes Public Sector Decision-Making
    Calls for heightened consideration of fairness and accountability in algorithmically-informed public decisions---like taxation, justice, and child protection---are now commonplace. How might designers support such human values? We interviewed 27 public sector machine learning practitioners across 5 OECD countries regarding challenges understanding and imbuing public values into their work. The results suggest a disconnect between organisational and institutional realities, constraints and needs, and those addressed by current research into usable, transparent and 'discrimination-aware' machine learning---absences likely to undermine practical initiatives unless addressed. We see design opportunities in this disconnect, such as in supporting the tracking of concept drift in secondary data sources, and in building usable transparency tools to identify risks and incorporate domain knowledge, aimed both at managers and at the 'street-level bureaucrats' on the frontlines of public service. We conclude by outlining ethical challenges and future directions for collaboration in these high-stakes applications. Comment: 14 pages, 0 figures, ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI'18), April 21--26, Montreal, Canada
  • Pregnant on Arrival: Making the Illegal Immigrant. By Eithne Luibhéid. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2013. viii, 299 pages. $75.00 cloth; $25.00 paperback.
  • Do Survey Measures of Racial Prejudice Predict Racial Discrimination? Experimental Evidence on Anti-Black Discrimination in Resource Allocations
    Scholars regularly measure whites’ racial attitudes using symbolic racism (racial resentment) and, more rarely, overt prejudice batteries. Symbolic racism is a strong predictor of race-related policy attitudes and other political outcomes, but has been criticized for being tightly tied to conservative social value orientations and other (non-race related) factors that might explain conservative attitudes toward race related policies. In this paper, we examine the predictive power of both overt and symbolic racism measures in explaining anti-black discrimination by white Americans. In Study 1 we obtain a behavioral measure of racial discrimination using the Ultimatum Game (UG). In Study 2 we ask white third-party observers to evaluate the fairness of interactions among black and white players in the UG. In Study 1, we find that white responders in the UG were more likely to engage in costly discrimination against black proposers by rejecting offers they would otherwise accept from whites. Further, we demonstrate that overt racism predicts which whites discriminate whereas the symbolic racism measure does not. In Study 2 we also find that overt racism predicts racially biased evaluations of the fairness of resource distributions made by black proposers to white responders but symbolic racism does not, suggesting that racially biased conceptions of fairness are a plausible explanation for the discriminatory behavior of prejudiced individuals. These results have important implications for how we measure whites’ racial attitudes and the theoretical constructs underlying both symbolic and overt racism measures.
  • Understanding the Economic Espionage Act of 1996
    The Economic Espionage Act of 1996 was intended to address both the general need for a federal criminal deterrent against trade secret theft as well as the apparent threat from foreign state-sponsored industrial espionage. This article examines the background of this new law, provides critical analysis of its most important terms, describes the process involved in a reference of trade secret theft to the federal authorities, and suggests practical strategies for businesses to take advantage of this resource as well as to avoid exposure to liability for the mishandling of information belonging to others.
  • The Economic Irrationality of the Patent Misuse Doctrine
    This Comment evaluates the economic effects of the patent misuse doctrine. The patent misuse doctrine is an equitable remedy analogous to the “unclean hands” doctrine in tort law. It bars infringement suits by patentees who have “misused” their patent grant, either by using the patent to violate the antitrust laws or by extending their patent monopoly in some other way. The author first describes the nature and scope of antitrust protection in the patent area, and contrasts the antitrust laws with the patent misuse doctrine. Next, the author argues that the patent misuse doctrine is irrational from an economic standpoint for three reasons: the level of sanction is unrelated to the injury caused; the sanction duplicates antitrust remedies, leading to excessive recoveries; and the sanction is awarded as a windfall to the patent infringer even if that party was not injured by the misuse. These effects combine to make the patent misuse doctrine indefensible from the standpoint either of proportionality or of deterrence. Finally, the author reviews recent legislative efforts to reform the patent misuse doctrine and argues that they are misguided because they fail to deal with the fundamental problems described herein. The author concludes that the patent misuse doctrine ought to be abolished, and that the antitrust laws can serve the same purposes that the patent misuse doctrine was designed to serve.
  • Encouraging Software Reuse
    In the last fifteen years, the primary means of legal protection for computer software has shifted from copyright to patent. We argue that one unanticipated effect of this trend may be to encourage software reuse. Traditionally, computer programmers have reinvented software components, coding programs from scratch each time a new one is desired rather than buying and reusing existing components. This process is inefficient, and is in stark contrast to the normal practice in other engineering disciplines. We argue that copyright law encourages reinvention and discourages the development of a market for tradeable software components because it allows competitors to appropriate the value of a new software invention without payment to the original developer of that invention, but forbids competitors from copying the computer code implementing that invention. The result is that competitors take inventions from others, but write their own code to implement those inventions. By contrast, patent law gives strong protection to inventions, forcing competitors to license the patent in order to make any product incorporating the idea. It is reasonable to expect that one effect of increasing reliance on patent law will be an increase in licenses of both the patented idea and the implementing code. This licensing should in turn pave the way for the trading and reuse of software components. Note: This paper was published in its final form at 49 Stan. L. Rev. 255 (1997).
  • Antitrust Immunity: State Action and Federalism, Petitioning and the First Amendment
    In recent years, the United States Supreme Court has focused increasing attention on two doctrines that provide immunity from antitrust liability for certain anticompetitive activity: the state action doctrine and the petitioning immunity doctrine (sometimes known as the Noerr-Pennington doctrine, after the two cases that established it). These doctrines have been the subject of seven Supreme Court decisions in as many years. In spite of (or perhaps because of) the Court’s numerous recent decisions, there remains a great deal of confusion about the source and the scope of these doctrines. This Article attempts to clarify both doctrines. The Supreme Court and a number of commentators contend that the antitrust immunity doctrines are the product of statutory interpretation of the antitrust laws themselves. The Court contends that petitioning and state action are “essentially dissimilar” to the types of business activity the antitrust laws were designed to regulate. This Article disagrees. Both petitioning and state action present precisely the sorts of problems with which the antitrust laws are concerned — exploitation of consumers through the charging of supracompetitive prices. To determine the source of antitrust immunity, the Court must look beyond the antitrust laws to the constitutional principles that are implicated by the doctrines. For the state action doctrine, the constitutional principle at stake is largely one of federalism, and the more general democratic principles embodied in the Court’s non-delegation jurisprudence. For the petitioning immunity doctrine, the First Amendment protection of speech and petitioning provides the relevant principles. After examining the source of the antitrust immunity doctrines, this Article considers the appropriate scope of those doctrines in light of the constitutional principles at issue.
  • Rethinking Assignor Estoppel
    The Supreme Court and the Federal Circuit have repeatedly emphasized the public interest in testing the validity of patents, weeding out patents that should not have been issued. But there is one important group of people the law systematically prevents from challenging bad patents. Curiously, it is the very group patent law is supposed to support: inventors themselves. The century-old doctrine of assignor estoppel precludes inventors who file patent applications from later challenging the validity or enforceability of the patents they receive. The stated rationale for assignor estoppel is that it would be unfair to allow the inventor to benefit from obtaining a patent and later change her tune and attack the patent when it benefits her to do so. The Supreme Court has traditionally disfavored the doctrine, reading it narrowly. But the Federal Circuit has expanded the doctrine in a variety of dimensions, and applied it even when the benefit to the inventor is illusory. Further, the doctrine misunderstands the role of inventor-employees in the modern world. More important, the expansive modern form of assignor estoppel interferes substantially with employee mobility. Inventors as a class are put under burdens that we apply to no other employee. If they start a company, or even go to work for an existing company in the same field, they will not be able to defend a patent suit from their old employer. The result is a sort of partial noncompete clause, one imposed without even the fiction of agreement and one that binds anyone the inventor comes in contact with after leaving the job. Abundant evidence suggests that noncompetes in general retard innovation and economic growth, and several states prohibit them outright, while all others limit them. But assignor estoppel is a federal law doctrine that overrides those state choices. It is time to rethink the doctrine of assignor estoppel. I describe the doctrine, its rationale, and how it has expanded dramatically in the past 25 years. I argue that the doctrine is out of touch with the realities of both modern inventing and modern patent law, and that it interferes with both the invalidation of bad patents and the goal of employee mobility. Should the Supreme Court take up the doctrine, it is unlikely to survive in its current form. Rather, it should – and will – return to its much more limited roots.
  • Did eBay Irreparably Injure Trademark Law?
    The Supreme Court's decision in eBay v. MercExchange, which revolutionized the granting of injunctions in patent cases, has increasingly been applied to trademark cases as well. But courts applying eBay to trademark cases have ignored some fundamental differences between patent and trademark law, including the difficulty of quantifying injury to brand reputation, the rarity of damage awards in trademark cases, and the presence of a third party -- consumers -- with a strong interest in avoiding confusion. Some courts, particularly in the Ninth Circuit, have also turned eBay from a set of guidelines for case-by-case analysis of the equities of an injunction into a hard-and-fast set of requirements for injunctive relief. eBay should apply to trademark cases. But it must be applied with sensitivity to the very different contexts of patent and trademark. Doing so will make it more likely that trademark owners will obtain injunctions in "core" trademark infringement cases. Nonetheless, courts may still properly use eBay to deny injunctive relief in dilution and association cases where the evidence of harm to the mark owner or consumers is weak or nonexistent.
  • Convergence in the Law of Software Copyright?
    Virtually all the courts to consider non-literal infringement of software copyrights have lined up with the “narrow constructionists,” engaging in “analytic dissection” of computer programs in order to determine whether any copyrightable expression has actually been copied. Most commonly, this analytic dissection has taken the form of the “abstraction-filtration-comparison” test set forth in Computer Associates v. Altai. While there are still a few courts in which the “total concept and feel” approach remains the law, the approach is moribund: since Altai was decided, no court has endorsed the broader “total concept and feel” approach. Rather than ending, the debate over software copyright law appears to be shifting its focus. Having finally resolved the debate that has been plaguing software copyright law since its inception, courts are discovering to their chagrin, that deciding what test to apply actually tells you very little about how to apply that test. Despite the convergence of courts on Altai's filtration approach, courts remain fundamentally conflicted in deciding how broadly to protect software copyright. Further, there remains a good deal of misunderstanding about what exactly it means to “abstract” and “filter” a computer program. I suggest a unified approach to evaluating non-literal infringement in software copyright cases. This approach focuses on exactly what is alleged to have been copied. It also acknowledges the increasing role of patent law in protecting computer software, and the role of other copyright concerns such as compatibility and fair use. The result of this unified approach is to provide relatively narrow copyright protection for computer programs in most cases of non-literal infringement.
  • Antitrust Arbitration and Illinois Brick
    For nearly forty years, since the Supreme Court decision in Illinois Brick, federal antitrust law has prevented indirect purchasers from complaining of overcharges caused by antitrust violations. The Court reasoned that direct purchasers are the best and most motivated antitrust plaintiffs. But in its 2013 Italian Colors decision, the Court made it extremely difficult for direct purchasers to bring an antitrust claim in federal court. In doing so, it undermined the policy rationale for Illinois Brick, opening the way for courts to reconsider the ban on antitrust enforcement by indirect purchasers.
  • Expecting the Unexpected
    If the patentee’s invention produced unexpected results, the law says, that is pretty good evidence that it wasn’t obvious. But the law also says that if it is obvious to try to make something, and if those who might try would expect to succeed, making that thing is not patentable. It’s just the ordinary work we expect of scientists. These two doctrines can conflict. What if it is obvious to try something, but actually trying it leads to unexpected results? This actually happens with some frequency, particularly in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries, where researchers are motivated to try various standard modifications of known chemicals but where the unpredictability of the art means that they can expect to be surprised by what they learn from time to time. When these two legal doctrines conflict, the doctrine of unexpected results must give way. Obviousness is based on the idea that we should not give a patent if ordinary scientists could have gotten to the result without the encouragement of that patent. If researchers of ordinary skill were already motivated to try a new variation, and correctly expected that they would succeed, actually trying the new variation is normal science, not the extraordinary skill or insight required for invention. And if scientists would have created the new variation in the ordinary course of their duties, they would of necessity have stumbled upon the unexpected results. Normal science, not the incentive of a patent, led them to that course, so the invention is not patentable. This result may alarm patent owners in the pharmaceutical industries, who have been obtaining patents for this sort of normal experimentation for years. But I think it is required by the Supreme Court’s decision in KSR, which held that an invention was not patentable if it was obvious to try. And while pharmaceutical patent owners may lament the loss of these patents, the rest of the world may not. Patents likely to be affected by the obvious-to-try rule tend to be follow-on patents used to try to extend the life of expired patents on new chemical entities, not breakthrough drugs that require strong protection.
  • The Surprising Resilience of the Patent System
    The patent system seems in the midst of truly dramatic change. The last twenty years have seen the rise of a new business model – the patent troll – that grew to become a majority of all patent lawsuits. They have seen a significant expansion in the number of patents granted and a fundamental change in the industries in which those patents are filed. They have seen the passage of the most important legislative reform in the last sixty years, a law that reoriented legal challenges to patents away from courts and toward the Patent and Trademark Office (PTO). And they have seen remarkable changes in nearly every important legal doctrine, from patent eligibility to obviousness to infringement to remedies. These changes have prompted alarm in a number of quarters. From the 1990s to the 2000s, as the number of patents and patent troll suits skyrocketed, technology companies and academics worried about the “crisis” in the patent system – a crisis of overprotection that might interfere with rather than promote innovation. By 2015, as patent reform took effect and the Supreme Court undid many of the Federal Circuit’s expansions of patent rights, it was patent owners who were speaking of a crisis in the patent system – a crisis of underprotection that might leave innovators without adequate protection. Depending on one’s perspective, then, the sky seems to have been falling on the patent system for some time. Despite the undeniable significance of these changes in both directions, something curious has happened to the fundamental characteristics of the patent ecosystem during this period: very little. Whether we look at the number of patent applications filed, the number of patents issued, the number of lawsuits filed, the patentee win rate in those lawsuits, or the market for patent licenses, the data show very little evidence that patent owners and challengers are behaving differently because of changes in the law. The patent system, then, seems surprisingly resilient to changes in the law. This is a puzzle. In this article, I document this phenomenon and give some thought to why the fundamental characteristics of the patent system seem resistant to even major changes in patent law and procedure. The results pose some profound questions not only for efforts at patent reform but for the role of the patent system in society as a whole.
  • If You Can't Beat 'Em, Join 'Em? How Sitting by Designation Affects Judicial Behavior
    Judges, lawyers, and scholars have long decried the high reversal rate district judges face in patent cases. Many have suggested greater district court specialization as a solution, and Congress in 2011 enacted legislation to promote such specialization. In this paper, we investigate the impact of a novel measure of experience – whether a district court judge has sat by designation on a Federal Circuit panel in a patent claim construction appeal – on the likelihood a district judge’s subsequent claim constructions are reversed. Before sitting by designation, judges who later do so actually have a slightly higher claim construction reversal rate than judges who never do so. After sitting by designation, the reversal rate of district court judges on subsequent claim construction appeals decreases by 50 percent. This decrease is not fully explained by other measures of experience, including the number of prior patent cases or years on the bench. Nor is it fully explained by the timing of the appeal, the particular district court judge or various other characteristics of the patents, the parties and the litigation. Our results suggest a simple way to reduce the reversal rate in patent and perhaps other sorts of cases. However, our evidence suggests this increased agreement is due to increased Federal Circuit trust in the decisions of individual judges who have sat by designation and not increased district judge understanding of claim construction.
  • Policy Levers Tailoring Patent Law to Biotechnology: Comparing European and US Approaches
    In a string of recent opinions, the Supreme Court has made it harder for consumers to avoid arbitration clauses, even when businesses strategically insert provisions in them that effectively prevent consumers from being able to bring any claim in any forum. In American Express Co. v. Italian Colors Restaurant, an antitrust case, the Court held that class-action waivers embedded in mandatory arbitration clauses were enforceable even when they had the effect of making it economically irrational for the victims of antitrust violations to pursue their claims. Courts have long considered antitrust claims to be too complex and too important to trust to private arbitrators. By the 1980s, the Supreme Court permitted federal statutory rights, including antitrust claims, to be arbitrated so long as the plaintiffs could effectively vindicate their rights in the alternative forum. In 2013, the Supreme Court in Italian Colors fundamentally weakened the Effective Vindication Doctrine when it held that arbitration clauses that precluded class actions and classwide arbitration were enforceable even when they effectively prohibited all individual plaintiffs from bringing a case. Arbitration differs from litigation in ways that harm the interests of consumer antitrust plaintiffs. For example, arbitration limits discovery and has no meaningful appeals process. Furthermore, defendants use the terms in arbitration clauses to prevent class actions and to undercut the pro-plaintiff features of antitrust law, including mandatory treble damages, meaningful injunctive relief, recovery of attorneys’ fees, and a lengthy statute of limitations. With the Court’s undermining of the Effective Vindication Doctrine in Italian Colors, defendants’ efforts to dismantle these pro-plaintiff components of antitrust law may prove more successful in the future. The problems associated with antitrust arbitration are magnified in concentrated markets. Supporters of enforcing arbitration clauses assume that they these contractual provisions are the result of an informed, voluntary bargain. But when a market is dominated by a single supplier or a small group of firms, consumers often find it impossible to purchase a necessary product while retaining the right to sue, especially since arbitration clauses are generally embedded in contracts of adhesion. This means that in the markets most likely to be affected by antitrust violations, consumers are least likely to be able to avoid mandatory arbitration clauses. Furthermore, when mergers result in concentrated markets, they can increase the problems explored in Part Two. Antitrust authorities can address the problem of proliferating arbitration clauses. When evaluating mergers, officials at the Federal Trade Commission and the Antitrust Division of the Department of Justice can threaten to challenge the merger unless the merging parties agree to specified conditions, such as the divestiture of certain assets. Because those mergers that pose the greatest risk of anticompetitive effects also magnify the problems associated with mandatory arbitration clauses, antitrust officials would be wise to condition merger approval on the merging parties’ agreement to not require arbitration of antitrust claims.
  • Antitrust Arbitration and Merger Approval
    In a string of recent opinions, the Supreme Court has made it harder for consumers to avoid arbitration clauses, even when businesses strategically insert provisions in them that effectively prevent consumers from being able to bring any claim in any forum. In American Express Co. v. Italian Colors Restaurant, an antitrust case, the Court held that class-action waivers embedded in mandatory arbitration clauses were enforceable even when they had the effect of making it economically irrational for the victims of antitrust violations to pursue their claims. Courts have long considered antitrust claims to be too complex and too important to trust to private arbitrators. By the 1980s, the Supreme Court permitted federal statutory rights, including antitrust claims, to be arbitrated so long as the plaintiffs could effectively vindicate their rights in the alternative forum. In 2013, the Supreme Court in Italian Colors fundamentally weakened the Effective Vindication Doctrine when it held that arbitration clauses that precluded class actions and classwide arbitration were enforceable even when they effectively prohibited all individual plaintiffs from bringing a case. Arbitration differs from litigation in ways that harm the interests of consumer antitrust plaintiffs. For example, arbitration limits discovery and has no meaningful appeals process. Furthermore, defendants use the terms in arbitration clauses to prevent class actions and to undercut the pro-plaintiff features of antitrust law, including mandatory treble damages, meaningful injunctive relief, recovery of attorneys’ fees, and a lengthy statute of limitations. With the Court’s undermining of the Effective Vindication Doctrine in Italian Colors, defendants’ efforts to dismantle these pro-plaintiff components of antitrust law may prove more successful in the future. The problems associated with antitrust arbitration are magnified in concentrated markets. Supporters of enforcing arbitration clauses assume that they these contractual provisions are the result of an informed, voluntary bargain. But when a market is dominated by a single supplier or a small group of firms, consumers often find it impossible to purchase a necessary product while retaining the right to sue, especially since arbitration clauses are generally embedded in contracts of adhesion. This means that in the markets most likely to be affected by antitrust violations, consumers are least likely to be able to avoid mandatory arbitration clauses. Furthermore, when mergers result in concentrated markets, they can increase the problems explored in Part Two. Antitrust authorities can address the problem of proliferating arbitration clauses. When evaluating mergers, officials at the Federal Trade Commission and the Antitrust Division of the Department of Justice can threaten to challenge the merger unless the merging parties agree to specified conditions, such as the divestiture of certain assets. Because those mergers that pose the greatest risk of anticompetitive effects also magnify the problems associated with mandatory arbitration clauses, antitrust officials would be wise to condition merger approval on the merging parties’ agreement to not require arbitration of antitrust claims.
  • Brief Amici Curiae of 118 Law, Economics, and Business Professors and the American Antitrust Institute in Support of Petitioners
    This Supreme Court amicus brief, filed in Federal Trade Commission v. Watson, explains why exclusion-payment settlements, by which brand-name drug companies pay generic firms to delay entering the market, contravene the policies of patent law, antitrust law, and the Hatch-Waxman Act. It addresses five points. First, the settlements are not consistent with the Hatch-Waxman Act, Congress’s framework for balancing patent and antitrust law in the pharmaceutical industry, which encouraged generics to challenge patents. Second, the settlements are anticompetitive, serving as a form of market division, which is the practical result when brands pay generics to drop challenges to weak patents and delay entering the market instead. Third, the mere fact of a patent cannot justify the payments. The Patent Office frequently issues invalid patents, and the patents at the heart of these settlements present concern, often covering not the drug’s active ingredient but narrower aspects like the formulation or method of use that are less innovative and bear more potential for anticompetitive mischief. Patent policy encourages challenges to weak patents, and the procedural presumption of validity does not justify the settlements. Fourth, exclusion payments are not needed to settle cases in the public interest; history has shown that brands and generics can reach settlements without them. Fifth, the most appropriate antitrust framework employs a “quick look” rule-of-reason analysis that treats exclusion payments as presumptively unlawful. Such a framework recognizes the potentially severe anticompetitive effects of exclusion-payment settlements while permitting the settling parties to introduce possible procompetitive justifications, if any, for their agreement.
  • Should a Licensing Market Require Licensing?
    Copyright owners have persuaded the courts that they should win cases in which a defendant's use doesn't injure their market directly, but in which they could and would have charged a fee to grant permission for the use. Even assuming courts are right to have accepted this argument, it is unreasonable to then give the copyright owner not just the fee they would have charged but the power to prevent the use altogether or to collect damages far in excess of that fee. Licensing market cases are excellent choices for separating compensation and control, giving copyright owners the right to get paid without giving them control over transformative uses. Doing so is harder than simply denying injunctive relief, however. It requires us to rethink our definition of damages in copyright law with the aim of remedying injury rather than always seeking to deter infringement.
  • Does 'Public Use' Mean the Same Thing It Did Last Year?
    In 2011, Congress enacted the America Invents Act (AIA), the most substantial overhaul of the patent system in the past sixty years. The most significant change in the AIA was the move from a first to invent regime to a first inventor to file regime. The goal of the move to first to file, besides harmonization, is to encourage inventors to move with alacrity to share their invention with the world. There is an ambiguity in the AIA, however, that threatens that disclosure objective. Some commentators have argued that Congress intended to fundamentally change the rules of prior art in a way that would encourage secrecy rather than disclosure. Under this interpretation of the new law, an inventor can use its process in secret for commercial purposes, potentially forever, and still file a patent on that invention at some point in the future. Far from encouraging disclosure, on this interpretation the effect of the AIA is to encourage secrecy and delay in patenting. Curiously, the argument is that Congress signaled its intent to make this fairly radical change by re-enacting language that had been in the Patent Act for the last 140 years: the words "public use." Because two of these commentators, Bob Armitage and Joe Matal, were involved in the drafting of the AIA, this argument has carried substantial weight, and the PTO in 2013 adopted regulations that read the term "public use" in the AIA as meaning something completely different than it had for the century before 2011. In this paper, I make two points. First, as a matter of statutory interpretation it is unlikely that Congress intended to make such a change, not only because they readopted existing statutory language but because other parts of the statute make no sense under such an interpretation. Second, reading the AIA as making such a change would be unwise as a policy matter, not only because it would encourage secrecy but because it would undermine confidence that other terms reenacted in the AIA have the same meaning they have accrued in decades of common law.
  • Courts and the Patent System
    Innovation and patent law work differently in different industries. To some degree, the courts’ interpretations of patent and trademark law accommodate those differences. It is not much of an exaggeration to say that the patent system must bend or break: a patent system that is not flexible enough to account for these industry differences is unlikely to survive, let along accomplish its stated goals. We believe the system has the flexibility to do both, but this will require the courts to better recognize and use the policy levers they have been given.
  • An Empirical Study of the Twenty-Year Patent Term
    The new twenty-year patent term has engendered considerable controversy. A number of inventors have complained that the new patent term may reduce patent protection because some applications spend a number of years in “prosecution” before the PTO. Under the old law, delay in processing an application did not hurt the patentee, but under the new rule, each day spent in prosecuting the patent is a day of protection lost. The purpose of this study is to evaluate in a neutral and systematic way the likely effects of the new law. I conclude that on average, and for most industries, the new law gives more protection to patentees than the old law. However, there is some question as to whether the biotechnology industry will receive less protection under the new law. I conclude that there is no significant relationship between the length of time a patent spends in prosecution and whether it will be judged valid in the courts. Finally, the study produces some interesting data about the problem of “submarine patents.”
  • A Cautious Defense of Intellectual Oligopoly with Fringe Competition
    Michele Boldrin and David Levine offer a strong attack on intellectual property (IP), which they call “intellectual monopoly.” In their view, IP is not necessary to encourage invention or creation. Quite the contrary, they argue that we get innovation from competition, not monopoly. Further, because monopoly imposes well-recognized social costs, we are better off without it if it doesn’t in fact spur new innovation. Boldrin and Levine make a plausible case on their own terms. Nonetheless, I think their terms are misleading. IP rights are rarely if ever “intellectual monopolies.” Most patents, to say nothing of most copyrights, create no economic rents. What this means is that we can’t assume that IP rights generally impose deadweight losses on society. They cause deviation from atomistic, perfect competition, but they don’t cause monopoly pricing. With a small number of exceptions, therefore, they don’t cause the social harms Boldrin and Levine correctly associate with monopoly pricing.
  • Who Chooses Open Source Software?
    Economists and legal scholars have debated the reasons people adopt open source software, and accordingly whether and to what extent the open source model can scale, replacing proprietary rights as a primary means of production. In this study, we use the release by a biotechnology company of similar software under both proprietary and open source licenses to investigate who uses open source software and why. We find that academic users are somewhat more likely to adopt open source software than private firms. We find only modest differences in the willingness of open source users to modify or improve existing programs. And we find that users of open source software often make business decisions that seem indifferent to the norms of open source distribution. Our findings cast some doubt on the penetration of the open source ethos beyond traditional software markets.
