Papers

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SocArXiv papers

  • Childlessness, parenthood and subjective wellbeing: The relevance of conceptualizing parenthood and childlessness as a continuum.
    The objective of the paper is to show the theoretical and practical relevance of conceptualizing and operationalizing parenthood and childlessness as a continuum – instead of a dichotomy - when evaluating the consequences of kinless-ness in later life. It is suggested that information on the number of children, structural and associational intergenerational solidarity can be utilized to operationalize the continuum. Subjective wellbeing is utilized as outcome of interest. Data from waves 2, 4, 5 and 6 of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe are used. The sample includes 183,545 respondents from 21 countries. Linear regression models with clustered standard errors are used. Childless older individuals report lower levels of life satisfaction than parents. However, the largest difference is observed between those with one and two children. Using a measure of associational intergenerational solidarity to weight the degree of parenthood it is shown that parents who have infrequent contact with children report significantly lower levels of life satisfaction than childless individuals. Kinless-ness is not only a demographic but also a social condition. When studying the consequences of ageing alone it is essential to consider not only the presence and “quantity” of kin, but also its “quality”.
  • Citizenship, Justice and the Right to the Smart City
    This paper provides an introduction to the smart city and engages with its idea and ideals from a critical social science perspective. After setting out in brief the emergence of smart cities and current key debates, we note a number of practical, political and normative questions relating to citizenship, justice, and the public good that warrant examination. The remainder of the paper provides an initial framing for engaging with these questions. The first section details the dominant neoliberal conception and enactment of smart cities and how this works to promote the interests of capital and state power and reshape governmentality. We then detail some of the ethical issues associated with smart city technologies and initiatives. Having set out some of the more troubling aspects of how social relations are produced within smart cities, we then examine how citizens and citizenship have been conceived and operationalised in the smart city to date. We then follow this with a discussion of social justice and the smart city. In the final section, we explore the notion of the ‘right to the smart city’ and how this might be used to recast the smart city in emancipatory and empowering ways.
  • "Unmotivated Bias" and Partisan Hostility: Empirical Evidence
    Extreme partisan animosity has been on the rise in the US and is prevalent around the world. This hostility is typically attributed to social group identity, motivated reasoning, or a combination thereof. In this paper, I empirically examine a novel explanation: the ``unmotivated'' cognitive bias of overprecision (overconfidence in precision of beliefs). Overprecision could cause partisan hostility indirectly via inflated confidence in one's own ideology, partisan identity, or perceptions of social distance between the parties. Overprecision could also cause this hostility directly by causing excessively strong inferences from observed information that is either skewed against the out-party or simply misunderstood. Using a nationally representative sample, I find consistent support for direct effects of overprecision and mixed support for indirect effects. The point estimates imply a one standard deviation increase in a respondent's overprecision predicts as much as a 0.71 standard deviation decline in relative out-party favorability.
  • Mediated Deliberation
    Final manuscript version available [here][1]. Mediated deliberation refers to a family of media communication processes conducive to a well-ordered polity as envisioned in deliberative theories of democracy. It is based on the traditional engagement of deliberation scholars with face-to-face small-group communication and has evolved into a distinct program of empirical and normative research. This entry traces the relations to deliberative democratic theory, highlights the differences between mediated deliberation and face-to-face deliberation, provides an overview of the key components of mediated deliberation processes, and outlines future directions in researching mediated deliberation. [1]: http://mkw.uni-mannheim.de/prof_dr_hartmut_wessler/dr_eike_rinke/rinke_iepc/IEPC2016_Rinke_MediatedDeliberation.pdf
  • Understanding Popularity, Reputation, and Social Influence in the Twitter Society
    The pervasive presence of online media in our society has transferred a significant part of political deliberation to online forums and social networking sites. This article examines popularity, reputation, and social influence on Twitter using large-scale digital traces from 2009 to 2016. We process network information on more than 40 million users, calculating new global measures of reputation that build on the D-core decomposition and the bow-tie structure of the Twitter follower network. We integrate our measurements of popularity, reputation, and social influence to evaluate what keeps users active, what makes them more popular, and what determines their influence. We find that there is a range of values in which the risk of a user becoming inactive grows with popularity and reputation. Popularity in Twitter resembles a proportional growth process that is faster in its strongly connected component, and that can be accelerated by reputation when users are already popular. We find that social influence on Twitter is mainly related to popularity rather than reputation, but that this growth of influence with popularity is sublinear. The explanatory and predictive power of our method shows that global network metrics are better predictors of inactivity and social influence, calling for analyses that go beyond local metrics like the number of followers.
  • Stylized Facts and Experimentation
    In this comment, we clarify and extend Hirschman (2016)’s discussion on ‘stylized facts.’ Our focus is on the relationship between stylized facts and experimentation. Given the continued increase in experimentation across the social sciences, we think that it is important to consider the exact role that experiments play in the production and testing of stylized facts. We make three related contributions here. First, we describe how experiments can both provide new evidence to support existing stylized facts as well as produce new stylized facts. Second, we argue that the stylized facts produced through experimentation differ from other stylized facts. Third, we extend Hirschman (2016)’s definition of ‘stylized facts’ so that it distinguishes between those that describe correlation relationships and those that describe causal relationships.
  • Stay Brave: A Review of This Changes Everything (2014) By Naomi Klein
    Review. Rimmer, Matthew, 'Stay Brave: A Review of This Changes Everything (2014) By Naomi Klein', Medium, 23 October 2014, https://medium.com/@DrRimmer/stay-brave-this-changes-everything-2014-by-naomi-klein-b996c7a4db4 During the New York Climate Week in 2014, I saw Naomi Klein speak about her new book, This Changes Everything. She inscribed my copy, with the message ‘Stay Brave.’ Naomi Klein was a dynamic, energetic public intellectual during the hectic series of events in September. She launched her book at The New School; attended a civic meeting, with Bill McKibben, Bernie Sanders, Kshama Sawant, Chris Hedges, and Brian Lehrer; and spoke at Brooklyn Book Fair. Naomi Klein has promoted community-led responses to climate change — such as the People’s Climate March. She was a prominent figure at the 400,000 strong People’s Climate March through the streets of New York on the 21 September 2014. She highlighted the Flood Wall Street protests over the linkages between capitalism and climate change on the 22 September 2014. Naomi Klein offered a critique of the outcome of the United Nations Climate Summit on the 23 September 2014. Naomi Klein made her name in 2000 with the brilliant book, No Logo — a mythbusting work about trans-national companies and their well-known trade marks, and the Mad Men of advertising and marketing. She displayed a strong interest in critical responses to Big Brands — looking at the tactics of culture-jamming, AdBusting, and the No Logo Movement. In 2002, Naomi Klein published Fences and Windows. This collection of work particularly focused upon battles over globalisation. In 2007, Naomi Klein published The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism. This book is particularly interested in how free market neo-liberal policies have been foisted upon nation states at times of crisis, disaster, war, and shock. At the Copenhagen Climate talks in 2009, Naomi Klein showed a strong interest in climate debt. Since then, she has joined the board of 350.org, promoted fossil fuel divestment, and has written a number of pieces on climate change. Naomi Klein was particularly concerned about the impact of Hurricane Sandy upon New York. Her 2014 book This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs The Climate represents the culmination of this intellectual engagement with climate change. This Changes Everything is also being transformed into a documentary film by Avi Lewis. In her literary style, Naomi Klein is a writer of sweet reason and cool logic. (Such characteristics no doubt enrage her critics — climate deniers and sceptics have been particularly incensed by This Changes Everything). Having deconstructed brands and turned them inside-out, Naomi Klein has a gift for marketing. Her writing is often pithy and epigrammatic. Naomi Klein is also an empathetic soul. She is sympathetic to the particular human costs of climate change. Naomi Klein has great intellectual curiosity. She ranges far and wide, in terms of her subject matter, and the geographic spread of her investigations. Naomi Klein is also a fearless critic. She is brave, gutsy, and always willing to speak truth to power. Naomi Klein is also not afraid to criticise fellow travellers for their compromises and hypocrisy. She shows courage in her call for climate action.
  • Party System Volatility in Post-Communist Europe
    In their 2014 article in the British Journal of Political Science, Eleanor Neff Powell and Joshua A. Tucker examine the determinants of party system volatility in post-communist Europe. Their central conclusion is that replacement volatility – volatility caused by new party entry and old party exit – is driven by longterm economic performance. We show that this conclusion is based entirely on a miscalculation of the long-term economic performance of a single country, Bosnia-Herzegovina. Our reanalysis suggests that we know little about what causes party system volatility in post-communist Europe. Given the negative consequences traditionally associated with party system volatility, this area of research cries out for new theoretical development.
  • 'Welcome' Changes? Descriptive and Injunctive Norms in a Wikipedia Sub-Community
    Open online communities rely on social norms for behavior regulation, group cohesion, and sustainability. Research on the role of social norms online has mainly focused on one source of influence at a time, making it difficult to separate different normative influences and understand their interactions. In this study, we use the Focus Theory to examine interactions between several sources of normative influence in a Wikipedia sub-community: local descriptive norms, local injunctive norms, and norms imported from similar sub- communities. We find that exposure to injunctive norms has a stronger effect than descriptive norms, that the likelihood of performing a behavior is higher when both injunctive and descriptive norms are congruent, and that conflicting social norms may negatively impact pro-normative behavior. We contextualize these findings through member interviews, and discuss their implications for both future research on normative influence in online groups and the design of systems that support open collaboration.
  • A Space for Learning: A review of research on active learning spaces
    Active Learning Classrooms (ALCs) are learning spaces specially designed to optimize the practice of active learning and amplify its positive effects in learners from young children through university-level learners. As interest in and adoption of ALCs has increased rapidly over the last decade, the need for grounded research in their effects on learners and schools has grown proportionately. In this paper, we review the peer-reviewed published research on ALCs, dating back to the introduction of “studio” classrooms and the SCALE-UP program up to the present day. We investigate the literature and summarize findings on the effects of ALCs on learning outcomes, student engagement, and the behaviors and practices of instructors as well as the specific elements of ALC design that seem to contribute the most to these effects. We also look at the emerging cultural impact of ALCs on institutions of learning, and we examine the drawbacks of the published research as well as avenues for potential future research in this area.
  • Informaţii despre mănăstirile din Basarabia publicate în periodicile timpului (1867-1944)
    Informatii despre manastirile din Basarabia selecate din periodicile publicate in Basarabia
  • Towards a genuinely humanizing smart urbanism
    This paper considers, following David Harvey (1973), how to produce a genuinely humanizing smart urbanism. It does so through utilising a future-orientated lens to sketch out the kinds of work required to reimagine, reframe and remake smart cities. I argue that, on the one hand, there is a need to produce an alternative ‘future present’ that shifts the anticipatory logics of smart cities to that of addressing persistent inequalities, prejudice, and discrimination, and is rooted in notions of fairness, equity, ethics and democracy. On the other hand, there is a need to disrupt the ‘present future’ of neoliberal smart urbanism, moving beyond minimal politics to enact sustained strategic, public-led interventions designed to create more-inclusive smart city initiatives. Both tactics require producing a deeply normative vision for smart cities that is rooted in ideas of citizenship, social justice, the public good, and the right to the city that needs to be developed in conjunction with citizens.
  • Occupying Cyberspace: Indonesian Cyberactivists and Occupy Wall Street (MA Thesis)
    As the Occupy Wall Street movement went global, activists in Indonesia adopted an Occupy discourse, in part, through creation of and participation in Facebook groups. These groups afforded opportunities for Indonesian Facebook users participating in local activism online to join a globalizing Occupy movement within a familiar online activism framework. Despite a history of colonial occupation, Indonesian cyberactivists embraced expanded meanings of the word occupy as they joined a global social movement and formed local Occupy networks. During two years of multi-sited ethnographic fieldwork online and in Indonesia, this research explored what constitutes “occupation” for online participants in the Indonesian Occupy movement, and what it means for activists to “occupy” in (post)colonial Indonesia. Also includes: Appendixes: "A Brief History of Occupy and Online Activism" and "Theorizing an Anthropology of Cyberspace". Key words: Activism, anthropology of cyberspace; empire; engaged anthropology; indigeneity; (post)colonialism; social movements; technology; Indonesia. Please cite as: Oman-Reagan, Michael P. 2013. Occupying Cyberspace: Indonesian Cyberactivists and Occupy Wall Street. M.A. Thesis, Department of Anthropology, Hunter College, City University of New York.
