# Papers

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SocArXiv papers

• The Structure of Comparison in the Study of Revolution
The social scientific study of revolution has been deviled by a lack of progress in recent years, divided between competing views on the universality of patterns in revolution. This study examines the origins of these epistemologies. Drawing on an insight that different modes of comparison yield different types of knowledge, this study argues that the network structure of how cases are compared constrains or enables the development of a field’s theoretical sensibilities. Analysis of comparative studies of revolution published from 1970 to 2009 reveals that the field overall is most amenable to knowledge about particular cases rather than the phenomenon of revolution broadly. Analysis of the changing structure of comparison over time reveals that comparison precedes the development of an epistemology. The results suggest that conclusions about the possibility, or lack thereof, of generalization may be an artifact of the comparative method.
• Market Cities, People Cities, and A Spirit of Urban Capitalism: The cases of Copenhagen and Houston
Research on the sociology of cities has long foregrounded how elites uphold the capitalist system for their own benefit, but much less research has focused on the wider processes of how city residents in everyday interactions make sense of and bolster unequal, capital intensive urban life. We argue for the importance of cultural justifications in reifying socially constructed meanings of cities by creating a “spirit of the city.” We thereby focus on not only power brokers, but also on how residents and urban institutions provide regular maintenance to urban capitalism. This framework is further delineated by identifying two ideal types of systems of justifications. Using case studies of Houston, Texas, USA, and Copenhagen, Denmark, we show how one type of city hews closely to neoliberal assumptions, which we deem the market city, while a less-researched, but empirically demonstrated ideal type is the people city, which puts a resident-focused cultural model at front.
• Influential WoS indexed papers on Food Technology domain in 2015: An overview of the current influences of Food technology research
In this research paper, we analyzed the hy-core of Food technology Thomson Reuters Web of Science indexed papers for the year 2015 using Bibliometric and Scientometric techniques to obtain an overview about the main journals, institutions, authors and countries that influence the most Food technology research area nowadays. This study confirmed that the main papers that currently influences Food technology research are either new papers defining innovative techniques and findings or old papers that are mainly cited because they are considered as fundamental in the field by the Food technology research communities. It also proved a major current influence of the old highly cited researchers, of the specialized nationwide research institutes, of the journals with high impact factors that publish papers about all the aspects of Food technology research, and of the United States specifically University of Massachusetts Amherst on Food technology research.
• Victim or Villain? Racial/ethnic Differences in News Portrayals of Individuals with Mental Illness Killed by Police
WORKING PAPER Using an intersectional approach toward race/ethnicity and mental illness, this paper examines racial/ethnic differences in how 301 individuals with mental illness killed by police during 2015 and 2016 were portrayed in news reports. Qualitative content analysis indicates that frames that construct individuals as being victims of mental illness were most common in news reports about Whites, while African-Americans were most likely to be portrayed as victims of police actions. Graphic content was also much more prevalent in news reports about African-Americans, serving as a visceral reminder of the actions of police. For news reports about African-Americans, 22% included graphic content, versus 6% of news reports about Whites and 13% of news reports about Hispanics. Hispanics were most likely to be portrayed as 'villains' through discussions of substance use, criminal records, and expressions of support for police. Drawing from literature examining the media construction of crime through a lens of 'villains' versus 'victims', this paper explores implications of racial/ethnic differences in news coverage of individuals with mental illness killed by police. Comments and queries about this project are welcome at frankham@wisc.edu
• Omnipresent Consciousness and Free Will
This article is not an attempt to explain consciousness in terms basically of quantum physics or neuro-biology. Instead I should like to place the term "Consciousness" on a broader footing. I shall therefore proceed from everyday reality, precisely where we experience ourselves as conscious beings. I shall use the term in such a general way as to resolve the question whether only a human being enjoys consciousness, or even a thermostat. Whilst the difference is considerable, it is not fundamental. Every effect exists in the perception of a consciousness. I elaborate on its freedom of choice (leading to free will), in my view the most important source of creativity, in a similarly general way. The problems associated with a really conscious decision do not disappear by mixing determination with a touch of coincidence. Both must enter into a higher unity. In so doing it will emerge that a certain degree of freedom of choice (or free will) is just as omnipresent as consciousness - an inherent part of reality itself.
• Modeling Network Dynamics
One of the great lessons from the last half century of research on social networks is that relationships are constantly in flux. While much social network analysis focuses on static relationships between actors, there is also a rich tradition of work extending back to foundational studies in network science focused on the notion that network change is an indelible aspect of social life for human and non-human actors alike (e.g., Bott, 1957; Heider, 1946; Newcomb 1961; Rapoport, 1949; Sampson, 1969). Today, social network researchers benefit from this history in that a host of methods to collect and analyze such dynamic network data have been developed. Among them, the methods based on stochastic process theory have given rise to a paradigm where inferences and predictions can be made on the mechanisms that drive changes in social structure.
• Extended kin and children's behavioral functioning: Family structure and parental immigrant status
• Extended Kin and Children’s Behavioral Functioning: Family Structure and Parental Immigrant Status
Using the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (L.A. FANS), this paper examines the association between the presence of co-resident extended kin and children’s internalizing and externalizing behaviors. The paper demonstrates the differential role of extended kin by family structure, as well as across parental immigrant status – specifically, nativity and documentation status. Children in the sample were found to be disadvantaged in extended family households, especially with regard to internalizing behaviors. This disadvantageous association was found mostly among married-parent extended family households, whereas there was no association between the presence of extended kin and behavior problems in children from single-parent families. This pattern emerged more clearly among children of documented immigrants, compared to those with native-born parents and those whose parents were unauthorized immigrants. These findings suggest a need to modify previous theories on extended family living arrangements; they also provide policy implications for immigrant families.
• Climate Change Could Reduce European Life Expectancy
Climate change related estimates of excess mortality make it clear that climate change could dramatically impact public health and human mortality. However, life expectancy at birth is more easily communicated to the public, understood by the public, and controls for different geographic, economic, and demographic groups. To date no studies have comprehensively connected excess mortality due to climate change to anticipated reductions in life expectancy. Without properly situating the potential loss of life within the contexts of metrics such as life expectancy, we risk misrepresenting the impact of climate change on human mortality. Here we address this issue by combining published estimates of climate change related excess mortality for European countries with mortality data from the Human Mortality Database to examine life expectancy differentials in a cause-deleted life tables approach. We find that the average European country could experience a reduction in life expectancy of 0.21 years, with some countries likely to experience reductions as much as 0.97 years (Spain). These reductions are comparable to influenza and pneumonia (-0.23 years) for the average European country or trachea, bronchus, or lung cancers (-0.81 years) in the case of Spain and Luxembourg. Without adaptation measures, our results suggest climate change could emerge as a significant new mortality vector and could pose a major health threat for some European countries by the end of the century. Additionally, these results point to the importance of converting excess mortality into life expectancy to properly quantify the effects of climate change mortality and connect mortality vectors to individuals.
• The place of education/learning in the hierarchy of Engels’ curves of consumption: the quantitative basis of mechanisms finally elucidated.
The study focuses quantitatively on ways to assess school education, currently under severe criticism, in terms the first of its three major components, students, teachers and curriculum,. We developed a novel method to assess long term retention as a measure of true learning in tests that do not involve any cramming and found to our dismay that it falls progressively more towards recent years. Our initial work on poverty showed that consumption on commodities is hyperbolic (as in catalysis) and hierarchic and, that the total income is not fractionally distributed among the commodities, as economists assume; the leftover (residual) income after the more essential items is spent on the commodities of lesser preference. Education is also a naturally ordered commodity and parental income quantitatively determined school dropouts/attendance obeying the same hyperbolic relationship, as we could show. We could thereby affirm the first-ever mechanism for Engels’ three curves of consumption, based on the time constants associated with the corresponding hyperbolic functions. The disturbing observation was that long term retention as a true measure of learning decreases rapidly with years and seems to be independent of socioeconomic circumstances and gender but depends on subjects. The test also revealed that those who are not good at cramming could exhibit good retention, though the conventional tests fail to identify them. Causes of the progressive loss of retention for the recent years, either as limits to learning or as limitations in imparting learning, need to be assessed by further studies. This would hopefully begin an era of inclusive education for a just society for which methodology beyond pious intentions never existed.
• Household Extension and Employment Among Asian Immigrant Women in the United States
• Household extension and employment among Asian immigrant women in the US
To help explain variation in Asian immigrant women’s employment, we examine the association between women's employment and the presence and characteristics of adult extended household members for seven Asian immigrant groups: Chinese, Korean, Asian Indian, Pakistani, Filipina, Vietnamese, and Japanese. Using the American Community Survey 2009-2011 pooled data, we find that married, first generation Asian immigrant women’s employment rates are higher when they live with parents or parents-in-law. Further, hampered by housework and care work, these women apparently receive some support in particular from female extended adults providing child care assistance – especially in families with young children. On the other hand, we find a negative association between the presence of disabled adults only for Koreans, and employed extended adults’ support varies across nationality groups. Variations in each of these dynamics across Asian groups suggest the need for further study.
• Bayesian Estimation of Total Fertility from a Population's Age-Sex Distribution
We investigate a modern statistical approach to a classic deterministic demographic estimation technique. When vital event registration is missing or inadequate, it is possible to approximate a population's total fertility (TFR) from information about its distribution by age and sex. For example, if under-five child mortality is low then TFR is often close to seven times the child/woman ratio (CWR), the number of 0--4 year olds per 15--49 year old woman. We analyze the formal relationship between CWR and TFR to identify sources of uncertainty in indirect estimates. We construct a Bayesian model for the statistical distribution of TFR conditional on the population's age-sex structure, in which unknown demographic quantities in the standard approximation are parameters with prior distributions. We apply the model in two case studies: to a small indigenous population in the Amazon region of Brazil that has extremely high fertility rates, and to the set of 159 counties in the US state of Georgia. A statistical approach yields important insights into the sources of error in indirect estimation, and their relative magnitudes.
• Evidence for that the origins of Shang Dynasty’s Oracle-bone Inscriptions could Ascend to Proto-Cuneiform
Abstract: It is deference to other ancient scripts that oracle-bone inscriptions suddenly appeared in prehistorical China without any predecessors. How oralce-bone inscriptions had been created? and who created it? Those questions have been debated more than one hundred years. Proto-cuneiform is the earliest form of the cuneiform script, the earliest writing system attested in history. It emerged towards the end of the fourth millennium B.C. in ancient a region of Mesopotamia of West Asia. By comparing Sumerian proto-cuineform vs oracle-bone inscription, there are some common basic symbols could be found in both inscriptions. Those symbols had same or derivative meaning in both side. There are a lot of such symbols have been found in both side, they existed in both side simultaneously. It are sufficient and logically. Those evidences indicate that oracle-bone inscription could ascend to proto-cuineform and oracle-bone inscription did not origin in China . At same time the common basic symbol of both inscription could be used to re-explanation of the oracle-bone and help to understand the its real means.
• Die Erschaffung der Realität
The main argument in this book is the undeniable openness of every system to the unknown. And the fundamental question goes: What does this openness produce? We are a part of the infinite universe and an incorporation of its wholeness. Both for us means an individualized reality, through which the universe expresses itself and on the other hand through which it is built up with. It also means our necessity, importance and indestructibility for the sum of its incorporations. Most connections among ourselves are hardly conscious for us. Meanwhile the infinitesimality structure of all consciousness guarantees not only the logical lack of inconsistency of these connections but also the freedom of choice of every individual. Our goal by no means can be to decide completely consciously. Responsibility contains spontaneity or rather trust in a meaningful working together of the forces. We increasingly become aware of our role in the entire relationship and we learn to contribute optimally to the value fulfillment of all individuals, ourselves included. Beyond the supposed differences between objective and subjective reality, we at some point of awareness comprehend that we create our reality out of our innermost depths.
• Visions of Human Futures in Space and SETI
We discuss how visions for the futures of humanity in space and SETI are intertwined, and are shaped by prior work in the fields and by science fiction. This appears in the language used in the fields, and in the sometimes implicit assumptions made in discussions of them. We give examples from articulations of the so-called Fermi Paradox, discussions of the settlement of the Solar System (in the near future) and the Galaxy (in the far future), and METI. We argue that science fiction, especially the campy variety, is a significant contributor to the "giggle factor" that hinders serious discussion and funding for SETI and Solar System settlement projects. We argue that humanity's long-term future in space will be shaped by our short-term visions for who goes there and how. Because of the way they entered the fields, we recommend avoiding the term "colony" and its cognates when discussing the settlement of space, as well as other terms with similar pedigrees. We offer examples of science fiction and other writing that broaden and challenge our visions of human futures in space and SETI. In an appendix, we use an analogy with the well-funded and relatively uncontroversial searches for the dark matter particle to argue that SETI's lack of funding in the national science portfolio is primarily a problem of perception, not inherent merit. Comment: 26 pp, 66 footnotes, 1 appendix
• Visions of Human Futures in Space and SETI
We discuss how visions for the futures of humanity in space and SETI are intertwined, and are shaped by prior work in the fields and by science fiction. This appears in the language used in the fields, and in the sometimes implicit assumptions made in discussions of them. We give examples from articulations of the so-called Fermi Paradox, discussions of the settlement of the Solar System (in the near future) and the Galaxy (in the far future), and METI. We argue that science fiction, especially the campy variety, is a significant contributor to the ‘giggle factor’ that hinders serious discussion and funding for SETI and Solar System settlement projects. We argue that humanity's long-term future in space will be shaped by our short-term visions for who goes there and how. Because of the way they entered the fields, we recommend avoiding the term ‘colony’ and its cognates when discussing the settlement of space, as well as other terms with similar pedigrees. We offer examples of science fiction and other writing that broaden and challenge our visions of human futures in space and SETI. In an appendix, we use an analogy with the well-funded and relatively uncontroversial searches for the dark matter particle to argue that SETI's lack of funding in the national science portfolio is primarily a problem of perception, not inherent merit. Also on arXiv: https://arxiv.org/abs/1708.05318 Please cite this version: Wright, Jason T., and Michael P. Oman-Reagan. “Visions of Human Futures in Space and SETI.” International Journal of Astrobiology, 2017, 1–12. doi:10.1017/S1473550417000222.
• Before they were Diamonds: The Intergenerational Migration of Kentucky's Coal Camp Blacks
My dissertation project is an empirical examination of the ways in which social transformations of the 20th century—read along the grain of the Great Migration—impacted the collective identity of African Americans over space and time. In this work, I will analyze the racialized subjectivity and identity (trans)formation of a diaspora of African Americans who partook in an intergenerational migration from the plantations of central Alabama to the coalfields of southeastern Kentucky in the first half of the 20th century, and then moved on to urban cities throughout the United States throughout the Civil Rights-era. The latter generation of migrants collectively experienced major shifts in the social structures of their community of origin, such as transitioning from “colored schools” to a State mandated integrated school system, retrenchment in the labor economy of a single-industry community, and the subsequent mass out-migration from their community of origin. These jolts to the social structures of their society not only altered their horizon of opportunity, but also resulted in major dislocations in the cultural systems that informed their collective identity. Particular to the case, I am concerned with the ways in which these cultural traumas—memories of events that collectivities believe rended the social fabric of their society—impacted the collective identity of this diaspora. In spite of their geographic dispersion, this generation of migrants has managed to stay connected through a set of “invented traditions” that they constituted at the tail end of their out-migration. For example, the Eastern Kentucky Social Club—an organization established by this group of migrants in 1970—has hosted a reunion in different cities across the country every year for the last forty-four years. At its height, this event drew over 3,000 African American migrants from across the country. The broader aim of the project is to reconstruct the rich history and culture of this special population of Black Appalachians to put forth a re-examination of W.E.B. Du Bois’ phenomenological analysis of racialized subjectivity and African American identity formation in 20th century America. The overarching research questions that guide this study are (1) How do we explain the emergence of their post-migration diasporic identity? (2) How has their collective identity been negotiated, transformed and reinscribed through their changing, and sometimes contested, subjectivity as racialized American citizens through the continuum of the pre and post civil rights era? I will specifically focus on three events that have been the site of transformation for the individuals in my case, (1) the school desegregation process—an event that occurred almost a decade after the Brown vs. Board of Education decision in this region, (2) the mass out-migration from southeastern Kentucky—a community level event that was a precursor to the emergence of their diasporic identity, and (3) the construction of the EKAAMP archive—an event that marks the institutional transference from memory to history. These eventful temporalities provide three categories of analysis that will allow me to make important linkages to my research questions in the context of the past, present, and future.
• Queering Outer Space
How can queer and other minority or marginalized people stake a claim in human futures in space? This paper reflects on the challenges, opportunities, scenarios, and interventions involved as we try to queer the increasingly corporate and military human exploration of and engagement with outer space. I suggest that we must go further than academically interrogating the military and corporate narratives of space “exploration” and “colonization.” We must also water, fertilize, and tend the seeds of alternative visions of possible futures in space, not only seeking solutions to earthly problems of the moment, but actively queering outer space and challenging the future to be even more queer. Keywords: Queer Theory, Space, Anthropology, Colonialism, Mars, SETI Please Cite as: Oman-Reagan, Michael P. 2015. “Queering Outer Space.” SocArXiv, Open Science Framework. Manuscript, submitted January 22, 2017. osf.io/preprints/socarxiv/mpyk6/
• Dynamic associations of network isolation and smoking behavior
• Dynamic Associations of Network Isolation and Smoking Behavior
Prevailing social network frameworks examine the association between peer ties and behaviors like smoking, but the role of social isolates is poorly understood. Some theories predict isolated adolescents are protected from peer influence that increases smoking, while others suggest isolates are more likely to initiate smoking because they lack social control provided by peer friendships. Building on a growing literature that seeks to explain these contradictions by moving beyond a homogeneous understanding of isolation, we identify the relationships between smoking and three distinct dimensions of isolation: avoided (adolescents who do not receive ties), withdrawn (adolescents who do not send ties), and externally oriented (adolescents who claim close out-of-grade friends). We examine the coevolutionary effects of these dimensions and cigarette smoking using an autoregressive latent trajectory model (ALT) with PROSPER Peers, a unique, longitudinal networks dataset. These data include students (47% male and 86% White) from rural Iowa and Pennsylvania, ranging successively from grades 6-12 in eight waves of data. As a robustness check, we use a stochastic actor-oriented model (SAOM) to compare to results from the ALT. We find avoided isolation and external orientation are associated with decreased successive smoking in high school, while smoking increases subsequent isolation along all three dimensions, with particularly strong effects on withdrawn isolation.
• Development and Implementation of a Mainstreaming Process to Transition Students from Self-Contained Special Education into General Education Placements
One challenge presented to special educators is transitioning students out of special education self-contained settings and into the general education classroom. This challenge is compounded by there being an abundance of quality data that to guide placement into the special education classroom, but relatively sparse data exist to support transition out of special education back into the general education population. There are even fewer data demonstrating effective transitions of students out of self-contained classroom environments. To support special educators in these transitions, I developed a set of tools specifically to guide qualified students back into general education. These tools include a \textit{Mainstreaming Decision Tree} to identify candidate students and elucidate successful placement in general education. Identified candidate students then enter a 7-step transenvironmental programming process called a \textit{Mainstreaming Pipeline} to guide them through the process of being selected as a candidate, selection of general education classroom, data collection, and finally how to make the final transition out of special education self-contained placements. In the 2015-2016 school year, I undertook a limited implementation of these transenvironmental programming tools and facilitated the transition of 10 of 20 identified candidate students from self-contained academic special education classrooms into general education placements. In the 2016-2017 school year, this pilot implementation was extended to include 4 schools. Sixteen (16) of 53 identified candidate students from self-contained academic special education classrooms were able to transition into general education placements. In an extension of the model district-wide, 9 of 26 identified students from behavior/SEL unit classrooms, and 9 of 9 identified students from Life Skills/SID unit classrooms were successfully transitioned into a general education with part-time special education placement. A high percentage of the remaining candidates received \textgreater50\% of their day in general education classrooms and/or were placed in less restrictive self-contained classrooms. Overall, 54\% of identified candidate students were able to access a less restrictive environment as defined by IDEA
• When Genetics Challenges a Racist’s Identity: Genetic Ancestry Testing among White Nationalists
This paper considers the emergence of new forms of race-making using a qualitative analysis of online discussions of individuals’ genetic ancestry test (GAT) results on the white nationalist website Stormfront. Seeking genetic confirmation of personal identities, white nationalists often confront information they consider evidence of non-white or non-European ancestry. Despite their essentialist views of race, much less than using the information to police individuals’ membership, posters expend considerable energy to repair identities by rejecting or reinterpreting GAT results. Simultaneously, however, Stormfront posters use the particular relationships made visible by GATs to re-imagine the collective boundaries and constitution of white nationalism. Bricoleurs with genetic knowledge, white nationalists use a “racial realist” interpretive framework that departs from canons of genetic science but cannot be dismissed simply as ignorant.
• FrankenMedicine: The Inhumanity of For-Profit Healthcare
While conducting field research on poverty in Winston-Salem, North Carolina the author acquired alarming insights about the horrors of profit-motivated healthcare. The author witnessed a homeless man dislocate his knee while playing softball. Rather than receiving humane medical attention the homeless man was subjected to hospital treatment that would be better described as medieval torture. The more money that the USA spends on healthcare the more inhumane US healthcare becomes. Although many people believe that money is the key to happiness, in this paper I will argue that the USA’s “profits over people” medical philosophy tends to inspire dreadful forms of inhumanity in the delivery of healthcare.
• Land grab / data grab
Developments in the area of ‘precision agriculture’ are creating new data points (about flows, soils, pests, climate) that agricultural technology providers ‘grab,’ aggregate, compute, and/or sell. Food producers now churn out food and, increasingly, data. ‘Land grabs’ on the horizon in the global south are bound up with the dynamics of data production and grabbing, although researchers have not, as yet, revealed enough about the people and projects caught up in this new arena. Against this backdrop, this paper examines some of the key issues taking shape, while highlighting new frontiers for research and introducing a concept of ‘data sovereignty,’ which food sovereignty practitioners (and others) need to consider.
• We the (Christian) People: Christianity and American Identity from 1996 to 2014
• Economic Inequality and Belief in Meritocracy in the United States
How does the context of income inequality in which people live affect their belief in meritocracy, the ability to get ahead through hard work? One prominent recent study, Newman, Johnston, and Lown (2015), argues that, consistent with the conflict theory, exposure to higher levels of local income inequality lead lower-income people to become more likely to reject—and higher-income people to become more likely to accept—the dominant U.S. ideology of meritocracy. Here, we show that this conclusion is not supported by the study's own reported results and that even these results depend on pooling three different measures of meritocracy into a single analysis. We then demonstrate that analysis of a larger and more representative survey employing a single consistent measure of the dependent variable yields the opposite conclusion. Consistent with the relative power theory, among those with lower incomes, local contexts of greater inequality are associated with more widespread belief that people can get ahead if they are willing to work hard.
• The frog in a well: Why it is unwise to be a party affiliate?
Over the years, I noticed an emerging pattern that I must confess did not come as a big surprise after all. The majority of my contacts identify themselves with a particular political party. They ‘like’ the posts appreciative of their party politicians, while they do not ‘like’ if the posts are critical of them. Only a few of my contacts act as if they have no political allegiance. Why, what is wrong if you swear your allegiance with a party, you may ask? Stereotyping is the major issue with this approach. If you identify yourself with a particular party (or worse, you become an official member of a party), you subconsciously consider all the other members of that party as your friends, and invariably you will have an emotional attachment to them. Just like other life instances, your emotion, rather than the reason, dictate things to you. You will fight for the ideology that you are part of, and even kill the opponents as well.
• What is Grey About the ‘Grey Market’ in Antiquities
The global market in antiquities has been described as a ‘grey market’ in discussions by various commentators of the problem of illicit cultural property. In this contribution, we set out to interrogate that terminology, ultimately providing (we hope) a definitive breakdown of the meanings and implications of the idea of ‘greyness’ as it applies to this particular illicit market. As we shall see, the term ‘grey market’ has been rather liberally applied by researchers working on illicit markets in cultural objects, and is in danger of becoming a generic but unrefined synonym for the interface between certain illicit practices in excavation and the public antiquities trade. It would seem helpful therefore at this point in the development of the research evidence base on illicit antiquities – and particularly in the context of the theme and other contributions in this book – to pause and reflect on what we mean when we observe greyness in this market.
• The Children of Ludlow: Their Struggle is Our Struggle
The Ludlow Massacre galvanized the US labor movement. Once properly unified, trade unions became strong enough to leverage significant economic concessions from the Captains of Industry. Those economic concessions proved sufficient to buoy the aspirations of America’s middle class throughout much of the 20th century. More than a century after the Ludlow Massacre, post-industrialist fat cats continue their relentless efforts to undermine the working class. If America’s middle class is going to survive this never ending onslaught, then hard-pressed 21st century workers will need to rekindle the spirit of the Ludlow strikers whose sacrifices gave working stiffs a shot at the American Dream.