  • Automating Sciences: Philosophical and Social Dimensions
  • Automating science: Philosophical and social dimensions
    Clark Glymour argued in 2004 that "despite a lack of public fanfare, there is mounting evidence that we are in the midst of ... a revolution - premised on the automation of scientific discovery" [1]. This paper highlights some of the philosophical and sociological dimensions that have been found empirically in work conducted with robot scientists - that is, with autonomous robotic systems for scientific discovery. Robot scientists do not supply definite answers to the discussed questions, but rather provide "proofs of concept" for various ideas. For example, it is not that robot scientists solve the realist/antirealist philosophical debate, but that when working with robot scientists one has to make a philosophical choice - in this case, to assume a realist view of science. There are still few systems for autonomous scientific discovery in existence, and it is too early to generalize and propose new theories. However, being "in the midst of ... a revolution" it is important for the research community to re-examine views pertinent to scientific discovery. This paper highlights how experience with robot scientists could inform discussions in other disciplines, from philosophy of science to computer creativity research.
  • Survivor: spectators and gladiators in the US environmental movement, 2000–2010
  • Survivor: Spectators and Gladiators in the US Environmental Movement, 2000-2010
    What motivates people to participate in which forms of environmental activism? To address this question, we revise empirical models examining environmental activism by disaggregating the outcome variable of movement participation and dichotomizing two key motivational factors. Using repeated cross-sectional data from the US General Social Survey of 2000 and 2010, this study conducts logistic regression of four forms of participation on perceived severity and sense of efficacy, while accounting for biographical availability and political engagement. Results from regression analysis show that vocabularies of motive have substantial impacts on an individual’s likelihood of: 1) signing a petition; 2) giving money; 3) joining a group; and 4) joining a protest or demonstration. Their effects are large enough to override the noticeable impacts of liberalism and education. This study also finds that the level of participation in the movement across all forms has decreased between 2000 and 2010. These findings direct our attention to the limited capacity of the public sphere to accommodate the environmental movement during the last decade, as well as to potential changes in environmental activism in the coming decades that may mobilize those previously less likely to participate.
  • Evidence of Open Access of scientific publications in Google Scholar: a large-scale analysis
    This article uses Google Scholar (GS) as a source of data to analyse Open Access (OA) levels across all countries and fields of research. All articles and reviews with a DOI and published in 2009 or 2014 and covered by the three main citation indexes in the Web of Science (2,269,022 documents) were selected for study. The links to freely available versions of these documents displayed in GS were collected. To differentiate between more reliable (sustainable and legal) forms of access and less reliable ones, the data extracted from GS was combined with information available in DOAJ, CrossRef, OpenDOAR, and ROAR. This allowed us to distinguish the percentage of documents in our sample that are made OA by the publisher (23.1%, including Gold, Hybrid, Delayed, and Bronze OA) from those available as Green OA (17.6%), and those available from other sources (40.6%, mainly due to ResearchGate). The data shows an overall free availability of 54.6%, with important differences at the country and subject category levels. The data extracted from GS yielded very similar results to those found by other studies that analysed similar samples of documents, but employed different methods to find evidence of OA, thus suggesting a relative consistency among methods.
  • The path from social origins to top jobs: social reproduction via education
    This paper provides a comprehensive account of the way in which cognitive and educational attainment mediate the link between social origins and elite social class destinations in mid-life. Using the 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70), we assess the roles of a range of pathways through which educational advantage may lead to occupational attainment: cognitive development; private and selective secondary schools; school level qualifications; and higher education, including institution and field of study. Whereas past research has shown a residual direct effect of social origins on class destinations, we find that, once a sufficiently detailed picture of educational attainment is taken into account, education fully explains the link between social origins and top social class destinations. In contrast, the gap between men and women in achieving top social class positions is in no part accounted for by education.
  • Introduction to: Cracking the Code: The Challenge of a Semiotic Sociology
    The working paper is a middle-stage draft of the introduction to the book manuscript of Cracking the Code: The Challenge of a Semiotic Sociology, to be published in late 2019 or early 2020
  • Weaponization: Metaphorical Ubiquity and the Rejection of Politics
    This article explores the origin and trajectory of the metaphor of weaponization that became ubiquitous around the 2016 presidential election. As a concept, the word originated in the Cold War defense industry as a description of the logistical deployment of weapons systems. As its use mutated into a metaphor between 1999-2003, it took on its contemporary meaning of making something into a weapon that had been, and should remain, neutral or peaceful. By 2017 “the weaponization of everything” implied that all aspects of social life were newly embroiled in illegitimate politics, making the metaphor a profound act of nostalgic forgetting. Weaponization demonstrates that a metaphor can become more powerful, not less, when it becomes ubiquitous. This is surprising because contemporary metaphor theory implies that ubiquitous metaphors become mere descriptions or concepts if they are not embedded in competing discursive communities. Weaponization shows that metaphors can create publics that share the same meaning for all sides among competing political groups, even if that meaning is the rejection of politics altogether.
  • Evaluating the Impact of the Wikipedia Teahouse on Newcomer Retention
    Effective socialization of new contributors is vital for the long- term sustainability of open collaboration projects. Previous research has identified many common barriers to participation. However, few interventions employed to increase newcomer retention over the long term by improving aspects of the on- boarding experience have demonstrated success. This study presents an evaluation of the impact of one such intervention, the Wikipedia Teahouse, on new editor survival. In a con- trolled experiment, we find that new editors invited to the Teahouse are retained at a higher rate than editors who do not receive an invite. The effect is observed for both low- and high-activity newcomers, and for both short- and long-term survival.
  • Topic Modeling as a Method for Frame Analysis: Data Mining the Climate Change Debate in India and the USA
    This article proposes an operationalization of topic modeling as a data mining method for studying framing in public debates. We argue that 'topics' can be interpreted as frames, if 1) frames are operationalized as connections between concepts, 2) subject-specific data is selected, and 3) topics are adequately validated as frames, for which we suggest a practical procedure. As an empirical example, we study the global climate change debate in the media, by comparing frames used by NGO's, governments and experts in India and the USA. Our model identifies 12 framings of climate change, used in varied proportions by the different actors in the two countries. Topic modeling frames enables the usage of larger datasets and facilitates discovery of previously unnoticed framing patterns. It does not replace qualitative interpretation, but rather complements it by enabling a degree of automated classification before the interpretive stage.
  • To what extent are complex public health interventions transferable across contexts? Protocol of an interdisciplinary study of a school-based nutritional health intervention in France
    Background: Governments across Europe have attempted to address the obesogenic environment through a variety of policy measures over the last two decades. A growing literature advocates for complex population interventions in public health. Such approaches embrace the need for interventions that can operate within the complexity of real-life situations as well as capturing and tracking interactions between an intervention and its context. Aim: This paper describes the original interdisciplinary methodological approach of a research project. The study was designed to ascertain whether complex public health interventions can be transferred from one local context to another while remaining loyal to their initial objectives. Method: An integrated interdisciplinary qualitative design was established to elaborate and answer the research questions. Three disciplinary strands were involved: Political Science, Public Health and Sociology. The three strands worked together while applying their specific methodological approaches. Results: The Political Science strand analysed the public health nutrition intervention taking a socio-historic policy studies top-down perspective. The Public Health Strand developed a method of analysing the three interventions through a co-construction process with the participants. This allows for the key functions, forms and context of each intervention to be identified and compared. The Sociology strand performed ethnographic methods to observe and analyse the deployment and activities linked with each intervention across sites. Together the three strands provide an interdisciplinary analysis of the length and breadth of the interventional scope with which to answer the research questions. Discussion: Here, we discuss the operational challenges involved in the project, including the difficulties encountered with the interdisciplinary approach, as well as field work challenges.
  • Racing through the Halls of Congress: The “Black Nod” as an Adaptive Strategy for Surviving in a Raced Institution
    Although there is an impressive body of research on the U.S. Congress, there has been limited discussion about the central role race plays in the organization of this political institution. While some scholars have documented Congress’ racist past, less is known about the present significance of race in the federal legislature. Throughout the day, African Americans routinely nod to one another in the halls of the Capitol, and consider the Black nod as a common cultural gesture. However, data from over sixty in-depth interviews suggest there is an additional layer of meaning to the Black nod in Congress. From the microlevel encounters, I observed and examined, I interpret the nod as more than a gesture that occurs in a matter of seconds between colleagues or even among perfect strangers in the halls of Congress. The Black nod encompasses and is shaped by labor organized along racial lines, a history of racial subordination, and powerful perceptions of race in the post-Civil-Rights era on the meso-, and macrolevels. Using this interpretive foundation, this article will show how the nod is an adaptive strategy of Black staffers that renders them visible in an environment where they feel socially invisible. The nod becomes an external expression of their racialized professional identity. I argue that the congressional workplace is a raced political institution and that the microlevel encounters I observed delineate and reproduce its racial boundaries. This article represents perhaps the first sociological study of Congress and provides an unprecedented view into its inner workings and the social dimensions that organize workplace relationships.
  • How Often Do Non-Practicing Entities Win Patent Suits?
    Much of the policy debate over the patent system has focused on the perceived problems with non-practicing entities (NPEs), also called patent trolls. Drawing on a comprehensive data set we built of every patent lawsuit filed in 2008 and 2009 that resulted in a ruling on the merits, we find that the situation is rather more complicated than simply operating companies vs. NPEs. While operating companies fare better in litigation than NPEs overall, breaking NPEs into different categories reveals more complexity. Patent Assertion Entities (PAEs) in particular win very few cases. Further, once we remove certain pharmaceutical cases from the mix, no patent plaintiff fares very well. That is particularly true of software, computer, and electronics patents.
  • Taking the Regulatory Nature of IP Seriously
    Ted Sichelman’s paper in the Texas Law Review makes an important contribution by encouraging us to take the essentially regulatory character of IP seriously, arguing that public, not private, interest should determine remedies. In this comment, I both extend and critique his approach, suggesting that private law remedies may play an important role even in a patent system properly understood as public law rather than property law. Nonetheless, understanding the regulatory nature of patent remedies has some significant implications for setting those remedies, including the recognition that the optimal patent damages award will sometimes be $0.
  • Does Familiarity Breed Contempt Among Judges Deciding Patent Cases?
    We offer the first comprehensive look at how a district judge’s experience affects decisionmaking in patent cases. We find that that there is a strong, statistically significant relationship between a judge’s experience and case outcome: more experienced judges are less likely to rule for the patentee. Notably, the relationship exists for rulings finding noninfringement; judicial experience had no relationship to the likelihood a judge would find a patent invalid. The relationship appears to hold across judges, rather than to be driven by the rulings of particular judges. Beyond individual judges, some technologies (biotechnology, mechanics) are associated with more patentee wins, while patentees are less likely to win computer hardware and software cases. Some district courts (Delaware, New Jersey) are more likely to find patents infringed. By contrast, perhaps surprisingly, we find no significant relationship between litigation in the Eastern District of Texas and a judge’s ruling for or against the patentee. Finally, we find that suing on multiple patents is associated with an increased likelihood that at least one patent will be found to be infringed. Our results challenge what has been an implicit assumption in the literature and discussion that particular districts are biased in a particular direction, driving forum shopping. And they test for the first time the implicit assumption in the literature, in calls for specialized patent trial courts, and in the Patent Pilot Program, that experience with patent cases at the trial level will lead to different — usually assumed to be “better” — outcomes from what we see from generalist courts. Our results suggest that there is a difference, but that “better” may be in the eye of the beholder. They suggest some sort of learning effect among district court judges across the country, and that patentees benefit from litigating before inexperienced judges, at least on issues of infringement. Depending on the reason for this effect, adoption of a specialized patent trial court might help accused infringers but not patentees, raising broader questions about patent reform and how to measure the value of an expert court.
  • Fixing the Patent Office
    How can we fix the PTO, allowing examiners to effectively distinguish between patentable and unpatentable inventions, without slowing the process to a crawl or wasting a bunch of money? This essay reviews the recent literature and considers a number of proposals and their problems. It concludes that we can make the PTO better, but are unlikely to solve the problem of bad patents altogether. Rather than focusing on adding money, the focus must increasingly turn to understanding and changing applicant and examiner incentives.
  • IP and Other Regulations
    Intellectual property (IP) is a form of regulation. Once we understand IP laws as government social policies that seek to alter market outcomes, we can start to think of those laws as part of a broader tapestry of government rules that affect innovation in a complex variety of ways. Sometimes governments encourage innovation by rewarding it. Sometimes they encourage innovation by restricting market entry, giving incumbents supracompetitive returns by insulating them from competition. IP does both of these at various points. Market-entry regulation is a troubling way to encourage innovation, because in many cases it is competition, not monopoly, that drives technical progress. But a third type of regulation can actually open rather than close markets, and offers the prospect of encouraging innovation not by impeding competition but by encouraging it. Antitrust and net neutrality may fit within this last category.
  • Brief Amici Curiae of 20 Law and Business Professors in Support of Neither Party in Bilski v. Doll
    The patent statutes were wisely drafted with an expansive vision of patentable subject matter. Efforts to graft judicially created limitations onto that expansive scope in the past have proven fruitless and indeed counterproductive. In deciding Bilski v. Doll, the Supreme Court should not impose a requirement that patentable inventions require a machine or the physical transformation of some material. It should instead maintain the rule that patents are available for "anything under the sun made by man," including discoveries of ideas, laws of nature, or natural phenomena, so long as they are implemented in a practical application. In short, the test should be as it has been: where an idea is claimed as applied, it is eligible for patentability, but if it is claimed merely in the abstract it is not.
  • Economic Inequality and Belief in Meritocracy in the United States
    How does the context of income inequality in which people live affect their belief in meritocracy, the ability to get ahead through hard work? One prominent recent study, Newman, Johnston, and Lown (2015), argues that, consistent with the conflict theory, exposure to higher levels of local income inequality lead lower-income people to become more likely to reject—and higher-income people to become more likely to accept—the dominant U.S. ideology of meritocracy. Here, we show that this conclusion is not supported by the study's own reported results and that even these results depend on pooling three different measures of meritocracy into a single analysis. We then demonstrate that analysis of a larger and more representative survey employing a single consistent measure of the dependent variable yields the opposite conclusion. Consistent with the relative power theory, among those with lower incomes, local contexts of greater inequality are associated with more widespread belief that people can get ahead if they are willing to work hard.
  • Inequality in Process: Income’s Role in Generating Black and White Educational Gradients in Health
    Extensive literature documents Black-White heterogeneity in the health-protective effects of education; though education is a salient determinant among both groups, Whites, typically, benefit more from additional schooling than Blacks. While many studies have documented this disparity, few have attempted to unpack the black box, and describe the processes that give rise to these disparate outcomes. To make progress in understanding this inequality, I examine how a key mechanism of the education-health relationship---income---differs in how it propagates educational gradients among Blacks and Whites. I use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (n = 8,926) and sequential g-estimation, to model how a college degree's effect on health status depends on income among Blacks and among Whites. I find that income varies, markedly, across groups in how it participates as a mechanism of education's health effect, and that this differential behavior helps clarify disparities in education's health effect.
  • A Hierarchy Model of Income Distribution
    Based on worldly experience, most people would agree that firms are hierarchically organized, and that pay tends to increase as one moves up the hierarchy. But how this hierarchical structure affects income distribution has not been widely studied. To remedy this situation, this paper presents a new model of income distribution that explores the effects of social hierarchy. This 'hierarchy model' takes the limited available evidence on the structure of firm hierarchies, and generalizes it to create a large-scale simulation of the hierarchical structure of the United States economy. Using this model, I conduct the first quantitative investigation of hierarchy's effect on income distribution. I find that hierarchy plays a dominant role in shaping the tail of US income distribution. The model suggests that hierarchy is responsible for generating the power-law scaling of top incomes. Moreover, I find that hierarchy can be used to unify the study of personal and functional income distribution, as well as to understand historical trends in income inequality.
  • Urban data and city dashboards: Six key issues
    This chapter considers the relationship between data and the city by critically examining six key issues with respect city dashboards: epistemology, scope and access, veracity and validity, usability and literacy, use and utility, and ethics. While city dashboards provide useful tools for evaluating and managing urban services, understanding and formulating policy, and creating public knowledge and counter-narratives, our analysis reveals a number of conceptual and practical shortcomings. In order for city dashboards to reach their full potential we advocate a number of related shifts in thinking and praxes and forward an agenda for addressing the issues we highlight. Our analysis is informed by our endeavours in building the Dublin Dashboard.
  • The Abider-Avoider Achievement Gap: The Association Between GPA and Religiosity in Public Schools
    Religion is a powerful social force that is typically ignored in sociological studies of educational attainment. Using nationally representative survey data (N = 2,569) and semi-structured interviews from the National Study of Youth and Religion (N = 30), I test for and explain differences in school grades of five common profiles of religiosity among adolescents in the U.S: Abiders, Adapters, Assenters, Avoiders and Atheists. My quantitative findings suggest that abiders report better grades than avoiders, and the difference is greatest among middle-class families. This pattern holds after controlling for race, religious denomination, sex, mother’s education level, and income. More importantly, the association between religiousness and grades remains after accounting for other factors associated with religiousness, such as increased parental supervision and reduced likelihood of drinking and having sex. My qualitative evidence suggests that this association is a function of greater conscientiousness and agreeableness among abiders. Therefore, I suggest that middle and high schools reward students who are obedient, respectful, and agreeable. Although it is well known that academic performance is associated with income, school grades are also driven by dispositions stemming from religious engagement. This study has implications for how we think about the academic achievement gap.
  • Neighborhood Boundaries and Violent Crime. An Introduction to Boundary Detection Methods in R
    Neighborhood boundaries are a defining aspect of highly segregated urban areas. Yet, few studies examine the particular challenges and spatial processes that occur at the bordering region between two neighborhoods. This guide introduces readers to different methods to measure neighborhood boundaries. It illustrates the use of boundary detection methods in the social science based on the R package 'BoundaryDetection'. The analysis example estimates the relationship between violent crimes and racial neighborhood boundaries in Chicago.
  • Unequal marriage markets: Sex ratios and first marriage among Black and White women
    Using the marital events data from the American Community Survey for the first time, we examine the association between the quantity and characteristics of unmarried men and first marriage for Black and White women ages 20-45. We incorporate both unmarried sex ratios and the economic status of unmarried men within each racial group, using multilevel logistic models. We find higher marriage odds in markets with more (same-race) unmarried men, holding constant women’s own characteristics. In addition, for White women only, local men’s education and employment rates also predict higher odds of women’s first marriage. The findings imply that if White and Black women experienced similar unmarried sex ratios in their local markets, the gap in first marriage rates would be much smaller. We conclude that marriage promotion policies may be ineffective in part because they are targeting women who face structural barriers to marriage in their local marriage markets.
  • Other People's Houses: The Social Life of Mortgage Delinquency and Default
    While falling behind on a mortgage loan has significant personal consequences, we know little about whether the experience of delinquency or default influences the housing market behavior of other people in the defaulter’s social networks. In this paper, I ask how exposure to mortgage default through social networks affects perceptions of the housing market, judgements about the strategic default behavior of other households and expectations for homeownership. Although individuals purposively draw on information from their social networks to aid in their housing search, theories of social influence have yet to be applied to the negative experience of mortgage delinquency or default. Drawing on the National Housing Survey, I find that individuals exposed to mortgage delinquency through their social networks express more negative expectations for the housing market and hold a more permissive opinion about strategic default. Homeowners reporting network exposure to mortgage strain are more likely to prefer rental housing when they next move. These results are strongest when individuals are connected to someone who has fallen behind on a mortgage payment in the previous three months.
  • Intergenerational Coresidence During Later Life in China
    This paper analyses the levels of co-residence between children and their parents during later life in China and Europe. There are many known differences between China and Europe in co-residence patterns as filial piety and the absence of a welfare state have made inter-generational co-residence far more commonplace in China. In this analysis however we compare Urban, Rural and Migrant Chinese populations to illustrate how comparisons between Europe and China are often over simplistic and misguided. Our results suggest that co-residence in Urban China, whilst higher than in Europe, shares similar dynamics with European Families relative to families in Rural China or among migrant populations. We consider explanations for this and argue that the increasing capacity of the welfare state in Urban China is driving this convergence.
  • Instrumental variables based on twin births are by definition not valid (v.2.0)
    Instrumental variables based on twin births are a well-known and widespread method to find exogenous variation in the number of children when studying the effect on siblings or parents. This paper argues that there are serious problems with all versions of these instruments. Many of these problems have arisen because insufficient care has been given to defining the estimated causal effect. This paper discusses this definition and then applies the potential outcomes framework to reveal that instrumental variables based on twin birth violate the exclusion restriction, the independence assumption and one part of the stable unit treatment value assumption. These violations as well as the characteristics of the populations studied have contributed to hiding any true effect of the number of children. It is time to stop using these instrumental variables and to return to these important questions using other methods.
  • Open Smart Cities in Canada: Environmental Scan and Case Studies - Executive Summary
    This executive summary consolidates findings from a smart city environmental scan (E-Scan) and five case studies of smart city initiatives in Canada. The E-Scan entailed compiling and reviewing documents and definitions produced by smart city vendors, think tanks, associations, consulting firms, standards organizations, conferences, civil society organizations, including critical academic literature, government reports, marketing material, specifications and requirements documents. This research was motivated by a desire to identify international shapers of smart cities and to better understand what differentiates a smart city from an Open Smart City.
  • Is Virtual Reality Uniquely Effective in Eliciting Empathy?
    It has been argued that virtual reality is uniquely effective at eliciting empathy, because it is the best technology for putting an audience "into the shoes" of another person. Is there really a difference between a virtual reality experience and reading an article when it comes to inducing empathy? In this experimental study, we gave participants a pre-test and post-test survey regarding their empathy, attitudes and intentions toward immigrants, refugees and endangered animals. Between the surveys, randomly selected participants engaged with a virtual reality experience relating to the U.S.-Mexican border, and others read an article on the same topic. A virtual reality experience increased participants' empathy toward immigrants, led to more positive attitudes toward immigration and increased the participants' stated likelihood of taking political action in favor of immigrants. However, in almost all cases these increases were statistically indistinguishable from the increase due to reading a print article. No evidence was found for a strong, diffuse effect of virtual reality beyond the specific subject of the virtual reality experience itself.
  • Digital blackout of Spanish scientific production in Google Scholar
    An abrupt drop in the number of Spanish scientific journals covered in the last edition of Google Scholar Metrics (2012-2016) has been detected. The total count decreased from 1,101 in the 2011-2015 edition, to 599 in the 2012-2016 edition. An analysis by disciplines is carried out to detect which ones have been affected the most. After considering several hypothesis to explain this phenomenom, we conclude that the main cause was the sudden disappearance of the Spanish bibliographic database Dialnet from Google Scholar. Since Dialnet is the only place online that provides information about an important number of Spanish journals (which do not have any other sort of online exposure), being dropped by Google Scholar meant that all these Spanish journals which had been previously indexed in Google Scholar Metrics became suddenly invisible.
  • Opportunity, Motivation, and Ability to Learn from Failures and Errors: Review, Synthesis, and Ways to Move Forward
  • Opportunity, Motivation, and Ability to Learn from Failures and Errors: Review, Synthesis, and Ways to Move Forward
    While organizations and individuals tend to focus on learning from success, research has shown that failure can yield crucial insights in various contexts that range from small mistakes and errors, product recalls, accidents, and medical errors, to large-scale disasters. This review of the literature identifies three mechanisms—opportunity, motivation, and ability—through which individuals, groups and organizations learn from failure, and it bridges the gaps between different levels of analysis. Opportunity to learn from failure mostly takes the shape of more information about errors and failures that are generated by one's own and others' prior failures or near-failures. Motivation to learn from failure is hindered by punitive leaders and organizations. Finally, ability to learn from failure partly relies on inherent attitudes and characteristics; but can be further developed through thoughtful analysis and transfers of successful routines. Our review leads us to distinguish between erroneous versus correct processes and adverse versus successful outcomes to better understand the full gamut of events that are faced by organizations. We identify the existence of noisy learning environment, where spurious successes (when erroneous processes still lead to successful outcomes) and spurious failures (when correct processes are combined with adverse outcomes) lower the opportunity to learn. Considering noisy learning situations is helpful when understanding the differences between slow- and fast-learning environments. We conclude our review by identifying a number of unexplored areas we hope scholars will address to better our understanding of failure learning.
  • Open Smart Cities in Canada: Assessment Report
    This assessment report communicates the state of smart city initiatives in four cities in Canada (Edmonton, Guelph, Montréal, and Ottawa) by reporting on how these cities are developing and rolling out their smart city plans. In order to capture the complexity of inter-jurisdictional processes and coordination related to smart cities in Canada, we have provided an additional case study about the governance and management of Ontario’s electricity grid and smart meter data.
  • Mental Health Outcomes of Intimate Partner Violence Among a United States-Representative Group of Diverse Disabled Women
    Using data from the National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (2010) and theoretically informed by lifecourse and intersectionality perspectives, this paper confirms that disabled women are both more likely to experience intimate partner violence and post-victimization negative mental health outcomes; however, race ethnicity, sexual orientation, age, income and region do not impact these outcomes, while educational attainment does. Specifically, higher educated disabled women are significantly more likely to report negative post-traumatic impacts. Suggestions include the need to account for intersectional identity issues in post-traumatic health care access, as not all disabled women have equivalent access to quality, culturally compassionate healthcare.
  • Unity and Invisible Identities: Toward an Intersectional Analysis of Israeli Society
    Most approaches to the study of Israeli society focus singly on gender, ethnicity, or class with a focus only on external relationships with Arab neighbors instead of on internal processes within Israel that operate on multiple levels. This paper challenges a lack of intersectional approaches to the study of Israeli society and the U.S. domination of the intersectionality literature. I demonstrate the ways in which institutions such as military, family, and education in Israel are gendered, classed, and racialized, and then make recommendations for overcoming limitations to an intersectional analysis.
  • Trump Voters and the White Working Class
    To evaluate the claim that white, working-class voters were a crucial block of support for Trump in the 2016 presidential election, this article offers two sets of results. For the first, self-reports of presidential vote in 2012 and 2016 from the American National Election Studies (ANES) show that Obama-to-Trump voters and 2012 eligible non-voters composed a substantial share of Trump's 2016 voters. These voters were also more likely to be members of the white working class. Because the ANES has a somewhat coarse occupation-based measure of the working class, and has only a modest sample size, a complementary analysis is offered that merges county vote tallies in 2012 and 2016 with the public-use microdata samples of the 2012-2016 American Community Surveys. For this second piece of analysis, areal variation across 1,142 geographic units that sensibly partition the United States shows that Trump's gains in 2016 above Romney's performance in 2012 are strongly related to the proportion of the voting population in each area that is white and working class. This strong relationship holds in the six states that Trump flipped in his 2016 victory, and it varies little across other agglomerations of competitive and non-competitive states. Taken together, these results support the claim that Trump's appeal to the white working class was crucial for his victory.