  • Writing Worlding: Turning to Ontology at the Dead End of “Culture”
    Attention to ontology-oriented theory over the past few decades has been framed as a “turn to ontology” in anthropology. This paper considers the "turn to ontology" as a Derridian deconstruction of the culture concept, and proposes the concept of Writing worlding as an ethnographic practice which makes no claim to translation or to ultimately meaningful signification. Keywords: Anthropology, Philosophy, Ontology, Rhetoric, Culture, Jacques Derrida, Derridean Deconstruction, Translation Please cite as: Oman-Reagan, Michael P. 2015. “Writing Worlding: Turning to Ontology at the Dead End of ‘Culture.’” SocArXiv, Open Science Framework. Manuscript, submitted January 23, 2017. osf.io/preprints/socarxiv/mvaev
  • Through the Ol, and What the Maya Found There: Sacred Cenotes as Portals to the Otherworld
    This article explores the origins and role of the portal in the ancient religion of the Maya, beginning with a possible naturally occurring archetype for the circular passageway, the cenote (tz’onot). I explore possible connections between the cenote and Mayan portal iconography with Yucatán geography, geology, and an asteroid impact crater (Chicxulub crater). Keywords: Geography, Latin American Studies, Archaeology, Geology, Maya Archaeology, Maya Art, Maya History, Mexico, Mexico, Ancient Religion Please cite as: Oman-Reagan, Michael P. 2006. “Through the Ol, and What the Maya Found There: Sacred Cenotes as Portals to the Otherworld.” SocArXiv, Open Science Framework. Manuscript, submitted January 23, 2017. osf.io/preprints/socarxiv/mhbdf
  • Faculty Diversity at the Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs): A Preliminary Snapshot
    We present a preliminary snapshot of the social composition of faculty at the Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs). We find that the faculty body at these institutions is drawn from a very narrow spectrum of Indian society. We argue that by not paying attention to faculty diversity, IIMs engender a crisis of relevance and legitimacy.
  • “Elder Brother Tobacco”: Traditional Nicotiana Snuff Use among the Contemporary Tzeltal and Tzotzil Maya of Highland Chiapas, Mexico
    Ethnographic study of traditional tobacco (Nicotiana) use among the Tzeltal and Tzotzil Maya of Highland Chiapas, Mexico
  • Creating a small corpus to inform materials design in an ongoing English for Specialist Purposes (ESP) course for Orthodontists and Orthodontic Assistants
    In my work as a language teacher to a group of orthodontists and orthodontic treatment assistants, I wanted an analysis of orthodontic practitioner-to-patient discourse. Because access to authentic spoken discourse was too difficult to attain due to ethical considerations, a small corpus was constructed in order to facilitate better informed form-focused instruction. Details of the typical forms found in the corpus are given, as is an overview of the corpus construction.
  • Just a big misunderstanding? Bias and Bayesian affective polarization
    I present a model of affective polarization (``that both Republicans and Democrats increasingly dislike, even loathe, their opponents,'' Iyengar et al, 2012) via Bayesian inference. Two agents, representing the parties, repeatedly make policy choices. Each choice is based on a balance of concerns for private interests and the social good. More weight is put on private interests when an agent's character is intrinsically more self-serving and when the other agent is believed to be more self-serving. Each agent Bayesian updates about the other's character, and dislikes the other more when she is perceived as more self-serving. I characterize the effects on growth in dislike of three biases: a prior bias against the other agent's character, the false consensus bias, and limited strategic thinking. Prior bias against the other remains constant or declines over time, and actions do not diverge. The other two biases cause actions to become more extreme over time and repeatedly be ``worse'' than expected, causing mutual growth in dislike, i.e., affective polarization. The magnitude of dislike can become arbitrarily large---even when both players are arbitrarily ``good'' (unselfish). The results imply that ``unmotivated'' bias can be an important cause of the devolution of relationships, in politics and beyond, and that subtlety and unawareness of bias are key factors driving the degree of polarization.
  • Ethnic hierarchy in the Russian labour market: A field experiment
    The correspondence study has now become a standard method of measuring discrimination in the labour market. For the first time in the literature, we present a correspondence study of ethnic discrimination in Russia. A sample of over 9,000 job applications makes it one of the largest such studies ever conducted. We include 10 ethnic groups and run the experiment in four Russian cities, whose populations have varying ethnic compositions. Ethnic preferences of Russian employers are different across locations. In Moscow and St Petersburg, employers treat applications from ethnic Russians and ethnic groups of European origin (Germans, Jews, and Ukrainians) in about the same way. Visible minorities of Southern origin are discriminated against. Men from ethnic groups of Southern origin experience stronger discrimination than women. In Kazan and Ufa, two cities with ethnically mixed populations, and in which indigenous ethnic groups have a privileged status, all applicants are treated about equally. We discuss the effects, on discrimination, of ethnic autonomy and of the ethnic composition of a population; these effects may apply to other ethnic federations beyond the Russian case.
  • The Arrival of Social Science Genomics
    Review essay about genomics and social science, focusing especially on science, policy, and moral issues related to polygenic scores.
  • Coverage of highly-cited documents in Google Scholar, Web of Science, and Scopus: a multidisciplinary comparison
    This study explores the extent to which bibliometric indicators based on counts of highly-cited documents could be affected by the choice of data source. The initial hypothesis is that databases that rely on journal selection criteria for their document coverage may not necessarily provide an accurate representation of highly-cited documents across all subject areas, while inclusive databases, which give each document the chance to stand on its own merits, might be better suited to identify highly-cited documents. To test this hypothesis, an analysis of 2,515 highly-cited documents published in 2006 that Google Scholar displays in its Classic Papers product is carried out at the level of broad subject categories, checking whether these documents are also covered in Web of Science and Scopus, and whether the citation counts offered by the different sources are similar. The results show that a large fraction of highly-cited documents in the Social Sciences and Humanities (8.6%-28.2%) are invisible to Web of Science and Scopus. In the Natural, Life, and Health Sciences the proportion of missing highly-cited documents in Web of Science and Scopus is much lower. Furthermore, in all areas, Spearman correlation coefficients of citation counts in Google Scholar, as compared to Web of Science and Scopus citation counts, are remarkably strong (.83-.99). The main conclusion is that the data about highly-cited documents available in the inclusive database Google Scholar does indeed reveal significant coverage deficiencies in Web of Science and Scopus in some areas of research. Therefore, using these selective databases to compute bibliometric indicators based on counts of highly-cited documents might produce biased assessments in poorly covered areas.
  • Online Disclosure of Incriminating Information: Patterns of Risky Information Behavior in Two Drug Forums
    Although people disclose illicit activities such as drug use online, we currently know little about what information people choose to disclose and share or whether there are differences in behavior depending on the illicit activity being disclosed. This exploratory mixed-methods study examines how people discuss and disclose the use of two different drugs—marijuana and heroin—in the popular online forum Reddit. In this study hermeneutic content analysis is employed in order to describe the type of comments people make in forums dedicated to discussions about illicit drugs. With inductive analysis, seven categories of comments were identified: disclosure, instruction and advice, culture, community norms, moralizing, legality, and banter. Our subsequent quantitative analysis indicates that although the amounts of disclosure are similar in each subreddit, there are more instances of instruction and advice in discussions about opiates, and more examples of banter in comments about marijuana use. In fact, both subreddits have high rates of banter. We argue that banter fosters disclosure in both subreddits, and that banter and disclosure are linked with information seeking behaviors in online forums. This work has implications for future explorations of disclosure online and for public health interventions aimed at disseminating credible information about drug use to at-risk individuals.
  • Beasts of Prey or Rational Animals? Private Governance in Brazil's Jogo do Bicho
    This work presents a rational choice account for the jogo do bicho ('animal game'), possibly the largest illegal lottery game in the world. Over 120 years, the jogo do bicho has grown into a multimillion-dollar business and exerted a significant impact on the Brazilian society. The lottery has been a major sponsor of the Carnival Parade in Rio de Janeiro, which is among the world's most famous popular festivals, and it has remained an important driver of state corruption in the country. This work investigates the institutions that have caused the jogo do bicho's notable growth and long-term survival outside the boundaries of the Brazilian law. It also explains the emergence of the informal rules that govern the game as well as their enforcement mechanisms. Keywords: Brazil; criminal organisations; gambling; jogo do bicho; private governance JEL Codes: D72, K42, P26, P37, Z00 DOI: https://doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/GYDNB BibTeX entry: @misc{freire2017jogodobicho, title={{Beasts of Prey or Rational Animals? Private Governance in Brazil's \emph{Jogo do Bicho}}}, howpublished = {\url{https://doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/GYDNB}}, publisher={SocArXiv}, author={Freire, Danilo}, year={2017}, month={Mar} }
  • Narcissism Over Ideology: Revealed versus Stated Terrorist Preferences
    What preferences motivate the severity of terrorist attacks? I investigate how Boko Haram terrorists adjust their fatalities when unexpectedly deprived of public attention, relative to Al Shabaab terrorists, that were not deprived of public attention. Losing public attention raises the severity of terrorism: Boko Haram terrorist fatalities surged following the rebasing of Nigeria’s economy, which catapulted the country into Africa’s largest and the top twenty-five worldwide. The largest spike in Boko Haram terrorist fatalities occurred in the wake of the Nigerian Ebola health crisis. Although Boko Haram claims an anti-education sentiment, their fatalities do not actually differ significantly from Al Shabaab fatalities during the Nigerian national basic education examination. Overall, terrorists consider well-being changes as threats that have more validity than the persuasiveness of their own claimed ideologies. Terrorist groups do not significantly vary the severity of their attacks during Ramadan. Emphasizing revealed preferences may undermine terrorist credibility and recruitment.
  • OSMnx: New Methods for Acquiring, Constructing, Analyzing, and Visualizing Complex Street Networks
    Urban scholars have studied street networks in various ways, but there are data availability and consistency limitations to the current urban planning/street network analysis literature. To address these challenges, this article presents OSMnx, a new tool to make the collection of data and creation and analysis of street networks simple, consistent, automatable and sound from the perspectives of graph theory, transportation, and urban design. OSMnx contributes five significant capabilities for researchers and practitioners: first, the automated downloading of political boundaries and building footprints; second, the tailored and automated downloading and constructing of street network data from OpenStreetMap; third, the algorithmic correction of network topology; fourth, the ability to save street networks to disk as shapefiles, GraphML, or SVG files; and fifth, the ability to analyze street networks, including calculating routes, projecting and visualizing networks, and calculating metric and topological measures. These measures include those common in urban design and transportation studies, as well as advanced measures of the structure and topology of the network. Finally, this article presents a simple case study using OSMnx to construct and analyze street networks in Portland, Oregon.
  • Swing Voting in the 2016 Presidential Election in Counties Where Midlife Mortality has been Rising in White Non-Hispanic Americans
    Understanding the effects of widespread disruption of the social fabric on public health outcomes can provide insight into the forces that drive major political realignment. Our objective was to estimate the association between increases in mortality in middle-aged non-Hispanic white adults from 1999-2005 to 2009-2015, health inequalities in life expectancy by income, and the surge in support for the Republican Party in pivotal US counties in the 2016 presidential election. We conducted a longitudinal ecological study in 2764 US counties from 1999 to 2016. Increases in mortality were measured using age-specific (45-54 years of age) all-cause mortality from 1999-2005 to 2009-2015 at the county level. Support for the Republican Party was measured as the party’s vote share in the presidential election in 2016 adjusted for results in 2008 and 2012. We found a significant up-turn in mortality from 1999-2005 to 2009-2015 in counties where the Democratic Party won twice (2008 and 2012) but where the Republican Party won in 2016 (+10.7/100,000), as compared to those in which the Democratic Party won in 2016 (-15.7/100,000). An increase in mortality of 15.2/100,000 was associated with a significant (p
  • Exploring Difficulties Faced in Teaching Elective English Listening Courses at Japanese Universities
    In this paper, an exploration of the problems encountered in teaching two elective English listening courses at Japanese universities in 2017 and 2018. Intended as a working paper with an intended audience of teaching professionals and those who support them, problems in working memory, motivation and general listening pedagogy are detailed.