• Mobile phones as life and thought companions
According to adults who ban adolescent interactions with mobile phones in China, students addicted to phones lack will power and schools without a restrictive policy are poor in quality. This study reports findings from 45 semi-structured interviews with second-year high school students from urban, rural, and Tibetan regions of China. It finds that the consequences of mobile phone use are not always pre-determined. Teens do not merely use their phones to connect; they also treat them as ‘life’ and ‘thought’ companions, which they invest with feelings and thoughts that animate life experiences and catalyse healthy development. Therefore, the wholesale ban is destined to fail, as it overlooks the value of the technology as objects of ‘passion’ and ‘reason’. It also misses the opportunity to engage with teens who make visible online the problems they struggle with offline, and to teach them to be caring and responsible members of their community.
• Seeing is Believing: Impact Visualisation in Educational Interventions
Report of research data analysis often resorts to numerical summaries, such as effect size estimates in Randomised Controlled Trials (RCTs). Summary statistics are helpful and important for evidence synthesis and decision making. However, they can be unstable and inconsistent due to diversity in research designs and variability in analytical specifications. They also mask the dynamics of individual responses to a certain intervention by focusing on average treatment effect on the treated, even though the variation in impact may be crucial information for policy makers. To establish stability and consistency of impact estimates and to reveal the dynamics of individual responses in RCTs, we conduct variable selection, harness the power of noise, implement Cumulative Quantile Analysis (CQA), and devise umbrella plots of loss and gain in this study, using real datasets from over 30 educational interventions funded by the Education Endowment Foundation in England. For the purpose of comparison, which is essential in data visualisation (Gelman and Unwin 2013; Tukey 1993), all the aforementioned methods are built upon multiple analytical approaches. We show that the importance of an intervention can be ordered in variable selection, and that the power of noise or the bias induced by inappropriate variables, can be utilised to assess the stability of an impact estimate. We also demonstrate that estimates of average treatment effect cannot fully capture the impact of an intervention on sub-groups of participants with varying levels of attainment at baseline, not to mention individual responses to the intervention. Using CQA and umbrella plots, we are able to supplement what common effect size estimates lack in educational interventions. We argue that the impact of an intervention is often more complete than the average treatment effect suggests, and that until a summary is more informative and able to speak directly to the eyes (Friendly 2008), evidence-based policy and practice cannot be effectively achieved.
• The Power of Noise and the Art of Prediction
Data analysis usually aims to identify a particular signal, such as an intervention effect. Conventional analyses often assume a specific data generation process, which suggests a theoretical model that best fits the data. Machine learning techniques do not make such an assumption. In fact, they encourage multiple models to compete on the same data. Applying logistic regression and machine learning algorithms to real and simulated datasets with different features of noise and signal, we demonstrate that no single model dominates others under all circumstances. By showing when different models shine or struggle, we argue it is both possible and important to conduct comparative analyses.
• Unbuckling the Bible Belt: A State-level Analysis of Religious Factors and Google Searches for Porn
While the link between individual religious characteristics and pornography consumption is well established, relatively little research has considered how the wider religious context may influence pornography use. Exceptions in the literature to date have relied on relatively broad, subjective measures of religious commitment, largely ignoring issues of religious belonging, belief, or practice. This study moves the conversation forward by examining how a variety of state-level religious factors predict Google searches for the term “porn,” net of relevant sociodemographic and ideological controls. Our multivariate findings indicate that higher percentages of evangelical Protestants, theists, and Biblical literalists in a state predict higher frequencies of searching for “porn,” as do higher church attendance rates. Conversely, higher percentages of religiously unaffiliated persons in a state predict lower frequencies of searching for “porn.” Higher percentages of total religious adherents, Catholics, or Mainline Protestants in a state are unrelated to searching for “porn” with controls in place. Contrary to recent research, our analyses also show that higher percentages of political conservatives in a state predicted lower frequencies of “porn” searches. Our findings support theories that more salient, traditional religious influences in a state may influence residents—whether religious or not—toward more covert sexual experiences.
• Movement of lithics by trampling: An experiment in the Madjedbebe sediments
Understanding post-depositional movement of artefacts is vital to making reliable claims about the formation of archaeological deposits. Human trampling has long been recognised as a contributor to post-depositional artefact displacement. We investigate the degree to which artefact form (shape-and-size) attributes can predict how an artefact is moved by trampling. We use the Zingg classification system to describe artefact form. Our trampling substrate is the recently excavated archaeological deposits from Madjedbebe, northern Australia. Madjedbebe is an important site because it contains early evidence of human activity in Australia. The age of artefacts at Madjedbebe is contentious because of the possibility of artefacts moving due to trampling. We trampled artefacts in Madjedbebe sediments and measured their displacement, as well as modelling the movement of artefacts by computer simulation. Artefact elongation is a significant predictor of horizontal distance moved by trampling, and length, width, thickness and volume are significant predictors of the vertical distance. The explanatory power of these artefact variables is small, indicating that many other factors are also important in determining how an artefact moves during trampling. Our experiment indicates that trampling has not contributed to extensive downward displacement of artefacts at Madjedbebe.
• Open Data and the Danger of Sympathetic Magic
When researchers publish their results, granting agencies increasingly want publication of their data as well. The NSF prioritised: "open data access as its flagship activity, directly embracing transparency and openness ... as a result of Federal agency research investments." (National Science Foundation 2015) As major grant-giving organisations move to require Open Data, researchers feel the pressure to publish their data online. This data varies in quality, reusability, and comprehensiveness. Open Data is data which can be used, modified, and shared by anyone for any purpose. (opendefinition.org). While the definition focuses on the rights of Open Data, we must also discuss its quality, as some of those releasing their data release it in such a way that little interaction is possible with the data itself, save at the most superficial level. Yet, without a clear knowledge of how methodology and analysis affects the production of the "raw" data, any future attempts to reproduce analysis will produce the same results only by following the same steps. Here we provide a framework for discussing the quality of open data sets by using Lakatos' philosophy of science and the metaphor of sympathetic magic. Progressive open data sets allow unanticipated questions to generate novel facts. These data sets have published their data, their collection and analysis code, and their unit tests. They are extensible without consultation with the original authors. Degenerate open data sets allow only for "like produces like" and require knowledge of the conclusion desired before they can support it. While the requirement for Open Data in government funded research can provide an excellent basis for future research, not all Open Data is created equal. This chapter provides a minimal normative framework for discussing the desired attributes of a published open dataset. The exercises in preparing a dataset of high quality will also allow for better internal reuse and lower technical difficulties when conducting private or traditional research so that data, collected once, may be reused in multiple projects for a significant research impact. And to some, we can show that data is, indeed, "magic."
• Computational Reproducibility in Archaeological Research: Basic Principles and a Case Study of Their Implementation
The use of computers and complex software is pervasive in archaeology, yet their role in the analytical pipeline is rarely exposed for other researchers to inspect or reuse. This limits the progress of archaeology because researchers cannot easily reproduce each other's work to verify or extend it. Four general principles of reproducible research that have emerged in other fields are presented. An archaeological case study is described that shows how each principle can be implemented using freely available software. The costs and benefits of implementing reproducible research are assessed. The primary benefit, of sharing data in particular, is increased impact via an increased number of citations. The primary cost is the additional time required to enhance reproducibility, although the exact amount is difficult to quantify.
• A Relational Event Approach to Modeling Behavioral Dynamics
This chapter provides an introduction to the analysis of relational event data (i.e., actions, interactions, or other events involving multiple actors that occur over time) within the R/statnet platform. We begin by reviewing the basics of relational event modeling, with an emphasis on models with piecewise constant hazards. We then discuss estimation for dyadic and more general relational event models using the relevent package, with an emphasis on hands-on applications of the methods and interpretation of results. Statnet is a collection of packages for the R statistical computing system that supports the representation, manipulation, visualization, modeling, simulation, and analysis of relational data. Statnet packages are contributed by a team of volunteer developers, and are made freely available under the GNU Public License. These packages are written for the R statistical computing environment, and can be used with any computing platform that supports R (including Windows, Linux, and Mac)."
• Myanmar libraries after the 'opening up'
This article assesses the recent development of libraries in Myanmar and efforts to build the sector’s capacity leading up to and after the first democratic elections held in the country in nearly 50 years. Cyclone Nargis in 2008 is viewed as a ‘framing event’, which led to an increase in national and international projects to support development of Myanmar libraries in parallel with legal and policy reforms, and the strengthening of local actors including the Myanmar Library Association to coordinate and lead such activities. Although in need of modernisation, networking and professional skills, the existence of a widespread number of all library types across the country provides an important foundation for further development. In a country that has made a rapid leap from limited to more widely available access to information and technology, the current status and readiness of libraries to support users in this transition is explored.
• INTEGRATION OF BUSINESS PROCESS MODELING IN PLANNING A GRADUATE PROGRAM IN DATA ANALYTICS
The need for business process modeling in higher education is increasing as the complexity of degree programs grows to accommodate new fields in the business market. This is evidenced in the field of data analytics, which is interdisciplinary in nature and severely lacking in professional talent. This paper explores the T-shaped skills desired by businesses seeking graduates with an analytics degree and the challenges Universities face when developing interdisciplinary programs. We apply business process modeling in a University setting by mapping out the current processes involved with starting and sustaining a new graduate degree program. Through this approach, a roadmap is developed as a tool for University domain experts, which highlights areas of inefficiency that can be further streamlined to allow improved flexibility and evaluation of all graduate programs.
• You can’t live or work here in Vancouver, BC and you won’t be able to attend our future Top 10 university either – is loss of autonomy a characteristic of neoliberalism?
The philosopher Suzy Killmister introduces the concept of self-trust as part of autonomy. In this essay I contrast the autonomy demonstrated in the behaviour of two University of British Columbia (UBC) professors, former President Arvind Gupta, and Jennifer Berdahl, the Montalbano Professor of Leadership Studies: Gender and Diversity. Berdahl trusted that the UBC Faculty Association would be competent in protecting her academic freedom and treating her with benevolence. Berdahl has a multi-disciplinary academic focus that includes organizational studies. This gave her competency in assessing the situation, and the confidence that she would not self-sabotage by going public about her encounter with the former Chair of the Board of Governors of UBC.
• A Relational Event Approach to Modeling Behavioral Dynamics
This chapter provides an introduction to the analysis of relational event data (i.e., actions, interactions, or other events involving multiple actors that occur over time) within the R/statnet platform. We begin by reviewing the basics of relational event modeling, with an emphasis on models with piecewise constant hazards. We then discuss estimation for dyadic and more general relational event models using the relevent package, with an emphasis on hands-on applications of the methods and interpretation of results. Statnet is a collection of packages for the R statistical computing system that supports the representation, manipulation, visualization, modeling, simulation, and analysis of relational data. Statnet packages are contributed by a team of volunteer developers, and are made freely available under the GNU Public License. These packages are written for the R statistical computing environment, and can be used with any computing platform that supports R (including Windows, Linux, and Mac)."
• Citizen Science as a New Way To Do Science
This is the abstract of a talk given at the Dagstuhl Seminar 17272 - Citizen Science: Design and Engagement. Citizen science has received increasing attention because of its potential as a cost-effective method of gathering massive data sets and as a way of bridging the intellectual divide between layperson and scientists. Citizen science is not a new phenomenon, but is implemented in new ways in the digital age, offering opportunities to shape new interactions between volunteers, scientists and other stakeholders, including policymakers. Arguably, citizen science rests on two main pillars: openness and participation. However, openness can remain unexploited if we do not create the technical and social conditions for broader participation in more collaborative citizen science projects, beyond collecting and sharing data to scientists. “Public participation” has too often accounted for the assumed ease with which hierarchies in science can be horizontalized, and economic and geographic barriers can be removed. However, public participation is a contested term that should be problematized. The Scandinavian tradition of participatory design can help explore conceptually the challenges related to participation and to design for participation.
• ‘I think it’s more of a worthwhile job I’ve got now.’ A qualitative study of women’s changing work orientations over the life course
This paper contributes to a body of work which examines how women’s work orientations and evaluations of their paid work change over the life course. We analysed interview transcripts for a sub-sample of 110 women drawn from the National Child Development Study (1958 British birth cohort). The paper focuses on retrospective evaluations of the working lives of women who entered the labour market with an instrumental work orientation from the vantage point of mid-late life. Our findings indicate that some women found more intrinsically satisfying paid work later in their working lives, in some cases after gaining additional qualifications. Women also identified barriers to attempting shifts in work orientations. The results show the dynamism of women’s labour market trajectories in late mid-life and highlight the interest of studying women’s changing work orientations throughout the life course.
• Is the Association Between Education and Fertility Postponement Causal? The Role of Family Background Factors
A large body of literature has demonstrated a positive relationship between education and age at first birth. However, this relationship may be partly spurious because of family background factors that cannot be controlled for in most research designs. We investigate the extent to which education is causally related to later age at first birth in a large sample of female twins from the United Kingdom (N = 2,752). We present novel estimates using within–identical twin and biometric models. Our findings show that one year of additional schooling is associated with about one-half year later age at first birth in ordinary least squares (OLS) models. This estimate reduced to only a 1.5-month later age at first birth for the within–identical twin model controlling for all shared family background factors (genetic and family environmental). Biometric analyses reveal that it is mainly influences of the family environment—not genetic factors—that cause spurious associations between education and age at first birth. Last, using data from the Office for National Statistics, we demonstrate that only 1.9 months of the 2.74 years of fertility postponement for birth cohorts 1944–1967 could be attributed to educational expansion based on these estimates. We conclude that the rise in educational attainment alone cannot explain differences in fertility timing between cohorts.
• We the (Christian) People: Christianity and American Identity from 1996 to 2014
Religious identity, and specifically Christian identity, has long been a dominant symbolic boundary marker for inclusion into American society. But how has the salience of this boundary marker changed in recent years and in comparison to other boundary markers? Using multiple waves of the General Social Survey (1996, 2004, and 2014), we investigate temporal variation in the use of religion and other markers in constructing symbolic boundaries around American identity. First, we find that the Christian symbolic boundary both increased from 1996 to 2004 and declined from 2004 to 2014. Second, this pattern was not unique; in addition to the Christian symbolic boundary, Americans used a variety of both civic and ascriptive boundary markers in order to define American identity. However, our analysis also demonstrates that in 2004 the Christian symbolic boundary was significantly linked to national identity in a unique way while the other boundary markers were not. These results suggest that period effects and cultural events can influence the salience of religion in creating national symbolic boundaries. We discuss each of these findings, their relationship to the study of symbolic boundaries and American identity, and their societal implications.
• The Role of Family in Initiating Police-Public Encounters: Demographic Differences and Fatal Consequences
WORKING PAPER This paper examines police-public encounters that resulted in the fatal shooting of civilians during 2015 and 2016. Data published by The Washington Post is merged with data collected by the author regarding how encounters were initiated. Results from multivariate analysis indicate that African-Americans killed by police are approximately half as likely to have police contact due to a family member or friend calling 911 than Whites. Individuals with mental illness killed by police are very unlikely to have contact initiated by police. Results also indicate that there is a lower probability of police using only lethal force when a family member or friend initiated police contact. The implications of the results for both understanding police use of force as well as police relations with minority communities are discussed. This paper recommends that databases on civilian fatalities include information on how contact was initiated. Without this crucial information, understandings of police use of force are incomplete. Comments and queries about this project are welcome at frankham@wisc.edu
• How Information Shapes Portfolio Allocation During Financial Crises
During financial crises individual investors modify their portfolio allocation to decrease their exposure to more risky investments such as equities. Most recent empirical analyses of this phenomenon have focused on changes in risk attitudes, and in risk and return expectations but, so far, inconclusive evidence has been provided that changes in those psychological variables play a causal role in the actual decision making at work. Furthermore, the duration of the phenomenon, which is very short, is often not considered and it is thus unclear why the situation recovers so quickly after crises. Relying on experimental data and on a simple agent-based model, we propose an alternative explanation of this phenomenon based on the interaction of the two most important phases that individuals undertake in decision making, namely (1) searching information about possible options and (2) selecting the preferred one. Our main result is that the observed reallocation of portfolios in times of crisis is not the result of a portfolio reassessment driven by the crisis but it is instead explained by changes in search behavior for information on specific market conditions.
• Starting Off on the Wrong Foot: Elite Influences in Multi-Ethnic Democratization Settings
Abstract: Elite manipulation theories, particularly the idea of diversionary war, have played a substantial role in the analysis of ethnic civil wars. Some, as Gagnon (2004), argue that political elites have shaped the perceptions of their population to create the illusion of a threatening outside world. This, driven to the extreme, would then give rise to an ethnic security dilemma and potentially, civil war. Even if violence does not break out, divisive elite manipulation increases the likelihood of self-perpetuating injustices between members of ethnic groups. Snyder (2000) argues that democratizing multi-ethnic states face an extraordinarily high risk of such conflict. During and shortly after democratization processes, when political leaders are most in need of popular backing, the temptation to seek the support of a fairly well defined ethnic group rather than that of the multi-ethnic demos that existed so far may be strong. Especially if group identities have been reified through institutionalization – as is frequently the case in multi-ethnic societies – ready-made social cleavages may be available for politicians to exploit. However, Brubaker (1998) convincingly argues that political leaders rarely have both the ability and ideal environment to manipulate identities for their own personal need that the theory of diversionary war suggests. This paper provides an initial analysis of the first in a series of democratization cases in ethnically heterogeneous settings: the Burundian democratization process of the late 1980s and early 1990s. Based on news agency and local newspaper reports, this paper attempts to assess to what degree elites stimulate ethnic hostilities in their bid for political power and to what extend they react to credible already present in the population.
• Another frame, another game? Explaining framing effects in economic games
Small changes in the framing of games (i.e., the way in which the game situation is described to participants) can have large effects on players' choices. For example, referring to a prisoner's dilemma game as the "Community Game" as opposed to the "Wall Street Game" can double the cooperation rate (Liberman, Samuels, &amp; Ross, 2004). Framing effects are an empirically well-studied phenomenon. However, a coherent theoretical explanation of the observed effects is still lacking. We distinguish between two types of framings - valence framing and context framing - and provide an overview of three general classes of theories that may account for the observed changes in behaviour.
• Unfulfilled Status Aspirations and Perceived Discrimination
Based on the ‘integration paradox’ and other literature, this article asks why discrimination remains a salient concern among better-integrated persons of immigrant origin who have achieved higher levels of education and found better-paying jobs. Previous research has largely focused on how successful integration increases the chances to face discrimination and leaves persons of immigrant origin less equipped to endure rejection on ethnic grounds. This article suggests to refine this literature by shifting our attention to experiences of failure among the aspiring. Analyses based on the six-country comparative EURISLAM survey of Muslim persons of immigrant origin support the argument: status aspirations as indicated by parental education positively predict perceived discrimination. This relation is particularly pronounced among the less educated (as compared to the highly educated) who arguably failed to realize their (parents’) status aspirations. Parental education is also a stronger predictor of perceived discrimination among respondents who regard making their parents proud an important goal in life. A robustness replication and falsification test based on the IAB-SOEP Migration Sample reconfirms these results. Apart from this original argument, the current study is also among the first to extend research on the integration paradox to countries other than the Netherlands.
• Comment on Guo, Li, Wang, Cai and Duncan
Guo, Li, Wang, Cai and Duncan (2015) recently claimed to have provided evidence for a general theory of gene-environment interaction. The theory holds that those who are labelled as having high or low genetic propensity to alcohol use will be unresponsive to environmental factors that predict binge-drinking among those of moderate propensity. They actually demonstrate evidence against their theory, but do not seem to have understood this.
Attribution of responsibility and blame are important topics in political science especially as individuals tend to think of political issues in terms of questions of responsibility, and as blame carries far more weight in voting behavior than that of credit. However, surprisingly, there is a paucity of studies on the attribution of responsibility and blame in the field of disaster research. The Flint water crisis is a story of government failure at all levels. By studying microblog posts about it, we understand how citizens assign responsibility and blame regarding such a man-made disaster online. We form hypotheses based on social scientific theories in disaster research and then operationalize them on unobtrusive, observational social media data. In particular, we investigate the following phenomena: the source for blame; the partisan predisposition; the concerned geographies; and the contagion of complaining. This paper adds to the sociology of disasters research by exploiting a new, rarely used data source (the social web), and by employing new computational methods (such as sentiment analysis and retrospective cohort study design) on this new form of data. In this regard, this work should be seen as the first step toward drawing more challenging inferences on the sociology of disasters from "big social data".
• Ready for more-than-human? Urban residents’ willingness to coexist with animals and plants
In the context of rapid urbanisation, geographers are calling for embracing non-humans as urban co-inhabitants, but notions of animals and plants ‘out of place’ manifest in wildlife conflicts. To find paths towards more-than-human cities, we need to better understand residents’ willingness to coexist. This study quantitatively compared residents’ preferences toward sharing their neighbourhood and perceptions of belonging across urban green space in two geographically and culturally distinct cities: Brisbane, Australia and Sapporo, Japan. Results suggest factors influencing respondents’ willingness to coexist were geographical and cultural context alongside educational attainment and age, but not sex and income. Mapping respondents’ preferences for animals in their neighbourhood revealed four categories divided by two axes – global-local and wanted-unwanted animals – arising from the way animals contested human notions of control over urban space. Most respondents chose informal green space (e.g., vacant lots, brownfields etc.) as spaces of belonging after forests and bushland. Drawing upon recent theoretical and empirical research on liminal urban spaces, I argue with Nohl (1990) that such informal green space can offer ‘provisional arrangements’, allowing for conciliatory engagements with non-humans. I thus propose informal green space as territories of encounter – a possible path towards more-than-human cities. Finally, I discuss some implications for planning and management of interspecies interactions.
• Intergenerational support and reproduction of gender inequalities: A case study from western and eastern Germany
Social support is often described as an exclusively positively acting factor. Its absence is said to mean negative consequences for individuals. This article shows that the supply and dependence of intergenerational social support can have negative consequences and pertains to persisting unequal gender roles and a gendered division of labor in relationships. Based on qualitative interviews, conducted in eastern and western Germany, with young adults (28-30 years old) and their parents, we hypothesize, that the bigger supply of intergenerational support of grandparents for their children and grandchildren and an alleged dependence on these transfers is especially responsible for impeding the modernization of traditional role models assigning women to the role as a mother and housewife. However, less availability and dependence on this kind of social support in eastern Germany, contribute to a more flexible form of role allocation in a relationship.
• Recent Trends and Characteristics Associated with Influenza Vaccination Disparities among Texas Children
Adequate immunization of children protects them common infections and may serve as an indicator of access to health care. Racial and ethnic differentials in immunization of children may suggest differentials in access to health care. This research describes racial and ethnic differences in childhood influenza immunization coverage and identifies social and economic characteristics associated with these immunization differentials in Texas. Methods: Using data from the National Immunization Survey racial and ethnic differences in seasonal influenza immunization among children is examined as related to social and economic characteristics of children in Texas over the period of 2004 to 2013. Results: Findings suggest the presence of expected differences in childhood seasonal influenza immunization for Hispanic and non-Hispanic black children compared to non- Hispanic white children. Education and marital status of the mother are predictors of influenza immunization as is participation in WIC. Conclusions: Implications of findings suggest the need for qualitative research to better understand barriers to immunization that differentially affect minority children in Texas. Addressing racial and ethnic immunization differentials among children may potentially result in reductions in other racial and ethnic health disparities as they age.
• Trustworthiness: A Developmental Perspective
Trust and trustworthiness are important pillars of interpersonal, societal, and economic functioning. We provide an overview of how trustworthiness develops across the lifespan. Previous studies point to an increase in trustworthiness during childhood; relatively stable levels throughout adolescence and adulthood; and some evidence suggests a further increase in old age. Young children's lower levels of trustworthiness are mirrored by differences in fundamental motives that drive social behavior, such as concerns for reciprocity and fairness. While reciprocal tendencies emerge early, young children show less fairness concerns. This pattern can be linked to the development of certain cognitive abilities that are necessary to engage in social behaviors beyond indiscriminate selfishness. Children need to exert self-control to resist the temptation of keeping all resources to themselves and they need to engage in perspective-taking to appreciate the negative consequences of their selfishness. Thus, both social and cognitive development should be considered when studying age differences in trustworthiness.
• Women’s Autonomy, Partner Asymmetries and Intimate Partner Violence in Latin America and the Caribbean
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is one of the most common forms of violence against women worldwide. The present study used an ecological conceptual framework and multi-level statistical models to analyze the determinants of IPV using data from four countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. The analysis focused on understanding how individual, couple and regional level predictors influenced IPV risk. To properly estimate this ecological model, a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) strategy is used. The findings from this analysis suggest that neither the individual or regional level effects are homogeneous across the national settings. In general, however if women have more children, have a family history of violence and live in a low SES household, they are generally at higher risk of experiencing physical IPV, regardless of national setting.
• The Politics of Collective Repair. Examining Object-Relations in a Postwork Society.
In this article we look at repair as an emergent focus of recent activism in affluent societies, where a number of groups are reclaiming practices of repair as a form of political and ecological action. Ranging from those that fight for legislative change to those groups who are trying to support ecological and social change through everyday life practices, repair is beginning to surface tensions in everyday life and as such poses opportunities for its transformation. We survey a few of the practices that make up this movement in its various articulations, to take stock of their current political import. While we suggest that these practices can be seen as an emergent lifestyle movement, they should not be seen as presenting a unified statement. Rather, we aim to show that they articulate a spectrum of political positions, particularly in relation to the three specific issues of property, pedagogy and sociality. These three dimensions are all facets of current internal discrepancies of repair practices and moreover express potential bifurcations as this movement evolves. Drawing on a diverse methodology that includes discourse analysis and participant observation, we suggest some of the ways in which this growing area of activity could play a significant role in resisting the commodification of the everyday and inventing postwork alternatives.