  • The White Working Class and Voter Turnout in US Presidential Elections, 2004—2016
    Through an analysis of the 2004, 2008, 2012, and 2016 Current Population Surveys, as well as the 2004 through 2016 General Social Surveys, this article investigates class differences and patterns of voter turnout for the last four US presidential elections. After developing some support for the claim that a surge of white working-class voters emerged in competitive states in 2016, a portrait of class differences on political matters among white non-Hispanic eligible voters between 2004 and 2016 is offered to consider the consequences of this compositional shift. These latter results are consistent with the claim that racial prejudice, anti-immigrant sentiment, concerns about economic security, and frustration with government responsiveness may have led many white working-class voters to support an outsider candidate who campaigned on these themes. However, these same results give no support to the related claim that the white working class changed its positions on these matters in response to the 2016 primary election campaign or in the months just before the general election.
  • A School-to-Prison Pipeline? Exclusionary Discipline and the Production of Delinquency
    There is growing concern that school discipline policies increase children’s risk of contact with the justice system, promoting a “school-to-prison pipeline.” Despite the popularity of this concern, the evidence of discipline’s impact on arrests remains limited in important ways. The current study leverages a unique combination of data sources to provide plausibly causal evidence that school suspensions mark a turning point in children’s lives, increasing their risk of later arrest. Combining fifteen years of data from the Fragile Families and Childhood Wellbeing Study with contextual data on neighborhoods and schools, I estimate that suspended children are two times more likely to experience an adolescent arrest than otherwise similar children. Although suspended children experienced significantly greater escalations in delinquency than their peers, post-suspension changes in behavior are unable to explain the association between childhood suspension and adolescent arrest. Instead, the data are consistent with a labeling theory of school sanctions, whereby suspended children face higher rates of subsequent discipline in ways that are largely unexplained by their reported behavior. At a time when juvenile arrests can permanently alter youth’s risks and opportunities, this study highlights an important mechanism by which schools shape inequality across the institutions that govern children’s lives.
  • Probability and conspiratorial thinking
    Probability and conspiratorial thinking
  • Dunleavy-Response to Volkow
    Addiction Science and Policy Requires a Broader Lens: Comment on Volkow & Collins’ The Role of Science in Addressing the Opioid Crisis. Unpublished Letter Submitted to the New England Journal of Medicine
  • Probability and conspiratorial thinking
    Conspiracy theories as alternative explanations for events and states of affairs enjoy widespread popularity. We test one possible explanation for why people are prone to conspiratorial thinking: We hypothesize that conspiratorial thinking as an explanation for events increases as the probability of those events decreases. In order to test this hypothesis, we have conducted five experiments in which participants were exposed to different information about probabilities of fictional events. The results of all experiments support the hypothesis: The lower the probability of an event, the stronger participants embrace conspiratorial explanations. Conspiratorial thinking, we conclude, potentially represents a cognitive heuristic: A coping mechanism for uncertainty.
  • Solidarity or Schism: Ideological Congruence and the Twitter Networks of Egyptian Activists
    Social movements scholarship on the role of coalitions in advancing social change claims that communication across ideological boundaries can foster a collective identity among diverse groups of activists. New communications technology, especially activists' widespread adoption of social media, calls into question whether these claims apply equally to online social media-based coalitions. Using the case of the Egyptian revolution in the Arab Spring, we conduct a series of social network analyses of the Twitter networks of activists. We find that social movements coalitions theory accurately predicts the conditions under which coalitions form and dissolve for online activists, as it does for on-the-ground activists. Among activists of diverse ideologies, we identify a pattern of solidarity in the early days of the revolutionary period, followed by a period of schism after a military crackdown on protestors. This research extends social movements theory to the sphere of digital activism.
  • #TheFappening
    Virtual Manhood Acts in (Homo)Social Media
  • #TheFappening: Virtual Manhood Acts in (Homo)Social Media
    Using an interactionist framework, we analyze publicly available data from Twitter to track real-time reactions to the widely publicized celebrity nude photo hacking of 2014 (“The Fappening”). We ask: “Related to The Fappening, what manhood acts are employed in virtual social space?” Using search terms for “fappening” or “#thefappening”, we collected 100 tweets per hour from August 31 to October 1, 2014 (Average: 1700/day). Coding and qualitative analyses of a sub-sample of tweets (N=9750) reveal four virtual manhood acts commonly employed to claim elevated status in the heterosexist hierarchy and reproduce gendered inequality. These acts include: 1) creation of homosocial, heterosexist space 2) sexualization of women 3) signaling possession of a heterosexual, male body and 4) humor as a tool of oppression. This article introduces the concept of “virtual manhood acts” and contributes to growing understandings of the reproduction of manhood and the oppression of women in online social spaces.
  • Relative Education and the Advantage of a College Degree
    When more workers enter the labor market with a college degree, are individual college graduates shuffled into lower-skill jobs? With rising levels of educational attainment across birth cohorts, we would expect the increased competition to increasingly squeeze highly-educated individuals into less complex jobs. However, research on the monetary return to education suggests the opposite: There is actually a shortage of skilled workers. Using occupation-level measurements of skill utilization, the present study investigates the changing effect of education on skill utilization in the labor market, net of all other age, period, and cohort trends. The findings show that with increased competition, college graduates increasingly enter occupations requiring less verbal, quantitative, and analytical skill. This raises questions about the sources of rising income inequality, skill utilization across the working life course, occupational sex segregation, and whether the returns to education have changed across different life domains.
  • Testing a Digital Inequality Model for Online Political Participation
    Increasing Internet use is changing the way individuals take part in society but research on the mobilizing effects of the Internet for political participation shows mixed results. The present study takes a digital inequality perspective and analyzes the role of political interest and Internet expertise for the social structuration of online political participation. Analyses are based on two-wave nationally representative survey data from Switzerland and use cluster analysis and structural equation modeling. A distinct group of political users emerged characterized by high education and income. Further, online politi-cal participation is predicted by political interest and Internet skills, which increasingly mediated the effects of social position. Digital information policies should therefore include the promotion of Internet skills and effective use, particularly in marginalized social groups, to avoid reinforcing traditional participatory inequalities in the digital society.
  • The Art of War: Instability, Insecurity, and Ideological Imagery in Northern Ireland’s Political Murals, 1979-1998
    * Final published version available at: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10767-013-9142-y * This article examines the purpose behind, and rhetorical content of, political wall murals produced during the Troubles in Northern Ireland. I utilize a semiotic approach to analyze the ways that the symbolic content and physical placement of Northern Irish murals were used by actors on both sides of the conflict. I examine the major thematic traditions utilized by muralists on each side and situate them within the historical and political contexts of the conflict in Northern Ireland. This approach highlights the ways that murals did more than simply champion ideological causes, as earlier scholarship has argued, but served an active role in efforts to catalyze cultural support for organizations' political goals. I argue that murals played a key role for organizations on both sides of the conflict, as they each struggled to craft a communal self-identification and legitimizing central narrative that furthered their ideological goals. Organizations on both sides used murals to mobilize cultural support for their political and military struggles. In this regard, murals functioned as a form of mythic speech, attempting to depoliticize highly political ideologies and make the rhetoric used by the competing groups seem natural and pure. The grassroots nature of the mural traditions is particularly telling in this regard, exposing the deep-seated insecurity of organizations on both sides. This insecurity is further reflected by, and served as a catalyst for, the paramilitary violence that was a defining characteristic of Northern Ireland for so long.
  • Understanding the exclusionary politics of early Turkish nationalism: an ethnic boundary-making approach
  • Understanding the Exclusionary Politics of Early Turkish Nationalism: An Ethnic Boundary-Making Approach
    * Final published version available at: https://doi.org/10.1080/00905992.2017.1315394 * Turkish nationalism has long presented a study in contrasts. The nationalist movement that created the Republic of Turkey sought to define the nation in explicitly civic and inclusive terms, promoting a variety of integrationist reforms. At the same time, however, those same nationalist politicians endorsed other policies that were far more exclusionary, expelling many religious and ethnic minorities from the new nation and imposing harsh restrictions on those who remained. The seemingly contradictory nature of Turkish nationalist policies has been mirrored by much of the scholarship on Turkish nationalism, which has often viewed Turkish nationality through the lens of the “civic/ethnic divide,” with various scholars arguing that the Turkish nation is exclusively civic or ethnic. This article seeks to transcend this dichotomous way of looking at Turkish nationalism. I argue that the policies previously seen as being exclusively civic or ethnic are in fact both examples of boundary-making processes, designed to forge a cohesive nationalist community. Seen through a boundary-making perspective, the seemingly contradictory nature of Turkish nationalist policies in its early years are not paradoxical at all, but represent a multi-dimensional effort to construct a cohesive national community that could replace the defunct Ottoman state.
  • 'Religion and Nation are One': Social Identity Complexity and the Roots of Religious Intolerance in Turkish Nationalism
    * Final published version available at: https://doi.org/10.1017/ssh.2018.6 * Turkish nationalism has long been an enigma for scholars interested in the formation of national identity. The nationalist movement that succeeded in crafting the Republic of Turkey relied upon rhetoric that defined the nation in explicitly secular, civic, and territorial terms. Though the earliest scholarship on Turkish nationalism supported this perspective, more recent research has pointed to Turkey's efforts to homogenize the new state as evidence of the importance of ethnicity, and particularly religion, in constructing Turkish national identity. Yet this marked mismatch between political rhetoric and politics on the ground is perplexing. If Turkey was meant to be a secular and civic state, why did Turkish nationalist policies place such a heavy emphasis on ethnic and religious purity? Moreover, why did religious identity become such a salient characteristic for determining membership in the national community and for defining national identity? This article draws upon historical research and social identity complexity theory to analyze this seeming dichotomy between religious and civic definitions of the Turkish nation. I argue that the subjective overlap between religious and civic ingroups during the late Ottoman Empire and efforts by nationalists to rally the populace through religious appeals explains the persistence of religious definitions of the nation despite the Turkish nationalist movement's civic rhetoric, and accounts for much of the Turkish state's religiously oriented policies and exclusionary practices toward religious minorities in its early decades.
  • The Effect of Conservative Politics on Sex Education and Teen Birth: A State-by-State Analysis of Abstinence and Contraception-focused Approaches
    Researchers and policy makers have looked at many factors that result in high teen birth rates, most notably sex education in public schools. Most often sex education policies fall to the state government, resulting in vast differences in policy across the US. In this study I look at two different approaches to sex education: programs in which abstinence is stressed and programs that include information on contraception. Using the Guttmacher Institute’s evaluation of state sex education laws (2015) and The National Campaign to End Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy’s teen birthrates (2015), I have compiled a data set that allows a state-by-state analysis of sex education policies and teen birthrate outcomes. I have also considered the influence of the state’s political leaning on the variables by coding states that voted for Donald Trump in the 2016 election as conservative. The findings suggest that controlling for sex education, conservative states have higher teen birthrates. While there appears to be a relationship between the type of sex education and teen birthrate, when conservative is controlled for the relationship disappears. Conservative states have higher teen birthrates than liberal states across all racial categories. Additionally, conservative states were more likely to stress abstinence in their sex education than include information on contraception. Finally, stressing abstinence in sex education has no effect on teen birthrates, while including information on contraception only has an effect on reducing the birthrate for Black teens. It appears that conservative politics may be a better indicator of teen birthrates than sex education requirements.
  • Pierre Bourdieu; Menyikap Kuasa Simbol
    Pada umumnya kalangan akademisi, peneliti hingga mahasiswa Sosiologi cukup Familiar dengan nama seorang “strukturalisme konstruktivis” asal Prancis yang bernama Pierre Bourdiue, yang dikenal lewat konsep Habitusnya. Bourdieu sendiri berpendapat, bahwa Sosiologi tidak hanya harus mengkaji kehidupan sosial melalui konsep struktur sosial, melainkan yang terpenting justru memperhatikan tindakan sosial individu dan makna antar subjektif. Dalam buku Pierre Bourdieu menyingkap kuasa simbol, penulis mencoba untuk lebih jauh mengeksplorasi sistem simbol dalam mengkonstruksi realitas. Buku ini juga berupaya menyajikan penafsiran dan pemahaman tentang kuasa simbolik menurut pemikiran Pierre Bourdieu. Penyajian yang diberikan dalam konstruksi buku menyerupai proses dialog antara penulis dengan diri Bourdieu yang dimengerti dalam arti luas baik latar kebudayaannya, lintasan sejarah, dan lingkungan yang berada disekelilingnya. Memang tidaklah mudah untuk memahami ruang gerak pemikiran Bourdieu dengan sirkulasi pemikiran yang begitu luas dalam mengkaji setiap realitas.
  • Does Trust in Government Affect Support for Redistribution? Results from Randomized Survey Experiments
    Why isn't there more support for redistribution in the United States? Scholars have theorized that distrust of government is one potential mechanism. Across three independent survey experiments (N = 3,741), we find that large experimentally induced increases in political trust -- enough to eliminate the partisan gap -- do not generate more support for redistribution. Even under an optimistic prior, a Bayesian integration of the experimental results suggests the impact on redistribution is approximately zero. To rule out content valence as an explanation for the experimentally induced political trust, we compare these results with two additional survey experiments (N = 1,169) about corruption in the National Football League (NFL), and find treatment effects on political trust and support for redistribution that are indistinguishable from zero. Although the public's trust in government seems to update in response to relevant content, more trust in government does not necessarily imply more support for redistribution.
  • Movement of lithics by trampling: An experiment in the Madjedbebe sediments
    Understanding post-depositional movement of artefacts is vital to making reliable claims about the formation of archaeological deposits. Human trampling has long been recognised as a contributor to post-depositional artefact displacement. We investigate the degree to which artefact form (shape-and-size) attributes can predict how an artefact is moved by trampling. We use the Zingg classification system to describe artefact form. Our trampling substrate is the recently excavated archaeological deposits from Madjedbebe, northern Australia. Madjedbebe is an important site because it contains early evidence of human activity in Australia. The age of artefacts at Madjedbebe is contentious because of the possibility of artefacts moving due to trampling. We trampled artefacts in Madjedbebe sediments and measured their displacement, as well as modelling the movement of artefacts by computer simulation. Artefact elongation is a significant predictor of horizontal distance moved by trampling, and length, width, thickness and volume are significant predictors of the vertical distance. The explanatory power of these artefact variables is small, indicating that many other factors are also important in determining how an artefact moves during trampling. Our experiment indicates that trampling has not contributed to extensive downward displacement of artefacts at Madjedbebe.
  • Third Party Tracking in the Mobile Ecosystem
    Third party tracking allows companies to identify users and track their behaviour across multiple digital services. This paper presents an empirical study of the prevalence of third-party trackers on 959,000 apps from the US and UK Google Play stores. We find that most apps contain third party tracking, and the distribution of trackers is long-tailed with several highly dominant trackers accounting for a large portion of the coverage. The extent of tracking also differs between categories of apps; in particular, news apps and apps targeted at children appear to be amongst the worst in terms of the number of third party trackers associated with them. Third party tracking is also revealed to be a highly trans-national phenomenon, with many trackers operating in jurisdictions outside the EU. Based on these findings, we draw out some significant legal compliance challenges facing the tracking industry.
  • Justifying Unparticipated Causality in Proclus
    Proclus introduces the concept of the unparticipated (ἀμέθεκτον) (P1) among two other terms— the participated (P2) and participant (P3)—as the first principle (ἀρχή) of any given series of entities or Forms in his metaphysical structure. For instance, the unparticipated monad (P1), Soul, generates all individual, participated souls (P2), which in turn generate the attribute of life in their respective, participating bodies (P3). Proclus looks at (P2) as an efficient cause of (P3), where (P2) must be the attribute in actuality in relation to the attribute it brings about in (P3). At the outset, this suggests that (P2) is necessary and sufficient for (P3), which then implies a problem for positing (P1): if (P2) is doing the causal legwork for (P3), what role does (P1) play? One of Proclus’ main explanations is that (P1) is responsible for ‘unifying’ the multiple participated entities (P2), so that the commonality of the participated entities (P2) must go back to a separate source (P1). However, one could easily respond that this just amounts to a reversion to a priori Platonist principles for transcendent, separate Forms without providing a real justification for the necessity of (P1) as a cause. In my talk, I wish to elaborate on how Proclus thinks about (P1)’s type of causation in relation to (P2) and (P3), particularly showing why (P2) for Proclus is ultimately insufficient as an efficient cause compared to (P1) as the absolute first cause for a given series. [Early work on a PhD thesis chapter — presentation for the University of Edinburgh, July 16, 2017. Any comments or feedback are welcome!]
  • The ‘Wert’ and ‘Wertform’ Tokens Of The Indus Civilization
    Brief sequences of symbols on tiny stone seals and assorted media are the only evidence of writing in the Indus Civilization (flourished ca. 2600 – 1900 BCE). About five thousand specimens bearing such brief ‘texts’ have been documented so far. Attempts to read the texts based on extant spoken language families of the Indian Subcontinent have failed to yield meaningful results, and despite nearly a hundred years of study, the texts cannot yet be read. This study proposes a pictorial model for interpreting the symbol sequences that offers substantial explanatory power over previous linguistic models. The system of symbols is proposed to encode units of information by employing a combination of pictorial strategies that exploited visual schemes corresponding to ‘figure of speech’ devices in spoken languages, such as classes of metonymy, and metaphor. Symbols are demonstrated to combine across semantic categories to form ‘picto-phrases’ that expressed objects and commodities of ‘worth’ (German:wert) in the Indus economy, such as measures of grain and quantities of metallic objects. A class of texts are particularly noteworthy as expressions of commodity worth through the binary fractions from the one-half to the one-sixteenth of a standardized precious metallic measure of value (Marxian wertform). The results suggest that the Indus symbol system may have emerged in a commercial context, and was adapted to ritual-offering, fee or gift-economy domains. Certain instances of pictorial constructions used in the system have excellent correspondence to figurative expressions that have survived in the earliest linguistic record in the Subcontinent, the Vedic literature. Amidst pictorial expressions, a single definitive instance of rebus based logographic reading is also demonstrated, suggesting the Indus Civilization was familiar with phonetic writing but did not exploit it as contemporaneous Egypt and Mesopotamia did.
  • A Wikipédia como fonte de informação de referência: avaliação e perspectivas
    Resumo A Wikipédia é citada em revistas científicas de alto impacto, apesar de sua má reputação como fonte de informação. O que sustenta essa aceitação? Em busca de respostas, este artigo apresenta uma avaliação da Wikipédia anglófona segundo o roteiro de Silberger para obras de referência quanto ao propósito, alcance, arranjo, informação dada, acesso e características especiais, com um aspecto adicional: o controle da qualidade do conteúdo. Complementa essa avaliação um relato da experiência do autor na criação de um verbete em português. Em conclusão, a Wikipédia tem conteúdo de alta qualidade, com vantagens como o grande volume de conteúdo em muitas línguas, bem como desvantagens, como a ênfase em tópicos “populares”. Há também conteúdo inadequado, cuja contenção e reparo dependem da capacidade e engajamento da comunidade linguística que a edita, bem como do respeito a seus princípios editoriais. Há oportunidade para engajar estudantes do ensino superior na criação de conteúdos, bem como na avaliação, que é uma forma de “revisão por pares”. O bom uso da Wikipédia depende essencialmente da capacidade crítica do leitor. Abstract Wikipedia is cited in high-profile scientific journals, despite its poor reputation as information source. What warrants this acceptance by scientists? In search for answers, this article presents an assessment of the English Wikipedia according to Silberger's guide for reference works, analyzing its purpose, scope, arrangement, information given, access, and special characteristics, with an additional aspect: quality control of new content. An account of the author's experience in creating an entry in the Portuguese Wikipedia complements the assessment. In conclusion, Wikipedia has high quality content, with advantages such as the large volume of content in many languages, as well as disadvantages such as the emphasis on “popular” topics. There is also inadequate content, whose containment and repair depend on the literacy and engagement of the linguistic community that publishes it, as well as on following Wikipedia's editorial principles. Content creation is an opportunity to engage higher education students, as well as content evaluation, which is a form of peer review. Fruitful use of Wikipedia content depends essentially on the reader's critical judgment. Keywords: Wikipedia; Encyclopedias; Reference materials; Digital curation; Peer review.
  • Does Religion Suppress Gender Differences in Values? A Cross-National Examination
    Women are typically more liberal than men. But on some issues related to “traditional moral values”—including sexuality and the beginning and end of life—women are just as if not more conservative than men. This study examines the role of religion in complicating the relationship between gender and values cross-nationally, with particular attention to variation across religious groups and contexts. Using data from a diverse set of 56 countries in the World Values Survey (N=85,181), I find that religiousness suppresses what would otherwise be larger and more consistent gender differences in values among Christians. Among most other groups, including Jews, Hindus, Buddhists, Taoists, and Muslims in non-Muslim contexts, religiousness does not greatly alter gender differences in values. However, among Muslims in Muslim-majority contexts—where men tend to be more religious than women—religiousness amplifies what would otherwise be smaller gender differences in values. Accordingly, gender differences in values tend to be larger among Muslims than Christians. I conclude that religions are complex and powerful social structures with heterogeneous social consequences.
  • Delaying Access to a Problem-Skipping Option Increases Effortful Practice: Application of an A/B Test in Large-Scale Online Learning
    We report on an online double-blind randomized controlled field experiment (A/B test) in Math Garden, a computer adaptive practice system with over 150,000 active primary school children. The experiment was designed to eliminate an unforeseen opportunity to practice with minimal effort. Some children tend to skip problems that require deliberate effort, and only attempt problems that they can spontaneously answer. The intervention delayed the option to skip a problem, thereby promoting effortful practice. The results reveal an increase in the exerted effort, without being at the expense of engagement. Whether the additional effort positively affected the children's learning gains could not be concluded. Finally, in addition to these substantial results, the experiment demonstrates some of the advantages of A/B tests, such as the unique opportunity to apply truly blind randomized field experiments in educational science.
  • Disclosure of Voluntary Accounting Ratios by Malaysian Listed Companies
    Accounting ratios are believed to be of fundamental importance in financial analysis, and therefore are useful addition to financial reports. This paper examines the reporting of voluntary accounting ratio by Malaysian companies in corporate annual reports. Drawing on agency and signaling theories, this paper explores whether associations exist between company performance and voluntary disclosure of accounting ratios. In particular, associations are tested between the extent of ratio disclosure and company performance (namely profitability, liquidity, leverage, and company efficiency), size and industry. Six hypotheses are tested using data collected from 2003 annual reports of 100 Malaysian listed companies. This paper provides evidence that the extent of voluntary ratio disclosure is low; and size, industry as well as liquidity significantly influence the reporting of ratios in corporate annual reports. The implications of these findings are discussed.
  • The Comparative Method in Practice: Case Selection and the Social Science of Revolution
    Formalization of comparative case methodology has given the appearance of growing consensus and cross-disciplinary acceptance around a set of best practices. Yet how researchers actually use a method may differ widely from what methodologists believe, which is the crux of institutionalization of a method. This study examines whether comparative methodology has, in fact, institutionalized within the social sciences using evidence from the entire corpus of comparative studies of revolution published from 1970 to 2009. Content analysis of methods of case selection within the revolution subfield reveals a wide diversity of strategies with only modest methodological awareness by practitioners, a lack of consensus among which case selection strategies to use, and little convergence over time. Thus, the comparative method has not yet institutionalized in its practice. Methodological practice has implications for the coverage of cases of revolution and what is substantively known about the phenomenon.
  • Structure et dynamique des populations. La pyramide des années à vivre, aspects nationaux et exemples régionaux
  • Shortcomings of experimental economics to study human behavior: a reanalysis of Cohn et al. 2014, Nature 516, 86–89, ‘‘Business culture and dishonesty in the banking industry’’
    In the wake of financial scandals, Cohn and collaborators published a headline-grabber study in the field of behavioral economics. M.C. Villeval (2014) summarized the main message as follows, in News and Views of the Nature issue where the Cohn study was published: the “experiment shows that although bank employees behave honestly on average, their dishonesty increases when they make decisions after having been primed to think about their professional identity.” Cohn et al. thus provide evidence that “the incentives and the business culture developed in the financial sector may undermine the honesty norms of ordinary employees.” This study may have important consequences for policy, since, Villeval continues, “it is crucial to ensure a business culture of honesty in this industry to restore trust in it.” Villeval also argues that “from a scientific perspective, this study […] supports the economic theory of social identity […], links this theory with the economic analysis of lying behavior [… and] shows how behavioural economists can contribute to a broader reflection in science about how people manage their 'multiple selves' ”. Here I show that the use of flawed statistics methods, yet employed routinely in so-called “evidence-based” science, led the authors to distort the “evidence”. I am also using this data-set as an interesting example to explore how we can use modeling and simulations to provide a fair account of the information and uncertainty conveyed by the data, based on Confidence Intervals. I provide the R-code. Based on this paper, I question the contribution of behavioral economics to the understanding of human behavior and conclude with considerations on honesty and science.
  • The prevalence of child sexual abuse among Slovak late adolescents
    The present study aimed to assess the prevalence and characteristics of child sexual abuse (CSA) in a nationally-representative sample of Slovak late adolescents. Randomized cluster sampling plan was used to sample 2186 secondary school students in their final school year with mean age of 18.6 years (SD = 0.7 years). The study employed the Child Sexual Abuse Questionnaire (Mohler-Kuo et al., 2014) consisting of multiple behavior-specific questions. The prevalence of CSA was analyzed separately for three clusters of CSA and gender. The self-reported lifetime prevalence of at least one form of CSA was 47.3% among girls and 22.0% among boys. The prevalence of noncontact forms of CSA was 40.6% among girls and 17.7% among boys. CSA with physical contact without penetration was reported by 30.2% girls and 11.6% boys. The prevalence of CSA with penetration was 5.6% among girls and 1.3% among boys. More than half of CSA occurred between 16-18 year of age in all three CSA cluster types. The severity of abuse was positively associated with the acquaintance with the perpetrator. Roughly 43-56% disclosed the abuse to another person. The majority of disclosed CSA was revealed to peers and partners. Negligible proportion of CSA instances were reported to the police. The results show that CSA is a widespread and considerably covert phenomenon within the population of Slovak late adolescents. Prevention activities should consider broad spectrum of CSA forms in order to counteract tendencies to associate CSA only with unwanted sexual intercourse.
  • Racialized Conflict and Policy Spillover Effects
    Preprint, final version in American Journal of Sociology available at: http://doi.org/10.1086/674005. Methodological appendix available at: http://osf.io/t93xj/.