  • Dematerialization Through Services: Evaluating the Evidence
    Dematerialization through services is a popular proposal for reducing the human impact on the environment. The idea is that by shifting from the production of goods to the provision of services, a society can reduce its material demands. But do societies with a larger service sector actually dematerialize? This paper tests the 'dematerialization through services' hypothesis with a focus on fossil fuel consumption and carbon emissions --- the primary drivers of climate change. Using an international panel of data, I find no evidence that increasing the relative size of the service sector leads to carbon dematerialization (either in relative or absolute terms). Instead, the evidence suggests that the opposite is true: a larger service sector is associated with greater use of fossil fuels and greater carbon emissions per person.
  • Movement of lithics by trampling: An experiment in the Madjedbebe sediments
    Understanding post-depositional movement of artefacts is vital to making reliable claims about the formation of archaeological deposits. Human trampling has long been recognised as a contributor to post-depositional artefact displacement. We investigate the degree to which artefact form (shape-and-size) attributes can predict how an artefact is moved by trampling. We use the Zingg classification system to describe artefact form. Our trampling substrate is the recently excavated archaeological deposits from Madjedbebe, northern Australia. Madjedbebe is an important site because it contains early evidence of human activity in Australia. The age of artefacts at Madjedbebe is contentious because of the possibility of artefacts moving due to trampling. We trampled artefacts in Madjedbebe sediments and measured their displacement, as well as modelling the movement of artefacts by computer simulation. Artefact elongation is a significant predictor of horizontal distance moved by trampling, and length, width, thickness and volume are significant predictors of the vertical distance. The explanatory power of these artefact variables is small, indicating that many other factors are also important in determining how an artefact moves during trampling. Our experiment indicates that trampling has not contributed to extensive downward displacement of artefacts at Madjedbebe.
  • How Troubling is our Inheritance - A review of genetics and race in the social sciences
    This article addresses the argument that there is variation between races in the biological basis for social behavior. The article uses Nicholas Wade’s popular book, A Troublesome Inheritance, as the point of departure for a discussion of attendant issues, including the extent to which human races can be definitively demarcated biologically, the extent to which genetics is related to contemporary definitions of race, and the role of natural selection as a possible mechanism for change in modern societies. My critical review of the theory and evidence for an evolutionary view of racial determinism finds that genetics does not explain the relative status and well-being of today’s racially identified groups or their broader societies.
  • Determine The Impact of Human Resources Development in Scientific Research Domain
    The purpose of this research is to determine the impact of human resources development in the field of scientific research. The statistical population in this study was 250 employees of faculty members of Shahid Rajaee college of Kashan. Of these, 180 cases were selected through a Grigose and Morgan table using simple random sampling. Data were collected through researcher-made questionnaires and simple random sampling. Data were analyzed by Pearson correlation and regression analysis using SPSS software. The validity of the research questions was verified by using content validity and confirmatory factor analysis method and its reliability was confirmed by Cronbach's alpha. The results and findings of the research indicate that the correlation coefficient between the intellectual factors and the scientific discourse is significant. Therefore, the first sub hypothesis that there is a significant relationship between intellectual factors and scientific discourse, the confirmation of the correlation coefficient between the attitudinal factors and scientific discourse is significant. There is a meaningful and positive relationship between attitudinal factors and scientific discourse (r = 0.758), correlation coefficient between job factors and scientific discourse is significant. There is a significant and positive relationship between job and academic discourse (r = 0.756). The finding of correlation coefficient between behavioral factors and scientific discourse is significant. There is a meaningful and positive relationship between behavioral factors and scientific discourse (r = 0.756). Correlation coefficient between perceptual factors and scientific discourse is significant. There is a significant and positive relationship between perceptual factors and scientific discourse (r = 0.221), based on the determination coefficient (2 r), 10.8% of the variance among the perceptual factors and the scientific discourse of the collaborative staff. Therefore, the fifth hypothesis is found that there is a meaningful relationship between the perceptual factors in the field of human resource development in the field of scientific education.
  • POLITICAL ABSTENTION IN THE INDIAN MIDDLE CLASS, THE RISE OF POPULISM AND THE REINFORCEMENT OF RENT
    The Indian middle class witnessed a reconfiguration in its composition after the failure of the secular nationalists in their method of development and redistribution of resources. This reconfiguration used cultural and religious fundamentalism in the form of Hindutva as its instrument to assert their right to access the resources and strive towards a non-State centric redistribution. However, this new middle class, which was mainly conversing in the vernacular and had its base in the smaller urban areas, was also faced with the assertion of the lower class identarian groups. In such a situation, a large section of the urban Indian middle class shied away from taking part in the electoral process citing moral crises of the corrupt secular English speaking elite on one hand and the lowly criminal nature of the lower class political assertion on the other. Taking hints from the works of Christophe Jaffrelot, I would try to argue in this paper, that non-participation of a major section of the urban middle class was a manifestation of securing the rechanneled and partially redistributed rent legitimised through the instrument of Hindutva. This has led to increased persona-centric populist narratives from the mid-1990s to the present times with efforts to undermine parliamentary democracy (which is associated as an institiution of the immoral secular nationalists). This in turn, I would try to argue by the end of this paper, has again assisted in concretising the very rent-seeking practices and patron-client political relationships that the new middle class had initially opposed to rise to political prominence throughout the late 1970s and 1980s
  • The ‘new’ League success in the red belt and its post-fascist inheritance: evidence from 2018 National Elections
    In 2018 national elections, the Lega, an Italian xenophobic right-wing party, has dramatically increased its consensus in the ‘red belt’, the central part of the country traditionally ruled by center-left parties. Pundits have argued that this performance can be attributed to the effect of the new leadership of Matteo Salvini, who shifted the ideological location of the party (that now aims at being a national right-wing party), combined with the drop in preferences of Forza Italia, the ally/competitor in the right-wing ideological spectrum. This paper aims at providing new insights in the explanation of these electoral outcomes, by hypothesizing that geographical trajectories of diffusion of the party are correlated with the presence of geographically clustered post-fascist minorities present in the region since the First Republic age. By employing official figures at the municipality level, the paper analyses the relationship between the percentages of votes for the MSI (the most relevant post-fascist force during the First Republic) in 1976 and the Lega Nord in the 2006-2018 period. Consistent with our hypothesis, the post-fascist inheritance is significantly correlated with the local prevalence for the Lega Nord in 2018, after the change in the political discourse and leadership of the party. Empirical analyses provide evidence of our expectations, even when controlling for unemployment rate and percentage of immigrants.
  • Why too many political science findings cannot be trusted and what we can do about it: A review of meta-scientific research and a call for institutional reform
    While other scientific disciplines are currently undergoing “credibility revolutions”, also political science should also face the uncomfortable question of how much we can trust the findings that are published in the discipline’s journals and presses. Employing the concept of social dilemmas, this commentary describes analytically why scientists ¬in academia’s current incentive system work against their self-interest if they prioritize research credibility. Empirically, this article conducts a comprehensive review of meta-scientific research with a focus on quantitative political science, demonstrating that threats to the credibility of political science findings are systematic and real. Building on a framework to assess the credibility of scientific literatures, the review shows that a large fraction of the published literature makes itself inaccessible to intersubjective credibility assessments, fails tests of analytical robustness, or shows patterns of systematic deviation from true population estimates. Yet, the review also highlights the notable progress the discipline has made in recent years to secure research credibility. This commentary urges further steps toward the direction of research openness credibility. Specifically, it proposes specific institutional measures to better align individual researcher rationality with the collective good of verifiable, robust, and valid scientific results, such as dedicated verification procedures and the implementation of pre-registration and result-blind peer reviewing.
  • Influence of force and duration on stone tool wear: results from experiments with a force-controlled robot
    Many studies have shown that micro-wear analysis can identify some parameters such as worked material and motion direction with varying degrees of success. However, because experiments have traditionally been carried out by un-monitored humans, we do not fully understand the role of force in wear formation. Here we compare the amount of wear produced by duration vs. applied force in a controlled experiment and using both the inspection of optical images and quantitative parameters describing surface topography. We used flint flakes attached to a force/ torque controllable robot arm to scrape standardized beech wooden planks under constant force profiles. The force profiles were obtained by previous experiments in scraping described in Pfleging et al. (2015). We varied the force level and use duration among the experiments. Worn pieces were imaged with an Alicona InfiniteFocus G4 microscope and the polished parts of the flakes were analysed using areal field parameters from metrology. The data is publicly available on the internet. Results indicate that use duration contributes more significantly to polish formation than force, confirming assumptions made in human experiments performed in the 1980s. Moreover, simple metrological height parameters appear inadequate for capturing the degree of polish. We conclude that more sophisticated quantitative methods are required to go beyond the subjective human evaluation of optical images to reconstruct past human action.
  • A circus of ideas: revisiting Archigram’s visions for education and architecture in the information age
    “A circus of ideas: revisiting Archigram’s visions for education and architecture in the information age” Occasional paper by Neil Selwyn, London Knowledge Lab, University of London, UK June 2008
  • The Future Strikes Back. Using Future Treatments to Detect and Reduce Hidden Bias
    Conventional advice discourages controlling for post-outcome variables in regression analysis. Here, we show that controlling for commonly available post-outcome (i.e. future) values of the treatment variable can help detect, reduce, and even remove omitted variable bias (unobserved confounding). The premise is that the same unobserved confounders that affect treatment also affect future values of the treatment. Future treatments thus proxy for the unmeasured confounder, and researchers can exploit these proxy measures productively. We establish several new results: Regarding a commonly assumed data-generating process involving future treatments, we (1) introduce a simple new approach to reduce bias and show that it strictly reduces bias; (2) elaborate on existing approaches and show that they can increase bias; (3) assess the relative merits of approaches; (4) analyze true state dependence and selection as key challenges; and (5) demonstrate that future treatments can test for hidden bias, even when they fail to reduce bias. We illustrate these results empirically with an analysis of the effect of parental income on children’s educational attainment.
  • Testing liberal norms: the public policy and public security derogations and the cracks in European Union citizenship. Working Paper. Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2013-18, University of Warwick
    European Union law has curtailed the traditional discretion Member States have in ordering non-nationals to leave their territory. Although Directive 2004/28 (the Citizenship Directive) has enhanced the system of protection afforded to offending European Union citizens, it still contains a number of cracks that lead to policy incoherence and gaps in rights protection. This is evident in the first rulings on Article 28(3) of Directive 2004/38 concerning the deportation of offending EU citizens. These issues also threaten to transform European Union citizenship from a fundamental status into a thin overlay that, under pressure from national executive power, loses its effect and significance. To be sure, EU citizenship has demonstrated that community belonging does not have to be based on organic-national qualities, cultural commonalities, or individuals' conformity to national values, but the continued deportation of long-term resident Union citizens makes nationality the ultimate determinant of belonging. The subsequent discussion suggests possible remedies and makes recommendations for institutional reform.
  • The Roma and European Union citizenship: in search of a humane answer from the EU
    The expulsion of large numbers of Roma individuals from France since 2009 has raised considerable debate in the context of EU law and policy. This was, however, accompanied by other discriminatory practices and forms of hostility, exclusion and violence against the Roma, such as finger-printing in Italy and educational segregation in the Czech Republic. A comprehensive approach and strong action by the EU against these practices was defended, which led to the Commission communication on the EU Framework on National Roma Integration Strategies (2011), a non-binding Parliament resolution (2013) and the Council recommendation on effective Roma integration measures in the member states (2013). Such comprehensive approach may be in many respects appropriate, but the danger is to neglect the true relevance of concrete, enforceable and ‘hard law’ measures. This chapter thus explores the legal adequacy of EU action with regard to the Roma minority, particularly from free movement and EU citizenship perspectives. The scope for derogations from free movement and from the rights associated with EU citizenship are the centre pieces of this analysis, which critically analyses specific EU Member States’ restrictions on the free movement of the Roma minority and the EU response in this and other relevant aspects.