• Good to be Disliked? Exploring the Relationship Between Disapproval of Organizations and Job Satisfaction in the French Context.
Previous research has found that a positive relationship exists between favorable perception of a firm and employees’ job satisfaction: the more positively an organization is perceived, the happier are its workers. However, the current literature has overlooked the consequences of a negative corporate image, or disapproval of organizations. Building on the concept of organizational identification and the social identity literature, we fill in this gap and counterintuitively argue that employees are more likely to identify and align with their organizations when it faces illegitimate criticism. We test our hypotheses on a large-scale survey collected in France and find that perception of disapproval of an organization has indeed an adverse effect on job satisfaction. However, if employees perceive criticism as illegitimate, job satisfaction is positively impacted. This study suggests the existence of micro-level social identity reactions in case of unjustified disapprobation: employees stick together and hold the line against criticism, strengthening the collective identity and adding positive emotional value to the work experience.
• A Modified Framework for Identifying Stigma: News Coverage of Persons with Mental Illness Killed by Police
WORKING PAPER This paper examines the types of stigmatizing language and frames present in news reports about persons with mental illness killed by police. A sample of 301 online news reports was content analyzed, of which 132 reports contributed to 231 examples of stigmatizing language or frames. Analysis indicates that the construction of stigma in these news reports does not fully adhere to existing frameworks for identifying stigmatization. Stigmatization that is implicit, and often seemingly innocuous, is almost three times as common in the analyzed news reports than overt and explicit forms of stigmatization. A modified framework for identifying stigmatization is proposed that includes the presence of stigmatizing syntax, implicit stereotypes, stigmatizing myths, and behavior labeling. To the author's knowledge, this study is the first to examine media stigmatization of persons with mental illness killed by police as well as explore stigmatization regarding suicide by cop. Implications of the findings for efforts to destigmatize mental illness are explored. Comments and queries about this project are welcome at frankham@wisc.edu
• On the Need and Benefits of Industrial Waste Management in the Indian Context
Waste management has gained importance in the recent days due to the awareness of environmental effects of improper waste disposal. Studies aimed at proper disposal of waste have come up with methods to tap the economic potential of proper waste management in addition to the scientific methods for waste disposal. This paper discusses about the need of a proper waste management system, especially for a country like India and about the financial benefit of the same.
• Infrastructural power, monetary policy, and the resilience of European market-based banking
The pre-crisis rise and post-crisis resilience of European repo and securitisation markets represent political victories for the interests of large banks. To explain when and how finance wins, the literature emphasises lobbying capacity (instrumental power) and the financial sector’s central position in the economy (structural power). However, these approaches do not account for financial-sector power that stems from infrastructural entanglement. Unlike administrative bodies, which act on the economy by issuing laws and regulations, central banks issue liabilities and trade in financial markets. As conduits for this market-based form of state agency, financial market actors exercise infrastructural power vis-à-vis the central bank. Applied to post-crisis financial policymaking in the EU, this concept of infrastructural power offers a parsimonious explanation of the European Central Bank’s consistent support for market-based banking, which helped fend off a financial transactions tax on repos and a tougher regulatory approach to securitisation.
• Música en nuestras vidas
La música es la mezcla de sonidos, melodías y ritmos, es considerada como una de las expresiones más grandiosas del ser humano, y por medio de ella somos capaces de transmitir sensaciones. Los beneficios que nos aporta son infinitos, nos impulsa la creatividad e inspira nuevos sentimientos y sensaciones. Por medio de la realización de una encuesta online es que buscamos captar esos estilos musicales que nos acompañan en diferentes momentos de nuestro día a día, formando así el soundtrack de nuestra vida.
• Dinámicas de interacción de gamers en Chile
La veloz expansión e inserción de los videojuegos en Chile, han hecho de este fenómenos un foco atractivo de investigación para las ciencias sociales, por lo que en este estudio, de carácter exploratorio, pretendemos realizar una primera aproximación a las dinámicas de interacción de los gamers, considerando que el uso de estas plataformas ha implicado una significación cultural del entorno al que se enfrentan -en su gran mayoría- jóvenes y niños. Para estos fines, realizaremos análisis de datos cualitativos, ya que nos permitirán una mayor comprensión de un otro y nos revelará las lógicas communitas a las que se somentes los jugadores chilenos, siendo este elemento comunitario el eje central dentro de las dinámicas de interacción y el predominante en las razones de permanencia de las y los jugadores chilenos.
• Pride and Prejudice: Employment Discrimination against Openly Gay Men in the United States
This article presents the first large-scale audit study of discrimination against openly gay men in the United States. Pairs of fictitious résumés were sent in response to 1,769 job postings in seven states. One résumé in each pair was randomly assigned experience in a gay campus organization, and the other résumé was assigned a control organization. Two main findings have emerged. First, in some but not all states, there was significant discrimination against the fictitious applicants who appeared to be gay. This geographic variation in the level of discrimination appears to reflect regional differences in attitudes and anti-discrimination laws. Second, employers who emphasized the importance of stereotypically male heterosexual traits were particularly likely to discriminate against openly gay men. Beyond these particular findings, this study advances the audit literature more generally by covering multiple regions and by highlighting how audit techniques may be used to identify stereotypes that affect employment decisions in real labor markets.
• Breastfeeding and the Role of Maternal Religion: Results from a National Prospective Cohort Study
Background Recent research on religion and breastfeeding from a low-income, urban sample in the United States found that religious affiliation and religious attendance were associated with breastfeeding initiation. Purpose We assessed the relationship between religion (religious affiliation and religious attendance) and breastfeeding (initiation and duration) in a nationally representative prospective cohort study. We examined whether education and other sociodemographic characteristics mediated or moderated relationships. Methods Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (n = 3,719), we regressed breastfeeding initiation and breastfeeding duration for first births on religious affiliation and religious attendance, comparing conservative Protestants to other religious groups. Sociodemographic characteristics were explored as potential mediators or moderators of relationships. Results Other than Black Protestants, all religious groups reported higher odds of breastfeeding initiation compared to conservative Protestants (odds ratios = 1.43–3.01; all P &lt; .01). All groups also breastfed longer than conservative Protestants, with the exception of Black Protestants and Catholics. Educational attainment explained breastfeeding initiation differences with the exception of nonaffiliates and “other” religious affiliates. Educational attainment also explained religious group breastfeeding duration differences with the exception of nonaffiliates. In our final models, regular religious attendance was not directly associated with breastfeeding, but it magnified the breastfeeding duration advantage seen among mothers who had a later age at first birth. Conclusions The role of educational attainment in explaining breastfeeding differences between conservative Protestants and other groups suggests educational interventions may be beneficial within this population.
• Dirty Theory: Sketches of an Anthropological Account of Mountain Biking
At attempt to sketch the outlines of an anthropological account of mountain biking. Engaging with Foucauldian power, Standpoint theory, notions of technology, and of embodied practice.
• Born Digital? Presence, Privacy, and Intimate Surveillance
The moment of birth was once the instant where parents and others first saw their child in the world, but with the advent of various imaging technologies, most notably the ultrasound, the first photos often precede birth (Lupton, 2013). In the past several decades, the question is no longer just when the first images are produced, but who should see them, via which, if any, communication platforms? Should sonograms (the ultrasound photos) be used to announce the impending arrival of a new person in the world? Moreover, while that question is ostensibly quite benign, it does usher in an era where parents and loved ones are, for the first years of life, the ones deciding what, if any, social media presence young people have before they’re in a position to start contributing to those decisions. This chapter addresses this comparatively new online terrain, postulating the provocative term intimate surveillance, which deliberately turns surveillance on its head, begging the question whether sharing affectionately, and with the best of intentions, can or should be understood as a form of surveillance. Firstly, this chapter will examine the idea of co-creating online identities, touching on some of the standard ways of thinking about identity online, and then starting to look at how these approaches do and do not explicitly address the creation of identity for others, especially parents creating online identities for their kids. I will then review some ideas about surveillance and counter-surveillance with a view to situating these creative parental acts in terms of the kids and others being created. Finally, this chapter will explore several examples of parental monitoring, capturing and sharing of data and media about their children, using various mobile apps, contextualising these activities not with a moral finger-waving, but by surfacing specific questions and literacies which parents may need to develop in order to use these tools mindfully, and ensure decisions made about their children’s’ online presences are purposeful decisions.
• Fast gentrifying neighborhoods, slow gentrifying schools
Neigborhoods gentrify, and schools do too -- though more slowly. I give a personal look at how schools in Brooklyn have gentrified in recent years.
• Moaning and Eye Contact: College Men’sNegotiations of Sexual Consent in Theory and in Practice
Recently, campus sexual assault has received widespread attention with renewed efforts to include men in violence prevention efforts. Specifically, many campuses have adopted affirmative consent policies that place more responsibility on men to take a proactive approach to rape prevention. This study uses data from 25 semi-structured interviews to explore how undergraduate men make sense of sexual consent after the enactment of these policies. Respondents answered questions about their sexual experiences with long-term relationships and hookups, as well as their attitudes toward campus sexual consent policies. Findings indicate that while respondents understand and condone key elements of sexual consent, they do not consistently apply reliable strategies to ensure that their sexual interactions are consensual. While these findings may appear contradictory, analysis of the men’s attitudes and behaviors using theories of hegemonic masculinity reveals that advocating for consent and enacting sexual aggression are a coherent way for young men to appear sexually desirable.
• The Citizenship Advantage: Immigrant Socioeconomic Attainment across Generations in the First Half of the Twentieth Century
Scholars who study immigrant economic progress often point to the success of Southern and Eastern Europeans who entered in the early 20th century and draw inferences about whether today’s immigrants will follow a similar trajectory. However, little is known about the mechanisms that allowed for European upward advancement. This article begins to fill this gap by analyzing how naturalization policies influenced economic success of immigrants across generations. Specifically, I create new panel datasets that follow immigrants and their children across complete-count US censuses to understand the economic consequences of citizenship attainment. I find that naturalization raised occupational attainment for the first generation that then allowed children to have greater educational attainment and labor market success. I argue that economic progress was conditioned by political statuses for European-origin groups during the first half of the twentieth century – a mechanism previously missed by contemporary research.
• Black Hole Sun: Binarism and Gravity in Cultural Fields
... Using gravity as the force at play in a model offers, I think, an intuitive way out of the stable oppositions of binarism and can help us capture the ways that individuals and their actions make sense in a specific universe of meaning. I’m going to argue that there are some particular benefits to choosing gravity over polarity...
• Moodle Usage Case Study at a University
ABSTRACT: the purpose of this study was to describe Moodle usage as Asia-Pacific International University (APIU). The results indicated that Moodle use is limited primarily to two activities (quizzes and assignments), the current memory needs meet the requirements of Moodle, and that there is a cyclical pattern to Moodle use at APIU. Lastly, Moodle use is generally low when considering memory requirements and or the proportion of activity and number of users.
• The Biometric Imaginary: Bureaucratic Technopolitics in Post-Apartheid Welfare
Starting in March 2012, the South African government engaged in a massive effort of citizen registration that continued for more than a year. Nearly 19 million social welfare beneficiaries enrolled in a novel biometric identification scheme that uses fingerprints and voice recognition to authenticate social grant recipients. This article seeks to understand the meaning of biometric technology in post-apartheid South African welfare through a study of the bureaucratic and policy elite's motivation. It argues that biometric technology was conceived of and implemented as the most recent in a series of institutional, infrastructural and policy reforms that seek to deliver welfare in a standardised and objective manner. This has, at times, been driven by a false faith in technical efficacy and has involved a playing down of the differential political implications of biometric welfare identification.
• Sociological theorizing as meaning making: the case of ecological modernization theory
In this paper, I propose a novel way to consider sociological theorizing. I argue that the structural analysis method first developed by French anthropologist Claude Lévi-Strauss provides a powerful tool to deconstruct and critique sociological theories. I propose that this method can be used to redefine certain theories not as sets of proposals from which testable hypotheses are to be derived, but rather as different versions of foundational narratives of Western society. Viewed in this way, sociological theorizing contributes to construct the Western cosmology – the body of tales and narratives that explain the creation of the social world, its relationship with nature, and its future direction. As a case in point, I argue that the narrative of ecological modernization can thus be analyzed and deconstructed using the same tools Lévi-Strauss uses to make sense of native American cosmologies. Doing so, I find that the narrative of ecological modernization developed as a mirror image of older tales of modernization, closely associated with the myth of progress – according to which Western society emerged from a state of nature in which no rational division of labour and no private property existed. This inversion transforms the myth of creation at the heart of the modern Western cosmology into a utopian narrative that finds considerable political traction with a certain part of the business elite and associated organic intellectuals, interested in maintaining existing relations of production and power.
• Modern Adobe Houses in Tetlama, Morelos / Viviendas de adobe modernas en Tetlama, Morelos
This is a brief descriptive reports on an ethnoarchaeological project to study modern adobe houses in the Mexican village of Tetlama. In Archaeological Research at Aztec-Period Rural Sites in Morelos, Mexico. Volume 1, Excavations and Architecture / Investigaciones Arqueológicas en Sitios Rurales de la Época Azteca en Morelos, Tomo 1, Excavaciones y Arquitectura, edited by Michael E. Smith, pp. 405-418. University of Pittsburgh Monographs in Latin American Archaeology, vol. 4. University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh. (1992).
• Stigmatized Love, Boundary Making and the Heroic Love Myth: How Filipina Women Construct Their Relationships with American Military Men
This chapter provides an empirical examination of how Filipina women construct their intimate relationships with US military men, and compares marriage migrants with those ‘left behind’ when the US military withdrew from their permanent bases in the Philippines. First, I’ll situate the case in theories on interracial love and marriage. Second, I outline my data and analytic approach. Following this, I focus on my findings. I show how the women talked about the base through the lens of childhood nostalgia. This is important to understand to contextualize their views of US servicemen and provide the backdrop from which these relationships were formed. Next, I show how they draw on love myths to frame their relationships and draw symbolic boundaries around their own relationship and others that may seem similar. Finally, I discuss how they further embraced their familial roles of wife and mother. Being legally or informally married to a US serviceman shapes a woman’s role in her family. Their childhood memories and current conceptions of motherhood and as a wife are interconnected with how they see their relationships with these men.
• Defining Excellence: 70 Years of John Bates Clark Medals
In 2017 the John Bates Clark Award turned 70, and the 39th medal was be awarded. Often dubbed the “baby Nobel Prize,” widely discussed by economists and covered in the press, it has become a professional and public marker of excellence for economic research. Yet, after three initial unanimous choices of laureates (Paul Samuelson, Kenneth Boulding, Milton Friedman), the award was increasingly challenged. The prize was not awarded in 1953, almost discontinued three times, the selection procedure and the age limit also created issues. We show how economists in these years disagreed over the definition of merit and excellence. Many young economists felt the prize was biased toward theory and asked for the establishment of a separate “Wesley Clair Mitchell award” for empirical and policy-oriented work. We examine how the committee on honors and awards reacted to critique on the lack of diversity of laureates in origins, affiliations, fields and methods, and we provide a quantitative analysis of the evolving profile of laureates.
• Work-to-Family Enrichment and Gender Inequalities in Eight European Countries
All social roles have positive and rewarding as well as negative or problematic aspects. Research on the work–family interface has predominantly focused on conflicting roles. In contrast, this paper extends research on work–family enrichment (WFE), a positive aspect of work and gender differences in WFE in a cross-national context. Drawing upon social role theory and the culture sensitive theory on work–family enrichment, we examined gender differences in experiences of developmental WFE in a sample of service sector employees in eight European countries. In line with traditional gender roles, women reported more WFE than men. The relationship was moderated by both an objective and subjective measure of gender egalitarianism but in the opposite direction as hypothesized. The gender gap in WFE was larger in more gender-egalitarian countries, where women may be better able to transfer resources from the work domain to benefit their family role than in low egalitarian societies. National differences in labor market factors, family models and the public discourse on work–life balance mainly explain the unanticipated findings.
• Are Genes Destiny? Exploring the Role of Intrauterine Environment in Moderating Genetic Influences on Body Weight
By incorporating molecular genetic variants and the fetal origins of obesity hypothesis into a gene-environment interaction framework, this study investigates the potential interactive effects of variation in the obesity-associated gene (FTO) and intrauterine environment on body mass index (BMI) in adulthood. This study draws on data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, and uses sibling comparisons that allow for quasi-experimental variations in both genetic and environmental factors. Findings demonstrated that even after controlling for unobserved family background, the FTO variants and birth weight are generally associated with adult BMI. Moreover, this study found that the effects of having a risk allele of the FTO gene are largely concentrated on those who were heavier at birth, providing evidence for a gene-environment interaction on BMI and the development of obesity. Results of this study suggest that genes are not destiny and environmental factors may offset the effects of obesity-promoting genes. In particular, efforts to counteract genetic effects on obesity may begin as early as in utero. Interventions to prevent higher birth weight may help reduce the risk of obesity later in life, by directly addressing the programming effects of the in utero environment and also indirectly moderating the obesity-promoting genetic effects.
• Income Inequality and Household Labor
Income inequality has increased dramatically in the United States since the mid 1970s. This remarkable change in the distribution of household income has spurred a great deal of research on the social and economic consequences of exposure to high inequality. However, the empirical record on the effects of income inequality is mixed. In this paper, we suggest that previous research has generally overlooked a simple but important pathway through which inequality might manifest in daily life: inequality shapes the ability of women to outsource domestic labor by hiring others to perform it. One important venue where such dynamics might then manifest is in time spent on housework and in particular in the time divide in housework between women of high and low socio-economic status. We combine micro-data from the 2003-2013 American Time Use Survey with area-level data on income inequality to show the class divide in housework time between women with a college degree and from high earning households and women of lower socio-economic status is wider in more unequal places. We further assess whether this gap can be explained by domestic outsourcing by combining micro-data from 2003-2013 Consumer Expenditure Survey with area-level inequality and show that the gap in spending for household services between households of high and low socio-economic status also increases in contexts of higher inequality.
• La historia del pensamiento economico en chile - versión provisoria
Un sobrevuelo a la historia del pensamiento económico en Chile: 1790s-1970s.
• Methods and Measures for Analyzing Complex Street Networks and Urban Form
Complex systems have been widely studied by social and natural scientists in terms of their dynamics and their structure. Scholars of cities and urban planning have incorporated complexity theories from qualitative and quantitative perspectives. From a structural standpoint, the urban form may be characterized by the morphological complexity of its circulation networks – particularly their density, resilience, centrality, and connectedness. This dissertation unpacks theories of nonlinearity and complex systems, then develops a framework for assessing the complexity of urban form and street networks. It introduces a new tool, OSMnx, to collect street network and other urban form data for anywhere in the world, then analyze and visualize them. Finally, it presents a large empirical study of 27,000 street networks, examining their metric and topological complexity relevant to urban design, transportation research, and the human experience of the built environment.
• The Relative Circuity of Walkable and Drivable Urban Street Networks
Circuity, the ratio of network distances to straight-line distances, is an important measure of urban street network structure and transportation efficiency. Circuity results from a circulation network’s configuration, planning, and underlying terrain. In turn, it impacts how humans use urban space for settlement and travel. Although past research has examined overall street network circuity, researchers have not studied the relative circuity of walkable versus drivable circulation networks. To address this gap, this study uses free, open-source software and OpenStreetMap data to explore relative network circuity. We download walkable and drivable networks for 37 US cities using the non-commercial OSMnx software, which we then use to simulate trips and analyze circuity to characterize network structure. We find that walking networks tend to allow for more direct trips than driving networks do in most cities: average driving circuity exceeds average walking circuity in all but two of the cities that exhibit statistically significant differences between network types. We discuss various reasons for this phenomenon, illustrated with case studies. Network circuity also varies substantially between different types of places. These findings underscore the value of using network-based distances rather than straight-line distances when studying urban travel and access. They also suggest the importance of differentiating between walkable and drivable circulation networks when modeling and characterizing urban street networks: although different modes’ networks overlap in any given city, their relative structure and performance vary in most cities.
• Antisocial and Human Capital Pathways to Socioeconomic Exclusion: A 42-Year Prospective Study
Nordic welfare states have been very successful at reducing poverty and inequality among their citizens. However, the presence of a strong social safety net in these countries has not solved the problem of socioeconomic exclusion, manifesting in such outcomes as chronic unemployment and welfare dependency. In an effort to understand this phenomenon, the current study builds on the assumption that psychological risk factors emerge as important determinants of socioeconomic disadvantage in an environment where ascribed characteristics have less impact on educational and occupational attainment. Using data from Finland, this research examined a life course model linking childhood differences in cognitive skills and antisocial propensity to midlife socioeconomic exclusion. The Jyväskylä Longitudinal Study of Personality and Social Development (n = 369) follows individuals from age 8 (b. 1959) through age 50. Evidence from a structural equation model found support for key theoretical predictions: (1) human capital and antisocial pathways contributed independently to socioeconomic exclusion; (2) the effect of childhood psychological factors on midlife socioeconomic exclusion was mediated by adolescent and adult life course outcomes; and (3) the human capital and antisocial domains intersected such that antisocial children struggled in school as adolescents, which contributed to their persistence in crime and deviance in adulthood – a behavioral pattern that directly increased the risk of socioeconomic exclusion in midlife. In short, the findings suggest that early emerging differences in cognitive ability and antisociality set in motion a process of negative life outcomes with enduring consequences for socioeconomic well-being. The results are discussed from the perspective of socio-historical context and public policy.
• 3D printing Jurassic Park: Copyright law, cultural institutions, and makerspaces
• Informal urban green space: Residents’ perception, use, and management preferences across four major Japanese shrinking cities
Urban residents’ health depends on green infrastructure to cope with climate change. Shrinking cities could utilize vacant land to provide more green space, but declining tax revenues preclude new park development – a situation pronounced in Japan, where some cities are projected to shrink by over ten percent, but lack green space. Could informal urban green spaces (IGS; vacant lots, street verges, brownfields etc.) supplement parks in shrinking cities? This study analyzes residents’ perception, use, and management preferences (management goals, approaches to participatory management, willingness to participate) for IGS using a large, representative online survey (n=1,000) across four major shrinking Japanese cities: Sapporo, Nagano, Kyoto and Kitakyushu. Results show that residents saw IGS as a common element of the urban landscape and their daily lives, but their evaluation was mixed. Recreation and urban agriculture were preferred to redevelopment and non-management. For participative management, residents saw a need for the city administration to mediate usage and liability, and expected an improved appearance, but emphasized the need for financial and non-financial support. A small but significant minority (~10%) were willing to participate in management activities. On this basis, eight principles for participatory informal green space planning are proposed.
• The Maker Movement: Copyright Law, Remix Culture and 3D Printing
• Conspiracy, God's Plan, and National Emergency: Kachin Popular Analyses of the Ceasefire Era and its Resource Grabs
This chapter draws from periods of ethnographic field research in the Kachin region from 2010 to 2015, covering the lead up to the breakdown of the ceasefire and the discourses that emerged in relation to it subsequently. It therefore discusses in critical terms how large parts of Kachin society understand the ceasefire era and the reasons for its collapse in 2011. It focuses particularly on popular understandings of the large-scale resource grabs that defined much of that era. The chapter lays out a dominant Kachin nationalist-theoretical framework by discussing three core terms: Wunpawng Mungdan (territory/ ‘Kachin country’), Wunpawng myusha (people/ ‘Kachin nation’), and Karai Kasang (divinity/ Christian ‘God’). The chapter then tackles how Kachin nationalists deploy these terms in specific ways to understand their 1994-2011 ceasefire experiences; in doing so, they express ideas of ethno-national emergency, divine predestination, and ethnocidal conspiracy. These understandings guide many people in Kachin society to commit to resistance and the ethno-patriotic project of co-building a ‘land yet-to-be’, instead of engaging in a ceasefire based on compromise. Amid the current battles, anger and humanitarian crisis, the question of whether one wants ‘our Kachin nation’ to pursue full state independence or merely federal autonomy within Myanmar has become a sensitive and barely voiced debate inside Kachin society. While exploring these theories and popular analyses, this chapter steps into an open critical dialogue with Kachin nationalists themselves, suggesting ways in which these understandings are contradicted or complicated by other social realities. This is to draw a fuller, fairer, and more balanced picture of the complex social dynamics in this region. Simultaneously, the chapter cautions against the tendency to make homogenising claims about Burma’s minority ethnic nations, as if these were simple, monolithic entities rather than the internally diverse, class-stratified and complex societies that in fact they are.