  • The New Racial Politics of Welfare: Ethno-Racial Diversity, Immigration, and Welfare Discourse Variation
    Preprint, final version in Social Services Review available at: http://doi.org/10.1086/673171
  • Public Response to Economic Progress of Immigrants
    Economic progress of immigrants indicates successful integration and should dismantle natives’ concerns of fiscal burdens of immigration. Yet narrowing social status gaps between natives and immigrants may also induce perceptions of competition that intensify threat and resentment. This study argues that whether immigrant progress elicits a decrease or increase in anti-immigrant sentiments is highly contingent upon specific individual characteristics related to social status and endorsement of social hierarchy. Empirical analyses are based on data from repeated cross-sectional survey data (Western European countries) merged with time-series information on income gaps between natives and immigrants (Study 1) and a survey experiment that allows for varying individual exposure to information about group-specific income trends (Study 2). Results from both studies show that under immigrant progress particularly women and individuals with egalitarian beliefs respond with improved attitudes toward immigrants. In contrast, respondents who oppose equality and have a low level of education (experimental data only) react with increasingly negative views on immigrants. The results have important implications for debates on social cohesion and political polarization in immigrant receiving societies.
  • Class cultures or micro-class cultures? An analysis of literary tastes of occupational groups
    Traditionally, the subject of study in the sociology of culture has been differences in tastes of macrosocial units, such as classes or status groups. The recent turn to the study of “micro-classes” (Grusky) in the sociology of stratification, however, puts under question the reality of such entities, suggesting rather that individual occupations are the real building blocks of social structures and, by implication, a natural site of differences in lifestyles. There have so far been few attempts in the sociology of culture to disaggregate classes into specific occupations in order to study potential contrasts in their artistic tastes, as this requires extensive datasets usually unavailable from surveys. In this paper we begin to fill this gap using a dataset from the public library system of a major Russian city, making available information on the choices of some 254 thousand readers borrowing overall 2.7 million books in 2014 and 2015. Using information on literary preferences of 15470 readers who gave their current employment details we show that, indeed, there are striking contrasts between occupational groups, with only a minor part of those contrasts that exist being captured by the prevailing class and status scales (SEI, Treiman, EGP). The aggregation of occupations based on their cultural consumption patterns differs from their classifications suggested by dominant stratification schemas.
  • How the Timing of Children Affects Earnings in 20 Occupations
    Ample evidence shows that mothers earn less than non-mothers, yet recent studies show that the motherhood earnings penalty diverges by occupation. Women in professional occupations have greater access to workplace benefits which help reconcile work-family responsibilities and reduce non-employment spells. However, because of their higher earnings, women in professional occupations who re-enter after a break may experience significant earnings penalties. One strategy women employ to mitigate the earnings penalty is to delay childbearing. Here, I examine whether delayed fertility is positively associated with a reduced motherhood wage gap across 20 occupations. Using multilevel models and 2011-2015 American Community Survey data, I show that mothers in professional occupations experienced the largest earnings penalty with early motherhood, but also the largest premium with delayed childbearing. While delaying a first birth mitigates the earnings penalty in high-wage occupations requiring extensive career preparation, women in low-wage occupations experienced little economic benefit from older motherhood.
  • Priming human-computer interactions: Experimental evidence from economic development mobile surveys
    This paper investigates how citizens from developing countries vocalize controversial topics, combining the behavioral economics of development with human-computer interaction for potentially mutual benefit across fields. I examine a priming effort to understand how people decide to discuss controversial local subjects, using the human-computer interaction of people with their mobile phones to quantify how attracted people feel to alternative local political economy topics when randomly asked what they think about international aid. The treatment significantly impacted the likelihood of choosing to discuss sanitation, health, poverty, democracy, individual determination, pro-poor support, and happiness. However, the intervention does not affect subjectively ranked preferences. The proposed approach quantifies the attraction users feel to concepts based on human-computer interactions and this approach may be relevant for contexts beyond developing countries. Human-computer interaction approaches may help policy makers entrusted with the Sustainable Development Goals and other initiatives better understand the needs and desires of people in developing countries.
  • The Relative Circuity of Walkable and Drivable Urban Street Networks
    Circuity, the ratio of network distances to straight-line distances, is an important measure of urban street network structure and transportation efficiency. Circuity results from a circulation network’s configuration, planning, and underlying terrain. In turn, it impacts how humans use urban space for settlement and travel. Although past research has examined overall street network circuity, researchers have not studied the relative circuity of walkable versus drivable circulation networks. To address this gap, this study uses OpenStreetMap data to explore relative network circuity. We download walkable and drivable networks for 40 US cities using the OSMnx software, which we then use to simulate two million routes and analyze circuity to characterize network structure. We find that walking networks tend to allow for more direct trips than driving networks do in most cities: average driving circuity exceeds average walking circuity in all but four of the cities that exhibit statistically significant differences between network types. We discuss various reasons for this phenomenon, illustrated with case studies. Network circuity also varies substantially between different types of places. These findings underscore the value of using network-based distances rather than straight-line distances when studying urban travel and access. They also suggest the importance of differentiating between walkable and drivable circulation networks when modeling and characterizing urban street networks: although different modes’ networks overlap in any given city, their relative structure and performance vary in most cities.
  • The Effect of an Integration-Based Instructional Strategy on Developing EFL Students' Listening Skills at Al-Al Bayt University
    Listening is a language skill that people in general and students in specific may need it more than some of the other language skills such as reading and writing in their everyday life and communication. Yet, the integration of the four language skills should be always emphasized when learning any foreign language since this reinforces each other and represents the natural acquisition of the language. The current study aims to examine the effect of an instructional program based on integrating the four language skills on Jordanian undergraduate EFL students' listening comprehension skills and to find out their attitudes regarding the effectiveness of this program on improving their listening skills. In order to collect the data , the researchers used two instruments: pre-post test and an interview. The study is a quasi-experimental one, and the subjects of the study were 61 students from Al Al Bayt University in Jordan. The subjects were divided into two groups: the control one had 24 students while the experimental one had 37. The findings of the study reveal that there is a significant difference at ( α= 0.05) between the means of the two groups at the listening post-test due to the program. In addition, the instructional program proves to be effective for the students of the experimental group who believe that the program improved their listening skills.
  • Conversational coherence in small group chat
    This chapter shows how the character and context of chat interactions can play a role in conversational coherence, using data drawn from a series of computer-mediated team meetings. Overall, participants were primarily oriented to discourse topics as a means for designing and structuring turns in computer-mediated small group meetings.
  • “Service Programmes” on Jordanian Radio: Understanding Broadcaster Persona through an Interdisciplinary Analysis of Language and Performance
    My ESRC-funded doctoral research explores linguistic practice on Jordanian radio today. The main conclusion of my research is that details of Arabic use in the radio setting have significant implications for the kind of audiences addressed – that is, who is included as a legitimate or “validated” listener – and the way members of the public can participate in radio discourse – this latter in particularly through call- ins, which are a frequent feature of Jordanian radio programming more generally. This paper looks at one type of programmes present on many contemporary Jordanian radio stations: the so-called “service programmes,” "barāmiž ḳadamātiyya," in which listeners call the station and speak live on the air in order to request assistance or mediation with local authorities in resolution of an issue – such as a damaged road, a broken water pipe, et cetera. It compares two popular service programmes: Barnāmiž al-wakīl, hosted by Muhammad al-Wakeel, and Wasaṭ al- balad, hosted by Hani al-Badri. It argues that, in order to properly appreciate the differences between the two programmes, an interdisciplinary approach to the data is required. This has raised certain methodological issues for my work, but on the other hand allowed me to explore new theoretical pathways and contribute new insights to scholarship on both contemporary Arabic language use, and Middle Eastern media.
  • Gendered Representation and Critical Mass: Women’s Legislative Representation and Social Spending in 22 OECD Countries
  • Gendered Representation and Critical Mass: Women’s Legislative Representation and Social Spending in 22 OECD Countries
    To better understand the dynamics of representation of women’s interests such as public expenditure on healthcare, daycare, and education, this study examines statistical evidence for the notion of critical mass. To do so, this study uses the Comparative Welfare Data Set and the piecewise regression method to produce two linear models that best fit to the data for different ranges of the share of seats in parliament held by women. The analysis fails to find consistent support for a threshold below which women legislators have little-to-no impact upon policy outcomes. By adjudicating seven hypothetical thresholds, the analysis also shows that when there is a critical mass effect, the 10 percent level is more a consequential threshold than 15, 20, or 30 percent levels. Findings suggest that we reject the idea of a critical threshold for women’s legislative representation. However, the relationship between the representation and social spending is robust with or without presumed critical mass.
  • Audit Studies: Behind the Scenes with Theory, Method, and Nuance
  • An Introduction to Audit Studies in the Social Sciences
    An audit study is a specific type of field experiment primarily used to test for discriminatory behavior when survey and interview questions induce social desirability bias. In this chapter, I first review the language and definitions related to audit studies and encourage adoption of a common language. I then discuss why researchers use the audit method as well as when researchers can and should use this method. Next, I give an overview of the history of audit studies, focusing on major developments and changes in the overall body of work. Finally, I discuss the limitations of correspondence audits and provide some thoughts on future directions.
  • Neighborhoods, Family Functioning, and Mothers’ Mental Health for Families with a Child with an Autism Spectrum Disorder
    Mothers of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) typically report lower overall family functioning and worse mental health. Neighborhood conditions are found to positively influence family functioning and mental health in the general population. Employing a process-person-context model, this study extends these literatures to examine whether various neighborhood conditions – both positive and negative – affect mothers’ mental health and the overall functioning of families with a child with an ASD. Simultaneous equation path analysis of a nationally representative sample of children in the US finds neighborhood support to be positively and significantly associated with mothers’ mental health and the overall functioning of families with a child with an ASD. However, neighborhood amenities and neighborhood deficiencies were not significantly associated with either mothers’ mental health or family functioning. Neighborhood support can play a vital role in improved subjective quality of life for mothers with a child on the autism spectrum.
  • Journal of the History of Economic Thought Preprints - Keynes, Mill, and Say’s Law: A Comment on Roy Grieve’s Mistaken Criticisms of Mill
    Employing different meanings of classical concepts of saving, capital, investment, and money, and incorrectly attributing the assumption of full employment of labor and a world of certainty to classical analysis, Keynes (1936) faulted Say’s Law as irrelevant to the real world. Roy Grieve (2016) ignores previous clarifications of Keynes’s misrepresentations and misunderstandings of Mill’s restatements of the law. He employs similar misrepresentations and misunderstandings of Mill’s explanations as Keynes. His model of Mill’s analysis is incapable of explaining how variations in relative prices, the value of money, and interest rates coordinate production, consumption and savings decisions in a monetary economy.
  • Gender and Homosexuality Attitudes across Religious Groups from the 1970s to 2014: Similarity, Distinction, and Adaptation
    This study uses General Social Survey data to compare gender and homosexuality across American religious groups from the 1970s to 2014, examining three possible patterns for how evangelical attitudes relate to those of other groups: (1) they are similar; (2) they are different, but move together over time; (3) they are different and converge or diverge over time. Evangelical gender attitudes regarding work and family issues are more conservative than those of all other groups, but are adaptive to broad trends, changing at a rate similar to those of other groups. Evangelical attitudes toward the morality of homosexuality and same-sex marriage are more conservative than those of all other religious groups, and their rate of change is slower over time. Separate trends on the two issues suggest that gender and sexuality attitude change is decoupled, especially among evangelicals who are adapting more on gender while increasingly distinguishing themselves on same-sex relationships. A three-stage process of religious tension appears to characterize evangelical identity-building: (1) similarity, (2) distinction, and (3) adaptation.
  • Usage of Specialized Service Delivery: Evidence from Contiguous Counties
    This study exploits exogenous policy discontinuities along state borders to estimate the influence of differences in local autonomy on the usage of special districts in U.S. counties. Using forty years of data, this analysis compares counties on either side of state borders where local autonomy differs and finds little to no evidence that negative changes in local autonomy leads to increased utilization of special districts. This study suggests that some prior literature may overstate the importance of local autonomy in local service delivery.
  • Development and Implementation of a Mainstreaming Process to Transition Students from Self-Contained Special Education into General Education Placements
    We developed a set of computational tools specifically to guide special education students back into general education. These tools include a decision tree to identify candidate students and elucidate successful placement in general education. Candidate students enter a 7-step process. In 2015-2016, we undertook a pilot implementation of these tools and facilitated the transition of 10 of 20 students from self-contained academic special education classrooms into general education placements. In 2016-2017, we extended this process to include 4 schools. 16 of 53 students from self-contained academic special education classrooms transitioned into general education placements. Extending the model district-wide, 9 of 26 students from behavior/SEL unit classrooms, and 9 of 9 students from Life Skills/SID classrooms transitioned into a general education placement. A high percentage of the remaining candidates received >50% of their day in general education classrooms and/or were placed in less restrictive self-contained classrooms. Overall, 54% of identified candidate students were able to access a less restrictive environment as defined by IDEIA. Further computational analyses using regression tree, unbiased hierarchal clustering, and support vector machine methods are presented to demonstrate the robustness of these methods by recapitulating the results.
  • Women’s Employment and Fertility: A Welfare Regime Paradox
    In this article we methodologically assess the paradox posited by other researchers of fertility: namely, why fertility is so much lower in the familialistic countries of Southern and Eastern Europe. We examine the relationship between individual attributes, aggregate female labor force participation, child care enrollment, family leave, and individual fertility in twenty developed countries using a hierarchical Bayesian model. Our results indicate that women's full-time employment and country-level employment rates decrease expected fertility in contrast to recent research which shows a reversal in the negative association between total fertility rates and female labor force participation during the 1980s. However, the positive association between child care enrollment and fertility indicates that child care services might mitigate some of the decline in fertility, possibly by reducing labor force exit among women with young children.
  • Tourism Studies, Landscape
    As it is known, leisure has a huge impact on the earth’s landscape, whereas landscapes change because of natural and human forces. The change of landscape as a result of leisure related issues tend to have either positive or negative impact on the landscape. It is also evident that landscapes are of different nature and due to this; they have different leisure and tourism potential. This research reported the potential of countryside landscape in the western part of Bali, Indonesia. Specifically, the report focuses on a central question “how could outdoor recreation contribute to development of attractive cultural and natural landscapes in Bali province?” The research objective is determined to try and present the area of Blimbingsari Village on its potentials on development of outdoor recreation. The report focuses on the weaknesses, strengths and opportunities that are considered for the development of the Blimbingsari Village as a cultural and natural landscape destination. As the researchers found out the form of outdoor recreations in Blimbingsari Village such as garden viewing like many kinds of varieties of flowers and outdoor recreation such as sightseeing around the village, fishing at man-made lake in Palasari can be packaged as outdoor recreation, biking while Blimbingsari Village is a small can be as alternative to reach outdoor recreation sports in Blimbingsari Village, and walking see the beautiful landscape, artistic housing, beauty gardens, and other panorama also become attraction outdoor recreation in Blimbingsari Village.
  • Journal of the History of Economic Thought Preprints - Limits to Arbitrage and Interest Rates: A Debate Between Keynes, Hawtrey and Hicks
    This paper deals with a debate between Hawtrey, Hicks and Keynes concerning the capacity of the central bank to influence the short-term and the long-term rates of interest. Both Hawtrey and Keynes considered the central bank’s ability to influence short-term rates of interest. However, they do not put the same emphasis on the study of the long-term rates of interest. According to Keynes, long-term rates are influenced by future expected short-term rates (1930, 1936), whereas for Hawtrey (1932, 1937, 1938), long-term rates are more dependent on the business cycle. Short-term rates do not have much effect on long-term rates according to Hawtrey. In 1939, Hicks enters the controversy, giving credit to both Hawtrey’s and Keynes’s theories, and also introducing limits to the operations of arbitrage. He thus presented a nuanced view.
  • The new mothers’ little helpers: medicalization, victimization, and criminalization of motherhood via prescription drugs
    In order to understand the relationship between nonmedical prescription drug use, gender, and crime, interviews were conducted with 40 incarcerated women who self-identified as nonmedical Rx users. Of the women we interviewed, 70% were prescribed Rx drugs from their doctors to aid in recovery from cesarean section childbirth deliveries, treat postpartum depression, or for mental or physical health problems associated with childhood abuse and victimization. These women subsequently discovered that these pills also helped them cope with the stresses of caretaking and keeping the family together, particularly when experiencing intimate partner violence and prolonged poverty. Women were motivated to use Rx drugs in order to be a “good” mother, as defined by medical and cultural discourse; however, despite positive intentions, prolonged nonmedical use often hindered the realization of these ideals and ultimately resulted in their criminalization, incarceration, and separation from their children.
  • Wealth and Debt Homophily, Gender Equality, and Relationship Stability
    Although the relative economic standing of romantic partners influences relationship stability, previous family scholarship has largely overlooked the role of wealth and debt, two distinct economic characteristics with important implications for social stratification. We test how asymmetric accumulation of wealth and debt between partners influences marital and cohabitation stability based on gender norms, economic independence, and financial strain perspectives. Using data from the 1996-2008 panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), we find support for the economic independence perspective as both female- and male wealth-dominant couples are at an increased risk of dissolution over wealth-homophilous couples. However, for married couples, female wealth-dominant couples are significantly less stable than male-dominant couples. For cohabiting couples, heterophily is less consequential and there is little difference between male and female-dominant couples. Asymmetric holdings in debt relate differently to stability than asymmetry in wealth.
  • Of young people and Internet cafés: A mixed methods study in three Chinese high schools
    This study examines how adolescent exposure to Internet cafés (wangba in Chinese) relates to academic attainment in three urban, rural, and Tibetan schools of China. By documenting the frustrations teenagers express in their negotiations with adults surrounding access to and use of wangba and, by comparing self-reported academic ranking of students from similar backgrounds with how they differ in level of exposure to wangba, we find that visiting wangba is not significantly correlated with the probability of students reporting either high or underachievement in school. While students without any exposure to wangba are significantly less likely than those who have to report academic underperformance before matching, the result becomes random after matching when the logit regression analysis is less model-dependent and vulnerable to the problems associated with missing data. We therefore have greater confidence to report that exposure to wangba alone is not systematically correlated with academic attainment and argue that much adult anxiety concerning adolescent visit to wangba is unnecessary. We also suggest that educators take the lead to challenge public narratives on wangba and Internet access that largely reflect adult views and values and shape how wangba develop to the advantage of education by providing students with guidance.
  • Identity Crisis: Effect of Immigrant Replenishment on Spanish Language Use Among US-born Mexican Descendants
    Immigrant replenishment may affect assimilation patterns of US-born descendants by maintaining the use and relevance of the language of origin. This study asks, how does Mexican immigrant replenishment affect Spanish language use among adult US-born Mexican descendants? Descendants include members of the second or later generations. I propose that greater exposure to Mexican immigrants will encourage adult US-born Mexican descendants to maintain their ethnic origins, especially language of origin. Therefore, the higher the rate of immigrant replenishment, the more likely respondents will speak Spanish at home. I analyze a five-year cumulative data file of the US American Community Survey (ACS) from 2011 to 2015, which represents 5 percent of the US population. The ACS uses stratified cluster sampling to collect data from 15,637,457 respondents. The sample is limited to US-born Mexican descendants, who were 25 years of age, married, and heads of households or spouses thereof. This limited the analysis to 187,212 respondents. I found that college attendance and higher family income decrease the odds of speaking Spanish at home. I also found that as immigrant replenishment increases, the odds of respondents speaking Spanish at home increases and decreases. As immigrant replenishment increases, respondents with Hispanic spouses are more likely to speak Spanish at home. However, respondents with non-Hispanic spouses are less likely to speak Spanish at home, which may be a result of sharpened intragroup boundaries created by new immigrants. The results confirm that Mexican immigrant replenishment significantly affects speaking Spanish at home for adult US-born Mexican descendants.
  • General Intelligence in Friendship Selection: A Study of Preadolescent Best Friend Dyads
    Research on the topics of general intelligence and friendship formation separately has elicited a tremendous amount of attention across decades of psychological scholarship. To date, however, less effort has been aimed at uniting these lines of inquiry. In particular, do friendship bonds emerge, based in part, on shared levels of cognitive ability? Several disparate lines of evidence suggest this might be the case, however, a need remains to replicate this work using large national samples coupled with psychometrically sound measurement. The current study helps to fill this void in the literature using a national sample of American children. Our results reveal that preadolescent friendship dyads are robustly correlated on measures of general intelligence, and the effects withstand correction for potentially confounding variables.
  • Pierre Bourdieu as Cognitive Sociologist
    It is now well established that Pierre Bourdieu’s work can be interpreted as a form of cognitive sociology. Yet, given that the term “cognitive” has a variety of meanings, the question of where Bourdieu’s project of cognitive sociology fits into other cognitively grounded approaches in the social sciences remains open. In this chapter, I argue that if Bourdieu is to be considered a cognitive theorist, then there is only one way in which we can interpret his conception of cognition, and that is as a form of embodied cognition. I distinguish different senses of the term embodiment and specify how they show up in Bourdieu’s work. I discuss two broad sets of empirical phenomena---the “hard” and “soft” embodiment of culture---that have recently been identified and argue that their discovery represents a vindication of the prescience and extant promise of Bourdieu’s version of cognitive sociology. I close by providing indications how we can further an empirically grounded version of Bourdieu’s cognitive sociology today.
  • Point Pattern Analysis as Tool for Digital Geoarchaeology – A Case Study of Megalithic Graves in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany
    In this contribution we apply different methods of spatial and geomorphometric analysis in order to present a general approach of data exploration in areas where detailed local information is absent. Our data are based on locations of megalithic graves from Funnel Beaker societies (3700-2800 BCE) in the area of Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. Using these locations, we apply methods of point pattern analysis in order to reconstruct the spatial processes that created the sample: We use density based measures to show the influence of first order effects on the dataset. While first order effects are related to the underlying areal characteristics of the point locations and hence are determinant of their intensity, second-order effects are the result of interactions between points. We conduct distance related approaches, e.g.\ focusing on nearest neighbor characteristics, in order to investigate the interaction between the points. The point pattern analyses is complemented by integrating geomorphometric measures that are indirectly indicative for some general environmental conditions, even in prehistoric times. This helps (a) to relate first-order effects to societal or environmental features and (b) to understand the specific pattern of interactions between the points. The necessary raw data in form of digital elevation models are freely available for large parts of the globe. All analyses are conducted using free and open source software in order to provide their limitless application.
  • Supporting affordable housing supply: inclusionary planning in new and renewing communities
    This study examined how planning mechanisms support affordable housing supply in Australia and overseas. In England 43 per cent of affordable housing built in 2015–16 (12,866 units) were delivered due to inclusionary planning requirements, while more than 500 cities in the United States have inclusionary zoning or impact fee requirements to supply affordable housing. In Australia planning systems can support affordable housing supply, but additional funding or subsidy is usually required to produce homes affordable to those on low and very low incomes.
  • Jurisdictional Overlap & the Size of the Local Public Workforce
    The United States is a country of many overlapping local governments. Theoretical explorations of the potential influence of this institutional arrangement abound; however, empirical evidence as the influence of such an arrangement on local public sector remains relatively thin. Instead of competing for mobile resources as suggested by Tiebout, overlapping jurisdictions utilize similar tax and voting bases introducing a potential commons problem. Using a county-level dataset from 1972 to 2012, this commons problem is explored. The results suggest that a positive relationship between jurisdictional overlap and the size of local public workforce amounting to approximately a one percent increase in employment or an increase of less than one full-time equivalent employee.
  • Childhood Bullying and Adolescent Mental Health for Sexual Minorities: Prospective evidence from a population-based birth cohort
    Objectives. To provide the first prospective evidence on sexual minorities’ early childhood peer victimization experiences and estimate the extent to which victimization histories explain adolescent mental health disparities. Methods. Longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Childhood Wellbeing Study, a population-based cohort of children born in twenty American cities between 1998 and 2000, were used. Multivariate regression analyses examined peer victimization at ages 5,9 and 15 and anxiety/depression at 15. Teens reported sexual minority status during interviews conducted between 2014 and 2017. Results. Compared to their peers, sexual minorities experienced similar rates of victimization at age 5 but higher rates ages 9 and 15. Over and above current bullying, prior victimization predicted worse outcomes on three clinically validated diagnostic scales for anxiety/depression. Results were consistent using parent and child reports. Despite sexual minorities’ elevated rates of bullying, only about 20% of their mental health disparities were explained by peer victimization. Conclusions. Sexual minorities’ bullying risk begins years earlier than previously documented and persists into adolescence. Victimization prevalence estimates based on adolescents’ recent experiences will substantially underestimate lifetime exposure to victimization.
  • Characteristics of the front-line child welfare workforce
    In this study, we provide new national- and state-level estimates of workload and workforce instability among child welfare agencies using previously unavailable data that includes unique identifiers for US child welfare caseworkers in 46 states and supervisors in 43 states. We identify and describe 139,921 unique caseworkers and 31,124 unique supervisors who were in the child welfare workforce between 2003 and 2015. The median caseworker handles 55 cases annually and is on the job for about 1.8 years. The median state has an annual front-line caseworker turnover rate of between 14 and 22 percent annually, and a supervisor turnover rate of about 20 percent annually.
  • Terror Management and Twitter: The Case of the 2016 Berlin Terrorist Attack
    There is evidence that people increasingly use social networking sites like Twitter in the aftermath of terrorist attacks to make sense of the events at the collective level. This work-in-progress paper focuses on the content of Twitter messages related to the 2016 terrorist attack on the Berlin Christmas market. We chose topic modeling to investigate the Twitter data and the terror management theory perspective to understand why people used Twitter in the aftermath of the attack. In particular, by connecting people and providing a real-time communication channel, Twitter helps its users collectively negotiate their worldviews and re-establish self-esteem. We provide first results and discuss next steps.
  • The Impact of Candidate Selection Rules and Electoral Vulnerability on Legislative Behaviour in Comparative Perspective
    Legislators are political actors whose main goal is to get re-elected. They use their legislative repertoire to help them to cater to the interests of their principals. In this paper, we argue that we need to move beyond treating electoral systems as monolithic entities, as if all legislators operating under the same set of macro-rules shared the same set of incentives. Rather, we need to account for within-system variation, namely, candidate selection rules and individual electoral vulnerability. Using a most different systems design, we turn to Germany, Ireland, and Portugal to leverage both cross-system and within-system variation. We use an original dataset of 345.000 parliamentary questions. Findings show that candidate selection rules blur canonical electoral system boundaries. Electoral vulnerability has a similar effect in closed-list and mixed-systems, but not in preferential voting settings.