  • Child labour and EU law and policy: a regional solution for a global issue
    This chapter will explore the role of the EU in creating and developing labour policies that affect children. The analysis will be framed within the context of the global debates about child labour, and will highlight the role that the EU might play in those debates. The chapter starts by sketching the main lines of the ‘child labour’ debate, the qualitative and quantitative significance of children in the EU labour market, and the relevant EU competences. It will then touch upon a range of EU labour law instruments that affect children, both as direct addressees – especially the Young Workers Directive – and collateral beneficiaries, including a variety of tools that address sex discrimination. Finally, the chapter will assess the compatibility between the instruments and policies considered and, amongst others, the CRC, the relevant ILO instruments, and the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights. The conclusion will determine the scope for improvement of the current state of affairs, and present policy recommendations.
  • Revisiting euthanasia: a comparative analysis of a right to die in dignity
    Euthanasia is a practice that has taken place since immemorial times. And since immemorial times it has been controversial and a source of harsh debates. Throughout the last decades, many changes have been introduced in this field and many practices, until then only taking place without public knowledge, were progressively revealed and regulated. This paper aims, firstly, at clarifying the terminology and concepts usually used in the euthanasia debate and presenting, in a lucid way, the arguments that civic movements and authors resort to when defending or criticising the liberalisation of euthanasia. Secondly, it describes the legal and social situation regarding euthanasia in several countries, where cases and legislation have demanded greater awareness from society. Thirdly, it attempts to compare the different national situations previously analysed. Finally, it discusses ways of improving the present situation and finding better solutions for the regulation of euthanasia. In such a debate, where moral, ethic and religious arguments and beliefs are called upon, it is crucial not to lose sight of the foundations of our culture(s) and society(ies). Therefore, this paper, although concentrating on the legal aspects of this debate, tries to take into account of some non-legal aspects which are also relevant and without which it is not possible to thoroughly discuss this issue. Ultimately, this paper does not attempt to portray a neutral position, sinc legal scholars should not necessarily limit themselves to technical and cold analysis of legal provisions.
  • Commentary on R (on the Application of Begum) v Head-teacher and Governors of Denbigh High School [2006] UKHL 15
    It is more than 10 years since the decision of the House of Lords (HL, as it was then) in Begum, but it remains as contentious and relevant as ever. In Begum, religion, age, gender, culture, and socio-economic background conflate, raising issues of equality, tolerance, autonomy, diversity, and respect. The decision alerts us to the way in which a range of socio-cultural variables affect children’s lives. This commentary discusses the significance of this decision and how this decision could have been more compelling from a children's rights perspective.
  • Spatial Interdependence and Instrumental Variable Models
    Instrumental variable (IV) methods are widely used to address endogeneity concerns in re- search using observational data. Yet, a specific kind of endogeneity – spatial interdependence – is regularly ignored in this research, threatening claims of causal identification. We show that ignoring spatial interdependence results in asymptotically biased estimates, even when in- struments are randomly assigned. The extent of this bias increases when the instrument is also spatially distributed, which is the case for most widely-used instruments (such as rainfall, nat- ural disasters, economic shocks, regionally- or globally-weighted averages, etc.). We demon- strate the extent of these biases both analytically and via Monte Carlo simulation. Finally, we discuss a simple estimation strategy that can be employed to recover consistent estimates of the desired effects.
  • Ferreira, Nuno (2018) Working children in England and Wales: does anyone care about their rights? British Politics and Policy LSE blog, London.
    Judged by the level of political debate, public policy and academic literature, the work of children (under-18s) in England and Wales is neither of interest nor of concern. And yet the absence of this topic from the policy agenda is far from indicative of its lack of relevance or timeliness. In fact, figures from the Labour Force Survey suggest that about a third of young people aged 16-17 are active in the labour market. Many of these young people, and others even younger, work illegally for a range of reasons: because of the number of hours worked, their age, the type of work carried out, the time of day worked, or because they lack a work permit. Indeed, in 2013, Nils Muižnieks – the Council of Europe’s Commissioner for Human Rights – reported on children working long hours in the UK as a consequence of the late 2000s economic crisis. And in 2015, at a seminar held in Liverpool, several children of high school age spoke candidly about practices of dubious legality that they experienced at work, including low pay, informal work arrangements, deficient health and safety conditions, and sexist recruitment procedures, not to speak of detrimental effects to their education. More generally, we should be alarmed that children who work mainly carry out unskilled and manual labour, are poorly paid, acquire limited recognisable skills, jeopardise their educational attainment, sustain accidental injuries (in particular in delivery and agricultural work), may not be covered by insurance and accident cover, are often burdened with caring duties, and may even be recruited by the military. So, what is being done to address these issues?
  • UKIP at the Ballot Box, Britain First on Facebook: Social Media and Radical Right Movement-Party Interactions
    Social movement scholars have recently turned their attention to the interactions between political parties and social movements, but little is known about how social media have impacted these relationships, despite widespread adoption of these technologies. We present a case study of the relationship between Britain First, a far-right anti-Muslim social movement, and the U.K. Independence Party, the Eurosceptic political party that spearheaded the Brexit campaign. The movement appeared marginal in the press but it dominated social media, and used this presence to support to the party. We examine the dynamics of the relationship between these groups from 2013 until 2017, drawing upon data from social media, newspapers, and other online sources, and focusing both interactions on between elites and rank-and-file supporters. Our findings illustrate how far-right groups have used new technologies to generate an unprecedented amount of popular support and to attempt to influence the political mainstream.
  • Danisi, Carmelo, Dustin, Moira and Ferreira, Nuno (2017) Queering brexit. The UK in a Changing Europe.
    On 24 June 2016, many people had the feeling that they had gone to bed the night before in the United Kingdom and had woken up in Little Britain – a country prone to isolationism and protectionism, risking hurting its economic and social development for the sake of imperial nostalgia and moral panic about ‘loss of sovereignty’ and ‘mass migration’. That feeling inevitably affected many individuals who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, intersex, queer and other (LGBTIQ+). Although the possible impact of Brexit seems to have been scrutinised from most angles, there has been limited analysis of how it may affect LGBTIQ+ individuals. There is certainly more than one ‘gay in the village’, so it is worth assessing Brexit in relation to the situation of LGBTIQ+ individuals. This is particularly timely in the light of the recent UK Supreme Court decision in Walker v Innospec Limited, where the Court relied on European Union (EU) law to hold a provision of the Equality Act 2010 unlawful for violating pension rights of same-sex couples.
  • Ferreira, Nuno (2016) [Review] Tarunabh Khaitan (2015) A theory of discrimination law. International Journal of Discrimination and the Law, Volume: 16 issue: 4, page(s): 247-250
    A theory of discrimination law, by Tarunabh Khaitan, is both a significant, well-crafted contribution to the field of discrimination law and a challenge to the reader. In a field so under theorised in comparison to other close fields, such as human rights law and even employment law, this book is a welcome contribution to the increasing effort to understand and conceptualise the workings and development of discrimination law. This is not, however, a particularly accessible piece of work.
  • What drives demand for media slant?
    We conduct within-outlet, within-topic analysis of the relationship between partisan congeniality of news and news demand. We study ``horse race'' news on the 2012 and 2016 US presidential campaigns from six major online outlets, and data from incentivized surveys on news on the winners of presidential campaign debates. We find some evidence of higher demand for more congenial stories (within-outlet-topic), and some evidence of higher demand for more \emph{uncongenial} stories. We argue the former evidence is most consistent with psychological theories of demand for slant, and the latter is most consistent with the trust theory. We also obtain evidence of systematically congenial outlet-level horse race slant, arguably consistent with both the psychology and trust theories, but inconsistent with the instrumental value theory.
  • Davies, Chantal, Ferreira, Nuno, Morris, Anne and Morris, Debra (2016) Editorial: The Equality Act 2010: five-years on. International Journal of Discrimination and the Law, Vol 16(2-3), 61-65
    ‘The Equality Act 2010: five years on’ conference was organized as a collaboration between the Forum for Research into Equality and Diversity (University of Chester) and the School of Law and Social Justice (University of Liverpool). The Equality Act 2010 has arguably been one of the most important and challenging pieces of legislation introduced in the last decade in the United Kingdom. As such, it was felt that the 5-year anniversary of its implementation provided an excellent opportunity to bring together those researching and practising in this area of law. In particular, the conference was intended to provide the opportunity for a review of the implications and impact of the legislation during this period, but also to consider the way in which it can continue to promote equality and protect against discrimination into the 21st century. As organizers, we were keen to focus the themes of the conference around the broad range of socio-legal study taking place across the United Kingdom in relation to the Equality Act 2010. While many conferences have focussed on the implications of the legislation for practitioners and wider exploration of equality across a variety of sectors, it was felt that there were few academic gatherings permitting researchers to explore the impact of the Equality Act from a socio-legal perspective. Contributors were invited to submit papers and poster presentations across a range of themes around the legislation including, but not limited to, the public sector equality duty, intersectionality, positive action, strategic enforcement, hierarchy of protected characteristics, education, etc. The quality and range of papers and posters submitted and presented at the conference exceeded expectations. As had been hoped, the variety of socio-legal study being carried out across the United Kingdom around the Equality Act was exceptional. The conference, therefore, provided the space and opportunity to come together to explore the implications of this work and to build upon existing dialogues and networks in order to provide a better connected and less isolated evidential basis for the future development of the legislation. The collection of articles within this publication is an excellent representation of some of the themes explored at the conference. We are very grateful to the International Journal of Discrimination and the Law for providing the opportunity to expand the dialogue around the socio-legal implications of the Equality Act 2010 beyond the conference via this special edition.
  • Ferreira, Nuno and Venturi, Denise (2017) Tell me what you see and I’ll tell you if you’re gay: analysing the advocate general’s opinion in case C-473/16, F v Bevándorlási és Állampolgársági Hivatal.
    Hungary has been in the spotlight for all the wrong reasons for quite a while. From legislation targeting ‘foreign-operating universities’ to border walls to keep refugees from entering Hungarian territory, the populist right-wing government of Viktor Orban has been sparking outrage in many sectors of Hungarian society, and the European institutions. The most recent reason for alarm again relates to migration and refugees, an area of widespread criticism of Hungarian authorities. Building on extremely hostile policies towards refugees that have been admonished by both the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) and the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR), Hungarian authorities now intend to resort to highly dubious means to assess the applications of individuals claiming asylum on grounds related to their sexual orientation. It was already public knowledge that this category of claimants was subjected to poor treatment by the Hungarian authorities, but recent events suggest that the authorities have reached a new low.
  • Identifying productivity when it is a choice
    Productivity is typically modeled as a shock plants react to but is itself outside of their control. But if we think a policy can affect productivity, then we have a model in mind where plants can adjust their productivity as their incentives change. I allow productivity to be an unobserved choice plants make and evaluate how policy affects it. Identifying productivity is then more difficult because plants choose both productivity and inputs given the same state variables; no instrument can change input choice without changing productivity choice. I show that a broad class of economic models predict productivity and inputs have a certain statistical relationship even when plants control their own productivity and use this result to partially identify the effect of restructuring on power plant fuel productivity.