• Fiscal fault, financial fix? Capital Markets Union and the quest for stabilisation and risk sharing in the EMU
This article seeks to situate and explain the EU’s push for a Capital Markets Union – and thus for a more market-based financial system – in the broader context of macroeconomic governance in politically fractured polities. The current governance structure of the European Monetary Union (EMU) severely limits the capacity of both national and supranational actors to provide two core public goods: macroeconomic stabilisation – smoothing the business cycle and ensuring growth and job creation – and redistribution, or risk sharing, between EMU members. While member states have institutionalised fiscal austerity and abandoned other macroeconomic levers, the European polity lacks the fiscal resources necessary to achieve expansionary stabilisation and EMU-internal risk sharing. Capital Markets Union, we argue, is the attempt of European policymakers to devise a financial fix to this structural capacity gap. Using its regulatory powers, the Commission, supported by the ECB, seeks to harness private financial markets and instruments to provide public policy goods. We trace how technocrats, think tanks, and financial-sector lobbyists, through the strategic use of knowledge and expertise, established securitisation and market-based finance as solutions to the EMU’s governance problems.
• Quality of life
This chapter reviews the quality of life in European societies, drawing on sociological theories of the quality of life, and specifically touching upon the areas of housing, the environment, health, and time use. One major theme is the social stratification of quality of life, both within and between European societies. The chapter was later published in Steffen Mau and Roland Verwiebe, European Societies. Mapping Structure and Change, Policy Press 2010. A Stata replication file that recreates all the Figures in the chapter is available.
• 日本人は妊娠・出産の知識レベルが低いのか?: 少子化社会対策大綱の根拠の検討
2015年3月20日に閣議決定された「少子化社会対策大綱」は、「きめ細かな少子化対策の推進」として「妊娠や出産などに関する医学的・科学的に正しい知識」を普及させるという課題を掲げている。学校教育については特に「正しい知識を教材に盛り込む」と明記しており、これが文部科学省作成の高校保健・副教材『健康な生活を送るために（平成二七年度版）』に「妊娠のしやすさ」の項目などを入れる根拠となった。大綱の数値目標を設定する「別添2」資料によれば、「妊娠・出産に関する医学的・科学的に正しい知識についての理解の割合」が2009年には34％であったものを2020年までに70％まで引き上げる、という。この「妊娠・出産に関する医学的・科学的に正しい知識についての理解の割合」とはいったい何か。本稿ではその正体を具体的に追究する。
• Humiliation-Revenge in Warfare
My book, Bloody Revenge (1994), proposed that humiliation can be felt by a whole nation, and that it could lead to a war of revenge. World Wars I and II were proposed as examples. The considerable role played by the desire for vengeance in France in the period 1872-1914 was illustrated by the way this topic dominated the French media and politics following their defeat by Prussia in 1871. In the case of WWII, the rise of Hitler, which led to the war, was described emphasizing his emphasis on revenge, although my case was not as strong. The various reviews of my book seemed to miss the main point, even those that were sympathetic.
• Job Turnover and Divorce
Inspired by Pugh (2015), this paper explores the connection between work and couple stability, using a new combination of data from the Current Population Survey (CPS) and the American Community Survey (ACS). I test the association between job turnover, a contextual variable, and divorce at the individual level. Results show that people who work in jobs with high turnover rates – that is, jobs which many people are no longer working in one year later – are also more likely to divorce. One possible explanation is that people exposed to lower levels of commitment from employers, and employees, exhibit lower levels of commitment to their own marriages
• Keeping up with the Joneses: How Households Fared in the Era of High Income Inequality and the Housing Price Bubble, 1999–2007
Sociologists conceptualize lifestyles as structured hierarchically where people seek to emulate those higher up. Growing income inequality in the United States means those at the top bid up the price of valued goods like housing and those in lower groups have struggled to maintain their relative positions. We explore this process in the context of the U.S. housing market from 1999 to 2007 by analyzing over 4,000 residential moves from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. Houses are the ultimate status symbol. Their size, quality, and location signal to others that one has (or has not) arrived. We show that in areas where income inequality was higher, all movers went deeper into debt and increased their monthly housing costs to live in more desirable neighborhoods. But because people at the top of the income distribution had so much more money, they were able to take on less debt to keep their position in the status queue. Everyone below them who made a move to buy a house took on more debt, particularly in areas with higher income inequality. This evidence suggests that growing inequality implies that those at the top buy the best homes while others struggle to keep pace amid rising housing costs.
• Institutionalized Norms, Practical Organizational Activity, and Loose Coupling: Inclusive Congregations' Responses to Homosexuality
Congregations vary widely in their responses to homosexuality. Prior research tends to focus on determining which congregations are most likely to be inclusive of lesbians and gays. One puzzle still remains, however. Among those inclusive congregations that integrate gays and lesbians into congregational life, why do some adopt a formal organizational statement of welcoming while others do not? Drawing on the New Institutionalism and inhabited institutions literatures, this study is the first quantitative examination of the concept of “loose coupling” within religious organizations regarding homosexuality. Analyses using nationally representative congregational data (National Congregations Study) indicate that particular types of inclusive congregations are more likely to loosely couple their practical activity from their formal organizational stance. These findings suggest that inclusive religious organizations respond to myths and norms from various organizational fields and that agentic actors inhabiting the organization influence it by responding, interpreting, and making sense of those institutional norms. The analyses also indicate that loose coupling is one avenue through which particular types of religious organizations respond to the transformation of societal norms with innovation.
• Sticks, Stones and Molotov Cocktails: Unarmed Collective Violence and Democratization
The literature on civil resistance finds that nonviolent campaigns are more likely to succeed than violent insurgencies. A parallel literature on democratization poses mass mobilization as exogenous to political liberalization. Contributing to both literatures, we propose the category of unarmed collective violence to capture an empirically recurring form of unruly collective action, and use a mixed methods research design to examine its impact on democratization. An event history analysis finds that riots are positively associated with political liberalization in 103 nondemocracies from 1990 to 2004. Attacks by civilians on police stations during the 25th January Egyptian Revolution, which disrupted the coercive capacity of the Mubarak regime, illustrate one way in which unarmed collective violence can bring about a democratic breakthrough. A qualitative examination of all 80 democratic transitions held between 1980 and 2010 also reveals the salience of unarmed collective violence. These findings contribute to research on the dynamics of contentious democratization, and suggest that remaining unarmed may be more consequential for a democracy campaign than adhering to nonviolence.
• Quality of Work and Quality of Life of Service Sector Workers: Cross-National Variations in Eight European Countries
How do European service sector workers evaluate their quality of work and life nowadays? Europeanization and globalization are bringing about major shifts in the economy, but we know little about how this is affecting the well-being of Europe’s citizens. This chapter presents a range of subjective indicators for the quality of work and life as reported by service sector employees in eight European countries. In addition, it provides background information on the organizational context. The countries involved are at different stages of economic development and have differing welfare systems. Four organizations were surveyed in each country: one bank or insurance company, one public hospital, one retail organization and one IT or telecom company.
• Recalibrating the spirit level: An analysis of the interaction of income inequality and poverty and its effect on health
The publication of The Spirit Level (Wilkinson &amp; Pickett, 2009) marked a paramount moment in the analysis of health and inequality, quickly attracting a remarkable degree of attention, both positive and negative, both in academic and in public discourse. Following at least 20 years of research, the book proposes a simple and powerful argument: inequality per se, more specifically income inequality, is harmful to every aspect of social life. In order to confirm this idea, the authors present a series of bivariate, cross-sectional associations showing comparisons across countries and within the United States. Despite the methodological limitations of this approach, the authors advance causal claims concerning the detrimental effects of income inequality. They also rule out poverty as a plausible alternative explanation, without directly measuring it. Meanwhile, over the last decade stratification scholars have demonstrated the nonlinear effect of economic factors, especially income, on health. The results suggest that a relative approach is best for analyzing dynamics at the top of the income distribution, whereas an absolute approach seems most appropriate for studying the bottom of the distribution. Consistent with this perspective, here I reanalyze data from The Spirit Level, adding a measure of poverty, in order to control the effect of inequality and explore its interaction with poverty. The findings show that inequality and poverty—which I contend are two interdependent but nonetheless distinct phenomena—interact across countries, such that the detrimental effects of inequality are present or stronger in countries with high poverty, and absent or weaker in countries with low poverty; poverty replaces inequality as the favored explanation of health and social ills across states. The new evidence suggests that income distributions are characterized by a complex interplay between inequality and poverty, whose interaction deserves further analysis.
• Frequency, duration and medium of advertisements for gambling and other risky products in commercial and public service broadcasts of English Premier League football
• Response to Pickett and Wilkinson (2015)
[...] To conclude, I emphasize that none of the points raised here and in the original article are incompatible with the fact that excessive income inequality has adverse social effects, with the existence of social gradients, or with psychological explanations. However, as we look at the bigger picture and analyze it in its complexity, we should strive to avoid reductionism. There is an “enormous and well-developed body of social science literature” (Beckfield &amp; Krieger, 2009, p. 153) that can help shed light on the structural side of this story, which until now has been too readily dismissed.
The master dataset of recorded instances of gambling, alcohol and hyperpalatable food advertising captured at English Premier League (EPL) football matches shown in three recordings of Match of the Day, a highlights show on a non-commercial channel, and three live matches shown on Sky Sports 1, a commercial channel. The data is used in the paper "Frequency, duration and medium of advertisements for gambling and other risky products in commercial and public service broadcasts of English Premier League football" by the same authors.
• Humiliation-Revenge in Warfare
My book Bloody Revenge (1994) proposed that humiliation can be felt by whole nations, and that it could lead to a war of revenge. World Wars I and II were proposed as examples. The considerable role played by the desire for vengeance in France in the period 1872-1914 was illustrated by the way it dominated the French media and politics following their defeat by Prussia in 1871. In the case of WWII, the rise of Hitler, which led to the war, was described in terms of his emphasis on revenge, although the evidence was not as strong.
• Whitened Résumés: Race and Self-Presentation in the Labor Market
Using interviews, a laboratory experiment, and a résumé audit study, we examine racial minorities’ attempts to avoid anticipated discrimination in labor markets by concealing or downplaying racial cues in job applications, a practice known as “résumé whitening.” Interviews with racial minority university students reveal that while some minority job seekers reject this practice, others view it as essential and use a variety of whitening techniques. Building on the qualitative findings, we conduct a lab study to examine how racial minority job seekers change their résumés in response to different job postings. Results show that when targeting an employer that presents itself as valuing diversity, minority job applicants engage in relatively little résumé whitening and thus submit more racially transparent résumés. Yet our audit study of how employers respond to whitened and unwhitened résumés shows that organizational diversity statements are not actually associated with reduced discrimination against unwhitened résumés. Taken together, these findings suggest a paradox: minorities may be particularly likely to experience disadvantage when they apply to ostensibly pro-diversity employers. These findings illuminate the role of racial concealment and transparency in modern labor markets and point to an important interplay between the self-presentation of employers and the self-presentation of job seekers in shaping economic inequality.
• Whitened Resumes: Race and Self-Presentation in the Labor Market
• Probability and conspiratorial thinking
Conspiracy theories as alternative explanations for events and states of affairs enjoy widespread popularity. We test one possible explanation for why people are prone to conspiratorial thinking: We hypothesize that conspiratorial thinking as an explanation for events increases as the probability of those events decreases. In order to test this hypothesis, we have conducted three experiments in which participants were exposed to different information about probabilities of fictional events. The results of all three experiments support the hypothesis: The lower the probability of an event, the stronger participants embrace conspiratorial explanations. Conspiratorial thinking, we conclude, potentially represents a cognitive heuristic: A coping mechanism for uncertainty.
• ‘As if nobody’s reading’?: The imagined audience and socio-technical biases in personal blogging practice in the UK
This thesis examines the understandings and meanings of personal blogging from the perspective of blog authors. The theoretical framework draws on a symbolic interactionist perspective, focusing on how meaning is constructed through blogging practices, supplemented by theories of mediation and critical technology studies. The principal evidence in this study is derived from an analysis of in-depth interviews with bloggers selected to maximise their diversity based on the results of an initial survey. This is supplemented by an analysis of personal blogging’s technical contexts and of various societal influences that appear to influence blogging practices. Bloggers were found to have limited interest in gathering information about their readers, appearing to rely instead on an assumption that readers are sympathetic. Although personal blogging practices have been framed as being a form of radically free expression, they were also shown to be subject to potential biases including social norms and the technical characteristics of blogging services. Blogs provide a persistent record of a blogger’s practice, but the bloggers in this study did not generally read their archives or expect others to do so, nor did they retrospectively edit their archives to maintain a consistent self-presentation. The empirical results provide a basis for developing a theoretical perspective to account for blogging practices. This emphasises firstly that a blogger’s construction of the meaning of their practice can be based as much on an imagined and desired social context as it is on an informed and reflexive understanding of the communicative situation. Secondly, blogging practices include a variety of envisaged audience relationships, and some blogging practices appear to be primarily self-directed with potential audiences playing a marginal role. Blogging’s technical characteristics and the social norms surrounding blogging practices appear to enable and reinforce this unanticipated lack of engagement with audiences. This perspective contrasts with studies of computer mediated communication that suggest bloggers would monitor their audiences and present themselves strategically to ensure interactions are successful in their terms. The study also points the way towards several avenues for further research including a more in-depth consideration of the neglected structural factors (both social and technical) which potentially influence blogging practices, and an examination of social network site use practices using a similar analytical approach.
• Digital Exhaustion
• Heterogeneity in Crowding-Out: When Are Charitable Donations Responsive To Government Support?
De Wit, A., Bekkers, R., &amp; Broese Van Groenou, M. (2017). Heterogeneity in Crowding-out: When Are Charitable Donations Responsive To Government Support? European Sociological Review, 33(1), 59-71.
• General Intelligence in Friendship Selection: A Study of Preadolescent Best Friend Dyads
Research on the topics of general intelligence and friendship formation separately has elicited a tremendous amount of attention across decades of psychological scholarship. To date, however, less effort has been aimed at uniting these lines of inquiry. In particular, do friendship bonds emerge, based in part, on shared levels of cognitive ability? Several disparate lines of evidence suggest this might be the case, however, a need remains to replicate this work using large national samples coupled with psychometrically sound measurement. The current study helps to fill this void in the literature using a national sample of American children. Our results reveal that preadolescent friendship dyads are robustly correlated on measures of general intelligence, and the effects withstand correction for potentially confounding variables.
• The gambler's fallacy fallacy (fallacy)
The gambler's fallacy is the irrational belief that prior outcomes in a series of events affect the probability of a future outcome, even though the events in question are independent and identically distributed. In this paper, we argue that in the standard account of the gambler's fallacy, the gambler's fallacy fallacy can arise: The irrational belief that all beliefs pertaining to the probabilities of sequences of outcomes constitute the gambler's fallacy, when, in fact, they do not. Specifically, the odds of the probabilities of some sequences of outcomes can be epistemically rational in a given decision-making situation. Not only are such odds of probabilities of sequences of outcomes not the gambler's fallacy, but they can be implemented as a simple heuristic for avoiding the gambler's fallacy in risk-related decision-making. However, we have to be careful not to fall prey to a variant of the gambler's fallacy, the gambler's fallacy fallacy (fallacy), in which we do not calculate odds for the probabilities of sequences that matter, but rather simply believe that the raw probability for the occurrence of a sequence of outcomes is the probability for the last outcome in that sequence.
• Brute force effects of mass media presence and social media activity on electoral outcome
In this study, we analyze whether the mere volume of presence in mass media and the mere volume of activity on social media convey advantages to candidates in parliamentary elections. Based on the theoretical model of bounded rationality, we call these potential effects brute force effects. During the last month of the election campaign of the Swiss federal election of 2015, we have tracked the presence of all 873 candidates in the canton of Zurich, the most populous canton, in a broad sample of mass media. Additionally, we have tracked those candidates' activity on Facebook and Twitter. The results of our multilevel Bayesian estimates show that mass media presence has a consistent non-trivial impact on different aspects of electoral outcome. Furthermore, social media activity also has a non-trivial impact, but only in terms of resonance (reactions to candidates' social media activity). Overall, our results suggest that brute force effects of of mass media presence and social media activity can have substantial impact on voting behavior.
• Opportunities and Challenges of Applying the SDGs to Business
Current efforts to drive business Sustainability are improving but still falling short of the transformational impact needed. This paper explores the potential of the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) to contribute to improved business Sustainability. Research revealed significant challenges including: a disconnect between the design of the SDGs and the needs of businesses, significant measurement difficulties and an already existing momentum to integrate the SDGs without disrupting the status quo. The big opportunity is that the SDGs are a universally agreed upon definition of Sustainability which fully integrates the “social” side. The specificity and structure of the SDGs also creates the opportunity for accountability based on outcomes and impacts rather than inputs and the development of businesses strategies with the potential for transformation. Work is needed to transform the SDGs themselves into a tool which can usefully contribute to business Sustainability, but the opportunities suggest it will be worthwhile.
• From the Trenches: A Global Survey of Anti-TIP NGOs and their Views of US Efforts
Amid the academic and policy critiques of the United States’ 15-year push to eliminate human trafficking, the perspective of the nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) working with anti-trafficking advocacy and services has been largely ignored. This article presents the results of a global survey of nearly 500 anti-trafficking NGOs in working in 133 countries, and is the first NGO-focused survey of its kind. Based on the results of the survey, we provide an overview of the anti-trafficking NGO sector as a whole, detail the relationship between anti-trafficking NGOs and the US, and account for some of the variation in NGO opinions of US efforts. Notably, we find that NGOs are remarkably satisfied with US-led efforts—despite their acknowledged flaws—and that NGOs believe that American anti-TIP policies are important and, on balance, helpful. These results also provide a warning for the future of the United States’ anti-trafficking advocacy, suggesting that the US avoid politicizing its annual Trafficking in Persons Report.
• Bowling with Veterans: The Impact of Military Service on Subsequent Civic Engagement
From Tocqueville to Putnam, scholars have argued that civic engagement is not only the key to a healthy democracy, but also that civic engagement begats more civic engagement. In this paper I examine the effects of military service on subsequent civic engagement. The key finding is that men who served in the US military prior to the advent of All-Volunteer Force (AVF) in 1973 are actually less civically engaged than those who never served. Military service has no significant effect on civic attitudes. These findings represent an especially powerful challenge to the notion that civic participation begets more civic participation. The fact that serving the citizenry through military duty actually decreases one’s subsequent civic involvement indicates that we cannot assume that all forms of civic activity are equally effective at inculcating their participants with civic values and habits. In fact, these findings indicate a need for a more refined conceptualization of the relationships between civic activity and future civic involvement.
• English and Arabic Metaphorical Conceptualization of Food: A contrastive Study
The purpose of this study is to compare and contrast food conceptual metaphors between English and Arabic. The researcher adopted the corpus-based approach suggested by Deignan (1995) and collected the maximum number of English and Arabic food metaphorical expressions to construct the linguistic corpus for the study. The analysis of the data was carried out for the English and Arabic languages individually following the Conceptual Metaphor Theory. The aim is to come up with a simple classification that facilitated the process of comparison between English and Arabic metaphorical expressions. The findings of the study revealed that English and Arabic share the same major food conceptualization within their scheme, namely: IDEAS ARE FOOD, TEMPERAMENT IS FOOD, GOING THROUGH AN EXPERIENCE ISTASTING IT AND GAINING MONEY UNLAWFULLY IS DEVOURING IT. Nevertheless, such conceptualizations are not equally conventionalized in the two languages due to differences between the Arabic and the western cultures.
• Neighborhood Change, One Pint at a Time: The Impact of Local Characteristics on Craft Breweries
Cities have recognized the local impact of small craft breweries, altering municipal codes to make it easier to establish breweries as anchor points of economic development and revitalization. However, we do not know the extent to which these strategies impact change at the neighborhood scale across the U.S. In this chapter, we examine the relationship between the growth and locations of craft breweries and the incidence of neighborhood change. We rely on a unique data set of geocoded brewery locations that tracks openings and closings from 2004 to the present. Using measures of neighborhood change often found in the gentrification literature, we develop statistical models of census tract demographic and employment data to determine the extent to which brewery locations are associated with social and demographic shifts since 2000. The strongest predictor of whether a craft brewery opened in 2013 or later in a neighborhood was the presence of a prior brewery. We do not find evidence entirely consistent with the common narrative of a link between gentrification and craft brewing, but we do find a link between an influx of lower-to-middle income urban creatives and the introduction of a craft brewery. We advocate for urban planners to recognize the importance of craft breweries in neighborhood revitalization while also protecting residents from potential displacement.
• Does growth mindset improve children’s IQ, educational attainment or response to setbacks? Active-control interventions and data on children’s own mindsets
Mindset theory predicts that children’s IQ and school grades are positively linked to their belief that basic ability is malleable rather than fixed. We test this prediction in three experimental studies (total n = 624 individually-tested 10-12-year-olds). Two studies included active-control conditions to test effects of fixed-ability beliefs independent of motivation. In addition, we tested whether children’s own mindsets relate to real-life IQ, educational attainment in longitudinal analyses of school grades. Praise for intelligence had no significant effect on cognitive performance. Nor were any effects of mindset were found for challenging material. Active-control data showed that occasional apparent effects of praise for hard work on easy outcome measures reflected motivational confounds rather than effects of implicit beliefs about the malleability of intelligence (study 3, active control condition). Children’s own mindsets showed no relationship to IQ, school grades, or change in grades across the school year, with the only significant result being in the reverse direction to prediction (better performance in children holding a fixed mindset). Fixed beliefs about basic ability appear to be unrelated to ability, and we found no support for mindset-effects on cognitive ability, response to challenge, or educational progress.
• Unpacking Blockchains
The Bitcoin digital currency appeared in 2009. Since this time, researchers and practitioners have looked “under the hood” of the open source Bitcoin currency, and discovered that Bitcoin’s “Blockchain” software architecture is useful for non-monetary purposes too. By coalescing the research and practice on Blockchains, this work begins to unpack Blockchains as a general phenomenon, therein, arguing that all Blockchain phenomena can be conceived as being comprised of transaction platforms and digital ledgers, and illustrating where public key encryption plays a differential role in facilitating these features of Blockchains.
• Enhancing Big Data in the Social Sciences with Crowdsourcing: Data Augmentation Practices, Techniques, and Opportunities
The importance of big data is a contested topic among social scientists. Proponents claim it will fuel a research revolution, but skeptics challenge it as unreliably measured and decontextualized, with limited utility for accurately answering social science research questions. We argue that social scientists need effective tools to quantify big data’s measurement error and expand the contextual information associated with it. Standard research efforts in many fields already pursue these goals through data augmentation, the systematic assessment of measurement against known quantities and expansion of extant data by adding new information. Traditionally, these tasks are accomplished using trained research assistants or specialized algorithms. However, such approaches may not be scalable to big data or appease its skeptics. We consider a third alternative that may increase the validity and value of big data: data augmentation with online crowdsourcing. We present three empirical cases to illustrate the strengths and limits of crowdsourcing for academic research, with a particular eye to how they can be applied to data augmentation tasks that will accelerate acceptance of big data among social scientists. The cases use Amazon Mechanical Turk to (1) verify automated coding of the academic discipline of dissertation committee members, (2) link online product pages to a book database, and (3) gather data on mental health resources at colleges. In light of these cases, we consider the costs and benefits of augmenting big data with crowdsourcing marketplaces and provide guidelines on best practices. We also offer a standardized reporting template that will enhance reproducibility.
• Gendering (Non)Religion: Politics, Education, and Gender Gaps in Secularity in the United States
Gender gaps in religiosity among Western populations, such that women are more religious than men, are well documented. Previous explanations for these differences range from biological predispositions of risk aversion to patriarchal gender socialization, but all largely overlook the intersection of social statuses. Drawing on theories of intersectionality, we contribute to the cultural and empirical analysis of gender gaps in religiosity by documenting an interactive effect between gender, education, and political views for predicting religious nonaffiliation and infrequent attendance at religious services among Americans. For highly educated political liberals, gender gaps effectively disappear, such that men and women are almost equally likely to be secular (or religious). The results have implications for the long-standing disputes about the gendered "nature" of religiosity and highlight the importance of multiple intersecting statuses and modalities in shaping aggregate patterns of religiosity and secularity.
• OSMnx: New Methods for Acquiring, Constructing, Analyzing, and Visualizing Complex Street Networks
• Computational reproducibility in archaeological research: Basic principles and a case study of their implementation
The use of computers and complex software is pervasive in archaeology, yet their role in the analytical pipeline is rarely exposed for other researchers to inspect or reuse. This limits the progress of archaeology because researchers cannot easily reproduce each other’s work to verify or extend it. Four general principles of reproducible research that have emerged in other fields are presented. An archaeological case study is described that shows how each principle can be implemented using freely available software. The costs and benefits of implementing reproducible research are assessed. The primary benefit, of sharing data in particular, is increased impact via an increased number of citations. The primary cost is the additional time required to enhance reproduciblity, although the exact amount is difficult to quantify.
• Secularism and Fertility Worldwide
This study hypothesizes a link between societal secularism and fertility. Using country-level data from multiple sources (N=181) and multilevel data from 55 countries in the World Values Survey (N=78,639), I document a strong negative relationship between societal secularism and both country-level and individual-level fertility. Secularism, even in small amounts, is associated with population stagnation or even decline, whereas highly religious countries have higher fertility. This country-level pattern is driven by more than aggregate lower fertility of individual nonreligious people. In fact, secularism is more closely linked to religious than nonreligious people’s fertility and appears to be a function of different cultural values related to gender and reproduction in more secular societies. Beyond its importance for the religious composition of the world population, the societal-level association between secularism and fertility is relevant to key fertility theories and may help account, in part, for below-replacement fertility.