  • Men Set Their Own Cites High: Gender and Self-citation across Fields and over Time
  • Structural Property Losses from Tornadoes in Florida
    Property losses from tornadoes in Florida are estimated by combining a one-km spatial grid of structural values from the Department of Revenue's 2014 cadastral database with historical tornado events since 1950. There are 91,180 cells in the state with at least some structural value. Total and residential structural values total \$942 Billion and \$619 Billion, respectively. Over the period 1950 through 2015 there were 3,233 individual tornado reports in the state with a peak frequency during July. Property value exposed to tornadoes is estimated using a geometric model for the path. Annual statewide total and residential structural property exposure to tornadoes is estimated at \$171 Million and \$103 Million, respectively. Property exposure to tornadoes peaks in February although the number of tornadoes peaks in September. A regression model quantifies the relationship between actual losses since 2007 and exposures. A doubling of the residential exposure increases actual recorded losses by 26\% since 2007 and a doubling of non-residential exposure increases losses by 21\% controlling for changes over time. Randomization of the historical tornado paths provides alternative exposure scenarios that are used to determine the probability of extreme loss years. Results from the Monte Carlo algorithm indicate a 1\% chance that the annual loss will exceed \$430 Million and a .1\% chance that it will exceed \$1 Billion. These findings, and the procedure to obtain them, should help property insurance and reinsurance companies gauge their risk of losses and prioritize their management actions.
  • The European Roots of Postwar U.S. Development Economics
    The postwar field of development economics was heavily informed by interwar debates among economists about welfare and the deveiopment of the European periphery. Note that this paper was composed in 1997, and has never been submitted for publication.
  • Um panorama dos estudos críticos em educação e tecnologias digitais
    Selwyn N., (2017) Um panorama dos estudos críticos em educação e tecnologias digitais. in Rocha, C., El Kadri, M. and Windle, J. (eds). Dialogos sobre tecnologia educatcional. Sao Paulo, Pontes (pp.15-40)
  • Grassroots Expertise at a New York City Community Board
    Democratic theory predicts that the use of expert knowledge can conflict with democratic participation in policy-making, but neighborhood-level participatory bodies in U.S. cities frequently deploy quantitative analysis and other forms of expertise as they engage land use processes. An ethnographic approach permits us to investigate the fine-grained human interactions around one such potentially problematic instance. Participatory observation and in-depth interviewing of board members and staff from a New York City community board in a low-income neighborhood show that they can partially overcome the challenge of expertise by developing their own technical capacity. Expertise enhances board members’ influence, but members nevertheless encounter difficulties, including the problem of simultaneously performing advisory and representative roles.
  • Can cultural consumption increase future earnings? Exploring the economic returns to cultural capital
    Cultural consumption is often viewed as a form of embodied cultural capital which can be converted into economic rewards because such practices increase the likelihood of moving into more advantaged social positions. However, quantitative evidence supporting this proposition remains uncertain because it is often unable to rule out alternative explanations. Cultural consumption appears to influence hiring decisions in some elite firms, in both the U.S. and the U.K., but it is unclear whether these processes are applicable to other professional occupations and other labour market processes such as promotions. We examine these processes using data from Understanding Society, an individual-level panel survey conducted in the UK, allowing us to explore whether cultural consumption predicts future earnings, upward social mobility, and promotions. People who consume a larger number of cultural activities are more likely to earn higher wages in the future, to be upwardly socially mobile, and to be promoted. Cultural consumption, then, can function as cultural capital in some labour market settings, potentially contributing to the reproduction of income inequality between generations.
  • Homophily and Purchase Intention
    With the emergence and pervasiveness of online social networks, marketers and corporations constantly look for different ways to exploit their potential in terms of promoting products and brands. There has been increasing interest in studying what influences purchase intentions on online social networks in hopes to more accurately target consumers. This seminar paper will study the correlation between different types of homophily and attitudes towards purchase intentions. Homophily means how similar two or more people are and refers to the idea that people are more likely to associate themselves with people that are similar to them than vice versa. More specifically, this paper will attempt to determine which are the types of homophily (i.e. gender, income etc.) that better estimate what products, two or more people would commonly be interested in.
  • Public engagement and the influence imperative
    A review essay discussing three advice books for social scientists. Sociologists, in responding to the imperative to make their work more influential, must go beyond doing “public sociology” to embrace doing sociology “in public” (Healy 2017). Rather than using public engagement primarily for publicity – to make our research matter – we should use engagement to help us do research that matters in the first place. Next, I caution that the drive to be professionally rewarded for public intellectualism is fraught with conflicts that may be irreconcilable. To be a public intellectual today requires being both public in one’s intellectual life and intellectual in one’s public life, and for academics in the era of the “market university” (Berman 2011), trying to get paid for that leads to a neoliberal trap. Finally, I argue for a move beyond personal strategies toward the development of the open scholarship as an institutional response that ultimately may be responsible for sociology’s survival.
  • Population pyramids yield accurate estimates of total fertility rates
    Recent methodological advances in indirect migration and mortality estimation reveal important unforeseen patterns underlying these population processes, yet accurate indirect estimation of fertility remains difficult. The primary fertility index for a population, the total fertility rate (TFR), requires data on births disaggregated by mother’s age and thus cannot be calculated for the many areas and time periods that lack such information. Here we discuss a universal methodological framework for estimating TFR using inputs as minimal as the age-sex structure of a population. We show that the implied total fertility rate (iTFR) accurately estimates fertility from a population's age-sex structure in a wide range of scales, time periods, and even species. We also discuss two extensions of the iTFR that offer improved accuracy with minimal additional data requirements. To demonstrate the utility of this approach, we produce the first complete county-level map of U.S. fertility, reconstruct historical TFRs for 1000 additional country-years up to 150 years prior to the collection of birth records, and estimate TFR for the U.S. conditioned on household income, a variable unrecorded on U.S. birth records. Given its parameter-free nature, the method has wide applicability across space and time. We anticipate that our methodological framework will allow extension of fertility analysis to new sub-populations, time periods, and geographies, expanding our ability to understand fertility processes.
  • Strategies and Predictors of EFL Listening Comprehension
    The purpose of this study is to compare the efficiency of two methods for teaching listening comprehension – the cognitive strategy-based instruction method (CSBM) and the metacognitive strategy-based instruction method (MetSBM). Additionally, this study aims to evaluate the way in which three co-variables – vocabulary knowledge (VK), word recognition (WR) and working memory (WM) – contribute to individual differences in listening comprehension. The subjects of this study, 44 female students studying on an English programme at the University of Sharjah in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), were placed in two groups and taught a range of listening comprehension strategies, in accordance with the MetSBM and the mainstream CSBM. Seven pre- and post-tests were used (a listening comprehension test (LCT), vocabulary knowledge tests (VKK1 and VKK2), the Metacognitive Awareness Listening Questionnaire (MALQ), an Aural Word Recognition test (AWR), an Orthographic Word Recognition test (OWR), a Working Memory Span test (WMS). This study considers three questions: (1) Is metacognitive teaching likely to lead to higher listening comprehension scores than the teaching of cognitive strategies, (2) Are students in the control group likely to develop metacogntive strategies on their own, and (3) Are there other variables that are likely to contribute to listening comprehension. The results suggest that the MetSBM is more effective in teaching and learning how to listen for comprehension than the CSBM. In addition, other variables – OWR, AWR, and WM contribute to listening comprehension. A number of recommendations to teachers, material developers, and researchers are provided. The present study contributes to the field of listening comprehension in an Arab context (a so far an unmapped territory). It equips English teachers with feasible ways of teaching EFL listening comprehension more efficiently.
  • A Contested Crisis: Policy Narratives and Empirical Evidence on Border Deaths in the Mediterranean
    Death and suffering of migrants at Europe's Mediterranean Sea border has become one of the defining moral and political issues of our time. While humanitarian organisations argue that deaths result from Europe's policy of exclusion and closure, those employing a deterrence oriented narrative have argued for even stricter border controls. Perhaps because of its contentious nature, the debate is often devoid of systematic information on the drivers and dynamics of border deaths. This study contributes to our understanding of border deaths in the Mediterranean region in three ways: it describes and evaluates recent data sources on migration and mortality; it provides a descriptive statistical analysis of absolute and relative mortality risks between 2010 and 2016; and it assesses the relationship between European border policy and border deaths. Our findings challenge the dominant deterrence-oriented policy narrative and highlight the failure of European authorities to address the ongoing humanitarian crisis.
  • Breve storia di Sybaris, in “Il filo di Arianna” 1 – «Rogerius» X, 1, Issn 1723-9699, Soveria Mannelli 2007, pp. 73-86., Jan 2007
    In queste pagine è ripercorsa la storia dell’antica Sybaris, colonia greca sulle coste ioniche della Calabria, dalla fondazione alla definitiva distruzione ad opera dei krotoniati.
  • Lying to Ourselves: Dishonesty in the Army Profession. Leonard Wong and Stephen J. Gerras. U.S. Army War College Press, Carlisle Barracks, PA, 2015. 53 pp. Open Access (PDF)
  • Waste collection in rural communities: challenges under EU regulations; a case study of Neamt County, Romania
    The paper aims to examine the changes in the rural waste management sector at regional scale since the Romania adhesion to the EU in 2007. Traditional waste management based on the mixed waste collection and waste disposal often on improper sites prevailed in municipal waste management options of transitional economies across the globe. The lack of formal waste collection services in rural areas has encouraged the open dumping or backyard burning. The paper analyses the improvements and challenges of local authorities in order to fulfill the new EU requirements in this sector supported by data analysis at local administrative unit levels and field observations. Geographical analysis is compulsory in order to reveal the local disparities. The paper performs an assessment of waste collection issues across 78 rural municipalities within Neamt County. This sector is emerging in rural areas of Eastern Europe, but is far from an efficient municipal waste management system based on the waste hierarchy concept.
  • One Global Map but Different Worlds: Worldwide Survey of Human Access to Basic Utilities
    The paper aims to reveal one integrated global map which points out the major geographical inequalities in providing basic utilities across the countries using multivariate analysis and thematic cartography. Sixteen indicators with global coverage were selected taking into account the waste collection services, sanitation facilities, drinking water sources, energy, electricity, habitat and demographic conditions. Several data are broken down for the total, urban and rural population in order to outline the rural-urban disparities between and within countries. A special focus is given to waste collection coverage, in order to compute a comprehensive global assessment of this key indicator of public health, which is one of the poorest monitored basic utility. The world countries were divided into 10 classes according to the hierarchical cluster analysis. Each class has particular features outlining the gaps between high, middle and low-income countries with direct impact on quality of life, public health, and environment.
  • The demographic factors that make Islam the world's fastest-growing major religious group
  • The demographic factors that make Islam the world’s fastest-growing major religious group
    Among the world’s major religious groups, Muslims have the lowest median age and the highest fertility rates. Due to these demographic factors, Muslims are expected to increase in number faster than any other major group in the period between 2015 and 2060, growing at more than twice the pace of global population growth.
  • Immigrant Health Trajectories in Historical Context: Insights From European Immigrant Childhood Mortality in 1910
    Recent studies of immigrant health have focused on an apparent paradox in which some new immigrants arrive healthier than expected but exhibit poorer health outcomes with duration of residence. Although a variety of explanations have been put forth for this epidemiological pattern, questions remain about the socio-historical generalizability of the empirical findings and accompanying theoretical explanations. By examining childhood mortality patterns of European immigrants to the United States in the early 20th century, this study tests hypotheses from current immigrant health literature in a previous era of immigration. In contrast with post-1965 immigrant groups, European arrivals did not have better outcomes than their U.S.-born white counterparts. Rather, their rates corresponded to a "middle tier" status in between U.S.-born black and white populations. Analysis of post-migration trajectories returned mixed results that similarly differ from contemporary patterns. Many new immigrant groups had higher rates of excess childhood mortality than their U.S-born counterparts, but outcomes generally improved with duration of residence or among the second generation. These findings highlight the influence of socio-historical variation in the context of reception on patterns of immigrant health and mortality outcomes.
  • On Religious Rejectionism
    The opposition to existing religions seems to have given rise to a new system of belief and culture. This system, referred to in this paper as Religious Rejectionism, has all the characteristics of a religion. The paper argues for the religious nature of Religious Rejectionism, and finishes by providing suggestions on future research of the topic.
  • Climate Change Projected to Reduce European Life Expectancy
    Climate change related estimates of excess mortality clearly demonstrate the dramatic impact on public health and human mortality from climate change. However, life expectancy at birth is more easily communicated and understood by the public, and controls for different geographic, economic, and demographic groups. No studies have comprehensively connected excess mortality due to climate change to anticipated reductions in life expectancy. Without properly situating the potential loss of life within the contexts of life expectancy, we risk misrepresenting cost of climate change on mortality. In this paper, we convert excess mortality estimates into potential reductions of life expectancy at birth and report the cost of climate change on human longevity. We find climate change could become the third largest life expectancy reducer behind heart disease and cancer in some European countries. Thus, the cost of inaction on climate change could approach one year of life in some countries.
  • Weapon-carrying and the reduction of violent harm
    Criminology has much to offer activities to reduce the harm of violent incidents –– particularly by reducing weapon carrying and use – but the discipline’s engagement with the harm reduction agenda has been limited. In addressing this, the paper identifies risk factors for carrying a weapon by a young person in England and Wales. It demonstrates that this decision is influenced by individual-, interpersonal- and community-level factors and that weapon carriers can be distinguished from other respondents using relatively few characteristics. The study also shows that defensive factors, such as victimisation and concerns about personal safety are relevant to understanding weapon-carrying, but they are outweighed by criminogenic factors such as violence, neighbourhood disorder and, importantly, lack of trust in the police.
  • Taking Lemons for a Trial Run: Does Type of Job Exit Affect the Risk of Entering Fixed-Term Employment in Germany?
  • Theory of Mind and Linguistic Acquisition
    Theory of Mind (ToM) is a conceptual theory that is credited with enabling individuals to anticipate the mental states of others, including their beliefs, desires, emotions, intentions, and additional emotive circumstances (Flavell, 2004). Linguistic acquisition is a natural development that begins to develop in children from birth and enables communication. The cognitive domains necessary to comprehend language is also required in order for the formation of ToM to develop. The interpretations made through ToM presumptions can contain the discernment of another’s false belief. In this context, the individual must be aware that the literal interpretation could be an inaccurate symbol or manufactured belief. This understanding requires a certain level of cognitive development in the child since the intention may be to signify something else and the child must be able to correctly process idiomatic expressions in order to accurately make ToM determinations (Caillies & Le Sourn-Bissaoui, 2008). This paper explores the relationship between ToM and linguistic acquisition in normally developing children, as well as those with various disabilities to ascertain the degree of cognitive development necessary in order to make ToM determinations. Exploration of this relationship reveals that linguistic and cognitive development are both essential in the construct of ToM perceptions in early childhood.
  • Social Media on Jordanian Radio: Facebook Counts and Link-Up Messages
    This brief article describes the use of social media on Jordanian radio today - a form of amplifying potentials and agendas already implicit in radio broadcaster discourse, rather than an inherently revolutionary technology.
  • Global Conflict Data: Introducing the World Handbook of Political Indicators IV
    The World Handbook of Political Indicators IV (WHIV) provides global cross-national daily coverage of contentious politics events – protest, violence, sanctions and relaxations – conducted by governments, insurgents, and civilians. Using auto-coding of Reuters international newswire based on KnowledgeManager,™ the dataset covers 231 countries and territories from January 1, 1990 through December 31, 2004 and includes 40 distinct event forms and a set of standard actors and targets resulting in 264,289 events. WHIV’s breadth of geographic coverage, detailed atomic level event forms, and temporal specificity provides unique opportunities for studying contentious conflict globally and in specific countries. We discuss the uses of these data and the global distribution and trends in protest, political violence and governmental sanctions and relaxations.
  • Some Cautionary Tales About Collective Licensing
    Collective licensing occurs where a single agent is empowered to license uses on behalf of many individual copyright holders. Agents can be empowered voluntarily, with copyright holders opting in to permit licensing of their works, or they can be established or empowered by statute. Collective licensing has been suggested as a possible solution for the obstacle copyright law places in the path of new uses of works enabled by innovative technologies. Collective licensing does have the potential to reduce transaction costs when a large number of works are licensed to a large number of users, thereby benefiting both rightsholders and users. However, the track record of collective organizations (CROs), the entities that manage collective licenses, reveals that they often fail to live up to that potential. Although there are a wide variety of CROs operating under divergent legal frameworks, many unfortunately share the characteristic of serving their own interests at the expense of artists and the public. In discussions of copyright policy, lawmakers generally consider two broad stakeholder groups: authors on the one hand and the general public on the other. This paper will examine how CROs have done significant harm to each of the groups they are supposed to help.
  • [Supplementary material to book chapter] Google Scholar as a data source for research assessment
    The launch of Google Scholar (GS) marked the beginning of a revolution in the scientific information market. This search engine, unlike traditional databases, automatically indexes information from the academic web. Its ease of use, together with its wide coverage and fast indexing speed, have made it the first tool most scientists currently turn to when they need to carry out a literature search. Additionally, the fact that its search results were accompanied from the beginning by citation counts, as well as the later development of secondary products which leverage this citation data (such as Google Scholar Metrics and Google Scholar Citations), made many scientists wonder about its potential as a source of data for bibliometric analyses. The goal of this chapter is to lay the foundations for the use of GS as a supplementary source (and in some disciplines, arguably the best alternative) for scientific evaluation. First, we present a general overview of how GS works. Second, we present empirical evidences about its main characteristics (size, coverage, and growth rate). Third, we carry out a systematic analysis of the main limitations this search engine presents as a tool for the evaluation of scientific performance. Lastly, we discuss the main differences between GS and other more traditional bibliographic databases in light of the correlations found between their citation data. We conclude that Google Scholar presents a broader view of the academic world because it has brought to light a great amount of sources that were not previously visible.
  • Identifying Training Needs of In-Service EFL Teachers in Inclusive Schools in Egypt
    With the implementation of inclusion in public schools in Egypt, there are demands for improving the professional development programs provided to in-service teachers concerning inclusive education. To that end, this mixed methods study aimed to identify the needs and preferences of English as a Foreign Language teachers regarding working with special-need students. The study also sought to explore the relationship between participants’ profile and their needs. Two hundred eighteen in-service teachers at primary schools in Egypt were selected by cluster sampling method to participate in a need assessment questionnaire while eight were interviewed. Participants reported lack of training in inclusive education, large class size, negative attitudes, shortage of time, heavy workload, and unfamiliarity with necessary strategies as barriers to inclusion. In addition, participants prioritized their needs for identification of language disorders, teaching methods, individualized instruction through curriculum adaptation and Individualized Educational Plans, and controlling behavioral problems. There were significant differences in participants’ needs based on age, years of experience and qualifications. The teachers preferred face-to-face workshops, mentor-supported learning and project-based learning besides morning sessions in weekdays. Recommendations for professional development programs and future research were provided.
  • United in Diversity? The Consolidation of Cultural Values among EU Member States and Candidates
    The European Union (EU) is considered a unique economic and political union that integrates most European countries. This article focuses on the cultural aspect of European integration, which has been increasingly debated over the course of deepening and widening integration and in the context of the legitimation crisis of the EU. Among the main goals of the EU is to promote certain values, which raises the question of whether it has been efficient in (or enabled) reducing cultural value gaps among the participating countries. World polity and institutional isomorphism theories suggest that cultural values may trickle down in a vertical manner from the institutions of the EU to its member states and candidates. Furthermore, hybridization theory postulates that values diffuse horizontally through intensified interactions enabled by the EU. These two perspectives imply the possibility of cultural convergence among countries associated with the EU. By contrast, the culture clash thesis assumes that differences in cultural identity prevent value convergence across countries; growing awareness of such differences may even increase the pre-existing cultural value distances. To test these different scenarios, I compare distances in emancipative and secular values across pairs of countries (Welzel 2013) using combined repeated cross-sectional data from the EVS and WVS gathered between 1992 and 2011. I find that the longer a country has been part of the EU, the more closely its values approximate those of the EU founding countries, which in turn are the most homogenous. Initial cultural distance to the founders’ average values appears irrelevant to acquiring membership or candidacy status. However, new member states experienced substantial cultural convergence with old member states after 1992, as did current candidates between 2001 and 2008. Since 1992, nations not participating in the integration process have diverged substantially from EU members, essentially leading to cultural polarization in Europe. The findings are independent of (changes in) economic disparities and suggest the importance of cultural diffusion as one of the fundamental mechanisms of cultural change. This empirical study contributes to the literature on European integration, political and sociological theories of globalization, and cross-cultural theories of societal value change.
  • Private rental in transition: institutional change, technology and innovation in Australia
    This study is a comprehensive analysis of the Australian private rental sector and its institutions. It explores the interplay between regulation; organisations and structures; and social norms and practices of prevailing policies. It also explores the impact of innovation and digital technology.
  • The anthropology of didactics
    Definitions of learning (and teaching) are sometimes made on the basis of references outside and above the immediate classroom event. The didactic questions phrased in terms of what, How and Why. The curriculum, policies and the various substances when these issues are preserved and problematized. At the same time, there is the school's reality in the classrooms, but more as a recipient of this problem. This reality can be the starting point of a self-sustaining reflection emanating from teachers and students and their actual situation. This is approaching it as the terms "implementing the field" where I want to continue the discussion. How do we get a different perspective on What, How and Why based on teachers ' practice? Are these questions at all realistic to ask (in practice) and what answers can you expect? What is an example for teaching science content from a student's perspective? And how is the issue from the teacher's perspective in the practical stage?
  • Migration schedules by age and characterization of migrants in the micro-regions of Goiás and the Federal District, 1975–1979 and 1986–1990
    Title in Portuguese: Funções de migração por idade e caracterização de migrantes das microrregiões de Goiás e Distrito Federal, 1975-1979 e 1986-1990 (Dissertação de Mestrado) (M.A. Thesis) Since the 70’s, the Brazilian Middle-West Region has experienced an important modernization process in agricultural and industrial activities, which has led to an employment retraction and migration flows, especially from rural areas to the major metropolitan cities of the region. In this research the focus of analysis are the State of Goiás and the Federal District, which encompasses Brasília, the capital of Brazil. In order to understand the new population configuration, the region was divided into four sub-areas (micro-region of Goiânia, micro-region of Entorno de Brasília, the Federal District, and a group of 16 micro-regions of Goiás) and the patterns of migration, by age and sex, were estimated for the periods 1975-1979 and 1986-1991. In addition, differences between native and migrant population of each sub-area, according to the participation in the labor force, income, education and type of migration were investigated. The analysis was performed on the basis of the 1980 and 1991 Brazilian Census data. In the intra-state migration, the fluxes between the micro-region of Goiânia and the 16 other micro-regions of Goiás, and between the Federal District and the micro-region of Entorno de Brasília were the most important. In the inter-state migration, the flux from the states of Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul and the North region to the 16 micro-regions of Goiás, as well as the flux from Northeast, Southeast and South to the Federal District were significant. But there was a decline in the migration to the Federal District, between 1975-1979 and 1986-1991, while, in the same period, the migration to the Entorno of Brasília increased. The chance of the migrant population in the micro-region of Goiânia and in the Federal District to have worked in the last 12 months prior to census interview was lower than that of the native population. However, those who migrated from the Federal District to the micro-region of Entorno de Brasília had higher chance to have worked in the formal sector than those who did not migrate. Migrants who moved from the micro-region of Entorno de Brasília and the 16 other micro-regions of Goiás to the micro-region of Goiânia had lower wages than the non-migrant population. The lowest level of wages was recorded for the migrants to the 16 other micro-regions of Goiás. Migrants living in the Federal District had high level of education, while those migrants living in the micro-region of Entorno de Brasília had low level of education. In 1986-1990, the micro-regions of Goiânia and Entorno de Brasília, as well as the 16 other micro-regions of Goiás, presented a high percentage of returned migrants. In the same period, a major proportion of migrants to the micro-region of Entorno de Brasília had first moved from Southeast or from the Federal District to others regions. In addition, there was a considerable proportion of migrants with low income who had moved from Northeast to the Federal District and then to the micro-region of the Entorno de Brasília. Future research could focus other areas or regions of Brazil, and could also explore the same kind of analysis, on the basis of the incoming 2000 Brazilian Census, which requires the development of new techniques, as it did not collect information on the city of previous residence, but only on the state of residence.
  • Demographic change and economic development at the local level in Brazil
    (Ph.D. Dissertation) In this analysis, I estimate the impact of the changing relative size of the adult male population, classified by age and education groups, on the earnings of employed males living in 502 Brazilian local labor markets during four time periods between 1970 and 2000. The effects of shifts in the age distribution of the working age population have been studied in relation to the effect of the baby-boom generation on the earnings of different cohorts in the United States. However, the question has received little attention in the context of the countries in Asia and Latin America, which are now experiencing substantial shifts in their age-education distributions. Taking advantage of the huge variation across Brazilian local labor markets, the models in this research suggest that age-education groups are not perfect substitutes, so that own-cohort-education size depresses earnings, as expected by the theory. Compositional shifts are influential, attesting that this approach represents a fruitful way of studying this central problem in economic development, going beyond the effects normally analyzed by formal labor market equations.
  • Journal of the History of Economic Thought Preprints - Keynes, Public Debt and the Complex of Interest Rates
    John Maynard Keynes consistently offered qualified endorsement of Abba Lerner’s “functional finance” doctrine – the qualifications particularly turning on Keynes’s attentiveness to policy management of the psychology of the debt market. This article examines Keynes’s understanding of the possible influence of public debt on interest rates, from 1930 forward. With the multiplier a mechanism whereby debt-financed public investment generates matching private saving (net of private investment) plus public saving, it becomes possible for Keynes to conclude that increasing public debt need not place upward pressure on the level of interest rates, so long as policy can successfully manage the psychology of the debt market. This particularly concerns long interest rates and hence, the term structure of rates. His theory of the term structure enables Keynes’s conviction that policy can manage and shape long rates. The conclusion considers also whether Keynes’s caution concerning public debt and interest rates retains relevance today.
  • Voices from the far right: a text analysis of Swedish parliamentary debates
    In this paper we study the effects of a radical right party entering a national parliament, on the parliament discourse. We follow the classification developed by Meguid (2008) and use a probabilistic topic model approach to analyze the 300,000 speeches delivered in the Swedish parliament between 1994 and 2017. Our results indicate that immigration became a more prevalent topic in party leader debates when the Sweden Democrats entered the parliament in 2010. The other parties started to address immigration more, but still not to the extent that the Sweden Democrats did. In 2015, as Sweden faced a migration crisis, immigration became a more salient issue in the parliamentary debates. This could be seen as an external shock that forced the mainstream parties to put more emphasis on the topic of immigration. We conclude that the mainstream parties used a partly dismissive, partly adversarial strategy in their speeches when the SD entered the parliament. The migration crises in 2015 made them focus more on immigration and they thereby adopted a more adversarial strategy.