  • Fundamental rights, constitutional principles, and the law of torts: tortfeasors v. tort victims. In: Liability in the third millennium : liber amicorum Gert Brüggemeier. Nomos, pp. 49-84
    There is an increasing effect of fundamental rights outside of the citizen-state relationship, invading domains such as labour law, contract law, family law, and property law. These rights and principles have often served as much more than mere interpretive aids and have become actual substantive rules of law, independent of whether their invocation resulted in a successful or unsuccessful claim. This debate, commonly referred to as the horizontal effect of fundamental rights, has also undoubtedly affected the law of torts. The development of the debate surrounding the horizontal effect of fundamental rights and the readiness of several courts to permit basic rights to influence the outcome of a case, have led to an increasingly decisive role for constitutional texts in the field of torts. The effect of fundamental rights in the field of the law of torts is undoubtedly more often felt in regard to the position of the tort victim, and the entitlement of the victim to damages, rather than in regard to the position of the tortfeasor strictu sensu. By this it is implied that, despite judges sometimes balancing the fundamental rights of both tort victims and tortfeasors, the influence of fundamental rights in the law of torts impacts, most often, directly the position of tort victims, either by strengthening or weakening their position, always concentrating more intensively on their interests. The position of tortfeasors is commonly only affected indirectly, as a consequence of the consideration of the fundamental rights of tort victims. This can be easily illustrated by references to the English, German and Italian jurisdictions, among others. By drawing from scholarly writings and case-law from several European and non-European jurisdictions, this book chapter contributes to a change from the focus on the position of the tort victim to that of the tortfeasor. In order for the law of torts to fulfil and satisfy all its different functions and interests, while simultaneously respecting and promoting commonly accepted legal values, the position of the tortfeasor should be analysed in se, not as a mere reflection of the position of the tort victim. No other instrument could perform this task better than fundamental rights, dynamic tools that they are. In addition, the thorough fulfilment of all fundamental rights equally requires such change in the legal mindset, as the law of torts has to give respect to the fundamental rights of both the tort victim and the tortfeasor in a balanced and just way. A refocus of the debate surrounding the horizontal effect of fundamental rights on the law of torts is therefore proposed, thus also assessing the impact that fundamental rights and principles may have directly on the position of the tortfeasor strictu sensu.
  • The human face of the European Union: are EU law and policy humane enough? An introduction
    The EU has throughout its history benefited from variable levels of popular support and revealed different levels of capacity to deal with crises. The current circumstances, on account of financial pressures, social instability and present geographical and policy scope of the EU, require serious introspection and ‘soul searching’. What can be done if the EU is not to perish and, hopefully, become more part of the solution than of the problem? May becoming more humane be the answer? ‘Humane’ may be defined in different ways, including compassionate, sympathetic and humanitarian. Non-Western cultures seem to have made a much more sophisticated use of this notion in broader contexts up to the present day. Chinese culture, through the Confucian notion of ‘jen’, places enormous value on humaneness as a way of achieving balance, empathy and the moral standard. In the African context, the notion of ‘ubuntu’ has served as the gateway through which humaneness infiltrates all aspects of society, including law and policy, namely by focussing on participation, co-responsibility, interdependence, respect and equality. This introduction presents an analytical framework through which the degree of humaneness of the different fields of EU law and policy can be assessed.
  • The Equality Act 2010
    Five years on
  • Book review: A theory of discrimination lawA theory of discrimination law, by KhaitanTarunabh, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2015, ISBN 978-0-19-965696-7
  • The Costs of Exclusionary Practices in Masculinities Studies
    Feminist scholarship on masculinities ossified into a recognizable “subfield” of gender studies, in part, through systematically centering the work of a very small group of white men. This process of collective centering works as an effective “exclusionary practice” that I argue hinders both the scholarly and political potential of this field. This article examines the transformation of the status of the subfield alongside an examination of women’s contributions to feminist scholarship on masculinities, and an emergent politics of citation that works to reproduce inequality within this subfield. In addition to identifying the processes by which a small group of white men have accumulated a disproportionate amount of power and status within “masculinities studies” as problematic, I also question the lack of critical dialogue and debate between various subfields examining systems of power and structured advantage. Here, I put masculinities studies into conversation with whiteness studies, critical heterosexualities studies, research on elites, and more to argue that there should be more dialogue between scholars doing research in these areas. Disrupting exclusionary practices in masculinities studies with both political and practical intent will better situate feminist scholars of masculinities to adapt their scholarship to transformations in the character and form of durable systems of inequality as well as identifying emergent processes and mechanisms of social reproduction.
  • Disclosure of Information in Company’s Annual Reports: A Bibliometric Analysis
    This study evaluated the development of research publications towards the disclosure of information in companies’ annual reports. The aim of this study is to provide a preliminary source of references for related scholars interested in research mapping in this field. By using several bibliometric indicators, all research publications related to the disclosure of information in the companies’ annual reports in the online Web of Science (ISI Thomson Reuters) database were analysed. The authorship, number of citations, journal sources, publishers, institutions, and countries, year of publication, categories, and author keywords were examined. The results of these analyses were underlined and discussed.
  • Metaphorical Violence in Political Discourse
    Metaphor is more than a literary device. It is a fundamental cognitive ability that drives the capacity to reason about state and actions in the world. Metaphor—which involves under- standing of abstract concepts in terms of more basic ones—permeates political discourse. Its ubiquity is evident in the frequent use of statements such as “It’s time to drain the swamp”, “Obama sprinted toward victory on Election Day”, and “Trump attacks Jeff Sessions over Russian probe methods”. No one is releasing water, running, or causing physical harm. How is metaphor- ical violence expressed, for instance, expressions with words such as “attack”, “slaughter”, and “hit”, and how does it influence political thought and communication? Here, we describe novel time-resolved observations and explanatory dynamical models of the use of metaphorical violence language in political discourse on U.S. cable television news in the period leading up to the two most recent presidential elections. Our results quantify the details and dynamics of the use of these metaphors, revealing how cable news shows act as reporters, promoters, expectation-setters, and ideological agents in different degrees in response to differing cultural situations. Our work has implications for shaping political discourse and influencing political attitudes.
  • Theories of the Causes of Poverty
    There has been a lack of debate between and frameworks for theories of the causes of poverty. This essay proposes that most theories of poverty can be productively categorized into three broader families of theories: behavioral, structural, and political. Behavioral theories concentrate on individual behaviors as driven by incentives and culture. Structural theories emphasize the demographic and labor market context, which causes both behavior and poverty. Political theories contend that power and institutions cause policy, which causes poverty, and moderates the relationship between behavior and poverty. I review each theory’s arguments, contributions and challenges. Further, I explain how to integrate, classify studies into, and distinguish between theories. Ultimately, I argue that poverty research would benefit from more explicit theory and theoretical debate, as well as greater interdisciplinarity and integration between studies of the U.S., rich democracies, and developing countries.
  • Becoming a first-time grandparent and subjective well-being. A fixed effects approach.
    Objective: In this study, we examine how individuals are affected by the change in status to grandparenthood for the first time. Background: Being a grandparent, especially an active and involved grandparent, is positively linked to the well-being of individuals with grandchildren, however little is known about how becoming a grandparent affects well-being. Method: We use longitudinal data from fifteen countries in Europe (Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe - SHARE) to analyse if becoming a grandparent is associated with three measures of subjective well-being. We use fixed effects models to account for unobserved heterogeneity. Results: We found evidence that becoming a first-time grandparent is associated with fewer depressive symptoms among women, although there was no effect on subjective life expectancy or life satisfaction. For men, we found no evidence for an impact on any outcome tested, although there is an association with increased subjective life expectancy conditional on employment status; only if men were employed when transitioning to grandparenthood. We also found no evidence that actively looking after the grandchild is important for either gender. Conclusion: These results suggest that, at least for women, it is the life transition itself that impacts on well-being, rather than active grandchild-care. More research is needed to verify these findings in other contexts, and over longer periods of time.
  • All Keynesian Now? Public Support for Countercyclical Government Borrowing
    In the wake of the 2008 financial crisis, macroeconomic policy returned to the political agenda, and the influence of Keynesian ideas about fiscal stimulus rose (and then fell) in expert circles. Much less is known, however, about whether and when Keynesian prescriptions for countercyclical spending have any support among the general public. We use a survey experiment, fielded twice, to recover the extent to which UK respondents hold such countercyclical attitudes. Our results indicate that public opinion was countercyclical — Keynesian — in 2016. We then use Eurobarometer data to estimate the same basic parameter for the population for the period 2010-2017. The observational results validate our experimental findings for the later period, but also provide evidence that the UK population held procyclical views at the start of the period. Thus, there appear to be important dynamics in public opinion on a key macroeconomic policy issue.
  • The ordinary business of macroeconometric modeling: working on the Fed-MIT-Penn model (1964-1974)
    The FMP model exemplifies the Keynesian models later criticized by Lucas, Sargent and others as conceptually flawed. For economists in the 1960s such models were “big science”, posing organizational as well as theoretical and empirical problems. It was part of an even larger industry in which the messiness for which such models were later criticized was endorsed as providing enabling modelers to be guided by data and as offering the flexibility needed to undertake policy analysis and to analyze the consequences of events. Practices that critics considered fatal weaknesses, such as intercept adjustments or fudging, were what clients were what clients paid for as the macroeconometric modeling industry went private.
  • Putting the age of criminal and tort liability into context: a dialogue between law and psychology
    The concepts of ‘liability age’ and ‘capacity responsibility’ have been widely dissected by researchers in various fields. However, their application to both criminal and tort liability of children remains inconsistent. Furthermore, rarely has an interdisciplinary approach adequately dealt with these concepts and their impact on legal norms. This text investigates the notion of criminal and tort liability age in connection with the notion of capacity responsibility, in relation to children, and further questions the adequacy of the relevant legal norms. This endeavour to improve the applicable legal norms is supported by an analysis of the pertinent findings in the field of psychology, particularly in respect of the moral development of children. Informed by an excursion through the ideas of Piaget, Kohlberg, and Gilligan, among others, regarding the moral development of children, the text also serves to assess the impact of concepts of moral responsibility and maturity, in relation to the development of the legal norms, which determine the age of liability of children. The text concludes with a proposal for a criminal and tort liability age framework, based upon indicative/presumptive age milestones, and an integrated approach to all relevant circumstances in casu.
  • Investigating Algerian EFL Students’ Learning-Style and Brain-Dominance Profiles
    Learning styles and brain-dominance preferences continue to attract, today, the attention of both researchers and practitioners in the field of education. Learners are different from each other and this difference matters in learner-centred instruction. This work is an attempt to identify the students’ learning-style and brain-dominance profiles at the Department of English, Larbi Ben M’hidi University, Oum el Bouaghi, Algeria. Seventy two Master Two-level students took part in this study. The Barsch Learning-Style Inventory and the Brain-Dominance Inventory were used as data collection tools. The results show that most of the participants have a visual mode of learning, whether predominantly or in combination with the auditory mode. In addition, the majority of the students are found to have a slight preference either to the left- or the right-brain hemisphere. The paper eventually discusses ways to enable teachers to tailor classroom instructional strategies to students’ learning preferences, and hence capitalize on their learning strengths.
  • Dynamics of Asset Poverty in South Korea
    Following the Asian Financial Crisis of 1997, Korea has suffered what many consider to be a severe poverty problem. Despite policy efforts to reduce poverty and economic recovery in the early 2000s, poverty affects many households and certain households are at risk of staying in poverty once they are in it. Using longitudinal panel data from 2005 to 2014, this study defines three indicators of poverty based on asset holdings, rather than income. It then examines the dynamics of asset poverty in Korea across the study period. The study’s primary goal is to reveal differences across the three indicators and identify which groups of poor people in Korea have been structurally trapped in poverty. We applied a dynamic panel model of discrete choice to the Korean Welfare Panel Study (KOWEPS) from the 1st to 10th waves and show that, despite the indicator, the asset poor who experienced asset poverty in the previous surveyed year or at wave 1 are likely to fall into structural and persistent poverty over time. In addition, the probability of incurring asset poverty decreased with home ownership, higher disposable income, and greater diversification of the household portfolio. Future research should study the duration of asset poverty to complete a comprehensive picture of the asset poverty condition.