• A Sociology of Foreign Aid and the World Society
This article highlights an emerging research agenda for the study of foreign aid through a World Society theory lens. First, it briefly summarizes the social scientific literature on aid and sociologists' earlier contributions to this research. Next, it reviews the contours of world society research and the place of aid within this body of literature. Finally, it outlines three emergent threads of research on foreign aid that comprise a new research agenda for the sociology of foreign aid and its role in world society globalization.
• How Troubling is our Inheritance - A review of genetics and race in the social sciences
This article addresses the argument that there is variation between races in the biological basis for social behavior. The article uses Nicholas Wade’s popular book, *A Troublesome Inheritance*, as the point of departure for a discussion of attendant issues, including the extent to which human races can be definitively demarcated biologically, the extent to which genetics is related to contemporary definitions of race, and the role of natural selection as a possible mechanism for change in modern societies. My critical review of the theory and evidence for an evolutionary view of racial determinism finds that genetics does not explain the relative status and well-being of today’s racially identified groups or their broader societies.
• The Educational Gradient in Self-Rated Health in Europe: Does the Doctor-Patient Relationship Make a Difference?
Research suggests that doctor–patient relations have evolved from a doctor-centered, paternalistic approach towards a more patient-centered, egalitarian model of interactions between physicians and their patients. Given the long-running debate on the positive relationship between education and health, the question arises how this development in doctor–patient relations affects social inequalities in health. First, we test to what extent egalitarian (e.g. discussing treatment decisions with patients) doctor–patient relations are underlying the education–self-reported health association. Second, we test whether egalitarian and paternalistic (e.g. withholding some information from patients) doctor–patient relations show differential effects on self-reported health across educational groups. Analyses of the European Social Survey (ESS) 2004/2005 for 24 countries demonstrate that a more egalitarian doctor–patient relationship does not substantially reduce educational inequalities in self-reported health. However, some direct positive effects of egalitarian and direct negative effects of paternalistic doctor–patient relations on health ratings can be found. Finally, results show how the health status of the lower educated can improve with a more egalitarian and less paternalistic doctor–patient relationship.
• Small-scale agriculture as a way to achieve food sovereignty and environmental justice
The purpose of this essay is to analyze the ecoregion of Chaco-Formosa in Argentina from the beginnings of the XIX Century to the present. This ecoregion is one of the most damaged in Argentina due to several reasons: first, the lack of public investment that promotes and defends the benefits of small-scale agriculture and organic farming; second, the high rates of poverty, undernutrition, child labour, endemic diseases and cancer (caused by the chemicals that are needed for the effectiveness of the GMOs used in the extensive farming). We need to arrange public investment in small-scale agriculture in order to ensure food sustenance for the many families that are in the same situation; we also need to protect their natural right to be the owners of the land and to promote a productive system based on inclusion and development. According to biotechnological companies, their technology is more effective and they do not need so many people working on farms. However, the so-called benefit of this technology is fostering a deeper productive dependence of developed countries, fewer and richer landowners, soil contamination and water pollution and the destruction of the biodiversity of the region.
• CARMIGNANI CARIDI Settimio - Curia romana enti canonici operanti nello Stato della Città del Vaticano o negli immobili immuni enti vaticani Incerti confini ecc. 2014
Vatican City State and Italian Judges
• Social Organization and the City: The role of space in the reduction of social entropy
How can individual acts amount to coherent systems of interaction? In this paper, we attempt to answer this key question by suggesting that there is a role for cities in the way we coordinate seemingly chaotic decisions. We look into the elementary processes of social organization exploring a particular concept: ‘social entropy’, or how social systems deal with uncertainty and unpredictability in the transition from individual actions to systems of interaction. Examining possibilities that (i) actions rely on informational differences latent in their environments, and that (ii) the city itself is an information environment to actions, we propose that (iii) space becomes a means for producing differences in the probabilities of interaction, increasing the chances of certain selections. We investigate this process through simulations of distinct material scenarios, to find that space is a necessary but not sufficient condition for the reduction of entropy. Finally, we suggest that states and fluctuations of entropy are a vital part of social reproduction, and reveal a deep connection between social, informational and spatial systems.
• Economic Inequality and Class Consciousness
Do contexts of greater income inequality spur the disadvantaged to achieve a class consciousness vital to contesting the fairness of the economic system and demanding more redistribution? One prominent recent study, Newman, Johnston, and Lown (2015), argues that simple exposure to higher levels of local income inequality lead low-income people to view the United States as divided into haves and have-nots and to see themselves as among the have-nots, that is, to become more likely to achieve such a class consciousness. Here, we show that this sanguine conclusion is at best supported only in analyses of the single survey presented in that study. There is no evidence that higher levels of income inequality produce greater class consciousness among those with low incomes in other similar but neglected surveys.
• Reconciling Intellectual and Personal Property
• Sow the wind, reap the whirlwind? Mobilization cascades in direct democratic initiatives
Caveat emptor: I have retired this manuscript. I will not improve on it any more, and it will not be published in a peer-reviewed journal. This paper explores the possibility of mobilization cascades in direct democratic popular initiatives. A mobilization cascade is a salience-based mobilizing effect whereby one popular initiative has a positive mobilizing effect on a subsequent popular initiative that deals with with a similar policy issue. The existence of a mobilization cascade would imply that voters develop salience for and positive attitudes towards policy issues merely through direct-democratic exposure to those policy issues in the recent past. In order to explore the mobilization cascade, I analyze three popular initiative pairs from Switzerland from the years 2012, 2013 and 2014. In each year, two initiatives dealt with similar policy issues, and the second initiative in each pair was making more far-reaching demands. The results suggest that a mobilization cascade might exist, but that it is probably a weak effect.
• Change the Mascot: the Washington Redskins, Offensive Trade Marks, Freedom of Speech and Racism in Sport
Case Note: Rimmer, Matthew (2016) ‘Change the Mascot: the Washington Redskins, Offensive Trademarks, Freedom of Speech, and Racism in Sport’, 29 (7) Australian Intellectual Property Law Bulletin 178-183.
• Abazi, Enika, &amp; Albert Doja (2016) "International Representations of Balkan Wars: A Socio-Anthropological Account in International Relations Perspective" Cambridge Review of International Affairs
This article introduces the socio-anthropological concept of international representations to examine the relationship between a civilizational rhetoric, the West European and the international politics of otherization and containment of Southeast Europe, and an essentialist and timeless bias in international relations theory, including both radical and constructivist trends. We first explore the different narrative perspectives on the Balkan wars from the beginning to the end of twentieth century. Their subsequent problematization is aimed at challenging the way how they have constructed commonplace and time-worn representations, which international society shares with different consequences in international affairs. This is a limited conception since international representations as a socio-anthropological concept are always socially, culturally and politically constructed, contested and negotiated. They do not neutrally refer to a reality in the world; they create a reality of their own. Moreover, this limited conception ignores the fact that how, by whom and in whose interest international representations are constructed is itself a form of power in international relations. Therefore, the way international representations are constructed can be problematized as an example of political and ideological projects that operate in the West as well as in the Southeast European countries that are the object of Western foreign policy.
• Conceptual Overlap between Stimuli Increases Misattribution of Internal Experience
People make sense of their internal experiences by attributing them to objects (I am excited because he is here). This attribution decision influences one’s opinion of the object (I like him). Misattribution occurs when the internal experience is triggered by one object (a prime), but attributed to another (a target). The present research examined the role of conceptual overlap between the prime and the target in attribution. We hypothesized that internal experiences, such as arousal and affect, do not enter the attribution process in their “pure form,” but rather carry additional information about the object that generated them. This additional information guides people’s attributions. Consequently, misattribution occurs more when prime and target are conceptually similar. We confirmed this assumption in four experiments, with diverse primes and targets. The results suggest that specific content—rather than only abstract experiences, such as arousal and affect—has an important role in attribution.
• Old Version - Annotated Work Instructions
This is an open-source project about creating documented work processes in organizations whose officials are unwilling to promulgate implementable procedures. This is a project of Center for Public Administrators, http://www.PubAdmin.org
• Lego, Handcraft, and Costumed Zombies: What Zombies do on Flickr
The popular photo-sharing site Flickr contains about half a million images associated with the term zombie. What can we learn about our monsters and ourselves by exploring this vernacular collection of depictions? This essay explores this and related questions by treating the first 300 results of a search on Flickr as a single cultural text. In exploring what Zombies might mean on Flickr, this study suggests how existing approaches to the study of cultural texts can be applied to the algorithmically generated presentation of vernacular images. The results document how Flickr facilitates and sustains a vernacular web of participatory media.
• Social Changes and the Generational Differences in the Formation of Collective Memories (Dissertation, 2012)
The present study examined how collective memories on a recent difficult past were formed among young people coming of age in a society transitioning from a totalitarian regime through an authoritarian state to a nascent democratic society. I used textual analysis to examine the presentations of the communist Yugoslavia institutionalized in the Croatian history textbooks and newspapers in 1991-2007, and I compared them to the accounts of the Yugoslav past among the Croatian transitional (born 1978-81) and post-communist generation (born 1989-91). These two generations were distinct in their childhood and formative years’ experiences of Yugoslavia and post-Yugoslav Croatia, but both depended on secondary sources such as parents, school and the media for their evaluations of the Yugoslav period. The present study found that the textbook and newspaper presentations, primarily shaped by the 1990s nation-building elites, mainly portrayed Yugoslavia in negative political, economic and ethnic terms. However, findings from 72 in-depth interviews with the two young Croatian generations suggested that the influence of the dominant negative re-evaluations was limited, particularly among the vocationally educated individuals who were least exposed to the institutionalized presentations of the Yugoslav past. In contrast, the young Croats, independently of their differences, generally dominantly evaluated Yugoslavia in positive social terms, which was a perspective obtained from their parents and older people recounting their good lives in Yugoslavia. This perspective was appropriated not only because its sources were emotionally available and credible, but also because the social lens on Yugoslavia helped the young Croats make sense of their lives in the social insecurities of the contemporary Croatian society. Therefore, the present study showed how different beliefs on the Yugoslav past, available from different sources, were appropriated and used by the young Croats. I also proposed Interactional Model of Collective Memories Formation, which elaborated how the influences on the beliefs of the past were formed at the macro, micro and the level of social interaction. Finally, this study also illuminated how active actors reinterpreted the presentations of the past, thus demonstrating how individuals can use culture in diverse and adept ways.
• Connecting Online Work and Online Education at Scale
Education is one of the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDG) of the United Nations. Considerable interest has been displayed in online education at scale, a new arising concept to realize this goal. Yet connecting online education to real jobs is still a challenge. This CHI workshop bridges this gap by bringing together groups and insights from related work at HCOMP, CSCW, and Learning at Scale. The workshop aims at providing opportunities for groups not yet in the focus of online education, exemplified by students who have not have equal access to higher education, compared to typical students in MOOCs.The focus is on theoretical and empirical connections between online education and job opportunities which can reduce the financial gap, by providing students with an income during their studies. The workshop explores the technological analogue of the concept of ‘apprenticeship’, long established in the European Union, and education research [2]. This allows students to do useful work as an apprentice during their studies. This workshop tackles such questions by bringing together participants from industry (e.g., platforms similar to Upwork, Amazon Mechanical Turk); education, psychology, and MOOCs (e.g., attendees of AERA, EDM, AIED, Learning at Scale); crowdsourcing and collaborative work (e.g., attendees of CHI, CSCW, NIPS, AAAI’s HCOMP). Krause, M., Hall, M., Williams, J. J., Paritosh, P., Prpić, J., &amp; Caton, S. (2016, May). Connecting Online Work and Online Education at Scale. In Proceedings of the 2016 CHI Conference Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems (pp. 3536-3541). ACM.
• East European recycling societies: The first steps of rural communities in Neamt County, Romania ( A Glance at the World)
This paper provides an overview regarding the recycling prospects in the case of rural communities in Neamt County.
• Crowd Capital in Governance Contexts
To begin to understand the implications of the implementation of IT-­mediated Crowds for Politics and Policy purposes, this research builds the first-­known dataset of IT-­mediated Crowd applications currently in use in the governance context. Using Crowd Capital theory and governance theory as frameworks to organize our data collection, we undertake an exploratory data analysis of some fundamental factors defining this emerging field. Specific factors outlined and discussed include the type of actors implementing IT mediated Crowds in the governance context, the global geographic distribution of the applications, and the nature of the Crowd derived resources being generated for governance purposes. The findings from our dataset of 209 on-­going endeavours indicates that a wide-­diversity of actors are engaging IT-mediated Crowds in the governance context, both jointly and severally, that these endeavours can be found to exist on all continents, and that said actors are generating Crowd-derived resources in at least ten distinct governance sectors. We discuss the ramifications of these and our other findings in comparison to the research literature on the private-­sector use of IT-­mediated Crowds, while highlighting some unique future research opportunities stemming from our work. Prpić, J., &amp; Shukla, P. (2014). Crowd Capital in Governance Contexts. Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford - IPP 2014 - Crowdsourcing for Politics and Policy.
• Spatialisations: Rhythmanalysis and spatial drawing
This paper presents ‘spatial drawing’ as a means of apprehending and intervening in the rhythms of urban life. Using a practice-led approach, it contributes to an emerging literature that develops Henri Lefebvre’s rhythmanalysis as a method for inquiry. It applies an experimental, recursive logic to the process of rhythm analysis in an attempt to reveal a temporal structure which is layered like the growth rings of a tree rather than laid out in lines or cycles, a dendrochronology of duration. The paper is organised into three distinct movements. The first aims to develop a rhythmanalytic method of drawing. Lefebvre gave only general principles when describing the process of rhythmanalysis. While Lefebvre and his interlocutors describe the disposition that rhythmanalysts must cultivate, they articulate few details and provide fewer examples of how an applied rhythmanalysis should proceed. In dialogue with Lefebvre’s portrait of the rhythmanalyst, I experiment with ‘spatial drawing’, that is, ephemeral drawing in three dimensions. The second movement of this paper turns the first inside out. Using a recursive logic, it applies rhythmanalysis to spatial drawing itself. Where the first movement developed drawing as a tool for rhythmanalysis, the second movement uses rhythmanalysis to theorise and critique the drawn artefact. Using a practice-led approach, the method will be illustrated in relation to the temporalities of Pembroke College, Cambridge. In a third movement, a further recursive application of rhythm analysis, the author produced a site-specific spatial drawing in situ during the week before the commencement of the conference. This drawing analysed and respond to the rhythms and flows on the grounds of the college. This drawing is evaluated and analysed.
• We Live in a Motorized Civilization: Robert Moses Replies to Robert Caro
In 1974, Robert Caro published The Power Broker, a critical biography of Robert Moses’s dictatorial tenure as the “master builder” of mid-century New York. Moses transformed the urban fabric and transportation system of New York in a profound way, producing the Brooklyn Battery Tunnel, the Verrazano Narrows Bridge, the Westside Highway, the Cross-Bronx Expressway, the Lincoln Center, the UN headquarters, Shea Stadium, Jones Beach State Park and many other projects. However, The Power Broker did lasting damage to his public image and today he remains one of the most polarizing figures in city planning history. On August 26, 1974, Moses issued a 23-page typed statement denouncing Caro’s work as “full of mistakes, unsupported charges, nasty baseless personalities, and random haymakers.” The statement went on to gainsay several of Caro’s assertions one at a time. Robert Moses’s typewritten response survives today as a grainy photocopy from the New York City Parks Department archive. To better preserve and disseminate it, I have extracted and transcribed its text using optical character recognition, and edited the result to correct transcription errors.
• ‘An Inconvenient Truth’: A social representation of scientific expertise.
Chapter from forthcoming book *Science and the Politics of Openness: Here Be Monsters*. Manchester: Manchester University Press. [Pre-review version] June 30, 2006 marked the release of An Inconvenient Truth (AIT), a climate change documentary presented and written by leading US Democrat politician Al Gore. The film has contributed to making climate change expertise public through a heady combination of scientific data with personal stories and calls for political action that offered a particular social representation of climate change. In this chapter we discuss AIT as an example of taking climate change expertise out of the pages of science journals and into the public sphere. We draw on the ideas of John Dewey and their elucidation by Mark Brown to show how the notion of expertise is key in understanding the film’s motivation, successes and critics. While the purpose of the documentary was to persuade its audience of the consensual truth imparted by climate science experts, its effect was to become a lightning rod for dissent, critique and debate of that expertise. Overall, AIT created a dominant representation of climate change, based on expertise that became a touchstone for consent and dissent, action and reaction. In the following we shall first provide some background to the film’s emergence, highlighting its echoes of Dewey’s argument that expert knowledge should be integrated in society. We then use the concept of social representation to show how Gore combined scientific content with personal and political context in order to provide a meaningful representation of climate change expertise. We then highlight how AIT sought to create its own public for scientific expertise, returning climate science expertise to society as one of the many tools with which citizens make sense of the world and solve problems. We then show how the very elements that helped AIT towards establishing a dominant social representation of climate change also contributed to the creation of a counter-representation and counterpublic that questioned how AIT represented climate science expertise. With AIT’s success in bringing social context to scientific content came inevitable contestation. We conclude with some tentative lessons for science communicators from the AIT story. -- Dr Warren Pearce ,
• Troelstra's Paradox and Markov's Principle
A prominent problem for the Theory of the Creating Subject is Troelstra's Paradox. As is well known, the construction of that paradox depends on the acceptability of a certain impredicativity, of a kind that some intuitionists accept and others do not. After a presentation of the Theory of the Creating Subject and the paradox, I argue that the paradox moreover depends on Markov's Principle, in a form that no intuitionist should accept. A postscript discusses a new version of the paradox that Troelstra has proposed in reaction to my argument.
• School and Teacher Effects
This chapter summarizes the extant sociological literature on the interactive nature of school and teacher effects on student learning. It explains why the most recent literature on teacher sorting demands the attention of more sociologists of education, and it demonstrates what is revealed about patterns of teacher sorting using the type of data most commonly analyzed by sociologists of education. Throughout, the chapter discusses the methodological requirements of research that can and cannot disentangle teacher effects from school effects, and it considers how teacher and school effects may be evolving in the changing landscape of K-12 education in the United States.
• Dialogue on Alternating Consciousness: From Perception to Infinities and Back to Free Will
Can we trace back consciousness, reality, awareness, and free will to a single basic structure without giving up any of them? Can the universe exist in both real and individual ways without being composed of both? This dialogue founds consciousness and freedom of choice on the basis of a new reality concept that also includes the infinite as far as we understand it. Just the simplest distinction contains consciousness. It is not static, but a constant alternation of perspectives. From its entirety and movement, however, there arises a freedom of choice being more than reinterpreted necessity and unpredictability. Although decisions ultimately involve the whole universe, they are free in varying degrees also here and now. The unity and openness of the infinite enables the individual to be creative while this creativity directly and indirectly enters into all other individuals without impeding them. A contrary impression originates only in a narrowed awareness. But even the most conscious and free awareness can neither anticipate all decisions nor extinguish individuality. Their creativity is secured.
• Adaptations to sea level change and transitions to agriculture at Khao Toh Chong rockshelter, Peninsular Thailand
Published in: Marwick, B., Van Vlack, H.G., Conrad, C., Shoocongdej, R., Thongcharoenchaikit, C., Kwak, S. 2016 Adaptations to sea level change and transitions to agriculture at Khao Toh Chong rockshelter, Peninsular Thailand, _Journal of Archaeological Science_
• Nationalism and anti-ethno-politics: why ‘Chinese Development’ failed at Myanmar’s Myitsone Dam
In 2011, the Burmese military-backed government stunned global audiences by unilaterally suspending the construction of the Myitsone Dam, the cornerstone of China’s largest hydropower project abroad. This prominent failure of China’s “Going Out” investment strategy reverberated globally. Both Western and Chinese accounts frame the event as a pivotal moment in Myanmar’s celebrated reform process, the cooling of China–Myanmar relations, and US–China geopolitical rivalry in the Asia-Pacific. However, my ethnographic field and media research from 2010 to 2015 reveals that the mega-project’s failure does not originally stem from inter-state geopolitics or contested economics and ecology. Through chronological narration, I show how the Myitsone Dam is primarily the casualty of a distinctly ethno-political causality, whereby three nationalisms clashed and the replication of China’s “anti-ethno-political” model of development failed. Though no monolithic Chinese state directs “Chinese Development” overseas, individual Chinese entrepreneurs nonetheless draw from the People’s Republic of China’s (PRC’s) anti-political and state-centric paradigm when facing foreign social worlds. In the particular case of Myitsone, Chinese proponents drew from PRC’s state-nationalist heuristics of “national minorities and state-led development” and “Western anti-China conspiracy,” when facing Myanmar’s ethnic Kachin and Burman nationalisms. State ideological subjectivities of these developers seemed to blind them to the weakness in their own anti-ethno-political strategies, even when those collapsed publicly. I conclude that the Myitsone Dam’s construction will likely not be restarted, despite the hydropower company’s efforts. The Myitsone case also exemplifies how China’s previous historical entanglements in its neighboring regions uniquely disrupt the progress of “Going-Out” in Asia.
• Review: Ontology after Carnap
Ontology after Carnap focusses on metaontology in the light of recent interest in Carnap’s ‘Empiricism, Semantics and Ontology’. That paper is at the centre of things, as it is where Carnap formulates his internal/external dichotomy. If you haven’t already encountered the dichotomy, then neither Ontology after Carnap, nor this review, is for you. My aim in this review is to try to tease out some of the book’s themes, thereby giving some sense of contemporary neo-Carnapianism.
• Proclus' Doctrine of Participation in Maximus the Confessor's Centuries of Theology I.48–50
In the Centuries of Theology 1.48–50, Maximus the Confessor states that there are two kinds of works that belong to God: one which corresponds to beings having a temporal, finite beginning, and one which corresponds to perfections of beings which have no beginning and are therefore eternal. Maximus labels the latter as participated beings (ὄντα μεθεκτά) and the former as participating beings (ὄντα μετέχοντα), with God transcending both as their cause. The structure of God-as-cause, participated beings, and participating beings matches Proclus’ three-fold structure of participation with the ontological cate- gories of unparticipated, participated, and participating. While Maximus borrows the basic language and structure from Proclus, he makes certain minor but significant differences, particularly in how the participated beings both relate to their source in God and in their status of existence. This article thus sets out to analyze 1.48–50 in the general context of the Centuries of Theology, considering how Maximus conceives of the ontological distinctions between God and God’s works. A comparison with Proclus’ understanding of participation follows, particularly from Proclus’ Elements of Theology, Prop. 23, which succinctly states the three-term distinction of participation. The resulting comparison shows that Proclus’ framework of participation is flattened for Maximus, where the participated works represent multiple properties distinct in kind from the unparticipated, while God fits analogously in the status of the unparticipated. The underlying ontology supports Maximus’ implicit denial that such participated entities represent distinct divinities, as they do for Proclus, while Maximus’ assertion of God’s transcendence is still secured with the ontological distinction between the participated works and their unparticipated cause. [This is a revised draft of an earlier version of the paper which was recently accepted for publication. In this version I have some stylistic cleanups, but substantially the content is the same. Comments/feedback are welcome.]
• Qualitative Regressions: Model the uncertainty in your (qualitative) data to make better inferences
Objective: Make better inferences by modelling the uncertainty in your (qualitative) data. Methods: Use regression analysis with qualitative data. Use standard statistical distributions to express uncertainty in the data, then sample from these distributions to create multiple data sets, which is then the same 'problem' as multiple imputations for missing data. Results: I show that this approach is feasible. Conclusion: It is possible to run regression analyses on qualitative data, and we can use information on uncertainty to make better inferences.
• Evaluating the Effect of Homicide Prevention Strategies in São Paulo, Brazil: A Synthetic Control Approach
Although Brazil remains severely affected by civil violence, the state of São Paulo has made significant inroads into fighting criminality. In the last decade, São Paulo has witnessed a 70% decline in homicide rates, a result that policy-makers attribute to a series of crime-reducing measures implemented by the state government. While recent academic studies seem to confirm this downward trend, no estimation of the total impact of state policies on homicide rates currently exists. The present article fills this gap by employing the Synthetic Control Method to compare these measures against an artificial São Paulo. The results indicate a large drop in homicide rates in actual São Paulo when contrasted with the synthetic counterfactual, with about 20,000 lives saved during the period. The theoretical usefulness of the Synthetic Control Method for public policy analysis, the role of the Primeiro Comando da Capital as a causal mediator, and the practical implications of the security measures taken by the São Paulo state government are also discussed. Keywords: Brazil, homicides, PCC, synthetic control, urban violence Replication files: https://github.com/danilofreire/homicides-sp-synth Citation: Freire, Danilo. 2016. “Evaluating the Effect of Homicide Prevention Strategies in São Paulo, Brazil: A Synthetic Control Approach.” http://osf.io/8tmhe/ @misc{freire2016evaluating, title={{Evaluating the Effect of Homicide Prevention Strategies in São Paulo, Brazil: A Synthetic Control Approach}}, howpublished = {\url{https://osf.io/vxe56}}, publisher={Open Science Framework}, author={Freire, Danilo}, year={2016}, month={Dec} }
• I Don’t Make Objects, I Make Projects: Selling Things and Selling Selves in Contemporary Artmaking
Gerber, Alison and Clayton Childress. 2017. “I Don’t Make Objects, I Make Projects: Selling Things and Selling Selves in Contemporary Artmaking.” Cultural Sociology 11(2):234–54.