  • Imparting Teachers' Professional Know-How. Interaction and strategies in supervising teacher students
    This article focuses on the supervision provided during the practical part of teacher education. We are interested in what happens in the interaction between the student and the supervisor and how supervisors impart their professional know-how to their students. Nearness becomes a collective main category concerning imparting knowledge. We extracted five categories from our material where nearness is visible. In teachers work in the classroom, the principle of nearness is a way to control what is taking place; sort of a didactic principle. The work of the supervisor may be seen as a clear illustration of this important didactic dimension.
  • Leadership and Learning in-between Politics and Practice
    This article reports on a study of leadership and learning processes in a complex environment. It concerns the interspaces where politics meets administration, towards the "flows and interaction in multi-organisational contexts". A study of processes in the overlap between the political intentions and their practical realisation, between political actions and everyday leadership. In this case the relationship between politicians, board administration and principals i. e. a triad. An ethnography of a structure in a municipal within the educational/school area, primary and secondary level. Participant observation in two such triads in a larger municipal in southern Sweden over a year every week, most of the days in each week. And interviews during the process and at the end. The study is composed of an active engagement from the participants in the study, being perceived as co-constructors in the research process. An interview does not merely become a "collection of data" with feed-back, but informants are parties in a knowledge-creation conversation, to a certain extent a reciprocal process. This way of "seeing" leadership has not been studied frequently. Yet some researchers, have studied aspects of these triads and contributed with interpretations of use for this study. I make the assumption that it can be productive to see an actor's learning and creation of meaning in terms of "hard data and evaluations" and/or "interactions and encounters". In the triad, this actor is part of a system that comprises the other actors in the triad. A complex system of meaning-making processes is created, and research shows that it is the "interaction"-dimension that dominates the work of leaders. This system can be understood in terms of relations, negotiations and loose-couplings as a manifestation of cultures. I suggest that leadership can be understood as "The Art of Leading Others who Lead Themselves". It is in that "relationships" politics and leadership are enacted.
  • Leadership Research - Old Truths and New Frontiers. Notes on complexity and leadership in-situ
    In order to understand leadership, it is not enough to assume that organizations act as rational instruments. We need a better understanding of the dynamics of schools. Researchers have recently found that leadership's dynamism has a different meaning if we see organizations as complex systems and leaders in interacting and influencing. The purpose of this article is to discuss what leadership research has shown and what conclusions can be drawn. The starting point is research reviews, and evidence-based leadership, efficiency, problem-solving and methodology, leadership in complex organizations, practice-oriented leadership research and the relationship between leadership and learning. The article concludes, among other things, with a reflection on the school's scientific basis. One possibility may be to try to develop a "science" within the framework of their own activities in school and classrooms. Principals leadership is developed in practice and with inspiration from research, especially research that is practice-oriented. As shown in this article, the research provides different messages about what is successful. But we also need to use the studies that provide a deeper understanding of leadership dynamics and leadership aspects that have not been studied sufficiently.
  • Saving Children, Controlling Families: Punishment, redistribution and child protection
    This study shows that state efforts at child protection are structured by the policy regimes in which they are enmeshed. Using administrative data on child protection, criminal justice, and social welfare interventions, I show that children are separated from their families and placed into foster care far more frequently in states with extensive and punitive criminal justice systems than in states with broad and generous welfare programs. However, large welfare bureaucracies interact with welfare program enrollment to create opportunities for the surveillance of families, suggesting that extensive and administratively complex welfare states engage in “soft” social control through the surveillance and regulation of family behavior. The article further shows that institutionalization, a particularly restrictive form of foster care placement, is least common in states with broad and generous welfare regimes and generally more common under punitive regimes. Taken together, these findings show that policy regimes influence the interaction between families and the state through their proximate effects on family structure and well-being and through institutional effects that delimit the routines and scripts through which policymakers and street-level bureaucrats intervene to protect children.
  • Characterization of fertility levels in Brazil, 1970–2010
    Title in Portuguese: Caracterização dos níveis de fecundidade no Brasil, 1970-2010 Abstract: We analyze the 1970, 1980, 1991, 2000, and 2010 Brazilian Demographic Censuses, in order to investigate the associated factors with a woman having had a live birth during the year prior to each census. We estimated logistic regression models for women aged 10–49 years. As independent variables, we selected region of residence, rural/urban location, presence of electricity, color/race, religion, marital status, labor market participation, time of residence in the municipality, information about whether they had a stillbirth, age, education, and parity. Our findings confirm that the probability a woman had a child is higher in the North and Northeast regions, as well as in households without electricity. Women that have a greater chance of having had a child are black/brown, Catholic, married, non-labor market participants, short-term migrants, experienced a stillbirth, between 20–29 years of age, have less education, and have higher parity. Patterns have been changing throughout time, thus posing questions for further analyses. Resumo: Analisamos os Censos Demográficos do Brasil de 1970, 1980, 1991, 2000 e 2010, com o objetivo de investigar os fatores associados com a mulher ter tido filho nascido vivo no ano anterior ao censo. Estimamos modelos de regressão logística para mulheres entre 10 e 49 anos. Como variáveis independentes, selecionamos região de residência, localidade rural/urbana, presença de eletricidade, cor/raça, religião, estado conjugal, participação no mercado de trabalho, tempo de residência no município, informação se a mulher teve um filho nascido morto, idade, educação e parturição. Nos resultados confirmam que a probabilidade da mulher ter tido um filho é maior nas regiões Norte e Nordeste, assim como em domicílios com eletricidade. Mulheres que tiveram maior chance de ter tido um filho são pretas/pardas, católicas, casadas, não participantes no mercado de trabalho, migrantes no curto prazo, tiveram filho nascido morto, estão entre 20 e 29 anos de idade, possuem baixa escolaridade e possuem mais filhos. Os padrões têm mudado ao longo do tempo, levantando importantes questões para análises futuras.
  • Bolsa Família Program and school enrolment: An analysis of the 2010 Brazilian demographic census
    Title in Spanish: Programa Bolsa Familia y frecuencia escolar: Un análisis con el censo demográfico de Brasil de 2010 Abstract: The Bolsa Família Program goal is to promote social development and poverty reduction, through the direct transfer of conditional cash, in association with other social programs. This study aims to analyze whether Bolsa Família had an association with children’s school attendance, which is one of the educational conditions of the program. Our main hypothesis is that children living in households receiving Bolsa Família had greater chances of attending school. Data from the Ministry of Social Development and Combating Famine indicated that children living in households with Bolsa Família had greater school enrolment levels. By using data from the 2010 Demographic Census, collected by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE), some descriptive analyzes and binary logistic regression models were performed for different thresholds of household per capita income. These estimates were made by comparing children who lived in households receiving Bolsa Família to those children not receiving the program. We took into consideration characteristics about the household, mothers, and children. The results were clustered by the municipality of residence of the child. In all income thresholds, children benefiting from Bolsa Família were more likely to be enrolled in school, compared to children not receiving the benefit. Resumen: El Programa Bolsa Familia tiene el objetivo de promover el desarrollo social y el alivio de la pobreza a través de la transferencia directa de ingresos, en combinación con otros programas sociales. Este estudio tiene como objetivo analizar si el programa Bolsa Familia ha tenido una correlación con la escolarización de los niños de las familias perceptoras de las ayudas, que es una de las condiciones del programa. La hipótesis principal es que el niño residente en hogares beneficiados por el programa Bolsa Familia tiene más posibilidades de asistir a la escuela. Los datos del Ministerio de Desarrollo Social y de Lucha contra el Hambre corroboran esta hipótesis. Utilizando los microdatos del Censo de 2010 recogidos por el Instituto Brasileño de Geografía y Estadística (IBGE), en esta investigación se han realizado análisis descriptivos y modelos de regresión logística binaria para diferentes límites de ingreso per cápita del hogar. Estas estimaciones se han llevado a cabo mediante la comparación de los niños que formaban parte de los hogares beneficiarios y los que no eran beneficiarios del programa Bolsa Familia. Se han tenido en cuenta las características del hogar, de la madre y del niño. Los resultados han sido ponderados de acuerdo con el municipio de residencia del niño. En todos los límites de ingresos, los niños beneficiarios del programa eran más propensos a estar escolarizados, en comparación con los niños no beneficiarios del programa Bolsa Familia.
  • Academic performance of students at the Federal University of Minas Gerais: An analysis of the socio-racial bonus policy
    Title in Portuguese: Desempenho acadêmico dos estudantes da UFMG: Uma análise da política de bônus sociorracial Abstract: This paper analyzes the academic performance of students of the Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG), Brazil, in order to observe differences in academic performance between students who received and who did not receive the socio-racial bonus at the entrance exam of the institution. The database with students’ socioeconomic information comes from the admission exam’s permanent review committee (“Comissão Permanente do Vestibular” – COPEVE) at UFMG. The database with information about academic performance of students was provided by the department of registry and academic control (Departamento de Registro e Controle Acadêmico – DRCA). These data were aggregated for this study. The results suggest that the academic performance is similar between students who received and who did not receive the socio-racial bonus in most comparisons. That is, this affirmative action policy seems to ban an effective one in order to promote social inclusion with academic excellence. This is an important analysis to be developed at this moment of implementation of the 2012 quota law by the Federal Government (Law #12,711). Resumo: Este trabalho faz uma análise do desempenho acadêmico de estudantes da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG) com o objetivo principal de verificar se há diferenças de desempenho significativas entre estudantes que receberam e não receberam o bônus sociorracial no vestibular da instituição em 2009 e 2010. O banco de dados com informações socioeconômicas dos estudantes é proveniente da Comissão Permanente do Vestibular (COPEVE) da UFMG. O banco de dados com informações sobre desempenho acadêmico dos estudantes foi disponibilizado pelo Departamento de Registro e Controle Acadêmico (DRCA) da universidade. Estes dados foram agregados para a realização deste estudo. Os resultados sugerem que o desempenho escolar entre bonistas e não bonistas é similar na grande maioria das comparações. Ou seja, a política de bônus sociorracial, implementada durante alguns anos na UFMG, não promoveu a entrada de estudantes com baixo potencial acadêmico, sendo, portanto, uma política eficaz de inclusão social sem danos para a excelência acadêmica da universidade. Esta análise é importante de ser realizada neste momento de implementação da lei de cotas de 2012 do Governo Federal (Lei nº 12.711).
  • Association of technical education with earnings and employment: Minas Gerais (2009 and 2011)
    Title in Portuguese: Associação do ensino profissionalizante com rendimento e emprego: Minas Gerais (2009 e 2011) Abstract: This paper analyzes the relationship between technical education and the first demographic dividend in Minas Gerais. The hypothesis is that those who received technical training are more likely to get employed and have higher earnings. Then, the technical training would be a good investment to promote a higher economic and social development, taking advantage of the favorable demographic situation. We used data from the 2009 and the 2011 Minas Gerais Household Survey (PAD-MG), developed by the João Pinheiro Foundation (FJP). For the evaluation of earnings, ordinary least squared models were estimated. For the analysis of employability, logistic models were estimated. From the results, it is possible to note that those who get technical training get higher average earnings, and greater chances of entering the labor market, keeping everything else constant. Resumo: Este trabalho analisa a relação entre o ensino profissionalizante e o aproveitamento do primeiro dividendo demográfico em Minas Gerais. A hipótese é que aqueles que cursaram o ensino profissionalizante têm mais chances de empregar-se e maiores rendimentos salariais. Desta forma, a capacitação profissional seria um bom investimento para um maior desenvolvimento econômico e social do estado, promovendo o aproveitamento da favorável situação demográfica vivenciada. Foram utilizados os dados da Pesquisa por Amostragem de Domicílios de Minas Gerais (PAD-MG) de 2009 e 2011, desenvolvida pela Fundação João Pinheiro (FJP). Na análise da empregabilidade foram estimados modelos logísticos, e para a avaliação da renda foram estimados modelos de mínimos quadrados ordinários (MQO). Diante dos resultados, é possível notar que aqueles que cursam o ensino profissionalizante têm mais chances de entrada no mercado de trabalho e um rendimento salarial mais alto, mantendo se tudo mais constante.
  • The public safety policy in Brazil: Analyzing public spending (1999–2010)
    Title in Portuguese: A política de segurança pública no Brasil: uma análise dos gastos estaduais (1999-2010) Abstract: This article analyzes the public spending on public safety policy in Brazil in the period of 1999-2010, noting particularly its relations with the ideological perspectives of the parties elected to the Executive (state governments). It was tested especially the hypothesis that spending on public safety policy would be greater in states ruled by right-wing parties, as part of the national literature points to the existence of most concern this political-ideological spectrum with the function social control. We used multivariate regression models and the main findings were: a) increased spending in left-wing and center-wing parties, compared to the right-wing parties; and b) approximation of the percentages of the collection invested in safety policy in the states, regardless of the incumbent parties. Resumo: Este artigo analisa os gastos estaduais em segurança pública no período de 1999 a 2010, observando principalmente suas relações com as perspectivas ideológicas dos partidos eleitos para o Poder Executivo (governador). Testou-se, sobretudo, a hipótese de que o gasto com a política de segurança pública seria maior em estados governados por partidos de direita, uma vez que parte da literatura nacional aponta para a existência de maior preocupação desse espectro político-ideológico com a função de controle social. Foram utilizados modelos de regressão multivariada que indicaram os seguintes achados: a) variação positiva dos gastos quando os partidos são de esquerda e centro, comparados aos partidos de direita; e b) relativa aproximação dos percentuais de arrecadação investidos em segurança nos estados, independentemente dos partidos nos governos.
  • Population policies, government programs, and fertility: A comparison between Brazil and Mexico
    Title in Spanish: Políticas de población, programas gubernamentales y fecundidad: Una comparación entre el Brasil y México Abstract: The Government of Mexico implemented family planning programmes beginning in the 1970s, unlike the Brazilian Government, which has implemented no population policies. This article estimates the impact of those policies on trends in fertility among women in various segments of society, using statistical models which incorporate municipal and individual variables. Both rich and poor states were considered in both Brazil and Mexico, using census data, information from civil registries, and health and demographic surveys. Differences in fertility by socio-economic group are sharper in the Brazilian states than in the Mexican ones. The poorest Brazilian states also show marked differences, but to a lesser degree than poor Mexican states because the latter show high percentages of home births, and as a result women have limited access to family planning programmes. The study concludes that family planning policies reduce the differences in fertility among women of different socio-economic groups. Furthermore, those policies would be more effective if women in the poor Mexican states also had easy access to public hospitals and clinics. The high coverage of hospital births in Brazil appears to counteract the absence of large-scale state programmes, particularly in the poorest states. Resumen: El gobierno mexicano puso en práctica programas de planificación familiar desde los años setenta, en contraposición al gobierno brasileño que no ha implementado políticas de población. En este artículo se estima la influencia de dichas políticas en las tendencias de fecundidad de mujeres de diferentes segmentos sociales, con modelos estadísticos que incorporan variables municipales e individuales. Se analizaron estados pobres y ricos, tanto del Brasil como de México, usando datos de censos, estadísticas del registro civil y encuestas de salud y demografía. Las diferencias de fecundidad por grupo socioeconómico son más acentuadas en los estados brasileños que en los mexicanos. Los estados brasileños más pobres también presentan diferencias marcadas, pero en menor grado que los estados mexicanos pobres porque en estos, un alto porcentaje de partos ocurre en los hogares, debido a lo cual se limita la accesibilidad de las mujeres a los programas de planificación familiar. Se concluye que las políticas de planificación familiar disminuyen las diferencias de fecundidad entre mujeres de distintos niveles socioeconómicos. Más aún, estas políticas serían más eficaces si las mujeres de estados mexicanos pobres también tuvieran fácil acceso a hospitales y clínicas públicos. La gran cobertura del parto en hospitales en el Brasil parece contrarrestar la ausencia de programas gubernamentales de gran alcance, sobre todo en los estados más pobres.
  • Online rationality: Reason-giving in virtual discussions
    Title in Portuguese: Racionalidade online: provimento de razões em discussões virtuais Abstract: The aim of this article is to discuss the idea of rationality in online debates. Taking a deliberative approach, this article analyzes 2,375 comments about LGBT rights across four different platforms: Facebook, Youtube, News Portals, and Votenaweb (which was specifically designed as a platform for discussions about bills proposed in the Brazilian National Congress). Using reason-giving as a dependent variable, the article tests five hypotheses: (H1) the number of posts presenting arguments for their positions is directly related to the platform on which these comments were posted; (H2) the chances that a post will present arguments is greater when the forum is balanced; (H3) the chances that a post will present arguments is greater when reciprocity is more frequent; (H4) the chances that a post will present arguments is smaller when the level of disrespect is greater; and (H5) the chances that a post will present arguments diminish when the comments are written by anonymous participants. The results show the importance of the nature of the platform and the salience of respect in inducing reason-giving. Resumo: Este artigo se propõe a discutir a ideia de racionalidade que está no coração das abordagens deliberacionistas de democracia. Essa discussão embasa a realização de um estudo empírico focado em um banco de dados com 2.375 comentários sobre direitos LGBT em quatro arenas online: Youtube, Facebook, comentários de notícias e Votenaweb. O objetivo é discutir os principais fatores a influenciar no incremento do provimento de razões por postagens nessas arenas. Na análise, testamos cinco hipóteses: (H1) A chance de postagens apresentarem justificativas depende da plataforma em que se encontram essas postagens; (H2) A chance de postagens apresentarem justificativas é maior em debates em que há equilíbrio entre as posições defendidas; (H3) A chance de postagens apresentarem justificativas tende a ser maior quando há mais reciprocidade; (H4) A chance de postagens apresentarem justificativas é menor se o nível de desrespeito é maior; e (H5) A chance de postagens apresentarem justificativas é menor em mensagens enviadas por anônimos. Os resultados indicam que, entre as variáveis testadas, a "plataforma" e a "presença de respeito" são as mais importantes para induzir o provimento de justificativas.
  • An assessment of the Federal University of Minas Gerais's socioracial bonus on student academic performance
    Title in Portuguese: Avaliação de impacto do bônus sociorracial da UFMG no desempenho acadêmico dos estudantes Abstract: The objective of this article is to assess whether academic performance at the Federal University of Minas Gerais (Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais - UFMG) varies depending on whether students received socioracial bonuses on the institution’s entrance exam. The study analyzes the impact of different categories of this social inclusion policy. The database contains socioeconomic and academic performance information for students in their 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th semesters at UFMG in 2009 and 2010. A series of models were estimated to analyze differences in Semiannual Global Performance (Rendimento Semestral Global - RSG). The results suggest that RSG results for students who received and did not receive the bonus are similar, controlling for social, demographic and economic variables. This study suggests that UFMG’s socioracial bonus policy had the desired effect of including less-favored groups at the university without diminishing educational quality. Resumo: O objetivo deste artigo é avaliar se o desempenho acadêmico na Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG) é diferenciado entre estudantes que receberam e que não receberam o bônus sociorracial no vestibular da instituição. O estudo analisa o impacto de diferentes categorias desta política de inclusão social. O banco de dados possui informações socioeconômicas e de desempenho acadêmico sobre alunos que estavam cursando os 1ºs, 2ºs, 3ºs e 4ºs semestres na UFMG nos anos de 2009 e 2010. Uma série de modelos foram estimados para analisar diferenças no Rendimento Semestral Global (RSG). Os resultados sugerem que o RSG é similar entre bonistas e não bonistas, controlando por variáveis sociais, demográficas e econômicas. Este estudo sugere que a política de bônus sociorracial da UFMG ocasionou o efeito desejado de inclusão de grupos menos favorecidos na universidade, sem diminuir a qualidade de ensino.
  • Online deliberation in public consultations? The case of the state legislature of Minas Gerais
    Title in Portuguese: Deliberação online em consultas públicas? O caso da assembleia legislativa de Minas Gerais Abstract: This paper utilizes deliberative democratic theory to analyze an online public consultation forum about political reform implemented by Minas Gerais State Legislature (ALMG), Brazil. Six topics guided the discussion of the 752 posts from this forum: (1) inclusiveness; (2) provisions of reasons; (3) reciprocity; (4) mutual respect; (5) orientation as it relates to the common good; and (6) articulation between arenas. The results point to (1) an over-representation of male participants and of dwellers of the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte, although no participant monopolized the discussion; (2) the prevalence of on topic posts that present some form of justification for positions advocated; (3) very low levels of reciprocity between posts and of interactivity markers; (4) extremely high levels of respect; (5) different forms of articulating the common good; and (6) low impact in decision-making but interesting connections with the broader public sphere, specially through a story published by a newspaper.The findings of this study indicate a low probability of internal dialogue, which is contrary to the outcome desired by the supporters of deliberation. However, the potential for deliberative debates still exist if broader lenses are adopted. Tabulations between variables suggest that people tend to provide more reasons when commenting on more controversial discussions, although they tend to be less reciprocal in these situations. Thus, the hypothesis that suggests a preference for participation in conversations among like-minded discussants is supported by the analyzed data. Resumo: Este artigo busca analisar uma consulta pública online sobre reforma política promovida em 2011 pela Assembleia Legislativa de Minas Gerais. Embasado pela teoria deliberacionista, o estudo de 752 posts guiou-se pela discussão de seis tópicos: (1) inclusividade; (2) provimento de razões; (3) reciprocidade; (4) respeito mútuo; (5) orientação para o bem comum; e (6) articulação entre arenas. Os resultados indicam: (1) uma sobrerepresentação de participantes masculinos e oriundos da Região Metropolitana de Belo Horizonte, embora não tenha havido concentração de posts em alguns comentadores; (2) o predomínio de posts on topic e que apresentam justificativas para as posições advogadas; (3) índices muito baixos de reciprocidade entre posts e de uso de marcadores de interatividade; (4) graus muito elevados de respeito; (5) diferentes formas de ligação das justificativas a ideias de bem comum; (6) o baixo impacto decisório e a conexão com outras arenas da esfera pública, destacando-se a relação com uma matéria publicada em jornal de grande circulação. Os achados são ambivalentes para os defensores da deliberação, indicando baixa probabilidade de deliberação interna ao fórum, mas algum potencial deliberativo quando se adotam lentes mais amplas. Os cruzamentos entre variáveis sugerem que as pessoas tendem a prover mais justificativas em discussões mais controversas, embora tendam a dialogar menos nesses casos. Assim, a hipótese da preferência por conversas entre like-minded encontra respaldo nos dados analisados.
  • The impact of Brazil’s Bolsa Família Program on school attendance, age-grade discrepancy, and child labor, 2010
    This paper analyzes the impact of the educational conditions of Brazil’s Bolsa Família Program on the school enrollment, age-grade discrepancy, and labor of children benefiting from the program. The main hypotheses of this paper is that a child who lives in a household that receives the benefit has higher chances of being in school, lower chances to have age-grade discrepancy, and lower chances of working. Data used are from the 2010 Brazilian Demographic Census. Logistical models were estimated for each dependent variable (school enrollment, age-grade discrepancy, and child labor) and for three household income thresholds. Independent variables account for characteristics related to the household, mother, child, and whether the household was receiving Bolsa Família. The income thresholds are a maximum household per capita income of 70 Brazilian Reais, 140 Brazilian Reais (the official maximum value for eligibility into the Bolsa Família in 2010), and 280 Brazilian Reais. Models were also estimated separated by the rural and urban areas in the official income threshold. Results follow initial hypotheses of higher chances of school enrollment and lower chances of age-grade discrepancy among children who receive Bolsa Família. However, models also suggest higher chances of child labor among beneficiaries of the program.
  • An evaluation of the impact of the educational conditions of Brazil's Bolsa Família Program (2005 and 2009)
    Title in Portuguese: Avaliação de Impacto das condicionalidades de educação do Programa Bolsa Família (2005 e 2009) Abstract: This paper analyzes the impact of the educational conditions of Brazil's Bolsa Família Program on the dropout rates of children benefiting from the program. The main hypothesis is that children living in a household that receives the benefit have a lower chance of dropping out of school. Data are from the 2005 and 2009 Impact Evaluation of the Bolsa Família Program (AIBF), collected by the Ministry of Social Development and Combating Famine (MDS), Brazil. Logistic models estimated the chance that children would drop out of school in 2005 and 2009, for three different household income thresholds, taking into account characteristics related to the household, mother, and child. Children who lived in households benefiting from Bolsa Família had a significantly lower chance of dropping out in 2005. Data for 2009 were not statistically significant, although results pointed to a decrease in dropout rates, due to the impact of Bolsa Família. Resumo: Este artigo analisa o impacto das condicionalidades de educação do Programa Bolsa Família na evasão escolar de crianças beneficiárias deste programa. A principal hipótese é de que a criança residente em domicílio que recebe o benefício possui menores chances de abandonar a escola. São utilizados dados da Avaliação de Impacto do Programa Bolsa Família (AIBF) de 2005 e 2009 do Ministério do Desenvolvimento Social e Combate à Fome (MDS). Modelos logísticos estimaram as chances de crianças evadirem da escola em 2005 e 2009, em três limites de renda domiciliar per capita, levando em consideração características do domicílio, da mãe e da criança. Crianças que residiam em domicílios beneficiários do Programa Bolsa Família apresentaram redução significativa nas chances de evasão escolar em 2005. Os dados de 2009 não foram estatisticamente significativos, apesar de terem apontado para diminuição da evasão escolar, em decorrência do recebimento do Bolsa Família.
  • Racial and socioeconomic segregation: An analysis of three Brazilian Metropolitan areas
    Title in Portuguese: Segregação racial e socioeconômica: Uma análise de três áreas metropolitanas brasileiras Abstract: Brazil is characterized by racial and socioeconomic segregation. The objective of the research presented here is to analyze socioeconomic and racial segregation in three metropolitan areas (Recife, Belo Horizonte and Porto Alegre). Microdata from the 2000 Brazilian Census was used for this analysis, as well as maps produced for the selected areas by groups of census tracts (áreas de ponderação), using Geographic Information Systems techniques. In general, results indicate that among those areas with a majority of whites, a high proportion of the population holds at least high school degree. Moreover, the nonwhite population lives farther away from the core of the municipality, compared to whites. Finally, whites tend to live in less elevated areas with more public infrastructure and a greater availability of major roads. An improvement to this research could be the inclusion of spatial analysis and statistical models to better understand the relationship between race and socioeconomic indicators. Resumo: O Brasil é caracterizado por segregação racial e socioeconômica. O objetivo desta pesquisa é de analisar a segregação socioeconômica e racial em três áreas metropolitanas (Recife, Belo Horizonte e Porto Alegre). Microdados do Censo Demográfico do Brasil de 2000 foram usados para esta análise, assim como mapas produzidos para os locais selecionados por áreas de ponderação, utilizando técnicas de Sistemas de Informação Geográfica. Em geral, os resultados indicam que em áreas com maioria da população branca, uma alta proporção da população possui pelo menos o ensino médio completo. Além disso, a população não-branca vive longe das áreas centrais do município, em comparação aos brancos. Finalmente, os brancos tendem a viver em áreas menos elevadas, com mais infraestrutura pública e maior disponibilidade de vias públicas principais. Um aperfeiçoamento desta pesquisa poderia ser a inclusão de análise espacial e modelos estatísticos para melhor entender a relação entre indicadores raciais e socioeconômicos.