  • Putting the Age of Criminal and Tort Liability into Context: A Dialogue between Law and Psychology
  • Google Scholar, Web of Science, and Scopus: a systematic comparison of citations in 252 subject categories
    Despite citation counts from Google Scholar (GS), Web of Science (WoS), and Scopus being widely consulted by researchers and sometimes used in research evaluations, there is no recent or systematic evidence about the differences between them. In response, this paper investigates 2,448,055 citations to 2,299 English-language highly-cited documents from 252 GS subject categories published in 2006, comparing GS, the WoS Core Collection, and Scopus. GS consistently found the largest percentage of citations across all areas (93%-96%), far ahead of Scopus (35%-77%) and WoS (27%-73%). GS found nearly all the WoS (95%) and Scopus (92%) citations. Most citations found only by GS were from non-journal sources (48%-65%), including theses, books, conference papers, and unpublished materials. Many were non-English (19%-38%), and they tended to be much less cited than citing sources that were also in Scopus or WoS. Despite the many unique GS citing sources, Spearman correlations between citation counts in GS and WoS or Scopus are high (0.78-0.99). They are lower in the Humanities, and lower between GS and WoS than between GS and Scopus. The results suggest that in all areas GS citation data is essentially a superset of WoS and Scopus, with substantial extra coverage.
  • Evidence of Open Access of scientific publications in Google Scholar: a large-scale analysis
    This article uses Google Scholar (GS) as a source of data to analyse Open Access (OA) levels across all countries and fields of research. All articles and reviews with a DOI and published in 2009 or 2014 and covered by the three main citation indexes in the Web of Science (2,269,022 documents) were selected for study. The links to freely available versions of these documents displayed in GS were collected. To differentiate between more reliable (sustainable and legal) forms of access and less reliable ones, the data extracted from GS was combined with information available in DOAJ, CrossRef, OpenDOAR, and ROAR. This allowed us to distinguish the percentage of documents in our sample that are made OA by the publisher (23.1%, including Gold, Hybrid, Delayed, and Bronze OA) from those available as Green OA (17.6%), and those available from other sources (40.6%, mainly due to ResearchGate). The data shows an overall free availability of 54.6%, with important differences at the country and subject category levels. The data extracted from GS yielded very similar results to those found by other studies that analysed similar samples of documents, but employed different methods to find evidence of OA, thus suggesting a relative consistency among methods.
  • Income and Income Inequality as Social Determinants of Health: Do Social Comparisons Play a Role?
    Two of the most prominent phenomena in the study of social determinants of health, the socio-economic gradient in health and the income inequality–health association, have both been suggested to be explainable by the mechanism of status comparisons. This, however, has rarely ever been tested in a direct fashion. In this article, we explicate and test this mechanism by assessing the role of social comparison orientation. Research has shown that individuals vary in their propensity to engage in social comparisons, and those with a higher propensity are also more likely to be affected by the outcomes of such comparisons. In our analysis, we check whether the tendency to compare one’s income to that of others can contribute to explaining socio-economic disparities in health. Using individual-level data (N = 18,356) from 23 European countries on self-rated overall health and psychological well-being, we show that a high-income comparison orientation neither moderates the negative effect of income inequality on health nor the health differences by relative income. Our findings cast doubt on the crucial role that researchers such as Wilkinson and Pickett (2010) have attributed to the mechanism of status differentiation as the link between social stratification and health outcomes.
  • 'Sexuality and citizenship in Europe: sociolegal and human rights perspectives' [Review] Francesca Romana Ammaturo (2017) European Sexual Citizenship: Human Rights, Bodies and Identities.
    In her first monograph, European Sexual Citizenship: Human Rights, Bodies and Identities, Ammaturo offers us an authoritative and fluid analysis of the intersections between citizenship, human rights and sexual minorities. The book has a strong Foucauldian flavour, exploring the ways in which power relationships are produced in this context. Ammaturo crafts a smooth flow of ideas, arguments and sources that address in a comprehensive fashion how these intersections need to be unpacked, dissected and brought to daylight for everyone’s benefit. And she does so in an accessible and ambitious way, without ever becoming simplistic or obscure – no mean feat. Ammaturo’s starting point is Europe as a continent defined as ‘an aspirational entity and symbolic space of belonging’ (p. 1, original italics). In this space, gender and sexual minorities (referred throughout the book as LGBTQI persons) arguably play a crucial role in the definition of ‘European identity’ and ‘European Citizenship’ and contribute to Europe having increasingly adopted a ‘symbolic position of catalyst for social change’ (p. 2) for these minorities. Both human rights and citizenship frameworks and discourses have contributed to these developments. Ammaturo is keen to explore the grey areas in these developments and unleash the potential for radical transformation of current constraints on the citizenship and rights of gender and sexual minorities. To do this, Ammaturo chooses the Council of Europe – and the European Court of Human Rights (Strasbourg Court) in particular – as the context in which a ‘European sexual and gendered citizenship’ can be tested and put to its limits. In doing this, Ammaturo offers particular attention to a specific group within the diverse gender and sexual minorities that exist: LGBTQI asylum seekers and refugees. In this review essay, I will explore some of the book’s key arguments and touch on some differences of opinion. Perhaps, these differences are mostly the result of different disciplinary backgrounds: while Ammaturo is fundamentally an international relations and social sciences scholar – thus perhaps more concerned with broader policy and institutional mechanisms – I am fundamentally a lawyer – thus more inclined by training to concentrate on particular policymaking areas and require strong evidence to substantiate final conclusions. This review essay will thus reflect the challenges faced by all of us academics in the field of sociolegal studies and interdisciplinary research more generally.
  • Working children in Europe: a socio-legal approach to the regulation of child work
    Since the beginning of the 2008 economic crisis, reports of child work across Europe have increased. This article looks into the European Union (EU) legal framework that applies to children who work, and offers a socio-legal analysis of child work regulation more generally. In so doing, it considers the role of a range of factors relevant to the regulation of child work, including children’s rights, cultural relativism, social constructions of childhood, empirical evidence of the benefits and harm of child work, and the different contexts in which children are found working. The article advances a justification for a restrictive approach in relation to child work in the European context, on the basis of legal, social, economic and cultural factors.
  • Working children in England and Wales: waking up from inertia
    Child work in England and Wales has been a well-researched topic from a historical perspective, but increasingly side-lined in socio-legal scholarship. This work aims to bring back this topic to the legal debate, by considering the relevant legal framework and related international and EU instruments, the experiences of working children in England and Wales, and the legal enforcement of the current standards by public authorities. Priorities for the future are also highlighted, with the ultimate intention of prompting greater monitoring and empirical research in this field.
  • Refugees and asylum seekers in Portugal: an assessment and the case of LGBTI individuals
    Portugal’s migration history has been extensively explored in academic literature, including in legal scholarship. Yet, very little attention has so far been directed towards Portuguese refugee law. This may be due to the relatively low number of asylum seekers that Portugal receives, but that does not justify neglecting the study of the Portuguese socio-legal framework applicable to asylum seekers and refugees. This short piece summarises the findings of an article that addresses this gap by analyzing the framework in a European context, enhancing the analysis with a case study of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transsexual, and intersex (LGBTI) asylum seekers. The analysis explores the evolution of the current legal framework, the procedures and remedies available to asylum seekers, the substantive standards applied in decision-making, and the broader socio-legal resources offered to asylum seekers. Several shortcomings and possible avenues of improvement are also identified.
  • Testing liberal norms: the public policy and public security derogations and the cracks in European Union citizenship
    European Union law has curtailed the traditional discretion Member States have in ordering non-nationals to leave their territory. Although Directive 2004/28 (the Citizenship Directive) has enhanced the system of protection afforded to offending European Union citizens, it still contains a number of cracks that lead to policy incoherence and gaps in rights protection. This is evident in the first rulings on Article 28(3) of Directive 2004/38 concerning the deportation of offending EU citizens. These issues also threaten to transform European Union citizenship from a fundamental status into a thin overlay that, under pressure from national executive power, loses its effect and significance. To be sure, EU citizenship has demonstrated that community belonging does not have to be based on organic-national qualities, cultural commonalities, or individuals' conformity to national values, but the continued deportation of long-term resident Union citizens makes nationality the ultimate determinant of belonging. The subsequent discussion suggests possible remedies and makes recommendations for institutional reform.
  • The Turn to Artificial Intelligence in Governing Communication Online
    Presently, we are witnessing an intense debate about technological advancements in artificial intelligence (AI) research and its deployment in various societal domains and contexts. In this context, media and communications is one of the most prominent and contested fields. Bots, voice assistants, automated (fake) news generation, content moderation and filtering – all of these are examples of how AI and machine learning are transforming the dynamics and order of digital communication. On 20 March 2018 the Alexander von Humboldt Institute for Internet and Society together with the non- governmental organisation Access Now hosted the one-day expert workshop “The turn to AI in governing communication online”. International experts from academia, politics, civil society and business gathered in Berlin to discuss the complex socio-technical questions and issues concerning subjects such as artificial intelligence technologies, machine learning systems, the extent of their deployment in content moderation and the range of approaches to understanding the status and future impact of AI systems for governing social communication on the internet. This workshop report summarises and documents the authors’ main takeaways from the discussions. The discussions, comments and questions raised and responses from experts also fed into the report. The report has been distributed among workshop participants. It is intended to contribute current perspectives to the discourse on AI and the governance of communication.
  • Varieties of Indigeneity in the Americas
    We examine sources of indigenous identity in the two countries with the largest indigenous populations in the Western Hemisphere—Mexico and Peru. We find that the size of the indigenous population varies dramatically depending on the measure of indigeneity used, and that using multiple measures captures distinct modes of indigeneity. Using latent class analysis, we find that contemporary indigenous classification clusters around four types, which we characterize as Traditional Indians, Indigenous Mestizos, New Indians, and Non-Indigenous. Traditional Indians tend to be indigenous on virtually all indicators, and they are especially poor, dark, and rural. Indigenous Mestizos tend to speak an indigenous language, but self-identification as indigenous is tenuous. New Indians assert an indigenous identity despite their frequent lack of linguistic knowledge and close indigenous ancestry, and they are as urban, educated, and light-skinned as the Non-Indigenous. The analysis addresses sociological concepts of ethnic boundaries, assimilation, mestizaje, and symbolic ethnicity and discusses the implications of distinct modes of indigenous ethnicity.
  • Canada’s guideline 9: improving SOGIE claims assessment?
    Asylum seekers making claims relating to their sexual orientation and gender identity often face unfair refusal. New guidance from the Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada takes admirable steps towards improving claims assessment, and offers a model for practitioners elsewhere.
  • The Supreme Court in a final push to go beyond Strasbourg
    Case comment on R. (on the application of Nicklinson) v Ministry of Justice 2014 UKSC 38; 2015 A.C. 657 (SC). The case dealt mainly with the following two matters: the prohibition of assisted suicide in the UK, under the 1961 Suicide Act, and whether such prohibition is compatible with UK obligations under the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR)3; and the legality of the policy issued by the Director of Public Prosecutions (DPP) relating to the prosecution of individuals who have allegedly assisted a suicide.
  • Portuguese refugee law in the European context: the case of sexuality-based claims
    Portugal’s migration history has been extensively explored in academic literature, including in legal scholarship. Yet, very little attention has so far been directed towards Portuguese refugee law. This may be due to the relatively low number of asylum seekers that Portugal receives, but that does not justify neglecting the study of the Portuguese socio-legal framework applicable to asylum seekers and refugees. This article addresses this gap by analyzing the framework in a European context, enhancing the analysis with a case study of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transsexual, and intersex (LGBTI) asylum seekers. The analysis explores the evolution of the current legal framework, the procedures and remedies available to asylum seekers, the substantive standards applied in decision-making, and the broader socio-legal resources offered to asylum seekers. Several shortcomings and possible avenues of improvement are also identified.