• Transformative Treatments
Contemporary social-scientific research seeks to identify specific causal mechanisms for outcomes of theoretical interest. Experiments that randomize populations to treatment and control conditions are the “gold standard” for causal inference. We identify, describe, and analyze the problem posed by *transformative treatments*. Such treatments radically change treated individuals in a way that creates a mismatch in populations, but this mismatch is not empirically detectable at the level of counterfactual dependence. In such cases, the identification of causal pathways is underdetermined in a previously unrecognized way. Moreover, if the treatment is indeed transformative it breaks the inferential structure of the experimental design. Transformative treatments are not curiosities or “corner cases”, but are plausible mechanisms in a large class of events of theoretical interest, particularly ones where deliberate randomization is impractical and quasi-experimental designs are sought instead. They cast long-running debates about treatment and selection effects in a new light, and raise new methodological challenges.
• Aibo: Copyright Law and Technological Protection Measures
Case Note. Rimmer, Matthew (2001) Aibo: Copyright law and technological protection measures. 22 (12) Incite, 31 http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/journals/inCiteALIA/2001/363.html
• The Experience of Discrimination in Contemporary America: Results from a Nationally Representative Sample of Adults
A large body of social science research is devoted to understanding the causes and correlates of discrimination. Comparatively less effort has been aimed at providing a general prevalence estimate of discrimination using a nationally representative sample. The current study is intended to offer such an estimate using a large sample of American respondents (n = 14,793) while also exploring perceptions regarding why respondents felt they were discriminated against. The results provide a broad estimate of self-reported discrimination experiences—an event that was only reported by about one-quarter of all sample members—across racial and ethnic categories.
• How Black are Lakisha and Jamal? Racial Perceptions from Names Used in Correspondence Audit Studies
Online correspondence audit studies have emerged as the primary method to examine racial discrimination. Although audits use distinctive names to signal race, few studies scientifically examine data regarding the perception of race from names. Different names treated as black or white may be perceived in heterogeneous ways. I conduct a survey experiment that asks respondents to identify the race they associate with a series of names. I alter the first names given to each respondent and inclusion of last names. Names more commonly given by highly educated black mothers (e.g., Jalen and Nia) are less likely to be perceived as black than names given by less educated black mothers (e.g., DaShawn and Tanisha). The results suggest that a large body of social science evidence on racial discrimination operates under a misguided assumption that all black names are alike and the findings from correspondence audits are likely sensitive to name selection.
• Osmotic Mobilization and Union Support during the "Long Protest Wave"
Despite increasing interest in the impact of social movements that target private firms, we know little about the emergence of such movements. Social movement theory situates such emergence in the context of larger protest cycles but has not tested the idea. We theorize about the determinants of osmotic mobilization (social movement spillover that crosses the boundary of the fi rm) and how it should vary with the ideological overlap of the relevant actors and the opportunity structure that potential activists face inside the fi rm. We test our hypotheses by examining the relationship between levels of protest in American cities around issues like Civil Rights, the Vietnam War, and the women's movement; and subsequent support for labor-union organizing in those cities. We combine nationally representative data on protest events from 1960 to 1995 with data on every union-representation election held from 1965 to 1999. We find that greater levels of (lagged) protest activity are associated with greater union support; that such osmotic mobilization is greater when there is substantive overlap between the claims of the two parties; and that the extent of mobilization varies with the opportunity structure within private fi rms. We discuss the implications of ideological and interest overlap as a contingent factor in future research on the emergence of mobilization targeting private fi rms.
• Public Administration Practitioners at Academic Conferences: Why to Present and How to Succeed
Practitioners who present at public administration academic conferences can build professional relationships, sharpen their thinking, get referrals to people, research and techniques, strengthening their resumes, and advance the state of the art. Practitioners can present real-world experience with cases they handle and techniques they apply -- this paper gives examples and identifies common pitfalls. Tips on presenting include how to reach out before your presentation to encourage attendance. This paper appeared first on Center for Public Administrators http://www.PubAdmin.org
• Normative Beliefs about Money in Families: Balancing Togetherness, Autonomy, and Equality
Using original data from a nationally representative vignette-survey experiment (n = 3,986), this study investigated norms about income sharing within families. Respondents were asked to select a preferred income allocation strategy for a fictional couple with varied circumstances. Findings showed that despite differences in fictional couples’ marital and parental statuses, the majority of respondents indicated all couples should ideally pursue some level of autonomy within their relationships. Respondents also believed higher-earning partners ought to hold back a greater absolute value of their income, potentially reproducing unequal labor market conditions within families. When women were presented as the primary earner, the ideal level of withholding income was slightly larger in magnitude than when men were shown as the primary earner. Findings challenge the notion that marriage distinctively establishes a unitary family interest and suggest normative support for women’s self-determination in lieu of a push for gender equality.
• Early Modern Human Lithic Technology from Jerimalai, East Timor
Jerimalai is a rock shelter in East Timor with cultural remains dated to 42,000 years ago, making it one of the oldest known sites of modern human activity in island Southeast Asia. It has special global significance for its record of early pelagic fishing and ancient shell fish hooks. It is also of regional significance for its early occupation and comparatively large assemblage of Pleistocene stone artefacts. Three major findings arise from our study of the stone artefacts. First, there is little change in lithic technology over the 42,000 year sequence, with the most noticeable change being the addition of new artefact types and raw materials in the mid-Holocene. Second, the assemblage is dominated by small chert cores and implements rather than pebble toolsand choppers, a pattern we argue is common in island SE Asian sites as opposed to mainland SE Asian sites. Third, the Jerimalai assemblage bears a striking resemblance to the assemblage from Liang Bua, argued by the Liang Bua excavation team to be associated with Homo floresiensis. We argue that the near proximity of these two islands along the Indonesian Island chain (c.100km apart), the long antiquity of modern human occupation in the region (as documented at Jerimalai), and the strong resemblance of distinctive flake stone technologies seen at both sites, raises the intriguing possibility that both the Liang Bua and Jerimalai assemblages were created by modern humans.
• Fear and Loathing in Truth or Consequences: Neoliberalism, Colonialism and the Lineage of the Frontier at Spaceport America
A gonzo ethnographic investigation and analysis of the commercial spaceflight industry through the lens of Spaceport America in New Mexico.
• Comments on Conceptualizing and Measuring the Exchange of Beauty and Status
Note: This is a working paper of a comment that is forthcoming in the American Sociological Review (expected August 2017) In this comment, I identify two methodological issues in McClintock’s (2014) article on beauty exchange. First, McClintock’s difference models, which find no evidence of exchange, are poor measures of exchange that fail to account for important confounders and rely upon an overly narrow conceptualization of exchange. Second, McClintock codes her log-linear models to find a difference in the effect of men and women’s beauty in exchange rather than the total effect of women’s beauty, which is both statistically significant and substantively large. The code (but not the data) to reproduce this analysis, as well as my own output, is also available at: https://github.com/AaronGullickson/beautyexchange
• Language Learning Strategies, Motivation, and Writing Achievement of Indonesian EFL Students
This study aims at investigating the correlation between language learning strategies (LLSs) and writing achievement, the correlation between motivation and writing achievement, and the correlation between LLSs combined with motivation and writing achievement. It involved one-hundred English as a foreign language (EFL) students of a senior high school which is located in a big city in Indonesia. The students were selected randomly to be the participants of this study. The data were collected by using the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) questionnaire, motivation questionnaire, and writing tests. The results of research revealed that the null hypotheses for the three correlational analyses were rejected. In other words, there is a significant correlation between LLSs and writing achievement; there is a significant correlation between motivation and writing achievement; and there is a significant correlation between LLSs combined with motivation and writing achievement. Theoretically, this study supports the important roles of LLSs and motivation, either separately or combined, in predicting writing achievement. Pedagogically, when teaching writing, EFL teachers are recommended to introduce the potential of LLSs to EFL students, arouse the students’ motivation to write, or to apply both of them simultaneously to boost EFL students’ writing achievement.
• Formative Evaluation on Course Structure and Credits at English Language Teaching Curriculum
This study aims to describe the appropriateness of the real condition of the course structure and credits on the 2010 Curriculum at English Education Department at Alauddin State Islamic University of Makassar (called UIN Alauddin Makassar) compared to the ideal conditions. The significance of this study is being primary data in developing the existing curriculum at the department. It adapts Stake's Countenance Model as the design evaluation. The data collected in this study are quantitative and qualitative data. The findings show that the appropriateness level between the objective conditions and actuality standard/objective intensity on curriculum design components with overall subcomponents on the course structure is categorized as moderate. In this case, some of the subcomponents still require limited amendment or revision in accordance with the instructions of National Education Standards Agency (called BSNP). Then, the appropriateness level of the learning burden between the objective conditions and actuality standard/objective intensity on the overall components is categorized as low. It indicates that the learning burden management through Semester Credit System still requires major changes or revisions in accordance with the instructions of National Education Standards Agency. Furthermore, the students and lecturers have relatively different attitude in viewing at the course structure and learning burden based on the curriculum. In this case, the students point out that the course structure and learning burden are less eligibility to be maintained with score 42.86%; whereas the lecturer point out the two components are totally not eligibility to be maintained with score 9.25%.
• Narcissism Over Ideology: Revealed versus Stated Terrorist Preferences
What preferences motivate the severity of terrorist attacks? I investigate how Boko Haram terrorists adjust their fatalities when unexpectedly deprived of public attention, relative to Al Shabaab terrorists, that were not deprived of public attention. Losing public attention raises the severity of terrorism: Boko Haram terrorist fatalities surged following the rebasing of Nigeria’s economy, which catapulted the country into Africa’s largest and the top twenty-five worldwide. The largest spike in Boko Haram terrorist fatalities occurred in the wake of the Nigerian Ebola health crisis. Although Boko Haram claims an anti-education sentiment, their fatalities do not actually differ significantly from Al Shabaab fatalities during the Nigerian national basic education examination. Overall, terrorists consider well-being changes as threats that have more validity than the persuasiveness of their own claimed ideologies. Terrorist groups do not significantly vary the severity of their attacks during Ramadan. Emphasizing revealed preferences may undermine terrorist credibility and recruitment.
• "The Generative Role of Settlement Aggregation and Urbanization"
: I describe a new approach to understanding processes of village aggregation and urbanization in the past. The key concept—energized crowding—refers to the social effects of large numbers of social interactions that take place within settlements. Demographic processes of population growth and settlement nucleation (aggregation and urbanization) lead to increased energized crowding, which in turn generates a variety of social outcomes. I discuss those outcomes under three headings: scalar stress, community formation, and economic growth. In this model, aggregation and urbanization are crucial processes that lead—by way of energized crowding—to many documented social outputs in both contemporary and past settlement systems. Because this is a new approach for archaeology, conceptual tools for understanding these processes must be borrowed from other social sciences. In particular, recent research on settlement scaling provides empirical and theoretical support for the notion that aggregation and urbanization were of fundamental importance in generating social change in the past.
• Understanding the Exclusionary Politics of Early Turkish Nationalism: An Ethnic Boundary-Making Approach
Turkish nationalism has long presented a study in contrasts. The nationalist movement that created the Republic of Turkey sought to define the nation in explicitly civic and inclusive terms, promoting a variety of integrationist reforms. At the same time, however, those same nationalist politicians endorsed other policies that were far more exclusionary, expelling many religious and ethnic minorities from the new nation and imposing harsh restrictions on those who remained. The seemingly contradictory nature of Turkish nationalist policies has been mirrored by much of the scholarship on Turkish nationalism, which has often viewed Turkish nationality through the lens of the “civic/ethnic divide,” with various scholars arguing that the Turkish nation is exclusively civic or ethnic. This article seeks to transcend this dichotomous way of looking at Turkish nationalism. I argue that the policies previously seen as being exclusively civic or ethnic are in fact both examples of boundary-making processes, designed to forge a cohesive nationalist community. Seen through a boundary-making perspective, the seemingly contradictory nature of Turkish nationalist policies in its early years are not paradoxical at all, but represent a multi-dimensional effort to construct a cohesive national community that could replace the defunct Ottoman state.
• AN OPEN SCIENCE ‘STATE OF THE ART’ FOR HONG KONG: MAKING OPEN RESEARCH DATA AVAILABLE TO SUPPORT HONG KONG’S INNOVATION POLICY
Pre-print surveying policies and open science practices in Hong Kong, hopefully providing lessons on how best to make open research data available, and how that will support Hong Kong's innovation policy.
• Os cinco macacos e o pensamento crítico
De tempos em tempos, alguém faz circular a famosa estória motivacional dos cinco macacos. E sempre resulta em muitos comentários positivos. Várias postagens, em diferentes redes, lembraram a estória que estimula as pessoas a pensarem diferente do senso comum. Uma espécie de convite ao pensamento crítico. Mas, por outro lado, a simplicidade com que a estória é contada ( e repassada ) parece indicar também o contrário, mais do mesmo. Uma postura criativa e inovadora, requer de fato um pensamento crítico. E pensamento crítico significa rever conceitos pré-estabelecidos. Mas o pensamento crítico se faz a partir do acúmulo de conhecimento, não da negação da experiência adquirida como indiretamente sugere a estória dos cinco macacos. Mais importante do que isso, as instituições têm um papel fundamental na criação do ambiente inovador.
• Cost, Confidence, and College Choice
How are high school students’ beliefs about college costs related to their postsecondary enrollment decisions? Through an analysis of the base-­year and available follow‑up waves of the High School Longitudinal Study of 2009, this article offers three primary findings for a nationally representative sample. First, consistent with substantial prior research, ninth grade students, on average, believe that a four-­year college degree at a public university in their state is substantially more expensive than the true costs indicate. Second, the students most likely to attend college in the year after high school graduation are, on average, those students who over-­estimate the true costs. Third, the students who express the most confidence in their own estimates of costs are the students least likely to enter college immediately after high school, either at a four-­year college or at any other type of institution. In combination, these results imply a perverse policy recommendation: to boost college attendance, the nation should increase tuition and fees while eroding the confidence of high school students that they understand how much college will cost. Because no reasonable analyst of college choices would recommend such a reckless policy intervention, the results of this article demonstrate how much additional work is needed to collect and analyze newer forms of data that can enable deeper modeling of students’ beliefs and the consequences of their variation for subsequent choices.
• Pre-Election Mobilization and Electoral Outcome in Authoritarian Regimes
Does pre-election protest have an effect on the outcomes of authoritarian elections? Electoral authoritarian regimes use elections to consolidate their power and claim democratic legitimacy. Nonetheless, on some occasions authoritarian incumbents lose elections despite their advantages and a democratic breakthrough is achieved. I propose that pre-election protest contributes to such election results. Existing scholarship focuses primarily on the effectiveness of post-election upheavals, but the effects of pre-election protest are still theoretically and empirically understudied. This paper proposes a theory for why pre-election contention has an independent effect on incumbent defeat of authoritarian regimes and democratization. I present empirical support for the association between pre-election protest activities, incumbent defeat, and democratization using data from 190 elections across 65 countries with non-democratic regimes. The findings of this analysis have important implications for studies of social movements, authoritarian politics, and democratization.
• “Service Programmes” on Jordanian Radio: Understanding Broadcaster Persona through an Interdisciplinary Analysis of Language and Performance
• Tense and Aspect in Translation from Arabic into English: Azazeelby Youssef Ziedan as a Case Study
The translation of tense and aspect between English and Arabic can be a challenge for translators because of the major differences in this respect between the two languages. In addition, there is lack in the translation literature of studies of authentic translations of tense and aspect from Arabic into English. The present study aims to fill this gap by examining the translation of tense and aspect from Arabic into English in a published translation made by a professional English translator. It also aims to clarify the evident confusion in understanding the categories of tense and aspect, particularly in languages that are as divergent as Arabic and English. In order to achieve these objectives, the researcher analyzed, compared, and explained examples drawn from selected chapters from Jonathan Wright’s (2009) English translation of Youssef Ziedan’s (2008) novel Azazeel. The researcher followed a descriptive analytical approach and, with the use of the quantitative approach, individually analyzed the English translations of the Arabic aspectual forms from Scrolls (chapters) One, Fourteen, and Twenty-four. The results of the study revealed that Wright’s (2009) English equivalents of the Arabic aspectual forms in Azazeel were mostly accurate. The findings also showed through Wright’s (2009) translation that there is not a standard approach to translate Arabic aspectual forms.
• The invention, transmission and evolution of writing: Insights from the new scripts of West Africa
West Africa is a fertile zone for the invention of new scripts. As many as 20 have been devised since the 1830s (Dalby 1967, 1968, 1969, inter alia) including one created as recently as 2002 (Mbaye 2011). Talented individuals with no formal literacy are likely to have invented at least three of these scripts, suggesting that they had reverse-engineered the ‘idea of writing’ on the same pattern as the Cherokee script, i.e. with minimal external input. Influential scholars like Edward Tylor, A. L. Kroeber and I. J. Gelb were to approach West African scripts as naturalistic experiments in which the variable of explicit literacy instruction was eliminated. Thus, writing systems such as Vai and Bamum were invoked as productive models for theorising the dynamics of cultural evolution (Tylor [1865] 1878, Gelb [1952] 1963), the diffusion of novel technologies (Kroeber 1940), the acquisition of literacy (Forbes 1850, Migeod 1911, Scribner and Cole 1981) the cognitive processing of language (Kroeber 1940, Gelb [1952] 1963), and the evolution of writing itself (Gelb [1952] 1963; Dalby 1967, 2). This paper revisits the three West African scripts that are known to have been devised by non-literates. By comparing the linguistic, semiotic and sociohistorical contexts of each known case I suggest various circumstances that may have favoured their invention, transmission and diffusion. I argue that while the originators of scripts drew inspiration from known systems such as Roman and Arabic, they are likely to have drawn on indigenous pictorial culture and annotation systems to develop their own scripts. Once established, their creations were used to circumscribe an alternative politico-religious discourse in direct opposition to the discourses of colonial administrations. The appeal of these scripts were thus tied more to their relative indexical power than their apparent technological or cognitive advantages. Just as earlier theorists imagined, I contend that West African scripts do have the potential to illuminate historical processes of creativity, transmission and evolution, but only when local particularities are given due consideration.
• Real-time causal inference
The paper highlights causal inference based on econometric measurement in real-time data environments. Each state has a probability of being realized in real-time. We define state selection bias as arising when real-time environments are ignored. We model indicator variables as measurements that exist partly in all particular theoretically possible states, but show only one configuration on observation. Under real-time randomization within data streams, econometric treatment effects are estimable using controlled and natural experiments motivated by real-time regression analyses. A bias occurs as a result of ignoring concept drift when classical regression statistics are naïvely applied to real-time experimental data. We present a simple algorithm for difference-in-difference estimation for real-time program evaluations. Finally, a new Problem of Causal Inference is introduced for real-time data environments.
• Economic Distress and Voting: Evidence from the Subprime Mortgage Crisis
Roughly 7 million Americans lost homes to foreclosure during the Great Recession. Despite claims that the subprime mortgage crisis helped fuel recent political turmoil in the U.S., we lack systematic empirical evidence about the effects of this unprecedented spike in home foreclosures on American elections. We combine nationwide deed-level public records data on home foreclosures with election data and administrative voter data to examine the effects of home foreclosures on electoral outcomes and on individual voter turnout. At the aggregate level, county-level difference-in-differences estimates show that counties that suffered larger increases in foreclosures did not punish or reward members of the incumbent president's party more than less affected counties. At the individual level, merging the Ohio voter file with foreclosure data, difference-in-differences estimates reveal that Ohioans whose homes were foreclosed on were somewhat less likely to turn out to vote, particularly when foreclosures occurred close to election day. The findings cast doubt on the claim that individual-level economic distress during the Great Recession directly activated angry voters, and raise questions about the posited causal link between economic distress and the electoral punishment of incumbents.
• Education and technology: critical questions
The use of digital technology is a central component of most forms of contemporary education provision and practice. Crucially, educational technology is now a multi billion dollar business – involving global technology corporations in local educational provision and practice. The need for critical questions to be asked of education and technology is more pressing than ever. This chapter lays out some fundamental questions that need to be voiced in the face of such advances. In particular, it reconsiders seven critical challenges raised by the media critic Neil Postman. While Postman was concerned with the effect of computers and the internet on schools in the 1990s, much of what he argued for could be seen as having continued relevance to our current era of smartphones, big data and cloud computing. The chapter outlines the implications of these lines of critical questioning for making sense of the current state of education and technology. These are discussed in terms of: central topics of concern; key actors and interests; methods of inquiry; and likely outcomes of asking critical questions of education and technology.
• Educação e Tecnologia: questões críticas
O uso de tecnologias digitais é um componente central da maior parte das formas de oferta e prática educacionais contemporâneas. Crucialmente, a tecnologia educacional é agora um negócio multibilionário que envolve corporações globais em nível de práticas e provisão locais. A necessidade de se questionar criticamente a Educação e a Tecnologia é mais premente do que nunca. Este capítulo apresenta algumas questões fundamentais que precisam ser verbalizadas diante de tais avanços. Em particular, retoma os sete desafios críticos propostos pelo teórico das mídias Neil Postman. Ainda que Postman tenha se preocupado com o efeito dos computadores e da Internet nas escolas durante a década de 1990, seus argumentos permanecem relevantes em nossa era de smartphones, big data e computação em nuvem. O texto examina as implicações dessa linha de questionamento crítico para a compreensão do estado atual da Educação e Tecnologia. Essas são discutidas em termos de: tópicos centrais; atores e interesses chave; métodos de investigação; e decorrências prováveis de se questionar criticamente a educação e tecnologia.
• An introduction to bioinformatics algorithms for mathematical linguists
An introduction to bioinformatics algorithms for mathematical linguists
• Three Models of Ethnographic Transparency: Naming Places, Naming People, and Sharing Data
Ethnographic research consists of multiple methodological approaches, including short- and/or long-term participant observation, interviews, photographs, videos, and group field work, to name a few. Yet, it is commonly practiced as a solitary endeavor and primary data is not often subject to scholarly scrutiny. In this paper, I highlight three models that scholars have used to make ethnographic methods more transparent: naming the places they studied, naming the people they met, and sharing data. In doing so, this paper makes several contributions. Theoretically, it situates varied decisions regarding ethnographic transparency as part of the tools in ethnographers’ methodological toolkit. Researchers make these decisions strategically, depending on the content and context of their work. Empirically, it synthesizes these varied approaches, and highlights their advantages and disadvantages. Finally, it contributes to ongoing debates regarding who ethnographers should be accountable to—our subjects, other scholars, and/or ourselves.
• The Tied Migrant Employment Penalty: Public Perceptions of Military Spouses Seeking Work
• The cultural evolution of shamanism
Shamans, including medicine-men, mediums, and the prophets of religious movements, recur across human societies. Shamanism also existed among nearly all documented hunter-gatherers, likely characterized the religious lives of many ancestral humans, and is often proposed by anthropologists to be the “first profession”, representing the first institutionalized division of labor beyond age and sex. This paper proposes a cultural evolutionary theory to explain why shamanism consistently develops, and in particular, (1) why shamanic traditions exhibit recurrent features around the world, (2) why shamanism professionalizes early, often in the absence of other specialization, and (3) how shifting social conditions affect the form or existence of shamanism. According to this theory, shamanism is a set of traditions developed through cultural evolution that adapts to people’s intuitions to convince observers that a practitioner can influence otherwise unpredictable, significant events. The shaman does this by ostensibly transforming during initiation and trance, violating folk-intuitions of humanness to assure group-members that he or she can interact with the invisible forces that control uncertain outcomes. Entry requirements for becoming a shaman persist because the practitioner’s credibility depends on them “transforming”. This contrasts with dealing with problems that have identifiable solutions (like building a canoe), where credibility hinges on showing results and outsiders can invade the jurisdiction by producing the outcome. Shamanism is an ancient human institution that recurs because of the capacity of cultural evolution to produce practices adapted to innate psychological tendencies.
• Did Einstein really say that? Testing content versus context in the cultural selection of quotations
We experimentally investigated the influence of context-based biases, such as prestige and popularity, on the preferences for quotations. Participants were presented with random quotes associated to famous or unknown authors (experiment one), or with random quotes presented as popular, i.e. chosen by many previous participants, or unpopular (experiment two). To exclude effects related to the content of the quotations, all participants were subsequently presented with the same quotations, again associated to famous and unknown authors (experiment three), or presented as popular or unpopular (experiment four). Overall, our results showed the context-based biases had no (in case of prestige and conformity), or limited (in case of popularity), effect in determining participants’ choices. Quotations preferred for their content were preferred in general, despite the contextual cues to which they were associated. We conclude discussing how our results fit with the well-known phenomenon of the spread and success (especially digital) of misattributed quotations, and we draw some more general implications for cultural evolution research.