  • Unemployment benefits and formality in the Brazilian labor market
    Title in Portuguese: Seguro-desemprego e formalidade no mercado de trabalho brasileiro Abstract: This paper analyzes the relationship between unemployment benefits and formal employment in the Brazilian labor market. The central hypothesis is that these policies have a negative impact on the incidence of formal employment, after receiving the benefits. The databases used are the 1999–2009 Brazilian household surveys (PNAD). Logistic regression models were estimated, in order to evaluate the effect of unemployment benefits on the Brazilian labor market. The dependent variable indicates the occurrence of formal employment for workers. In addition to a set of independent variables (survey year, region of residence, census area, sex, race, age and education), the models include a public policy evaluation variable (unemployment benefits), as well as variables to analyze the trend of this public policy over time. After receiving unemployment benefits, the incidence of formal employment among workers decreases by 42%. The analysis of interactive terms indicates that increases in the real values of the benefits, held since 1999, have not caused significant effects on the dependent variable. Resumo: Este trabalho analisa a relação entre seguro-desemprego e emprego formal no mercado de trabalho brasileiro. A hipótese central é de que o recebimento deste benefício tem efeito negativo sobre a formalidade do trabalho no período posterior ao seu recebimento. São usados dados da PNAD (1999-2009). Para avaliar o efeito do seguro-desemprego sobre o mercado de trabalho brasileiro, foram estimados modelos de regressão logística. A variável dependente indica a formalidade no trabalho principal. Além de uma série de variáveis independentes (ano da pesquisa, região de residência, situação censitária, sexo, raça, idade e escolaridade), os modelos contêm uma variável de avaliação de política pública (seguro-desemprego) e variáveis para analisar a tendência desta política pública no decorrer do tempo. O recebimento do benefício do seguro-desemprego apresenta efeito negativo de 42% sobre a formalidade no trabalho principal no momento posterior ao recebimento do benefício. A análise dos termos interativos permite indicar que reajustes dos valores do benefício, realizados desde 1999, não causaram efeitos relevantes na formalização do trabalho.
  • Strengthening the evaluation of public policies in Brazil and the political aspects of this process
    Title in Portuguese: Avaliação de políticas públicas no Brasil: Aspectos políticos e fortalecimento da atividade Abstract: The evaluation of public policies in Brazil is still a developing process regarding conceptual and methodological aspects. Further research relating to this activity and the recognition of its importance would culminate in a deeper discussion about the evaluation process of public policies, as well as in the enhancement of the state management capacity. Utilizing a literature review, this study presents key concepts related to the subject of public policies, evaluates the political aspects about the policy cycle of public policies in Brazil, and examines the importance of strengthening the evaluation of public policies in the country. Resumo: A avaliação de políticas públicas no Brasil é uma área ainda incipiente do ponto de vista conceitual e metodológico. Acredita-se que o fortalecimento desta atividade e o reconhecimento de sua importância culminariam em uma maior preocupação e discussão a respeito do processo avaliativo de políticas públicas, além de um aprimoramento da capacidade de gestão do Estado. Com base em uma revisão bibliográfica, este trabalho apresenta conceitos-chave ligados ao tema das políticas públicas, avalia os aspectos políticos do ciclo da política pública no Brasil e examina a importância do fortalecimento da atividade de avaliação de políticas públicas no País.
  • Analysis of students' profiles who entered the Federal University of Minas Gerais utilizing the socio-racial bonus policy
    Title in Portuguese: Análise do perfil dos alunos ingressantes na UFMG pela iniciativa do bônus sociorracial Abstract: This article aims to verify whether the profile of students at the Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG) was modified after the implementation of the socio-racial bonus policy. Between 2009 and 2012, university candidates who studied for at least seven years in a public school received a ten percent bonus on the total points obtained on the admission exams. For those who studied in public schools and declared themselves black or mixed-race, gained an additional bonus of five percent, totaling a fifteen percent bonus. This paper analyzes socioeconomic data collected between 2000 and 2010 at UFMG by the admission exam’s permanent review committee (“Comissão Permanente do Vestibular” – COPEVE). We tried to establish whether there was a significant increase in the admittance of students from public schools, taking into account social, economic and family characteristics, as well as the undergraduate programs targeted by the students. This study is important in the context of the implementation of the 2012 Federal Government quota law (Law # 12,711). Results indicate a change in the profile of entering students at the university. This shift occurred after the implementation of the bonus policy, which facilitated the entrance of students from adverse socioeconomic conditions (public schools and diverse racial background). This data suggests that the bonus policy generated the desired effect in the most popular undergraduate programs. Resumo: Este artigo teve por objetivo verificar se o perfil dos candidatos aprovados na Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG) foi modificado após a implementação da política de bônus sociorracial. Nos vestibulares de 2009 a 2012, os inscritos que estudaram pelo menos os últimos sete anos em escola pública tiveram um bônus de 10% nos pontos totais obtidos. Para aqueles que estudaram em escola pública e que se autodeclararam negros, houve um bônus adicional de 5%, totalizando 15%. Foi desenvolvida uma análise de dados socioeconômicos coletados nos vestibulares da universidade, entre 2000 e 2010, pela Comissão Permanente do Vestibular (COPEVE). Procurou-se perceber se houve aumento significativo de estudantes provenientes de escolas públicas, levando ainda em consideração informações sociais, econômicas, familiares e cursos de escolha dos vestibulandos. Essa é uma discussão importante de ser realizada no contexto de implementação da lei de cotas do Governo Federal (Lei nº 12.711) de 2012. Verificou-se uma mudança no perfil dos ingressantes na universidade. Percebe-se que essa mudança ocorreu após a implementação da política de bônus, a qual facilitou a entrada de estudantes de condições socioeconômicas desfavoráveis na instituição. Esses são indicativos de que a política de bônus ocasionou o efeito desejado nos cursos mais concorridos, ao democratizar o acesso pelo vestibular.
  • Cultural forms and social perceptions of visitors at art and street food markets in Goiânia, Brazil
    Title in Portuguese: Formas Culturais e Percepção Social dos Frequentadores de Feiras de Arte e Alimentação de Goiânia Abstract: In this paper, we evaluate how the cultural manifestations of visitors attending art and food street markets in Goiânia generate diverse forms of social perception, establish social participation, and create or deepen social differences. Resumo: Neste artigo, verificamos em que medida as manifestações culturais dos frequentadores de feiras de arte e alimentação de Goiânia produzem formas diferenciadas de percepção social, determinam o nível de participação social e criam ou aprofundam as diferenças sociais.
  • Influences of transition in age-education structure and internal migration on the labour market in Brazil
    Title in Portuguese: Influências de transição da estrutura de idade-educação e migração interna no mercado de trabalho no Brasil Abstract: This study develops a methodology that incorporates internal migration dynamics into models that estimate the impact of demographic and education transitions on the age-education earnings profiles of Brazilian workers over time. Techniques to estimate the level and pattern of migration were integrated. Findings follow initial hypothesis, and indicate that the negative impact of cohort size on earnings is even more negative than estimates that did not take into account population flows. These methodological strategies can be applied to further studies when new data become available, as well as to other countries with the availability of migration data. Resumo: Este estudo desenvolve uma metodologia que incorpora a dinâmica de migração interna em modelos que estimam o impacto da transição demográfica e educação sobre os perfis de idade-educação ganhos dos trabalhadores brasileiros ao longo do tempo. Técnicas para estimar o nível e o padrão de migração foram integrados. Conclusões seguem hipótese inicial, e indicam que o impacto negativo do tamanho da coorte sobre os ganhos é ainda mais negativo do que as estimativas que não levam em conta os fluxos populacionais. Estas estratégias metodológicas podem ser aplicadas a outros estudos quando novos dados se tornam disponíveis, assim como a outros países com a disponibilidade de dados de migração.
  • Analysis of level, pattern, and determinants of population flows between Bahia and São Paulo
    Title in Portuguese: Análise do nível, padrão e determinantes dos fluxos populacionais entre Bahia e São Paulo Abstract: The main goal of this research is to analyze whether the pattern of concentration of migrants in a specific area of destination is the same as that of the area of origin of those migrants. The 2000 Brazilian Census has migration data for regions of origin (municipality) and destination (group of census tracts). Migration flows from 415 municipalities in the state of Bahia to 875 groups of census tracts in the mesoregion (metropolitan region) of São Paulo are analyzed. In Bahia, migrants are more likely to leave municipalities with low levels of education, which are surrounded by municipalities with the same levels of education. In São Paulo, migrants are more likely to move into areas with low education, and high proportion of population working, which are surrounded by areas with different levels in covariates. Low-skilled migrants are moving into areas with higher opportunities of jobs, but with low-skilled population. Resumo: A migração do Nordeste para São Paulo era caracterizada por fluxos de áreas rurais para áreas urbanas nas décadas de 1960 e 1970. Pessoas de classes sociais desfavorecidas migravam, e ainda migram, do Nordeste para São Paulo em busca de emprego. Nas últimas décadas, a migração interna se tornou mais complexa, com uma maior variedade de lugares de origem e destino, assim como uma mudança nas características sócio-econômicas dos migrantes. A análise descritiva de concentração dos migrantes sugeriu que os municípios com baixas taxas de emigração estão localizados em áreas mais desenvolvidas da Bahia. Os grupos de municípios com alta emigração se situam em áreas centrais do Estado, as quais são conhecidas por apresentarem baixos índices sócio-econômicos e de desenvolvimento. Em relação à análise de concentração de imigrantes na mesorregião de São Paulo, observa-se que os grupos de áreas de ponderação com altas taxas de imigração estão espalhados no oeste e nordeste dessa malha urbana. As áreas com baixas taxas de imigração estão concentradas nas áreas centrais da mesorregião e no sudeste dessa área urbana. Em relação aos modelos de regressão espacial, os resultados estatisticamente significantes indicam que os migrantes da Bahia para São Paulo tendem a apresentar baixa escolaridade e se dirigem para áreas com altas oportunidades de empregos, mas com uma população no destino que também apresenta baixos níveis educacionais.
  • Characterization of migrants in Goiás and the Federal District: 1980-2000
    Title in Portuguese: Caracterização de migrantes em Goiás e Distrito Federal: 1980-2000 Abstract: This paper aims to characterize the migrants in the state of Goiás and the Federal District, concerning their region of origin and destination. This study utilizes the 1980, 1991 and 2000 Brazilian Censuses, provided by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE). The demographic, educational and economic analyses of migrants suggest that population flows are related to labor market opportunities, mainly those ones in direction to the Federal District and the micro-region of Goiânia. Migrants with lower socio-economic and educational status are moving to the municipalities around the Federal District. The migration flows in 1986–1990 suggest that the Federal District surrounding municipalities are the final destination of migration movements that start in urban areas with high costs of life. This area is becoming the new expansion area in the Center-West region for low income migrants from the Southeast and the Federal District. Resumo: O objetivo deste artigo é de realizar uma caracterização dos migrantes do Estado de Goiás e Distrito Federal quanto à região de origem e destino. Este estudo é realizado com base nos dados dos Censos de 1980, 1991 e 2000 do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE). As análises demográfica, educacional e econômica dos migrantes sugerem fluxos populacionais típicos de pessoas em busca de oportunidades de emprego, principalmente para o Distrito Federal e microrregião de Goiânia. Migrantes de menor nível socioeconômico e educacional se direcionam para o entorno de Brasília. Os fluxos migratórios de 1986–1990 sugerem que o entorno de Brasília é a região de absorção final de movimentos migratórios, provenientes de centros urbanos com alto custo de vida. Essa microrregião está se caracterizando como uma nova área de expansão no Centro-Oeste para migrantes de baixa renda do Sudeste e Distrito Federal.
  • Methods and techniques to measure migration movements: Brazilian state of Goiás and the Federal District, 1975-1979 and 1986-1990
    Title in Portuguese: Métodos e técnicas de mensuração de movimentos migratórios: Goiás e Distrito Federal, 1975-1979 e 1986-1990 Abstract: This article discusses methodological procedures used to obtain indicators of standards and levels of migratory movements. The objective is to understand processes for estimating functions of migration based on the Demographic Censuses of 1980 and 1991, and studies that propose methods for estimating migration were analyzed. The proposal by Machado (1993) for calculating specific rates of emigration (TEEx) from data on the last stage of residence is very efficient for estimating migration functions. But adjustments in the calculation of the TEEx are made to obtain more consistent patterns of migratory functions. In the case of the 1991 Brazilian Census, rates were also estimated using data from fixed dates. This article also proposes an analysis of the level of migration using the Total Emigration Rate (TET). These techniques were applied to migration to Goiás and the Federal District, with analysis of the pattern and level of the demographic flows. Resumo: O artigo discute os procedimentos metodológicos utilizados para obtenção de indicadores de padrão e nível de movimentos migratórios. O objetivo é compreender os processos de estimação de funções de migração com os dados dos Censos Demográficos de 1980 e 1991. Foram analisados estudos que propuseram metodologias de estimação da migração. A proposta de Machado (1993), de calcular Taxas Específicas de Emigração (TEEx) com dados de última etapa de residência, é muito eficiente para estimar funções de migração. Porém, são realizados ajustes no cálculo das TEEx para se obter padrões das funções de migração mais consistentes. No caso do Censo de 1991, também foram estimadas taxas com dados de data fixa. Além disso, o artigo propõe a análise do nível da migração com o uso da Taxa de Emigração Total (TET). Essas técnicas foram aplicadas à migração para Goiás e Distrito Federal, com análise do padrão e nível dos fluxos populacionais.
  • Synthesis of migration in the Brazilian state of Goiás and the Federal District in the last decades
    Title in Portuguese: Síntese da migração em Goiás e no Distrito Federal nas últimas décadas Abstract: This article presents research about migratory movements in Goiás and Distrito Federal, Brazil. It synthesizes a picture of larger population attraction areas in the Centro-Oeste, Goiânia micro-regions, and Distrito Federal's Entorno. Initially, it indicates a migratory redriving to the region in the 70's, originated from capital development in agriculture, with agriculture mechanization and alteration of social relations of production. Such changes in the previous situation of population absorption, gives place to a larger worker’s flow towards the cities. The final part of the article brings a migration profile of these regions, based on literature categories for migration flows and territory redefinition both induced by agriculture modernization. Also, the authors utilize techniques of migration analyses and compare trends of the two fundamental areas with data of 16 Goiás micro-regions. Resumo: O artigo trata dos movimentos migratórios em Goiás e no Distrito Federal, sintetizando o panorama que se forma nas áreas de maior atração de contingentes populacionais na Região Centro-Oeste, as microrregiões de Goiânia e Entorno do Distrito Federal. De início, localiza nos anos setenta um redirecionamento migratório na região, decorrente do desenvolvimento do capital na agricultura, que mecaniza lavouras e altera as relações sociais de produção. O predomínio no período anterior, da absorção de excedentes populacionais de outras regiões, dá lugar, nos anos seguintes, a um maior fluxo de trabalhadores em direção às cidades. Na última parte, os autores traçam um perfil da migração nas regiões estudadas, recorrendo a classificações da literatura para fluxos migratórios e a redefinições do território provocadas pela modernização agrícola. Também sustentam o estudo, técnicas de análise de migração e comparações das tendências nas duas áreas principais com os dados das 16 microrregiões de Goiás.
  • Participation from above and from below: brand community and the contestation of cultural participation
    This paper draws on work in sociology and marketing studies to develop a theory of cultural participation as fundamentally contested, between cultural producers who aim to steer and manage the activity of participants via the brand community (participation from above) and participants who have the potential to resist and challenge the producers’ direction (participation from below). It develops this theory empirically with reference to a cultural form in which audience participation plays a central part, professional wrestling. World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE) aims to direct and contain participation within sanctioned parameters, both online and offline, while fans retain the capacity to develop and voice an effective critique of existing storylines through those same venues. By sampling the key storylines building to WWE’s marquee event, Wrestlemania, from 2014 to 2016, I show how the logics of participation from above and below interact, and how, ultimately, the production and reproduction of brand community are fundamentally contested.
  • KONSUMERISME MENUJU KONSTRUKSI MASYARAKAT MODERN
    Tidak lepas dalam ingatan kita, bagaimana Jean Baudrilard menelanjangi konsumerisme dengan karya besar tentang masyarakat konsumsi, Yasraf Amir Piliang mencoba untuk meretas konsumerisme lewat tafsir Cultural Studies atas matinya Makna, sementara itu Ritzer, Douglas, maupun Barry Smart yang masih setengah hati menafsirkan makna dari konsumerisme. Kesemuanya itu adalah upaya mengkonstruksi dan meleburkan nilai-nilai yang terkandung dan terbangun dalam suatu essay lepas untuk menumbuhkan kesadaran bahwa konsumerisme siap menerkam kita kapan saja dan dimana saja
  • The Price of an Uncertain Promise: Fair Value Accounting and the Shaping of Bank Counterparty Risk Valuation Practices
    How did the adoption of fair value accounting by the FASB shape the financial modelling practices used by market practitioners? Drawing on documentary sources, ethnographic fieldwork, and 52 interviews with financial economists and market participants, this article addresses this question by tracing the development and adoption of the mathematical models and associated infrastructures that derivatives ‘dealer’ banks use to assign value to the counterparty risk embedded in the ‘over-the-counter’ derivatives contracts they trade. Rather than reflecting a pre-existing consensus on the part of financial market participants in favour of valuation practices drawn from financial economics, this article suggests that the switch to fair value actively shaped the financial modelling and risk management practices used by dealers to value and manage this risk. While a number of material and institutional factors shaped the adoption of these practices, the switch to fair value ultimately ‘tipped the balance’ in favor of a particular set of practices that were preferred by a minority of investment banks. In explaining the development and adoption of banks’ counterparty risk modelling practices, this paper develops a hybrid theoretical approach that combines organisational institutionalism’s focus on meso-level field dynamics and the social studies of finance’s focus on materiality.
  • Creative methods of teaching accountancy- Its impact
    Education is a vital process for personality development and social change. The teaching profession is filled with countless opportunities to enrich the academic lives of students. While some concepts and educational objectives will be easy for students to grasp, others will require creativity to ensure that important learning objectives are met. The teaching strategies used must therefore be in line with the contextual learning theory where the aim of education is the integration of content learnt with the real world experiences. Using audio/visual aids in teaching is one way to enhance lesson plans and give students additional ways to process subject information. Therefore, teaching tools such as interactive case studies, simulations and games, group work are widely recommended by several research organizations. In the past, many activities of accounting professors were restricted or confined by their classroom walls. Today, numerous technological advancements in communication infrastructure, equipment and online tools greatly facilitate the initiatives that require effective teachings. Outside experts can now visit the classroom, students can explore or collaborate in distant places and professors can extend the geographical reach of their lessons simply via the means of digital video technology. Presenting accountancy in student-centered and computer-based learning environments can demonstrate the practicality and necessity of the subject, particularly as a foundation for many career options. This article explores various pedagogical approaches that veteran accounting instructors have successfully used to make accounting attractive and enlightening for students, its impact and suggestions.
  • Investigation of Principals’ Technology Leadership Profiles in the context of Schools’ Learning Organization Culture and ICT Infrastructure: F@tih Project Schools vs. the Others
    Although there is a growing body of literature about the integration of information and communication technologies (ICT) into K-12 schools and the ways how individually school principals can lead and support these initiatives, little is known about to what extent principals’ technology leadership (TL) practices are predictable by school’s organization culture and present ICT infrastructure. Hence, in this exploratory study, we set out to classify Turkish principals by their TL practices into discrete TL profiles, taking individual, cultural and infrastructural factors into consideration. The five standards of International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE-2009) were taken as the measures of TL practices. Some main components of the learning organization (LO) culture such as team learning, shared vision and systems thinking disciplines were regarded as the measures of school culture. Principal’s age and gender demographics, computer and internet usage frequency, school’s F@tih project status and teachers’ perception of LO culture were used as predictor variables. The current study surveyed 1105 teachers and 58 principals from 69 K-12 public schools located in Istanbul city. Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to assign principals to distinct TL profiles. Afterwards, logistic regression analysis was undertaken to determine significant predictors of the outcome TL profiles. The results revealed that Turkish principals assume two different profile of TL practices, leveled as high and low profiles. Almost 55% of the principals were delineated in the high-profile structure due to their strong interest to perform ISTE standards, whereas 45% of the principals were classified in the low-profile structure because of their relatively poor interest in the standards. The most striking result to emerge from this research is that Turkish principals are most likely to perform high-profile TL practices when having: a) run a F@tih project school; b) used internet technology more frequently, c) managed a school in which teachers perceive a higher level of team learning LO culture, changing odds ratios from 4 up to 26 times higher.
  • Visualizing demographic evolution using geographically inconsistent census data
    Video Abstract: https://youtu.be/bKeV08Os0uA Census measurements provide reliable demographic data going back centuries. However, their analysis is often hampered by the lack of geographical consistency across time. We propose a visual analytics system that enables the exploration of geographically inconsistent data. Our method also includes incremental developments in the representation, clustering, and visual exploration of census data, allowing an easier understanding of the demographic groups present in a city and their evolution over time. We present the feedback of experts in urban sciences and sociology, along with illustrative scenarios in the USA and Canada.
  • Improvements of techniques to estimate migration rates: An application with Brazilian censuses data
    This paper intends to develop procedures which can be applied to different countries and databases to estimate migration rates using information on place of previous residence (last-move data) and duration of residence. For this, some modifications are proposed to previous methods, in order to improve the measurement of migration rates. Other estimations were calculated with information on place of residence at some fixed date in the past. Results suggest that estimations with improved techniques using last-move data give similar results to those ones provided by techniques based on place of residence from a specified number of years preceding the Census enumeration. As a demonstration, 1970, 1980, 1991 and 2000 Brazilian Censuses are used to estimate both sets of rates.
  • Some determinants of the existence of government websites: 853 municipalities in Minas Gerais, Brazil
    This study evaluates whether 853 municipalities of Minas Gerais have developed one specific strategy of electronic government. We searched for municipalities that have websites for the executive branch, relating this information to a number of secondary data. These data include variables on the Municipal Human Development Index (HDI-M), municipal budgetary revenues, year of founding of municipalities, the mayor’s party affiliation, and a public policy initiative related to the creation of municipal executive branch websites. This analysis was performed to develop descriptive statistics among the variables collected. In addition to exploring descriptive analysis, we attempted to determine statistical models that explain the existence of websites for municipal executives. This allowed us to determine whether municipalities that were established earlier than others, have the highest HDI-M, and have larger budgets are also more likely to have websites. The results indicate that older municipalities, as well as those with higher HDI-M and elevated budgetary revenues, are more likely to have websites. A mayor’s party affiliation indicates that municipalities administered by the Workers’ Party (Partido dos Trabalhadores, or PT, the center-left-wing party) are more likely to have websites than municipalities governed by the Brazilian Social Democratic Party (Partido da Social Democracia Brasileira, or PSDB, the center-right-wing party). Furthermore, municipalities that use the state government program Integra Minas (Connect Minas) are less likely to have their own websites, which is an indication that these locations are using policy resources to communicate electronically with the population. Thus, newly founded municipalities with low HDI-M, with low budgetary revenue, and administered by center-right-wing parties may benefit from public policies that encourage greater transparency in the communication of municipal executives with their population.
  • Government or Opposition? The Determinants of Legislative Support for Governors in Brazil
  • Government or opposition? The determinants of legislative support for governors in Brazil
    This article analyzes the microfoundations of support for governors in Brazil based on a decision model in which deputies attempt to reduce their electoral risks. This model considers the effects of the individual backgrounds of legislators, party strength, and the dynamics of political competition in states. We used ordinary least square regression models to estimate the chances of a legislator to adopt an oppositional stance. The results confirm the multidimensional nature of the government-building process in Brazil. Adhesion is not only coordinated on a partisan basis, but it is also shaped by perceptions of electoral risks, as well as by expected rewards that different political careers and partisan linkages shape.
  • Avaliação de Impacto das condicionalidades de educação do Programa Bolsa Família (2005 e 2009)
  • A Unified Psychological and Anthropological Model of Religion
    There are many psychological and anthropological models of religion. However, in many cases, the models produced in psychological research are not compatible with those from anthropological research, and in some cases, these models contradict core anthropological concepts. This paper identifies apparent cognitive signatures of religious belief, and integrates them with Ninian Smart's seven dimensions of religion in order to construct a unified model of religion.
  • Crowdsourced Quantification and Visualization of Urban Mobility Space Inequality
  • Trustworthiness: A Developmental Perspective
    Trust and trustworthiness are important pillars of interpersonal, societal, and economic functioning. We provide an overview of how trustworthiness develops across the lifespan. Previous studies point to an increase in trustworthiness during childhood; relatively stable levels throughout adolescence and adulthood; and some evidence suggests a further increase in old age. Young children's lower levels of trustworthiness are mirrored by differences in fundamental motives that drive social behavior, such as concerns for reciprocity and fairness. While reciprocal tendencies emerge early, young children show less fairness concerns. This pattern can be linked to the development of certain cognitive abilities that are necessary to engage in social behaviors beyond indiscriminate selfishness. Children need to exert self-control to resist the temptation of keeping all resources to themselves and they need to engage in perspective-taking to appreciate the negative consequences of their selfishness. Thus, both social and cognitive development should be considered when studying age differences in trustworthiness.
  • Data policies of highly-ranked social science journals
    By encouraging and requiring that authors share their data in order to publish articles, scholarly journals have become an important actor in the movement to improve the openness of data and the reproducibility of research. But how many social science journals encourage or mandate that authors share the data supporting their research findings? How does the share of journal data policies vary by discipline? What influences these journals’ decisions to adopt such policies and instructions? And what do those policies and instructions look like? We discuss the results of our analysis of the instructions and policies of 291 highly-ranked journals publishing social science research, where we studied the contents of journal data policies and instructions across 14 variables, such as when and how authors are asked to share their data, and what role journal ranking and age play in the existence and quality of data policies and instructions. We also compare our results to the results of other studies that have analyzed the policies of social science journals, although differences in the journals chosen and how each study defines what constitutes a data policy limit this comparison. We conclude that a little more than half of the journals in our study have data policies. A greater share of the economics journals have data policies and mandate sharing, followed by political science/international relations and psychology journals. Finally, we use our findings to make several recommendations: Policies should include the terms “data,” “dataset” or more specific terms that make it clear what to make available; policies should include the benefits of data sharing; journals, publishers, and associations need to collaborate more to clarify data policies; and policies should explicitly ask for qualitative data.