  • Data management and use: Case studies of technologies and governance
    Cite as Michael Veale (2017) Data management and use: case studies of technologies and governance (The British Academy and the Royal Society, London) https://royalsociety.org/topics-policy/projects/data-governance/ These case studies were prepared in support of the Data Management and Use: Governance in the 21st Century project, carried out by the British Academy and the Royal Society. The purpose of these case studies was to stimulate thinking and discussion by the working group, in their deliberations on governance needs for data management and use across all sectors. This publication is an edited version of the case studies presented to the working group. The case studies aim to give concrete examples of the kinds of social and ethical tensions that arise in contemporary data use and management – and they draw on the sets of social and ethical pairings, detailed in the main report of this project, that were identified at a cross- disciplinary expert workshop held in July 2016. They give current and forward-looking examples of the benefits and challenges of data collection, management and use across a range of sectors and the governance needs in different contexts. Intended as they are solely to inform the working group, these case studies are not presented as the views of either Academy, and are not intended as appraisals or evaluations of any of the governance approaches identified in them.. However they illustrate some of the issues that prompted the work behind the Data Management and Use: Governance in the 21st Century report.
  • The EU free movement of persons from a Spanish perspective: Exploring its evolution and derogations
    Although Spain is often discussed in migration studies, both for its special characteristics and for its representativeness of a larger group of European countries, the free movement of EU citizens across Spanish borders and within Spain is a matter so far insufficiently explored in legal literature. Spain has been a member of the EU for more than 25 years, however, the assessment of the implementation by Spanish authorities of EU law in this field has remained mostly limited to fairly descriptive analyses of the applicable statutory framework. This article goes beyond that and looks critically into the evolution of this statutory framework and, above all, its judicial application. Besides analysing the Spanish legal framework applicable to the free movement of EU citizens and their family members, this article explores a range of obstacles to that free movement. It concentrates particularly on the most striking obstacle to free movement - exclusion orders - by exploring in detail the rules and case law (mainly produced by the Spanish Supreme Court) that have dealt with the possibility of expulsion of EU citizens and their family members.
  • The harmonisation of private law in Europe and children's tort liability: a case of fundamental and children's rights mainstreaming
    The debate around private law harmonisation in the EU has gradually moved from a narrow scope of market-related issues to the creation of a European civil code. The relationship between this process and children’s rights is, however, rarely acknowledged. The political, social and legal legitimacy of these harmonisation efforts have come under strict scrutiny, but hardly ever from the point of view of children. This article explores the impact of the process of legal harmonisation on children’s rights, and uses the issue of children’s tort liability as a case-study. The legal solutions in this field are analysed and compared, and the academic proposals for harmonisation are assessed. This choice of subject and approach allows us to assess the advisability of further harmonisation, illustrate the importance of socio-economic factors in this process, and highlight the relevance of children’s rights and fundamental rights to this debate.
  • Beyond the Great Recession: Labor Market Polarization and Ongoing Fertility Decline in the United States
    In the years since the Great Recession, social scientists have anticipated that economic recovery in the U.S., characterized by gains in employment and median household income, would augur a reversal of declining fertility trends. However, the expected post-recession rebound in fertility rates has yet to materialize. In this study, I propose an economic explanation for why fertility rates have continued to decline regardless of improvements in conventional economic indicators. I argue that ongoing structural changes in U.S. labor markets have prolonged the financial uncertainty that leads women and couples to delay or forego childbearing. Combining statistical and survey data with restricted use vital registration records, I examine how cyclical and structural changes in metropolitan-area labor markets were associated with changes in total fertility rates (TFR) across racial/ethnic groups from the early 1990s to the present day, with a particular focus on the period between 2006-2014. The findings suggest that changes in industry composition – specifically, the loss of manufacturing and construction businesses – have a larger effect on TFR than changes in the unemployment rate for all racial/ethnic groups. Since structural changes in labor markets are more likely to be sustained over time, in contrast to unemployment rates which fluctuate with economic cycles, further reductions in unemployment are unlikely to reverse declining fertility trends.
  • Portuguese Refugee Law in the European Context: The Case of Sexuality-Based Claims
  • Working Children in Europe: A Socio-Legal Approach to the Regulation of Child Work
  • Working Children in England and Wales: Waking up from Inertia
  • Book ReviewSexuality and Citizenship in Europe: Sociolegal and Human Rights PerspectivesAmmaturoFrancesca Romana, European Sexual Citizenship: Human Rights, Bodies and Identities. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017, pp. 134, ISBN 978-3-319-41973-2, £37.00 (hbk).
  • Income and Income Inequality as Social Determinants of Health: Do Social Comparisons Play a Role?
  • Varieties of Indigeneity in the Americas
  • An Intimate Insight on Psychopathy and a Novel Hermeneutic Psychological Science
    This paper is rather a profound hermeneutic enunciation putting into question our present understanding of psychopathy. It further articulates, in complement, a novel theoretical and methodological conceptualisation for a hermeneutic psychological science. Methodology-wise, it puts into question a traditional more or less categorical and mechanical approach to the social and behavioural sciences as it strives to introduce a creative and insightful approach for the articulation of ideas. It rather seeks to construe the scientific method as being more about falsifiability and validation but driven by a sense of creative understanding and insight of notions laid out as open-ended conceptualisations. Theory-wise, it sees continuity between anthropology and psychology as anthropopsychology behind an entropic construct of human psychology based on a recurrent re-institutionalisation mechanism for intemporal-preservation-entropy-or-contiguity–or–ontological-preservation.
  • A Tale of Three Cities: The State of Racial Justice in Chicago Report
    Chicago’s largest racial and ethnic groups—blacks, Latinxs, and whites—each makes up roughly one-third of the city’s population. As this report reveals, these groups generally live in separate neighborhoods and have divergent experiences when it comes to housing, economics, education, justice, and health. Capturing life in Chicago today is in many ways a tale of three cities.
  • Organizational Hybridity, Dissonance and the Emergence of the US Green Building Council
    The emergence of the US Green Building Council’s (USGBC) provides a unique case study into the organizational change strategies of a hybrid organization. As a nonprofit, social movement organization the USGBC seeks to create change in the marketplace by encouraging more sustainable building practices through a voluntary standards. As they have done so, their organizational processes have begun to draw from regulatory agencies and firms to accomplish this aim. Through the use of multiple organizational processes and forms, the USGBC works with stakeholder groups to respond to change and dissonance in a way that is congruent with Stark’s (2009) theory on heterarchy. Heterarchical thinking about the utility of dissonance and the importance of the distribution of intelligence within a hybrid organization has implications for the ability for these organizations to respond quickly as the industry and stakeholder needs change.
  • The Chastity Society: Disciplining Muslim Men
    At a time when Western humanitarian rescue discourses seek to save Muslim women from irrational and violent Islamic masculinities, the Jordanian Islamist charity ‘the Chastity Society’ seeks to train young men to restrain their excessive masculine passions to ensure that Muslim women are spared the fate of the benighted and oppressed Western woman. This article traces parallel emphases on gender essentialism, rationality, cultural pathology, and abjection to argue that a shared language of contention unites both Islamists and those who advocate for Western humanitarian interventions. I explore how several kinds of social control are legitimized through these symmetrical polemics about gender, order, and civilization.
  • Between the Logics of Market and Mission: Weighting the LEED Green Building Rating System
    The utility of regulatory mechanisms such as voluntary standards are becoming a way of changing the market. In this paper, I look at a case of an organizational process that works across institutional logics within the US Green Building Council’s work to develop the next version of the voluntary LEED building standard. I seek to investigate how the regulatory process functions across multiple logics. Research in this area tends to consider the logics as combative. I argue that in the resolution of logics, the work of the staff is to organize the competing logics by using a third logic – one that they feel ambivalent about - to mitigate the dissonance of the market logic and the mission logic and to resolve tensions.
  • Asymmetric Fixed Effects Models for Panel Data
    Standard fixed effects methods presume that effects of variables are symmetric: the effect of increasing a variable is the same as the effect of decreasing that variable but in the opposite direction. This is implausible for many social phenomena. York and Light (2017) showed how to estimate asymmetric models by estimating first-difference regressions in which the difference scores for the predictors are decomposed into positive and negative changes. In this paper, I show that there are several aspects of their method that need improvement. I also develop a data generating model that justifies the first-difference method but can be applied in more general settings. In particular, it can be used to construct asymmetric logistic regression models.
  • A Framework for Critical-Empiricist Research in Political Communication
    Empirical research on political communication can play an important role in informing debates about the democratic value of various political communication processes. However, the degree to which political communication researchers can live up to this task depends on how systematically they relate their empirical investigations to concerns formulated in normative conceptions of democracy. In this paper, I present a framework for the empirical normative analysis of political communication. Based on the two core research procedures of normative assessment and empirical validation, it provides a model of the relations between normative and empirical research and a template for the empirical study of normatively relevant aspects of political communication. The paper systematizes the relations between normative theory and empirical reality, and discusses the two core procedures for empirical researchers to productively bridge the two. The framework is supposed to foster systematic exchanges between empirical studies of political communication and normative democratic theory and clarify the contribution of empirical studies to democratic theory, practice, and reform. It also implicates additional justification for greater use of controlled experimental research and cross-context comparative studies.
  • Survival Analysis of Mobile Prepaid Customers Using the Weibull Distribution
    This paper shows an approach to modeling Prepaid churn and customer survival in the Telecommunications Industry, specifically in emerging markets where Prepaid subscriptions are the norm. We do so by applying the Weibull family of negative exponential distributions. For the analysis, we have used the "IBM Watson telco customer demo dataset", a public dataset of churning customers. We show that the Weibull distribution is a better fit for modeling Prepaid scenarios that display a high churn onset at the beginning but flattens out as time t progresses. We then contrast our model with traditional methods of churn estimation and compare results between the different approaches.
  • Voting For a Cartel as a Sign of Cooperativeness
    This paper tests the hypothesis that a (partial) reason why cartels – costly non-binding price agreements – lead to higher prices in Bertrand Pricing Game-experiments could be because participants who form these kinds of agreements are more cooperative and pick higher numbers in general. To test this hypothesis we run an experiment where participants play two consecutive Bertrand oligopoly games: first a standard version without the opportunity to make price agreements; followed by a version where participants can vote, by majority, on whether to have a costly nonbinding agreement to pick the highest number. We find no statistically significant difference between the numbers picked in the first game by participants who vote for and against an agreement in the second game. We do confirm that having a price agreement leads to higher numbers being picked on average. Additionally we find that participants who vote for or against the price-agreement behave differently in response to the existence of the price agreement. In particular, participants who vote for a price agreement react more positively to the price agreement. The difference in numbers picked in the second game between situations with and without a price agreement is larger for participants who voted in favour of the agreement. Voters who voted for the price agreement are more cooperative than voters who voted against but only in situations where there is a price agreement.
  • Priming human-computer interactions: Experimental evidence from economic development mobile surveys
    This paper investigates how citizens from developing countries vocalize controversial topics, combining the behavioral economics of development with human-computer interaction for potentially mutual benefit across fields. I examine a priming effort to understand how people decide to discuss controversial local subjects, using the human-computer interaction of people with their mobile phones to quantify how attracted people feel to alternative local political economy topics when randomly asked what they think about international aid. The treatment significantly impacted the likelihood of choosing to discuss sanitation, health, poverty, democracy, individual determination, pro-poor support, and happiness. However, the intervention does not affect subjectively ranked preferences. The proposed approach quantifies the attraction users feel to concepts based on human-computer interactions and this approach may be relevant for contexts beyond developing countries. Human-computer interaction approaches may help policy makers entrusted with the Sustainable Development Goals and other initiatives better understand the needs and desires of people in developing countries.
  • Preelection Mobilization and Electoral Outcome in Authoritarian Regimes
    Final version of the paper is available here: http://mobilizationjournal.org/doi/abs/10.17813/1086-671X-22-3-293 Does pre-election protest have an effect on the outcomes of authoritarian elections? Electoral authoritarian regimes use elections to consolidate their power and claim democratic legitimacy. Nonetheless, on some occasions authoritarian incumbents lose elections despite their advantages and a democratic breakthrough is achieved. I propose that pre-election protest contributes to such election results. Existing scholarship focuses primarily on the effectiveness of post-election upheavals, but the effects of pre-election protest are still theoretically and empirically understudied. This paper proposes a theory for why pre-election contention has an independent effect on incumbent defeat of authoritarian regimes and democratization. I present empirical support for the association between pre-election protest activities, incumbent defeat, and democratization using data from 190 elections across 65 countries with non-democratic regimes. The findings of this analysis have important implications for studies of social movements, authoritarian politics, and democratization.