• Priming human-computer interactions: Experimental evidence from economic development mobile surveys
This paper investigates how citizens from developing countries vocalize controversial topics, combining the behavioral economics of development with human-computer interaction for potentially mutual benefit across fields. I examine a priming effort to understand how people decide to discuss controversial local subjects, using the human-computer interaction of people with their mobile phones to quantify how attracted people feel to alternative local political economy topics when randomly asked what they think about international aid. The treatment significantly impacted the likelihood of choosing to discuss sanitation, health, poverty, democracy, individual determination, pro-poor support, and happiness. However, the intervention does not affect subjectively ranked preferences. The proposed approach quantifies the attraction users feel to concepts based on human-computer interactions and this approach may be relevant for contexts beyond developing countries. Human-computer interaction approaches may help policy makers entrusted with the Sustainable Development Goals and other initiatives better understand the needs and desires of people in developing countries.
• Dynamic Existence
Everything is in motion. "Inertness" arises from (approximative) repetition, that is, through rotation or an alternation that delineates a focus of consciousness. This focus of consciousness, in turn, must also move/alternate (the two differ only in continuity). If its alternation seems to go too far - physically, psychically or intellectually - it reaches into the subconscious. In this way, interconnection is established by the alternation of the focus of consciousness. Therefore, in a world in which everything is interconnected, all focuses must reciprocally transition into each other. "Reality" is a common "goal", a focus which all participants can switch into and which is conscious to them as such, as a potential one. Its "degree of reality" is the probability of its fully becoming conscious (or more simply: its current degree of consciousness). Thus, a reality is created when all participants increase its probability or, respectively, their consciousness of it.
• Central bank planning? Unconventional monetary policy and the price of bending the yield curve
Central banks have long used their position as the monopoly issuers of reserves to ‘fix’ a crucial price in the economy, namely the short-term, interbank interest rate. They have also increasingly used communication to ‘fix’ market actors’ expectations of future rates of interest, inflation, and growth. Aware of the proximity of these practices to a form of (financial) central planning, central banks used to restrict their interventions to the short end of the yield curve, insisting that longer-term interest rates constituted aggregators of decentralised knowledge and information, best determined by market forces. By embracing forward guidance and quantitative easing to target long-term rates, central banks have purposefully crossed that line. This paper uses the conceptual toolkit of the literature on social studies of finance and central banking to come to grips with the implications of that decision for the theory and practice of macroeconomic governability. Three arguments are advanced. First, Keynesian fiscal demand management and monetary inflation targeting represent separate ideal types of macroeconomic state agency, the former operating in a hydraulic, the latter in a strategic and performative manner. Second, while consistent with the post-1980s expansion of the temporal reach of monetary policy into the future, large-scale asset purchases nevertheless mark a structural break – the return of hydraulic macroeconomic state agency, refashioned for a financialised economy. Third, central bank planning has a deep theoretical lineage in general-equilibrium macroeconomics. The case of the European Central Bank serves to illustrate these arguments.
• “Elder Brother Tobacco”: Traditional Nicotiana Snuff Use among the Contemporary Tzeltal and Tzotzil Maya of Highland Chiapas, Mexico
Ethnographic study of traditional tobacco (Nicotiana) use among the Tzeltal and Tzotzil Maya of Highland Chiapas, Mexico
• How Consciousness Creates Reality
The present text is a very abridged version of a book I wrote out of the desire to examine the structure of our reality from a standpoint unbiased by established teachings, be they academic- scientific, popular- esoteric, or religious in nature. We will begin with seemingly simple interactions in our daily lives, examine how they originate on a deeper level, come to understand the essentials of consciousness, and finally recognize that we create our reality in its entirety. In the course of this quest, we will uncover little-heeded paths to accessing our subconscious, other individuals, and that which can be understood by the term "God". And the solution to the classical problem of free will constitutes the gist of the concepts thus revealed.
• Senses of Wonder
Recent sustainability education theorists have identified a gap in the research literature regarding sensory entanglement and wonder in sustainability education. Sensory entanglement and wonder are requisite because they bring valuable shifts supporting a more critical and transformative kind of sustainability education by (1) awakening a compassionate connection with the living world, (2) nurturing alternative epistemologies, (3) providing a strengthening function for sustainability educators and their co-learners, for stamina and ongoing engagement, and (4) generating sustainability agency and an active and authentic hope to sustain a sense of the possible in the midst of the dire. This article focuses on how awakening the senses to foster a sense of wonder can nurture grounded, authentic, active hope and agency in sustainability education. It is authored collaboratively by sixteen graduate course participants and faculty co-researchers who discuss interrelated theories pointing to a need to foster senses of wonder in sustainability education. The researchers work in research teams to explore experiential and sense-based hope- and agency-building curricula. Findings include activities and reflections across the five senses as well as with the sixth sense, intuition. Sensing, listening, intimate observing, imagining, feeling, entangling, and wondering can shift unsustainability epistemologies and transform human and cultural engagement. The sense of sound can be immersive and resonant, lending learners to relational and multispecies sensing. Scent can catalyze wonder and inspire experiential, holistic growth and integration of time. Savoring in the sense of taste can extend learners from survival to joy, offering opportunities for mindfulness that can connect cultural and biocultural mutualisms and collaborative sustainability agencies. Pattern sensing for similarity using the visual sense of wonder can support connected knowing and ecological vision. The sense of touch can offer a continuous and mutual comfort and belonging. Visual pattern and texture scavenger hunts can cultivate these sustainability sense capacities. The sixth sense, intuition, opens learners to imaginative, transformative, and connective ways of knowing as place and planet, stimulating hope-giving, integrative sustainability agencies.
• Racial Arithmetic: Ethnoracial Politics in a Relational Key
Societies invested in the quantification of race are rarely, if ever, free of racial arithmetic, the practice of using statistics to legitimate and justify political decisions along categories of race and ethnicity. Despite this, scholars have tended to focus on the production rather than the use of ethnoracial statistics. This paper argues that the study of racial arithmetic—an understudied feature of contemporary politics—requires a relational approach. To illustrate the purchase of this approach, this paper presents an analysis of Chicago’s most recent bout of aldermanic redistricting. In this case, racial arithmetic rested on the ubiquitous juxtaposition of “Latino” and “Black” demographics, as captured in the 2010 census. By casting Black and Latino political power as a zero-sum game, this juxtaposition helped longstanding white overrepresentation on the City Council escape public scrutiny.
• A Theory of War
A Theory of War and Violence (First section) Thomas Scheff, G. Reginald Daniel, and Joseph Loe-Sterphone, Dept of Sociology, UCSB (9260 words total) Abstract: It is possible that war in modern societies is largely driven by emotions, but in a way that is almost completely hidden. Modernity individualizes the self and tends to ignore emotions. As a result, conflict can be caused by sequences in which the total hiding of humiliation leads to vengeance. This essay outlines a theory of the social-emotional world implied in the work of C. H. Cooley and others. Cooley’s concept of the “looking-glass self” can be used as antidote to the assumptions of modernity: the basic self is social and emotional: selves are based on “living in the mind” of others, with a result of feeling either pride of shame. Cooley discusses shame at some length, unlike most approaches, which tend to hide it. This essay proposes that the complete hiding of shame can lead to feedback loops (spirals) with no natural limit: shame about shame and anger is only the first step. Emotion backlogs can feed back when emotional experiences are completely hidden: avoiding all pain can lead to limitless spirals. These ideas may help explain the role of France in causing WWI, and Hitler’s rise to power in Germany. To the extent that these propositions are true, the part played by emotions and especially shame in causing wars need to be further studied. “...if a whole nation were to feel ashamed it would be like a lion recoiling in order to spring.” Karl Marx (1975, p. 200)
• Bans and Boundaries: The Arab Layman in Zakaria Tamer’s Sour Grapes
Social diseases, incompetent governments and the effeminate existence of the Arab person are recurrent themes in Zakaria Tamer’s Sour Grapes (2000). Set in a fictitious Syrian neighbourhood, the stories of the collection Sour Grapes identify the bans and boundaries burdening contemporary Arab life. By presenting the unusual and the nonsensical, Tamer highlights not only the socio-political and economic problems but the impact of the various social customs and inaccurate interpretations of religious teachings on gender roles and on all that burdens the sheer existence of the Arab individual. The novelist does not name a figure or a regime but compels his reader to question the quality of existence in a working class Arab neighbourhood. Written in (2000), the collection foresees the inevitability of an Arab uprising, which was to take place ten years later. Unlike the stereotypical observations of many orientalists, Tamer’s Sour Grapes takes his readers through the narrow alleys of Queiq, introducing them to the Arab layman. Through the characters’ defiance or their commitment to the social bans and religious prohibitions, Tamer discloses the deep crisis in the Arab social fabric. Through textual analysis and the explanation of inherited bans and boundaries, this paper highlights Tamer’s clever use of the ridiculous to demonstrate how dictators are instated in most aspects of Arab life. This paper looks deeply into some of Tamer’s short stories to explain what lies between the lines and the ideas behind Tamer’s depiction of the bizarre and the peculiar to demonstrate how the powerful people in an Arab society thrive at the expense of the simple Arab person and his culture.
• How flexible are careers in the anticipated life courses of young people
Bridging literature which addresses the work-family interface and the changing nature of careers, this study examines, from a life course perspective, the extent to which, and why, young people anticipate careers as ‘flexible’. Drawing on 123 interviews with men and women engaged in different post-secondary education pathways in Australia, the study draws attention to the role of gender and to some extent class in shaping careers in a network of social relations. Three dimensions of flexible careers are examined: temporal, that is, through imagined possibilities in various stages of early adulthood; structural, including opportunities and constraints afforded by different industry sectors and workplaces; and relational, in terms of household-level role negotiations. The findings revealed that women continue to adapt their career goals to accommodate care, but that both men’s and women’s careers are shaped by contingencies including household income, home ownership, access to flexible work and ideological expectations of market/family work roles. These contextual dynamics directly impact on decisions in the present. The study underscores the need for an expanded research focus on work and care from a life course perspective in order to promote career flexibility in ways that align with young people’s broader aspirations for gender equality.
• The Unruly, the Mut(ilat)ed, the Ailing: Corporeality as a Space of Subversion in J. M. Coetzee’s Fiction
This paper addresses corporeality as a space of subversion to hegemonic discourses in J. M. Coetzee’s fiction. The body is not only elusive to representation but it is also entrusted with a certain degree of authority that allows it to contravene the systems of normalization imposed by dominant discourse. The paper tends to appropriate poststructuralism and postcolonialism as its main theoretical grid to argue that corporeality in Coetzee’s novels is deployed as a fluid construct that offers a space of interaction between subjectivities beyond the rigid contours of discursive representation. In Dusklands, the clear-cut demarcations erect between the Self and the Other often blur and disintegrate while facing the permeability and extensiveness of the body. In Waiting for the Barbarians and Foe, however, the mutilated and silenced body of the Other is presented as a space of resistance to the Empire’s attempts to inscribe its statement of powerviolently. It is only the diseased body of Mrs. Curren, in Age of Iron, which transforms into an intersubjective space of reciprocity between Self and Other that is capable of overcoming the fixed barriers between subjects. Being an active site of contestation between subjectivities, the textual construction of corporeality in Coetzee's aforementioned novels offers creative opportunities of becoming and grants an imaginative understanding of otherness outside the limits of the logic of binarism encapsulated in colonial and imperialist discourses.
• Racism, Feminism and Language in Zora Neale Hurston’s Their Eyes Were Watching God
Their Eyes Were Watching God by Zora Neale Hurston has received mixed reviews over Hurston’s treatment of African Americans’ struggle. Her African American male contemporaries saw her novel as an oversimplification of racial issues. Nevertheless, a closer reading of her book proves otherwise. This paper explores her powerful, albeit subtle, portrayal of the desperation imposed not only on her race, but on her gender as well. Hurston masterfully represents racial and gender issues without resorting to the anger and hostility that appear in the works of most of her contemporary African American male writers such as Richard Wright. Hurston’s characterization of the female protagonist, her skin-color, and even the language she uses, allows her to draw an accurate image of the African American woman in the early 1900s. Her choice of the African American dialect grants Janie Crawford a voice of her own despite society’s constant attempts to silence her. Focusing on the context and Hurston’s narrative and language, this paper aims at asserting that Their Eyes Were Watching God is not merely a tragic love story; it is a skilful representation of race, gender and class issues in America at that period of time.
• Relationships of the Self: An Analysis of Murphy
The paper explores the notions of selfhood and the state of fragmentation as a way of exposing human paradoxes. This selfhood is revealed to be essentially fragmented. The complexities of actual self-experience in the modernist period have fragmented and fractured Man, who is overwhelmed with a sense of nothingness, non-connectiveness, and disengagement. This condition is what Samuel Becket tries to convey in Murphy (2000). The aim of this paper is to study the layers of self that are operating in the novel through Murphy’s fragmented social and inner selves. Beckett parodies the traditional artistic and novelistic interest in human action. His novel, Murphy, undermines the characters’ actions, and its language exposes the essential absurdity of its social subject. The construction of the self is seen in terms of the language used, the descriptive judgment of which is ultimately rendered meaningless.The disconnection between the mental and physical realms leads eventually to the creation of the isolated and alienated self
• Jamaica Kincaid’s Lucy as a Narrative of Exile and Identity
Jamaica Kincaid's novel Lucy is an artist novel whose eponymous protagonist breaks away from such forces as colonial and patriarchal mores, which eventually contributes to her construction of her own hybrid identity and inaugurates her maturity. This struggle is established perfectly well through Lucy’s apparent resistance to the constraints primarily imposed on her race and gender at home by both her mother and the Eurocentric society on the one hand and the androcentric and racist society she encounters in diaspora on the other hand. Surprisingly enough, Lucy, who is chastened towards the end of the book, creates her rite of passage towards development and independence through her valiant efforts to overcome such confines at any cost. The aim of the present article is to analyse from a postcolonial perspective the protagonist’s quest for identity in diaspora, the obstacles she overcomes to do so and to what extent she is affected by her new culture. This is manifested through intertwining discussions of androcentrism, colonial and postcolonial rebellion with questions of identity, hybridity, diaspora and cultural displacement.
• Translating Figurative Proverbs from Two Syrian Novels:Muftaraq al-MaṭarbyYūsuf al-Maḥmūd and Anājīl al-Xarāb by NaufalNayouf
This paper studies the possibilities of translating a few figurative proverbs, mainly metaphorical, in the two Syrian novels Muftaraq al-MaṭarbyYūsuf al-Maḥmūd and Anājīl al-Xarāb by NaufalNayouf. It also showcases how to translate proverbs with phonic features such as alliteration, assonance and rhyme. This is done by taking examples from the aforementioned novels and examining these formal features before and after translating the selected proverbs. This research also reviews a few scholarly approaches to the translation of culture-bound items, metaphor and proverbs. It then focuses on implementing Toury’s view on translating metaphor and shows how many proverbs have preserved metaphor, alliteration, assonance and rhyme in the target language (TL), and how many proverbs have lost these stylistic devices in the TL.
• Western Feminism or Return to Authentic Islam? Jordanian Women in Faqir’s Pillars of Salt and My Name is Salma
This paper focuses on the violence against Jordanian women through Fadia Faqir’s novels, Pillars of Salt and My Name is Salma. These novels question cultural conventions that tolerate men’s oppression and killing of women in the name of the family’s honour in most Arab countries. The analysis of the two novels illustrates how Faqir’s opposition to women’s subordination and victimisation in the name of Islam stems from her interest in going back to authentic teachings of Islam with regard to women, rather than Western feminist theories. In addition, the similarity between Orientalist misrepresentation of women’s status in Islam and patriarchal misinterpretation of the Holy Qura’n and Prophet Muhammad’s Sunnah to subordinate women is explored and examined from the postcolonial feminist critical perspective. This paper highlights feminist contribution to raising awareness about violence against women in some Arab countries through literature.
• Translation and Arabicization Methods of English Scientific and Technical Terms into Arabic
Due to linguistic differences among languages, rendering new concepts embodied in new terms has always been a challenging issue in translation. English has become the medium of science and technology. Therefore, it has dominance over other languages of the world. Technical terms and concepts are translated mainly from English to other languages such as the Arabic language. Because of the foreignness and unfamiliarity of these terms in Arabic, the Arabic Language Academyمجمع اللغة العربية[majma’ al-lughati al-arabiyah] has always endeavoured to coin native terms in order to domesticate and naturalizeforeign terminology into Arabic. To accomplish this goal, translation strategies, as well as Arabic word-formation techniques such as derivation and composition have been employed by the academy. Among Arabicization methods isoutright phonetic borrowing of the English term via transliteration into Arabic sounds and characters. Another form of borrowing is calque (loan translation). This translation and Arabicization method has also been used by the academy in its terminology work. The aim of this research is to identify strategies of translation and Arabicization used by the academy in its terminology work. Accordingly, a descriptive and comparative analysis of ten English scientific and technical terms with their translational and Arabicized equivalents were analyzed and discussed. These terms were translated and Arabicized by the Arabic Language Academy of Cairo (Cairo ALA), which adopted various translation and Arabicization approaches to introduce and assimilate these terms into Arabic. Translation methods included borrowing (loan word), loan translation (calque) and literal translation (word-for-word). Arabicization methods included outright phonetic borrowing, loan translation, derivation, and composition. Findings suggested that Cairo ALA has appropriately applied methods of translation, as well as techniques of Arabicization in its efforts to delimit the foreignness of English terms. Accordingly, these terms were properly domesticated into Arabic.
• Co-habitality in Translation: The Comparative Case of Collocations
The Present paper examines the nature of collocations in Arabic and English as a frequent multi-word item in both languages. The aim of this research is to illustrate the semantic and syntactic nature of collocations and these linguistic features’ effect on translation in both Arabic and English. The supportive examples showcase the problems that might arise in the translation process and their reflection on the quality of translation and level of competence of Arab translators. The findings have shown that collocations are not open to any word, as they co-habit with a limited range of words, which is the real translation crisis for the translator. These findings were supported by a proposed lexicographical model for collocation translation, which could improve the way Arab translators transfer English and Arabic collocations when encountered during the translation process.
• Gender Stereotypes in Fantasy Fairy Tales: Cinderella
This paper explores gender stereotypes and culture depicted in three different versions of Cinderella children textbooks. The researcher has limited the study of fairy tales to Cinderella, the western version that she grew up reading it, and two other eastern versions: The Egyptian Cinderella and The Korean Cinderella. The characteristics of all versions represent different ethnics and cultural backgrounds. Findings that are based on discourse analysis show that the criteria of beauty and stereotype vary among all of the three versions of Cinderella children textbooks. That variation is based on the perspective of the culture represented in each one of the stories. Some valuable educational implications to limit the stereotypical gender misconceptions in children literature are presented to both parents and teachers.
• Reflection of Translation Theory in Teaching Practical Translation: Legal Translation as Case Analysis
This paper discusses the applicability of translation theory in teaching practical translation. It examines the Chinese translation of an English legal judgment “Attorney General v Lee Kwong-kut and Attorney General v Lo Chak-man and another”(Hong Kong Public Law Reports, 1993) by the Privy Council. It combines the source-text analysis with translation strategies from the perspective of semantics, syntax and register, in order to discuss how theories can be applied in real-life legal translation setting. The source text contains distinctive examples of legalese, convoluted sentence structure and honorific addresses specific to Anglo legal context. The Chinese translation is challenging as to how to cope with the linguistic and cultural differences, and most significantly, how to carry over the central meanings while retaining the equivalent effect and the authenticity of a legal judgment. Furthermore, this paper is based on the author’s teaching experiences, and will refer to the syllabuses and curriculum design of the “Programme Intended Learning Outcomes” and the “Course Intended Learning Outcomes”. It demonstrates the applicable value of translation theory, and how practical translation can be taught with theoretical explanation and vice versa.Translation bases on practice, all kinds of theories area guideline to be applied.
• Morpho-Syntactic Complexity in the Translation of the Seven Suspended Odes
This paper attempts at bringing a new degree of precision into the analysis of the translation problems encountered in Arberry’s Translation of the Seven Suspended Odes, i.e. morpho-syntactic complexity. Because the pair of languages under investigation is genetically and thus typologically different, it calls into question how to tackle complexity in morphology and syntax in translation. The paper brings into focus Arabic inflections which indicate ‘emphasis, duality and gender’, and how they may be properly approached. Additionally, the syntactic constituents of Cognate Accusative Object, Causative Object, Accusative of State and Substitute are examined in Arabic and how they can be overcome in translation. Evidence from the Holy Quran has been adduced for illustration and elucidation purposes as necessity demands. Last but not least, pleonasm and paronomasia have been linguistically pulled apart, to be followed by an approach to grappling with such phenomena in translation. Some strategies have been referred to, or devised in cases of the above constituents and the like.
• Fictional Characters Outside Fiction: “Being” as a Fictional Character in Heidegger’s Being and Time
Can non-fiction present fictional characters? This is the main question of this paper. In reading Martin Heidegger’s Being and Time (1927), the readers construct a figure in their mind of a persona about whom all the philosophical reflections are discussed. Heidegger presents Dasein as a ‘particular being’ that characterizes all the features of human existence. Heidegger did not want to define and explain ‘being’, but he aimed at presenting a ‘sense of being’ in the form of characterizing the philosophical reflections he was presenting. After discussing how it can be claimed that Dasein can be considered a ‘fictional character’ in the absence of a ‘plot,’ the present article explains the main aspects through which a ‘fictional character’ is constructed, or figured out, in readers’ mind. It tries, also, to show how and why Heidegger resorts to this technique of fictional characterization in this highly influential philosophical book. The article specifies four main personality models, that help construct Dasein as a ‘fictional character’ in the reader’s mind. These personality models are: being-in-world, being-in-time, living-by-activity, and living-to-an-end. By ascribing such personality models to Dasein, Heidegger managed to present in his work a character that can be easily remembered all the time Being and Time is mentioned.
• Regenesis: Lawrence and a Re-Evaluation of the Genesis story
The sterility of twentieth century society fostered nostalgia for the values of the past and a renewed interest in classical mythology. For D. H. Lawrence (1885 –1930), myth became one of the most important elements in both his fictional and non fictional works. Taking well-known examples, he reinterpreted them as an illustration of his own personal vision. This article is limited to a study of three major fictional works: The Rainbow, Women in Love and The Virgin and The Gypsy and attempts to analyse them in the light of the Genesis myth. It hinges on the hypothesis that Lawrence, by condemning orthodox religious beliefs, formulated his own creation myth: his regenesis. He attempted to expose the false ideals of conventional society, which had for centuries destroyed man’s natural intuition, by a re-examination of the Genesis myth. By using an analytical approach, this article aims to answer several provocative questions. Firstly, how far did Lawrence succeed in undermining conventional authority? Secondly, how successful was he in formulating his philosophy of regenesis? Thirdly, to what extent can this philosophy be seen as an answer to the problems of the age?
• Dictatorial Rule and Sexual Politics in Argentina: The Case of the Frente de Liberación Homosexual, 1967-1976
The Frente de Liberacio´n Homosexual (FLH, 1967–1976) was the ﬁrst political movement of homosexual men in Argentina. Despite its short life span, this organization set the ground for futuredevelopments.TheFLHemergedinthecontextofincreasingauthoritarianismratherthanbeingtheresultof a transition to democracy. The relationship with homophobic Peronists and left-wing traditions was, para-doxically, crucial for the emergence of the FLH. Most homosexual activists came from the Left, and they understood homosexual liberation as one aspect of the struggle against capitalism. These activists werehighly critical of anticapitalist politics as it existed in Argentina at the time, but they also actively sought tobecome allies of the expanding New Left during the period. Eventually, however, the 1976–1983 military dictatorship made all forms of dissidence impossible, and the FLH had to dissolve.
• A Human-Computer Interaction Approach for Integrity in Economics
Emerging data science platforms using simplified and automated user interfaces can help research become significantly more transparent and ethical. By depending on standard human-generated code, many statistical software programs commonly used in economics and the social sciences inadvertently rely on the human willpower of scientists, and inspite of an assumed invincibility, such individuals are nearly necessarily prone to errors and research integrity compromises, as is increasingly clear. Removing the vast majority of arbitrary and subjective data judgments, including the generation of code, from researcher control would free behavioural and social scientists from human limitations. Automating the text annotations that accompany data visualizations in figures and diagrams using emerging natural language processing tools can also free scientists from overconfidence or the temptation to embellish findings. Scientific communities across economics as well as other social science fields should embrace such systems to enhance the integrity and transparency of the next-generation of research.
• An archaeology of domestic life in early byzantine Gortyna: stratigraphy, pots and contexts
Ceramic finds from the Byzantine Quarter near the Pythion in Gortyna (Crete) are primarily linked to domestic spaces, particularly during the 7th and 8th century. Specific contexts gave the opportunity to investigate the use life of pottery in such domestic spaces, within the changes that happen both in the quarter and in the city as a whole. Submitted for publication in the proceedings volume of the LRCW5 conference (Alexandria, 2014).
• The Contact Hypothesis Revisited
This paper evaluates the state of contact hypothesis research from a policy perspective. Building on Pettigrew and Tropp’s (2006) influential meta-analysis, we assemble all intergroup contact studies that feature random assignment and delayed outcome measures, of which there are 27 in total, nearly two-thirds of which were published following the original review. We find the evidence from this updated dataset to be consistent with Pettigrew and Tropp’s (2006) conclusion that contact “typically reduces prejudice." At the same time, our meta-analysis suggests that contact’s effects vary, with interventions directed at ethnic or racial prejudice generating substantially weaker effects. Moreover, our inventory of relevant studies reveals important gaps, most notably the absence of studies addressing adults’ racial or ethnic prejudice, an important limitation for both theory and policy. We also call attention to the lack of research that systematically investigates the scope conditions suggested by Allport (1954) under which contact is most influential. We conclude that these gaps in contact research must be addressed empirically before this hypothesis can reliably guide policy.