  • Expert Knowledge Influences Decision-Making for Couples Receiving Positive Prenatal Chromosomal Microarray Testing Results
    AbstractTo assess how participants receiving abnormal prenatal genetic testing results seek information and understand the implications of results, 27 US female patients and 12 of their male partners receiving positive prenatal microarray testing results completed semi-structured phone interviews. These interviews documented participant experiences with chromosomal microarray testing, understanding of and emotional response to receiving results, factors affecting decision-making about testing and pregnancy termination, and psychosocial needs throughout the testing process. Interview data were analyzed using a modified grounded theory approach. In the absence of certainty about the implications of results, understanding of results is shaped by biomedical expert knowledge (BEK) and cultural expert knowledge (CEK). When there is a dearth of BEK, as in the case of receiving results of uncertain significance, participants rely on CEK, including religious/spiritual beliefs, “gut instinct,” embodied knowledge, and social network informants. CEK is a powerful platform to guide understanding of prenatal genetic testing results. The utility of culturally situated expert knowledge during testing uncertainty emphasizes that decision-making occurs within discourses beyond the biomedical domain. These forms of “knowing” may be integrated into clinical consideration of efficacious patient assessment and counseling.
  • Expert Knowledge Influences Decision-Making for Couples Receiving Positive Prenatal Chromosomal Microarray Testing Results
    To assess how participants receiving abnormal prenatal genetic testing results seek information and understand the implications of results, 27 US female patients and 12 of their male partners receiving positive prenatal microarray testing results completed semi-structured phone interviews. These interviews documented participant experiences with chromosomal microarray testing, understanding of and emotional response to receiving results, factors affecting decision-making about testing and pregnancy termination, and psychosocial needs throughout the testing process. Interview data were analyzed using a modified grounded theory approach. In the absence of certainty about the implications of results, understanding of results is shaped by biomedical expert knowledge (BEK) and cultural expert knowledge (CEK). When there is a dearth of BEK, as in the case of receiving results of uncertain significance, participants rely on CEK, including religious/spiritual beliefs, “gut instinct,” embodied knowledge, and social network informants. CEK is a powerful platform to guide understanding of prenatal genetic testing results. The utility of culturally situated expert knowledge during testing uncertainty emphasizes that decision-making occurs within discourses beyond the biomedical domain. These forms of “knowing” may be integrated into clinical consideration of efficacious patient assessment and counseling.
  • Aplicações de técnicas avançadas de avaliação de políticas públicas
    Este livro busca apresentar os resultados de trabalhos ligados à aplicação de diferentes técnicas quantitativas na avaliação de políticas públicas. O intuito é que estas análises possam ser utilizadas didaticamente em cursos de graduação e pós-graduação no Brasil que tenham como objetivo apresentar exemplos de análises empíricas a alunos de cursos em Ciências Sociais Aplicadas. A especificidade das análises aqui realizadas é que são acessíveis a um público menos preocupado em formulações matemáticas e mais interessado em entender aplicações estatísticas em problemas do mundo social. Os capítulos do livro são: – Capítulo 1 Utilização de metodologias de avaliação de políticas públicas no Brasil – Capítulo 2 Avaliação das condicionalidades de educação do Programa Bolsa Família: uma análise com o Censo Demográfico do Brasil de 2010 – Capítulo 3 Políticas de transferências condicionadas de renda e a taxa de distorção idade/série: uma análise do Censo Escolar, 1995, 2002 e 2012 – Capítulo 4 Estudo sobre o Sistema Universidade Aberta do Brasil (UAB) e a formação de professores da educação básica, 2003, 2005 e 2011 – Capítulo 5 A política pública do bônus sociorracial na UFMG: avaliação do acesso pelo vestibular, 2008, 2009 e 2010 – Capítulo 6 Ensino profissionalizante como política de aproveitamento do dividendo demográfico: Minas Gerais, 2011 – Capítulo 7 Vulnerabilidade no espaço urbano: análise da Região Metropolitana de Belo Horizonte, 2000 – Capítulo 8 Avaliação de políticas habitacionais do Programa de Aceleração do Crescimento (PAC): Região Metropolitana de Belo Horizonte, 2010 – Capítulo 9 Análise de pacientes com condições crônicas e a ocorrência de internações hospitalares no Brasil e Minas Gerais, 1998, 2003, 2008 e 2011 – Capítulo 10 Correlação entre o recebimento de auxílios e o rendimento de trabalhadores no Brasil, 2001-2011 – Capítulo 11 Posição relativa do rendimento do trabalho do pequeno produtor familiar (1976-2005): algo mudou com o Pronaf? – Capítulo 12 O impacto do Parlamento Jovem sobre a confiança dos jovens mineiros, 2008
  • Duality in Diversity: Cultural Heterogeneity, Language, and Firm Performance
    How does cultural heterogeneity in an organization relate to its underlying capacity for execution and innovation? Existing literature often understands cultural diversity as presenting a trade-off between task coordination and creative problem-solving. This work assumes that diversity arises primarily through cultural differences between individuals. In contrast, we propose that diversity can also exist within persons such that cultural heterogeneity can be unpacked into two distinct forms: interpersonal and intrapersonal. We argue that the former tends to undermine coordination and portends worsening firm profitability, while the latter facilitates creativity and supports greater patenting success and more positive market valuations. To evaluate these propositions, we use unsupervised learning to identify cultural content in employee reviews of nearly 500 publicly traded firms on a leading company review website and then develop novel, time-varying measures of cultural heterogeneity. Our empirical results lend support for our two core propositions, demonstrating that a diversity of cultural beliefs in an organization does not necessarily impose a trade-off between operational efficiency and creativity.
  • Positive Returns and Equilibrium: Simultaneous Feedback Between Public Opinion and Social Policy
    This paper pushes forward political research from across disciplines seeking to understand the linkages between public opinion and social policy in democracies. It considers the thermostatic and the increasing returns perspectives as pointing toward a potentially stable set of effects running between opinion and policy. Both theoretical perspectives argue that opinion and policy are reciprocally causal, feeding back on one another. This is a general argument found in opinion-policy literatures. However, much empirical research claims to model “feedback” effects when actually using separate unidirectional models of opinion and policy. Only a small body of research addresses opinion-policy endogeneity directly. In this paper I consider an opinion-policy system with simultaneous feedback and without lags. I argue that there is a theoretical equilibrium in the relationship of opinion and policy underlying the otherwise cyclical processes that link them. Given that available cross-national data are cross-sectional and provide limited degrees of freedom, an ideal theoretical model must be somewhat constrained in order to arrive at empirically meaningful results. In this challenging and exploratory undertaking I hope to open up the possibility of a general system of effects between public opinion and social policy and how to model them in future research. I focus on social welfare policy as it is highly salient to public interests and a costly area of government budgets, making it an area of contentious policymaking. Social policy is also a major part of the thermostatic model of opinion and policy, which was recently extended to the cross-national comparative context (Wlezien & Soroka, 2012) providing a critical predecessor to this paper because identification of equilibrium between public opinion and social policy in any given society is greatly enhanced through comparison with other societies. This counterfactual approach helps to identify opinion-policy patterns that may not change much within societies, but can be seen as taking on discrete trajectories between societies.
  • Positive Returns and Equilibrium: Simultaneous Feedback Between Public Opinion and Social Policy
    Positive Returns and Equilibrium
  • The Emotional Labor of Surveillance: Evidence from the Fast Fashion Retail Industry
    This paper explores the impact of digital and biometric surveillance on front-line fast fashion retail workers. The author begins by taking an intersectional approach to worker surveillance, synthesizing sociology of work and feminist surveillance studies. Through ethnography and interviews, the author finds that automated flexible scheduling, a now widely documented phenomenon, helps fine-tune a just-in-time workforce and spurs additional forms of digital control—including biometric scanners and point-of-sale metrics—when combined with the discourse of the ‘suspect flexible worker.’ While the technologies described exhibit regular limitations, such as failure and vulnerability to sabotage, they nevertheless have the cumulative effect of exacerbating worker insecurity and reinforcing inequality. Amidst the decline of interactive emotional service work in low-wage retail, the author identifies the presence of another kind of affective labor—that of working amidst often invisible, yet pervasive digital monitoring. The author calls this work the emotional labor of surveillance.
  • Intergenerational Social Mobility and Perceived Ethnic Discrimination
    This article adds an intergenerational perspective to the study of perceived ethnic discrimination. I propose the conjecture that perceived discrimination tends to in-crease with parental education, particularly among those who have attained only mediocre levels of education themselves. I develop this idea as an argument that comes in two versions: a narrow version about downward (intergenerational) mobility and a wide version that considers unfulfilled mobility aspirations more generally. Analyses based on the six-country comparative EURISLAM survey of (domestically educated) Muslim persons of immigrant origin support the argument: parental education positively predicts perceived discrimination in general, but among the less educated this relation is most pronounced whereas it is absent among those with tertiary education. A replication and falsification test based on the German IAB-SOEP Migration Sample reconfirms these results. Several supplementary analyses suggest processes associated with unfulfilled mobility aspirations as the most plausible underlying reason.
  • Restorative Justice
    With a focus on the emergence, development, and use of restorative justice (RJ) in Australia and New Zealand, this chapter provides an overview of the types of RJ practices used, their history and implementation in youth and criminal justice systems, and their role in contemporary justice practices. Consideration is also given to major research conducted on the use of RJ in Australia and New Zealand related to RJ goals of victim redress, offender accountability and reintegration, and community involvement in RJ processes. Future directions for research and practice are also provided.
  • Crowdsourced Quantification and Visualization of Urban Mobility Space Inequality
    Most cities are car-centric, allocating a privileged amount of urban space to cars at the expense of sustainable mobility like cycling. Simultaneously, privately owned vehicles are vastly underused, wasting valuable opportunities for accommodating more people in a livable urban environment by occupying spacious parking areas. Since a data-driven quantification and visualization of such urban mobility space inequality is lacking, here we explore how crowdsourced data can help to advance its understanding. In particular, we describe how the open-source online platform What the Street!? uses massive user-generated data from OpenStreetMap for the interactive exploration of city-wide mobility spaces. Using polygon packing and graph algorithms, the platform rearranges all parking and mobility spaces of cars, rails, and bicycles of a city to be directly comparable, making mobility space inequality accessible to a broad public. This crowdsourced method confirms a prevalent imbalance between modal share and space allocation in 23 cities worldwide, typically discriminating bicycles. Analyzing the guesses of the platform’s visitors about mobility space distributions, we find that this discrimination is consistently underestimated in the public opinion. Finally, we discuss a visualized scenario in which extensive parking areas are regained through fleets of shared, autonomous vehicles. We outline how such accessible visualization platforms can facilitate urban planners and policy makers to reclaim road and parking space for pushing forward sustainable transport solutions.
  • An Integrated Pipeline Architecture for Modeling Urban Land Use, Travel Demand, and Traffic Assignment
    Integrating land use, travel demand, and traffic models represents a gold standard for regional planning, but is rarely achieved in a meaningful way, especially at the scale of disaggregate data. In this report, we present a new pipeline architecture for integrated modeling of urban land use, travel demand, and traffic assignment. Our land use model, UrbanSim, is an open-source microsimulation platform used by metropolitan planning organizations worldwide for modeling the growth and development of cities over long (~30 year) time horizons. UrbanSim is particularly powerful as a scenario analysis tool, enabling planners to compare and contrast the impacts of different policy decisions on long term land use forecasts in a statistically rigorous way. Our travel demand model, ActivitySim, is an agent-based modeling platform that produces synthetic origin--destination travel demand data. Finally, we use a static user equilibrium traffic assignment model based on the Frank-Wolfe algorithm to assign vehicles to specific network paths to make trips between origins and destinations. This traffic assignment model runs in a high-performance computing environment. The resulting congested travel time data can then be fed back into UrbanSim and ActivitySim for the next model run. This technical report introduces this research area, describes this project's achievements so far in developing this integrated pipeline, and presents an upcoming research agenda.
  • Scholastic Achievement and Computer Attitudes among Moroccan University Students
  • Scholastic Achievement and Computer Attitudes among Moroccan University Students
    In Morocco, like any other parts of the world, the government has enormously been an enthusiastic supporter of technology to uplift the education quality. However, without students' positive computer attitudes, students will not be successful nor will be prepared to acquire new knowledge to achieve good results. To this end, the present study (1) identifies the potential relationship between computer enjoyment (CE) and students' English achievement (EA), (2) explores the type of relationship between computer anxiety (CA) and achievement in English, (3) examines the nature of relationship between computer utility (CU) and English achievement (EA), and finally investigates the type of relationship between computer familiarity (CF) and English achievement among Moroccan university students. Therefore, the main instruments, questionnaires and achievement tests, are analyzed and interpreted quantitatively; whereas the semi-structured interviews are treated qualitatively. The statistical tools used in order to help analyze and interpret data make use of percentages, frequencies, and Correlation tests. Following what has been hypothesized, the quantitative findings reveal that there is no statistically significant correlation between CE, CA, CU, CF and EA. Likewise, the qualitative data results confirm the quantitative findings.
  • Correlation between Self-Efficacy Perception and Teaching Performance: The Case of Mexican Preschool and Primary School Teachers
  • Correlation between Self-Efficacy Perception and Teaching Performance: The Case of Mexican Preschool and Primary School Teachers
    Self-efficacy (SE) is a key factor of the teaching-learning process success. While literature on SE and its dimensions is rich in the field of education, still there is a lack of studies aiming to explore teachers’ SE in contrast with their actual teaching skills and their characteristics. For this reason, this study aims to respond to the following research questions: are there differences between perceived SE and actual teaching performance in preschool and primary school teachers? Which sources of SE can be considered as significant predictors of teachers’ SE? This work employs a quantitative approach based on the observational method. Teacher Sense of Efficacy Scale and classroom observation frameworks were used to collect data from a sample of 24 teachers. Results show that there are high inconsistencies between self-judgments and actual teaching performance (p > .05). Experienced and medium experienced teachers show higher scores than novice teachers in several dimensions of SE (p < .05). However, teachers’ educational background is not significantly correlated with their SE (p > .05). Resource support is found as the only significant predictor of SE in our sample of teachers (p < .001; p2 = .733). Our research suggests that teachers may have a distorted perception of their in-class performance, which could drive to lower quality of the teaching-learning process. Therefore, in the future, professional training programs should focus on promoting a more realistic understanding and awareness of teachers’ actions in the classroom as the first step of any intervention aiming to increase teaching quality.
  • Theory of Mind and Linguistic Acquisition
  • Historical and Social Background of English Name Giving Process
  • Historical and Social Background of English Name Giving Process
    The article focuses on historical and social background of English name giving process. Proper names are considered as a leading group of onomastic units due to its extra linguistic component and direct connection with a human being. The processes of globalisation influence on all spheres of life and name giving process is not an exception. Challenges of nomination are explained in the article. The actuality of the paper is defined by the authors’ point of view who cling to the idea that in modern globalized world only a proper name could be an only identifier of the national and confessional identity of an individual. Historical milestones that impact on name giving process are mentioned and social factors which influence name giving process are classified and described. Proper names have passed a long evolutionary way from a word – the identifier of a person among similar to legally significant sign of a linguistic personality, a register component which defines a social status and position of the individual in society. The research is relevant in the linguistic, social, national and cognitive aspects, as it demonstrates an interaction between language and society. At the modern stage of the English anthroponymics progress, the researchers described social factors influencing name giving process.
  • English Language and the Changing Linguistic Landscape: New Trends in ELT Classrooms
  • English Language and the Changing Linguistic Landscape: New Trends in ELT Classrooms
    The history of English Language Teaching (ELT) has shown that this fast growing field is facing unprecedented challenges posed by the recent developments in the status of the English language as a world’s leading language and the eventual change in the linguistic landscape. This paper provides an opportunity to examine the impact of the phenomenal spread of English in recent years and its eventual dominance in the international arena as seen in the practice of English Language Teaching (ELT) and learning, particularly in English as a Second Language (ESL)/English as Foreign Language (EFL) contexts. The paper reports the implications of the recent growth of English for crucial ELT practices and areas such as learner identity, code selection in classroom, teaching methods, syllabus design and material development. It draws on issues pertaining to English as a lingua franca theory in an attempt to address this debatable topic and consider the necessity of taking into consideration the emerging trends in ELT classrooms globally.
  • Exploring Teachers’ Identity: Reflections and Implications
  • Exploring Teachers’ Identity: Reflections and Implications
    With the rapid developments and changes with digital technologies, teachers are challenged to develop their thinking and practice to instill critical minds able to participate actively in the knowledge society. Indeed, students need to develop the necessary 21st century skills that enable them to thrive for today’s economy. According to the Educational Testing Service (ETS) (2007), the 21st century learning skills refer to the ability to a) collect and/or retrieve information, b) organize and manage information, c) evaluate the quality, relevance, and usefulness of information, and d) generate accurate information through the use of existing resources. To achieve this goal, teachers’ professional identity has been further questioned, thereby generating debates and issues regarding their role. What teachers need to know, what beliefs they should hold and how they can achieve their professional development, are among the core intentions of today’s teacher education. Within this concern, this article aims to explore teachers’ professional identity to support teachers and teacher students understand their role and the conception of learning in 21st century education
  • CLIL: Content based Instructional Approach to Second Language Pedagogy
  • CLIL: Content based Instructional Approach to Second Language Pedagogy
    The present paper accentuates the need for innovation in pedagogical theory and practice of the day. It elucidates the linguistic dilemma of the present times and identifies space for bilingualism and pluriculturalism. To make the readers acquainted with Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL), the authors corroborate the detailed theoretical framework by establishing links with growing trends of cross continent migration, rising globalisation and expansion of multicultural and multiethnic contexts in the educational arena. A brief prehistory of CLIL has also been explored to justify its birth in helping out the linguists and educationists in Europe and beyond. The paper delineates the theory of Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) diagrammatically employing content, cognition and communication in a linguistic culture. It explicates the various nomenclatures, dimensions, functions and the developmental stages of CLIL pedagogy at the dawn of the new millennium. After exploring the theoretical, functional and futuristic facets of CLIL, it is concluded that CLIL is an apt, economical and timely framework of bringing diverse cultures and languages closer to one another and can help build cosmopolitan identity of learners in the Knowledge Age.
  • Writing for Comprehension in Prose Fiction Analysis: The Students’ Voices
  • Writing for Comprehension in Prose Fiction Analysis: The Students’ Voices
    Literary appreciation and language teaching have long been associated with two different constructs. However, with careful selection and planning, literary study and language teaching can be integrated for the benefits of language learning as well as for literary appreciation. This study is attempted to investigate (i) the students’ opinion in relation to the effective way of understanding the intrinsic elements of prose fiction,(ii) their opinion in relation to analyzing fictions in the form of an essay, and (iii) what they learn in terms of the literary aspects and writing aspects. The design the study is content analysis design through document analysis. The participants of the study were 31 students of English Education Study program who took prose subject in College of Teacher Training and Education of Indonesian Teachers Association (STKIP PGRI) in Pasuruan, East Java, Indonesia.. The data was taken from the students reflection writing which was collected in the end of the semester after they joined prose subject class. Thus, the instrument used was mainly documentation. To help the researchers categorized and analyzed the data, some codifications were used. The finding shows the majority of the students believe making an essay to analyze fictions is the effective way to understand the intrinsic elements of prose and help them in sharpening their ability to read and write. The result of the study also shows that writing essays to analyze fictions give some benefits for the students’ knowledge in how to write well as well as in comprehending the literary aspects of a fictions
  • Challenges in Practicum: Views and Perceptions of EFL Pre-service Teachers towards Field Experience Skills in Real Classrooms
    The purpose of this classroom action research was to investigate the perceptions of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) pre-service teachers towards the challenges they face in teaching experience during the practicum period. The participants were 35 Saudi EFL female pre-service teachers in the Educational Diploma Program (EDP) attending Teaching Practicum (1) Course in Taibah University, Saudi Arabia. A mixed method, which contains both quantitative and qualitative research design, was used to collect data. Research instruments comprised a perception opinionnaire designed to measure the perceptions of EFL pre-service teachers towards the challenges they face in teaching experience during the practicum. The results showed that EFL pre-service teachers considered the observation period during the Teaching Practicum (1) Course between moderately and extremely beneficial. The results of the perceptions of EFL pre-service teachers regarding classroom-teaching skills were between highly and moderately to low challenging. Additionally, their skills related to school environment indicated less challenging than skills related to classroom teaching experiences. The results of the open-ended question were divided into three meaningful and thoughtful categories to add much depth and understanding of the research problem. Some recommendations based on the results were derived. For example, EFL pre-service teachers needed further development in teaching experiences and skills related to classrooms and school setting. Furthermore, meetings, workshops, and/or small discussion sessions need to be conducted between all the stakeholders in the practicum to explore problems and anticipate possible solutions.
  • Challenges in Practicum: Views and Perceptions of EFL Pre-service Teachers towards Field Experience Skills in Real Classrooms
  • Identifying Training Needs of In-Service EFL Teachers in Inclusive Schools in Egypt
  • How learners of English learn best in a foreign language context? A glimpse of the debate over the written versus the spoken form
  • How learners of English learn best in a foreign language context? A glimpse of the debate over the written versus the spoken form
    The primacy of speech in second language learning and the relative lack of importance of the written form have triggered a continuous debate in the field of language teaching methodology. The various approaches which have been developed throughout the years emphasise the importance of the spoken language. Therefore, the written form has been taken for granted in most teaching methodologies. This paper considers the question of whether second language learners learn best through spoken or written language. It reviews the literature with regard to how speaking and writing have been taught in the last two decades. In addition, it describes the differences between spoken and written forms of languages. The paper then presents some characteristics and features of both language forms and states the situation of teaching English in a foreign language context. The paper concludes that both spoken and written aspects of any language are important in language learning and they both complement one another. Second language learners need to learn both aspects in order to master the language. The degree of exposure to spoken or written language is yet determined by the learners’ purpose for learning the language.
  • Reflective Professional Development Journals for Constructivist Evaluation of Teacher Learning and Reactions
  • Reflective Professional Development Journals for Constructivist Evaluation of Teacher Learning and Reactions
    Limited in scope, this paper deliberately foregrounds the evaluation stage of a suggested 5-month constructivist professional development (PD) programme for Algerian novice middle school English teachers (N=14) who were willingly involved in the whole process of its planning, implementation and evaluation and whose needs, preferences and reflections were valued. Evaluating this programme, assessment rubrics, classroom observation notes, project presentations and professional development journals (PDJs) were analysed. Precisely, amongst these constructivist evaluative tools, this study aimed to explore the participants’ post-programme learning and reactions through a qualitative content analysis of their reflective PDJs. The revelations of this evaluative analysis about the participants’ learning and reactions would inevitably assess the value of this constructivist programme as well as its effectiveness and help make decisions for its improvement. Additionally, this analysis would significantly confirm the usefulness of PDJs as effective constructivist reflective tools for teachers’ conceptual and practical development. After being collected, repeatedly read and qualitatively content-analysed, the participants’ coded PDJs (N=14) disclosed themes (N=6) and sub-themes (N=14) reflecting an amalgam of their learning and reactions. This cognitive and affective analysis of the participants’ reflections revealed signs of constructions of different ELT- and PD-related concepts, correction of some misconceptions together with traces of satisfaction, self-confidence and willpower. In the light of this study, the researcher strongly recommends PDJs for teachers to self/peer-assess and develop their teaching concepts and practice, and for programme facilitators to uncover and, therefore, meet teachers’ individual cognitive and affective needs.
  • Effects of Extensive Reading on Thai Tertiary Students’ Reading Attitudes
  • Effects of Extensive Reading on Thai Tertiary Students’ Reading Attitudes
    An exposure to free choice of inspiring reading materials among Thai students has not been largely promoted in English language class, affecting negative language learning attitudes and development of a reading habit. This present study examined the effects of extensive reading (ER) on Thai university students. To measure their attitudes towards comfort, anxiety, intellectual value, practical value and linguistic value before and after 15-week extensive reading. 68 undergraduate students were asked to complete the 5-point Likert scale questionnaire of 23 items adopted from Yamashita (2013). A semi-structure interview was also employed. The results revealed students had positive feelings in which ER increased their comfort and decreased their anxiety at the significance level of 0.05. They also had positive beliefs about the intellectual benefits. However, the practical value that ER might bring advantages to students’ study or future career was lower in the posttest. There was no significant difference between the pretest and posttest in their beliefs about English language study benefits. Qualitative data from the semi-structured interviews showed that students satisfied with their own choice of reading preference. The findings suggested the use of ER approach in English as a foreign language (EFL) classes to increase students’ positive attitudes, decrease their negative ones towards reading, and develop good reading habits through their reading engagement.
  • The Effect of the Use of Technology on the nature of Teacher’s Profession
    Educational programmes have recognized the growing need to use computers in the classes as it presents unprecedented challenges that help the students to acquire an inquiring, critical and creative mind to capitalize on the opportunities driven by the growth of information, knowledge and technology. The computer knowledge has begun influencing student’s learning experience for more than 25 years ago, but it was in a moderate manner (Cuban, 2001). However, the past decade has witnessed major trend toward integrating computer technology in all the language classes. The integration has increased because the computer technology represents an accessible and instant information, enormous potential for interactivity and media–rich communication, as well as educational tools which engage the students in the classroom (Mouza, 2002). Undoubtedly the recent advancement in information technology and computer usage in the classroom is rapidly transforming the environment of the classroom. The teachers cannot ignore the reality the today’s classroom must provide technology-supported learning (Angers & Machtmes, 2005). Being prepared to integrate the technology in the classroom has become a paramount skill in every teacher’s professional repertoires. The traditional role of the teacher as the center of the schooling is changing recently with all the introduction of the new technologies in the classroom. One of the effects of the new technologies is the decentralization of teachers in the learning environment (Damrian, 1998). This introduces a very valid point of how the teaching profession will change in the era of digital technologies. What is the role of the teacher in a classroom where he/she is no longer the only source of knowledge? How can he/ she teach effectively in a class, where every student has his/her computer and can Google any piece of information? The following study will investigate the effect of the implementation of the technology in the English as a foreign language (EFL) classes on the nature of the teachers’ profession.
  • The Effect of the Use of Technology on the nature of Teacher’s Profession
  • A Feature-Based Analysis of the Derivation of Word Order and Subject-Verb Agreement in Arabic Varieties