• Works citing Bendel and Hua on natural fecundability: a literature review on the origin of a falsified chart used in high school education in Japan
This paper reports the results of a literature review on "An Estimate of the Natural Fecundability Ratio Curve" by Bendel and Hua (1978, Social Biology 25). The estimation of this work was the origin of a falsified chart on women's age-fertility profile that was featured in a high school health education material published in 2015 by the government of Japan. The author searched citation databases and collected 23 works citing the study. A review of the 23 works showed that biases and unreliability of the Bendel-Hua estimation had been pointed repeatedly. The results imply that the chart would be inappropriate for educational use, even if it were not falsified. Both the Japanese government and academics are responsible for the inappropriate chart being used without a comprehensive literature review to insure the reliability of scientific knowledge.
• BOUNDARIES, BREACHES, AND BRIDGES: THE CASE OF CLIMATEGATE
We examine the incident known as “Climategate” in which emails and other documents relating to climate scientists and their work were illegitimately accessed and posted to the Internet. The contents of the files prompted questions about the credibility of climate science and the legitimacy of some of the climate scientists’ practices. Multiple investigations unfolded to repair the boundary that had been breached. While exonerating the scientists of wrongdoing and endorsing the legitimacy of the consensus opinion, the investigating committees suggested revisions to some scientific practices. Despite this boundary repair work, the credibility and legitimacy of the scientific enterprise were not fully restored in the eyes of several stakeholders. We explore why this is the case, identify boundary bridging approaches to address these issues, and highlight policy implications.
• PROCESS-BASED IDEOLOGY OF PARTICIPATIVE EXPERIMENTATION TO FOSTER IDENTITY-CHALLENGING INNOVATIONS: THE CASE OF GMAIL AND ADSENSE
Prior research has examined how organizational identity can enable and constrain innovations. A complementary literature has examined organizational ideology as the basis for actions driving identity-enhancing innovations. We examine how organizational ideology can serve as the basis for identity-challenging innovations through an in-depth study of the emergence of two innovations at Google—Gmail and AdSense. Findings from this study highlight a process-based ideology of participative experimentation. We explicate the constituent elements of this process-based ideology, and discuss its implications for research on innovation and identity.
• Varieties of Militarism: Towards a Typology
Militarism—a mercurial, endlessly contested concept—is experiencing a renaissance of sorts in many corners of the social science community. In critical security studies, the concept’s purview has become increasingly limited by an abiding theoretical and analytical focus on various practices of securitisation. We argue that there is a need to clarify the logic and stakes of different forms of militarism. Critical security scholars have provided valuable insights into the conditions of ‘exceptionalist militarism.’ However, if we accept that militarism and the production of security are co-constitutive, then we have every reason to consider different manifestations of militarism, their historical trajectories and their inter-relationships. To that end, we draw on the work of historical sociologists and articulate three more ideal types of militarism: nation-state militarism, civil society militarism, and neoliberal militarism. We suggest this typology can more adequately capture key transformations of militarism in the modern period as well as inform further research on the militarism-security nexus.
• Teaching Foundational Data Skills in the Library
In Databrarianship: The Academic Data Librarian in Theory and Practice, edited by Linda Kellam and Kristi Thompson. Chicago: Association of College and Research Libraries, 2015. Undergraduate students often struggle when asked to locate, evaluate, and use data in their research, and librarians have an opportunity to support them as they learn data literacy skills. Much of the literature on data librarianship in this area focuses on data reference services, but there is a lack of scholarship and guidance on how to translate data reference expertise into effective teaching strategies. In this chapter, the authors will bridge that gap between data reference and information literacy instruction.
• The Partial Deinstitutionalization of Affirmative Action in U.S. Higher Education, 1988-2014
Race-conscious admissions policies are politically controversial yet pragmatically effective for improving access for people of color to selective U.S. colleges and universities. While the admissions policies of elite institutions get the most political, scholarly, and media attention, little is known about the use of affirmative action in admissions across the broader field of selective higher education. Based on analysis of longitudinal panel data of almost 1,000 selective status colleges and universities, we find a dramatic shift in stated organizational policy starting in the mid-1990s. In 1994, 60% of institutions publicly declared that they considered race in undergraduate admissions; by 2014, just 35% did. Yet there is substantial variation depending on schools’ status (competitiveness) and sector (public or private). Notably, race-conscious admissions remain the stated organizational policy of almost all of the most elite public and private institutions. The retreat from race-conscious admissions occurs largely among schools relatively lower in the status hierarchy: very competitive public institutions and competitive public and private institutions. These patterns are not explained by the implementation of state-level bans. The findings suggest that both the diversity imperative and the diffuse impact of the anti-affirmative action movement are not consistent across strata of American higher education.
• Usage of Specialized Service Delivery: Evidence from Contiguous Counties
This study exploits exogenous policy discontinuities along state borders to estimate the influence of differences in local autonomy on the usage of special districts in U.S. counties. Using forty years of data, this analysis compares counties on either side of state borders where local autonomy differs and finds little to no evidence that negative changes in local autonomy leads to increased utilization of special districts. This study suggests that some prior literature may overstate the importance of local autonomy in local service delivery.
• Testing a Digital Inequality Model for Online Political Participation
Increasing Internet use is changing the way individuals take part in society but research on the mobilizing effects of the Internet for political participation shows mixed results. The present study takes a digital inequality perspective and analyzes the role of political interest and Internet expertise for the social structuration of online political participation. Analyses are based on two-wave nationally representative survey data from Switzerland and use cluster analysis and structural equation modeling. A distinct group of political users emerged characterized by high education and income. Further, online politi-cal participation is predicted by political interest and Internet skills, which increasingly mediated the effects of social position. Digital information policies should therefore include the promotion of Internet skills and effective use, particularly in marginalized social groups, to avoid reinforcing traditional participatory inequalities in the digital society.
• A Case Study of Crowdsourcing Imagery Coding in Natural Disasters
Crowdsourcing and open licensing allow more people to participate in research and humanitarian activities. Open data, such as geographic information shared through OpenStreetMap and image datasets from disasters, can be useful for disaster response and recovery work. This chapter shares a real-world case study of humanitarian-driven imagery analysis, using open-source crowdsourcing technology. Shared philosophies in open technologies and digital humanities, including remixing and the wisdom of the crowd, are reflected in this case study.
• Not Being There: Research at a Distance with Video, Text and Speech
This chapter examines the history and process of research participants producing and working with data. The experience of working with researcher-produced and/or analysed data shows how social research is a set of practices which can be shared with research participants, and which in key ways draw on everyday habits and performances. Participant produced data has come to the fore with the popularity of crowdsourced, citizen science research and Games with a Purpose. These address practical problems and potentially open up the research process to large scale democratic involvement. However at the same time the process can become fragmented and proletarianised. Mass research has a long history, an exemplar of which is the Mass Observation studies. Our research involved participants collecting video data on their intoxication practices. We discuss how their experience altered their own subject position in relation to these regular social activities, and explore how our understanding of their data collection converged and differed from theirs. Crowdsourced research raises a challenge to the research binary as the work is done by participants rather than the research team, however it also reaffirms it, unless further work is done to involve participants in commenting and reflecting on the research process itself.
• Nudge Policy, Embodiment and Intoxication Problems
Intoxication represents a threat to individual autonomy, the self-willing, self-activating, self-making personhood at the heart of liberal philosophy. In the dominant Anglo-Saxon culture of countries like the UK, USA, Canada and Australia it is walled off from day-to-day life, surrounded by strict moral regulations and conceived of as a space of abandonment, where necessary repressions are briefly suspended. Recent developments in psychopharmacology and neuroscience have challenged the basis for thinking of individual behaviour and choice-making as inherently free and unfettered and they create interesting disruptions of this liberal subjectivity. In this chapter I want to examine these developments and their implications for the construction of intoxication as a public problem with regards to the expanding sphere of ‘nudge’ public policy and in the memory work involved in addiction recovery.
• Instrumental variables based on twin births are by definition not valid
Using twin births for instrumental variables (IVs) is a well-known and widespread method to create exogenous variation in the number of children in families. I propose we interpret the treatment of these IVs as an “unwanted” child rather than the “extra” child born at that birth. This seemingly slight reinterpretation highlights how this method is intrinsically linked to fertility preferences and brings forward several previously overlooked assumptions. The reinterpretation also has the less obvious consequence of making these IVs invalid by definition as long as any effect exists from either the desired or the achieved number of children on the outcome studied. The IVs are invalid because there are by definition systematic differences in the desired number of children between families that did and did not experience a (parity-specific) twin birth. The results of studies using this method are likely to be biased in an unknowable direction.
• Waste collection in rural communities: challenges under EU regulations. A Case study of Neamt County, Romania
The paper aims to examine the changes in the rural waste management sector at regional scale since the Romania adhesion to the EU in 2007. Traditional waste management based on the mixed waste collection and waste disposal often on improper sites prevailed in municipal waste management options of transitional economies across the globe. The lack of formal waste collection services in rural areas has encouraged the open dumping or backyard burning. The paper analyses the improvements and challenges of local authorities in order to fulfill the new EU requirements in this sector supported by data analysis at local administrative unit levels and field observations. Geographical analysis is compulsory in order to reveal the local disparities. The paper performs an assessment of waste collection issues across 78 rural municipalities within Neamt County. This sector is emerging in rural areas of Eastern Europe, but is far from an efficient municipal waste management system based on the waste hierarchy concept.
• Impartiality of the Speaker: Politics versus Convention in New Brunswick's 55th Legislature
This paper will examine the nature of Speaker impartiality within the British Parliamentary system by examining the political involvement and the casting vote of Speakers. This will attempt to historically contextualize the role of the Speaker in the province of New Brunswick and explain the institutional circumstances of the unusual conduct of Speakers Bev Harrison and Michael ‘Tanker’ Malley during the 3rd session of the 55th Legislative Assembly. This paper argues that the source of this irregularity was the close seat count between opposition and government members. This issue illustrates the difficulties of smaller Legislative Assemblies reaching the convention established by the British parliament respecting the impartiality of a Speaker where a Speaker is apolitical, thereby divorced from partisan politics. In the British convention, which serves as the fount of parliamentary practice, the Speaker refrains from any active political involvement, and in return the Speaker is uncontested in upcoming parliamentary elections.
• Towards a Taxonomy of Crowd-civic Systems
This paper proposes a preliminary taxonomy of crowd-civic systems developed in a number of areas and geographical contexts. The taxonomy is based on different theoretical models of democracy and their underlying visions of citizenship. While this classification is neither exhaustive nor categorical, it may contribute to discovering connections between theoretical models of democracy and state-of-the-art digital platforms and tools. Framing crowd-civic systems within different models and visions of democracy and citizenship can also shed new light to concepts such as participation or deliberation, as well as to the role of civic technologies in reshaping them.
• Datafying Disaster: Institutional Framings of Data Production following Superstorm Sandy
In the wake of disasters, communities organize to produce spatial data capturing knowledge about the disaster, and to fill gaps left by formal emergency responders. The ways communities impact overall response efforts can produce inequalities, disempowerment, or further marginalization. Increasingly, this organizing and knowledge production occurs through digital technologies, and recently "digital humanitarianism" has become an important suite of such technologies. Digital humanitarianism is comprised of technologies like the crowdsourced crisis mapping platform Ushahidi, and the community of volunteers Humanitarian OpenStreetMap Team which focuses on the amateur-generated global basemap OpenStreetMap. Digital humanitarianism is shifting the ways needs and knowledges are captured and represented as data following disasters. These transformations raise important questions for geographers interested in the socio-political and institutional processes that frame data production and representation. In this article, I contribute to geographers' efforts to understand the institutional and community-based politics that frame the types of data that are produced in disaster contexts. I do so by drawing on an ethnographic project that took place in both Washington, DC and New York City after Superstorm Sandy in 2012. I show that digital humanitarians produced data in the Rockaway Peninsula of New York in response to perceived gaps on the part of formal emergency responders. In so doing, they represented needs, individuals, and communities in ways that local community advocacy organizations found problematic. These findings shed light on the politics and struggles around why particular datasets were produced, and the motives behind capturing particular disaster-related needs and knowledge as data.
• One Global Map but Different Worlds: Worldwide Survey of Human Access to Basic Utilities
The paper aims to reveal one integrated global map which points out the major geographical inequalities in providing basic utilities across the countries using multivariate analysis and thematic cartography. Sixteen indicators with global coverage were selected taking into account the waste collection services, sanitation facilities, drinking water sources, energy, electricity, habitat and demographic conditions. Several data are broken down for the total, urban and rural population in order to outline the rural-urban disparities between and within countries. A special focus is given to waste collection coverage, in order to compute a comprehensive global assessment of this key indicator of public health, which is one of the poorest monitored basic utility. The world countries were divided into 10 classes according to the hierarchical cluster analysis. Each class has particular features outlining the gaps between high, middle and low-income countries with direct impact on quality of life, public health, and environment.
• The ParlSpeech data set: Annotated full-text vectors of 3.9 million plenary speeches in the key legislative chambers of seven European states
ParlSpeech contains full-text vectors of more than 3.9 million plenary speeches in the key legislative chambers of the Czech Republic, Finland, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom, covering periods between 22 and 28 years. Speeches are annotated with date, speaker and party. This release note provides a more detailed guide to the data.
• Escribiendo tus Recuerdos en el Pizarrón Un análisis respecto a la caracterización de profesores y asignaturas durante la etapa escolar en Chile
Resumen En la presente investigación se busca conocer los recuerdos, opiniones y vivencias de diferentes personas durante su etapa escolar. La metodología utilizada fue una encuesta online realizada por medio de Google Formularios, la cual fue difundida principalmente por redes sociales. Los principales elementos que constituyen el análisis son las asignaturas nombradas, la caracterización de una clase ideal, las características positivas y negativas que se le atribuyen a los profesores y profesoras, el recuento de recuerdos positivos y negativos de la etapa escolar y finalmente, los problemas que se presentan en el contexto escolar. Palabras clave: características, profesores, asignaturas, colegio, clase ideal. Abstract The present research seeks to know the memories, opinions and experiences of different people during their school stage. The methodology used was an online survey conducted through Google Forms, which was disseminated mainly by social networks. The main elements that constitute the analysis are the named subjects, the characterization of an ideal class, the positive and negative characteristics attributed to the teachers, the recounting of positive and negative memories of the school stage and, finally, the problems that are presented in the school context. Key words: characteristics, teachers, subjects, school, ideal class.
• Big Data and Population Processes: A Revolution?
We first discuss the centrality of data paradigms in demography, documenting their rise and fall over time also making use of Google Books Ngram Viewer. We then move on to discuss the undergoing Data Revolution'' in demography, with a focus on emerging forms of big data access and on the use of digital breadcrumbs.
• Proposing a methodology for the operationalisation of Multiple Streams Approach, using the Inner-City Technology Colleges as an empirical example
In this paper, we argue that there is a need for the streams to be ripe at the moment of legislation approval to increase the probability of policy implementation. We developed a model of analysis that applies MSA, departing from a qualitative approach we purpose an empirical mathematical model which allows policy makers to evaluate the probability of successful implementation, given the variables available at decision moment. The contribution of this paper is to inform policy makers on the need to work towards policy acceptance, reducing the rate of non-enactment and legislative inefficiency. We applied the model to the case of public private partnerships in education (ePPPs), using the Inner City Technology Colleges, which was the first attempt to create ePPPs by Margaret Thatcher in 1986. We conclude that the reason for implementation failure lies on the lack of balance between the streams, who were not ripe at the time of legislation
• El mundo de la niñez y su sexualidad
En el presente artículo se revisan las percepciones que se tienen respecto a la sexualidad infantil desde experiencias de personas adultas sobre cómo vivenciaron su propia etapa de niñez en relación a su proceso de construcción sexual. Para lo cual se hace un recorrido sobre las concepciones que se tienen sobre sexualidad, la manera en que la educación sexual incidió en sus experiencias y la relevancia que tiene al momento de desarrollar una sexualidad integral. Como principales resultados se evidencian cambios a nivel generacional respecto a lo que se entiende por sexualidad y cómo se debiera abordar la sexualidad infantil desde este punto, además se le otorga un rol importante a la calidad y al tipo de educación que se recibe en esta materia.
• Selling the Conceptual and Computational Value of Esri’s ArcGIS Platform
At a time when industries are struggling to monetize the diversification of information flows in the digital economy, the transition from a "software as a service" model to a platform takes on crucial importance. Platforms are complex technological infrastructures that host and exchange content, but they are also sites of cultural interaction, consumer-driven business models, and powerful metaphors driving the digital economy. Situating Esri’s ArcGIS platform within the Facebook-era of platform development offers ways of understanding how one of the world’s largest GIS innovation companies and therefore other market dominators deploy popular platform thinking into its business and marketing strategies, while at the same time adoption technological standards that are conducive to both consumers and profit-seeking activities. Under examination are branded appeals to user value and strategies to create the optimal market for platform adoption by making data platform ready. Esri's long-term support of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), an international non-profit organization set to standardize geospatial data is one such social relation discussed. Considered are the democratic promises and practices that metaphorically hide the move towards "platform capitalism," where monopolies of the market structure the use and types of data being produced, distributed and consumed.
• Videos virales en Chile
Currently, it is increasingly common to watch viral videos and use their phrases in everyday life. Whether through memes, social networks or orally, viral videos have reached much of the population in Chile. Especially, it is part of the life of young people, who are the basis of informants used for this article. However, there are practically no academic studies on the subject, at least in Chile. This article then, although in no way tries to exhaust the different dimensions that reach the viral videos in Chile, serves as a first approximation to legitimize viral videos in the juvenile daily life as a matter of social sciences. Also, helps to see how this logic operates. ¿What is behind viral videos?, ¿why are they used?
• Social Science Can Develop Startups for Development
Harnessing technology startups for African development is a policy approach that simply cannot wait. Startups bring data, dynamism and daring to the development table, and have an important role to play in economic development today. Although nonprofit and government initiatives are also significant, social science evidence will enable such organizations to benefit from technology startups for new economic changes to be fast and inclusive.
• Illicit Cultural Property from Latin America: Looting, Trafficking, and Sale
This chapter will provide a broad overview of the the , smuggling, and illegal sale of cultural objects from Latin America. First, I will describe the two categories of Latin American cultural property covered by this chapter (pre-Conquest artefacts, colonial sacred art), and then consider the form and functioning of the illicit trade in Latin American antiquities. I will discuss the on-the-ground devastation of the historic trade in looted Latin American objects and present a model of a historic antiquities trafficking network. is will be illustrated by two case studies: the the and trafficking of a large Maya sculpture from the site of Machaquilá, Guatemala, and of the Church of Challapampa, Peru. Thee paper will close with a brief recommendation and an outline of the various outside forces that appear to play a significant role in the continued looting and trafficking of Latin American cultural objects. Among these important forces to consider are deforestation, human migration, the narcotics trade, local and regional instability, community insecurity, poverty, globalization, and developmental disparities. If reducing the illicit trade in Latin American cultural property is our goal, then all current and future policy must address these issues.
• Crime, Controversy and the Comments Section: Discussing archaeological looting, trafficking, and the illicit antiquities trade online
In this article we will discuss the challenges involved in presenting the looting of archaeological sites and the illicit trade in cultural property to the interested public. We will contrast our experiences of building two popular illicit antiquities-focused blogs (Things You Can’t Take Back and Anonymous Swiss Collector) with the process of developing an informative academic website on the same topic (Trafficking Culture). We will discuss our motivations for starting these blogs, our struggles with the tone of the popular discourse on this topic, and our inability to escape our own emotions; why we have moved away from illicit antiquities blogging in the past year and why we are coming back. Finally, having learned from our mistakes, we will make recommendations to others wishing to engage with the public about sensitive issues via social media.
• Church Theft, Insecurity, and Community Justice: The Reality of Source-End Regulation of the Market for Illicit Bolivian Cultural Objects
In 2012 two men were lynched in Bolivia, first because there is an illicit market for Bolivian cultural objects, and second because a small, poor community turned to desperate measures to protect themselves from that illicit market due to the failings of national and international regulation. This paper is a case study of the reality of source-end regulation of an international criminal market in a developing country. I will discuss what is known about thefts from Bolivian churches, the international market for items stolen from these churches, and how such thefts are meant to be prevented on-the ground. Following this, I will present lynching in Bolivia as the most severe community response to the issues created by local politics, ineffectual policing, unenforceable laws, and a history of oppressive racism. I will conclude with a discussion of what we can reasonably hope to accomplish with source-end regulation.
• Narrating imagined crises: How stress tests drive cultural reform in banking
The scholarly consensus is that the regulatory response to the 2007-9 financial crisis has proven a historic missed opportunity for bringing about transformative reforms. This article argues that the emphasis on the limits of post-crisis reforms risks missing how regulators’ new socio-technical tools are helping them to improve their governance of financial institutions. The focus is on the most significant novelty of the post-crisis period: regulatory stress testing. Guided by interviews with regulators and financial practitioners involved in the Bank of England’s stress tests, the article addresses its ‘qualitative review’ component, which informs the supervision of major UK banks. Our findings suggest that compliance with the qualitative review’s narrative imperative may be encouraging more transparent modelling and governance practices and weakening the boundaries between banks’ epistemic subcultures. We then reflect on how the pushback against the tests points to the limits of Beckert’s theorisation of the politics of expectations and requires scholars to evaluate post-crisis regulatory reforms in a way that does not play into the hands of vested interests.
• Hydrology and the Imperial Vision of Bois de Boulogne
Bois de Boulogne was a key urban design effort of Second Empire France. This essay surveys the landscape of the park with particular attention to water; social practices that engendered the use of water, and social practices which water enabled. The hydrology of the site – the grand lake, streams, and waterfalls – is a statement and demonstration of imperial mastery and sensibility. Nearly half of the project budget was devoted to hydraulics and, in the opening years, more than 15% of the municipal water supply was diverted to the park; all of which supported a statusladen array of features attractive to elites of the Second Empire and Third Republic.
• Journal of the History of Economic Thought preprints - Harry Helson’s Adaptation-Level Theory, Happiness Treadmills, and Behavioral Economics
Psychologist Harry Helson [1898-1977] developed Adaptation-Level (AL) theory during the 1930s-70s, while economics was being refined through ordinalism and expected utility theory. This essay accounts for the process of transmission of AL theory from psychophysics, to behavioral psychology and eventually economics. It explains how the concept of adaptation reflectance, originally intended to explain color vision, developed into an experimental approach that caught the attention of both psychologists and economists working on welfare analysis and behavioral research. It also argues that the history of AL theory – so far absent from narratives about economics and psychology – is worth exploring in order to gain a better understanding of the relationship between the two disciplines.
• Childlessness and Assisted Reproduction in Europe
This report summarizes key findings of Work Package 4 of the research project "Families and Societies," which focused on the areas of childlessness and assisted reproductive technology (ART). We summarize trends, predictors on the macro- and the micro-level as well as narratives pertaining to childlessness. We also synthesize the central findings with respect to ART, showing the prevalence of ART usage across Europe, variation in the regulation of ART, and consequences of the proliferation of ART. These findings provide the strong foundation for policy recommendations, in addition to providing evidence of the impact that the Work Package has already had.
• Baldermath: A design-based research approach to developing a game for student work analysis
Games can help teachers develop and practice important skills. Can integrating student work analysis into a game help participants focus on, attend to details, and make sense of student work?
• Made in America? Immigrant Occupational Mobility in First Half of the Twentieth Century
Assimilation research largely assumes that Southern and Eastern European immigrants achieved assimilation due to job ladders within manufacturing firms in the first half of the twentieth century. But this literature has never tested these claims and often acknowledges that little is known about whether Italians and Slavs experienced upward mobility. Did manufacturing allow for the upward advancement among European-origin groups? Using unique datasets containing employment histories in three manufacturing companies – A.M. Byers Company, Pullman-Standard Manufacturing, and Ford Motor Company - between 1900 and 1950, this article is the first to analyze occupational mobility within factories among European-origin groups. Results suggest that organizational structures within firms through the formation of internal labor markets did little to counter or prevent other forces that kept migrants from achieving upward mobility. Migrants ended their careers within firms where they began – positions at the bottom of the occupational hierarchy – which runs contrary to assimilation research.
• Waking Yourself Up: The Liberatory Potential of Critical University Studies
Critical university studies courses can provide students with a context in which to learn not only about the concealed workings and hidden curriculum of the university, but more than that a liberatory space in which to find voice in shaping their own futures. This paper explores the liberatory potential of critical university studies through a conversation between a faculty member who designed and taught an interdisciplinary general education course on higher education and a student who was enrolled in the course the first time it was offered. The conversation explores the course’s pedagogy as both professor and student contemplate the ways in which contemporary higher education may limit the horizons of first-generation students and the ways in which critical university studies can open up possibilities and provide students with a sense of self-efficacy.