  • A Human-Computer Interaction Approach for Integrity in Economics
    Emerging data science platforms using simplified and automated user interfaces can help research become significantly more transparent and ethical. By depending on standard human-generated code, many statistical software programs commonly used in economics and the social sciences inadvertently rely on the human willpower of scientists, and inspite of an assumed invincibility, such individuals are nearly necessarily prone to errors and research integrity compromises, as is increasingly clear. Removing the vast majority of arbitrary and subjective data judgments, including the generation of code, from researcher control would free behavioural and social scientists from human limitations. Automating the text annotations that accompany data visualizations in figures and diagrams using emerging natural language processing tools can also free scientists from overconfidence or the temptation to embellish findings. Scientific communities across economics as well as other social science fields should embrace such systems to enhance the integrity and transparency of the next-generation of research.
  • The Chastity Society: disciplining Muslim men
    The Chastity Society
  • Lefebvre'nin Mekân Kuramının Yapısal ve Kavramsal Çerçevesine Dair Bir Okuma
    English Abstract: By reading Lefebvre’s book ‘The Production of Space’ book, this paper aims to reassess the structure and main conceptual framework of the theory of space presented in the book. Based on this as a main structure of the theory, Lefebvre’s periodization of space – aimed at the tracing the spaces being produced during each mode of production – is discussed. In the paper, the spatial triad aiming at understanding and conceptualization of social space is discussed as well. Thus, for any study of space in different contexts, an easily adaptable and applicable structural and conceptual framework of Lefebvre’s theory is presented. Turkish Abstract: Makalenin amacı Lefebvre'nin 'Mekânın Üretimi' kitabının bir okumasını gerçekleştirerek, kitapta öne sürülen mekân kuramının yapısının ve temel kavramsal çerçevesinin yeniden değerlendirilmesidir. Bundan hareketle kuramın temel yapısı olarak her üretim tarzında üretilmekte olan mekânların çözümlemesine yönelik Lefebvre'nin önerdiği dönemselleştirmesi değerlendirilmiştir. Ayrıca makalede toplumsal mekânın anlamlandırılması ve kavramsallaştırılması için kuramda öne sürülen mekânsal üçlü değerlendirilmiştir. Böylece, somut bağlamda gerçekleştirilebilecek herhangi bir araştırma için Lefebvre'nin kuramının kolayca uygulanabilir ve benimsenebilir bir kavramsal çerçevesi çizilmiştir.
  • What Quantile Regression Does and Doesn't Do
    Petscher and Logan (2014)’s description of quantile regression might mislead readers to believe it would estimate the relation between an outcome, y, and one or more predictors, x, at different quantiles of the unconditional distribution of y. However, quantile regression models the conditional quantile function of y given x just as linear regression models the conditional mean function. This article’s contribution is twofold: First, it discusses potential consequences of methodological misconceptions and formulations of Petscher and Logan (2014)’s presentation by contrasting features of quantile regression and linear regression. Secondly, it reinforces the importance of correct understanding of quantile regression in empirical research by illustrating similarities and differences of various quantile regression estimators and linear regression using simulated data.
  • Setting the Transgender Agenda: Intermedia Agenda-Setting in the Digital News Environment
    Transgender issues have recently emerged as highly salient topics of political contestation in the United States. This paper investigates one relevant factor in that ascent: intermedia agenda-setting between digital-native and legacy press news. Through a content analysis of the top-five digital-native and top-five legacy press online news entities from 2014 to 2015, we investigate the dynamics of intermedia agenda-setting in the context of transgender topics, both at the level of attention to transgender topics in general and at the level of attention to specific issues related to the transgender community (e.g., anti-transgender violence). Results indicate significant causal effects of digital-native coverage on legacy press coverage at the level of general attention to transgender topics. However, results also indicate that at the level of specific transgender issues, digital-native coverage drives legacy press coverage on some issues, which legacy press coverage drives digital-native coverage on others. Implications for intermedia agenda-setting in the digital news media environment and for the future of transgender political rights movements are discussed.
  • Stable Random Projection: Lightweight, General-Purpose Dimensionality Reduction for Digitized Libraries
    Digital libraries today distribute their contents in a way that limits the sort of work that can be done with them. Modern libraries are so large-often containing millions of books or articles-that the technical resources needed to work with them can be immense. Beginning researchers and students often cannot practically obtain more than a few thousand books at a time. Advanced researchers must use (often incomplete) metadata to decide which books are of interest for their projects; and libraries themselves lack ways for make their full-text holdings easily discoverable by researchers or integrated with other collections.
  • Innovation in Latin America through the lens of bibliometrics - Noiseless, crammed and fading away
    Research on innovation in business, management and accounting in Latin America has surpassed any expectation in net output. Although, by analyzing bibliometrics features of +1,300 documents from 1983 to 2018, multiple concerns have emerged, such as: prolonged silences in the 1980s and 1990s; intensive use of a journal with predatory features; ≈50% of the articles remain uncited; both cites/author and cites/paper are in the lowest point of the past 35 years; and the most associated terms with innovation were: management, case(study), technology (technological), development, industry and knowledge, among others. Limitations and further studies are discussed.
  • What Do Books in the Home Proxy For? A Cautionary Tale
    In studies of educational achievement, students' self-reported number of books in the family home is a frequently used proxy for social, cultural, and economic background. Absent hard evidence about what this variable captures or how well, its use has been motivated by strong associations with student outcomes. I show that these associations rest on two types of endogeneity: low achievers accrue fewer books, and are also prone to underestimate their number. The conclusion is substantiated both by comparing reports by students and their parents, and by the fact that girls report on average higher numbers despite being similar to boys on other measures of social background. The endogenous bias is large enough to overturn classical attenuation bias; it distorts cross-country patterns and invalidates many common study designs. These findings serve as a caution against overreliance on standard regression assumptions and contribute to ongoing debates about the empirical robustness of social science.
  • Employment in the Nigerian Agricultural Labour Market: Barriers and Forecast
    Although the Agricultural sector is an important source of employment in Nigeria, it has been experiencing a rapid decline in employment share since 2001. While economic theory predicts such a decline, the challenge of high unemployment rate in rural areas and the low capacity utilization in manufacturing raise further concerns among academics and policy makers. Namely, the pressing challenge of how to commercialize and raise the productivity of agriculture to boost employment uptake. Against this background, the study reviewed the demand and supply side barriers in the agricultural labour market. Also forecasted employment as well as suggested policies for a more efficient agricultural labour market.
  • Cutting the Face: Kinship, State and Social Media Conflict in Networked Jordan
    The local uptake of new media in the Middle East is shaped by deep histories of imperialism, state building, resistance and accommodation. In contemporary Jordan, social media is simultaneously encouraging identifcation with tribes and undermining their gerontocratic power structures. Senior men stress their own importance as guarantors (‘faces’), who restore order following conflicts, promising to pay their rivals a large surety if their kin break the truce. Yet, ‘cutting the face’ (breaking truces) remains an alternative, one often facilitated by new technologies that allow people to challenge pre-existing structures of communication and authority. However, the experiences of journalists and other social media mavens suggest that the liberatory promise of the new technology may not be enough to prevent its reintegration into older patterns of social control.
  • A Sharing Meanings Approach for Interdisciplinary Hazards Research
    Hazards researchers frequently examine complex socio-environmental problems, a difficult undertaking which is further compounded by the challenge of navigating the many disciplinary approaches in the field. This paper draws on key insights from studies of the interdisciplinary process and proposes the Sharing Meanings Approach for improving interdisciplinary collaboration in hazards research. The Sharing Meanings Approach addresses common challenges to interdisciplinary teamwork and organizes them into four focal areas: (1) worldviews (including ontological, epistemological, and philosophical perspectives), (2) language, (3) research design, and (4) project goals. The approach emphasizes the process of sharing rather than seeking to develop a single set of shared meanings related to the four focal areas. The paper identifies common challenges and recommends strategies and actions within each focal area for guiding teams toward sharing their implicit meanings. A hypothetical example is introduced to demonstrate how the approach offers a path for revealing and overcoming the common roadblocks experienced in interdisciplinary hazards research. By making interdisciplinary hazards teams’ implicit assumptions explicit, the Sharing Meanings Approach offers an operational process to seize on moments of difference as productive tension and to see such challenges as opportunities—rather than obstacles—for innovating toward hybrid methodological research designs in hazards research.
  • A Man is Known by His Cup: Signaling Commitment via Costly Conformity
    Commonly persisting are management practices that are recognized as inefficient and widely deplored, and they can often be characterized as “unpopular norms,” i.e., norms to which individuals widely conform despite widespread disapproval. Why might such norms persist? Existing approaches see this issue as an information problem, where individuals misconstrue a norm as popular among others, and conform so as to feign their endorsement. But even when the unpopularity of the norm is revealed, conformity sometimes continues. My theory thus identifies when and why individuals might conform to such visibly unpopular norms by focusing on the need to credibly signal commitment to their interactants in nascent relationships. For embedded relationships to be beneficial, individuals need to discern whether their relationship partners are committed to collective interests over individual interests. In this context, conformity to a visibly unpopular norm signals that the conformist is willing to violate her own preference to meet a behavioral standard demanded by the collective (i.e., norm). Insofar as actors recognize this signaling value, visibly unpopular norms persist. Using both qualitative and experimental methods, I leverage a visibly unpopular “ideal-worker” norm – norm around excessive drinking in after-hour business gatherings in South Korea – to test this theory. A macro implication is that an unpopular norm might persist not despite visible unpopularity but precisely because of visible unpopularity.
  • Population policies, government programs, and fertility: A comparison between Brazil and Mexico
    Title in Spanish: Políticas de población, programas gubernamentales y fecundidad: Una comparación entre el Brasil y México Abstract: The Government of Mexico implemented family planning programmes beginning in the 1970s, unlike the Brazilian Government, which has implemented no population policies. This article estimates the impact of those policies on trends in fertility among women in various segments of society, using statistical models which incorporate municipal and individual variables. Both rich and poor states were considered in both Brazil and Mexico, using census data, information from civil registries, and health and demographic surveys. Differences in fertility by socio-economic group are sharper in the Brazilian states than in the Mexican ones. The poorest Brazilian states also show marked differences, but to a lesser degree than poor Mexican states because the latter show high percentages of home births, and as a result women have limited access to family planning programmes. The study concludes that family planning policies reduce the differences in fertility among women of different socio-economic groups. Furthermore, those policies would be more effective if women in the poor Mexican states also had easy access to public hospitals and clinics. The high coverage of hospital births in Brazil appears to counteract the absence of large-scale state programmes, particularly in the poorest states. Resumen: El gobierno mexicano puso en práctica programas de planificación familiar desde los años setenta, en contraposición al gobierno brasileño que no ha implementado políticas de población. En este artículo se estima la influencia de dichas políticas en las tendencias de fecundidad de mujeres de diferentes segmentos sociales, con modelos estadísticos que incorporan variables municipales e individuales. Se analizaron estados pobres y ricos, tanto del Brasil como de México, usando datos de censos, estadísticas del registro civil y encuestas de salud y demografía. Las diferencias de fecundidad por grupo socioeconómico son más acentuadas en los estados brasileños que en los mexicanos. Los estados brasileños más pobres también presentan diferencias marcadas, pero en menor grado que los estados mexicanos pobres porque en estos, un alto porcentaje de partos ocurre en los hogares, debido a lo cual se limita la accesibilidad de las mujeres a los programas de planificación familiar. Se concluye que las políticas de planificación familiar disminuyen las diferencias de fecundidad entre mujeres de distintos niveles socioeconómicos. Más aún, estas políticas serían más eficaces si las mujeres de estados mexicanos pobres también tuvieran fácil acceso a hospitales y clínicas públicos. La gran cobertura del parto en hospitales en el Brasil parece contrarrestar la ausencia de programas gubernamentales de gran alcance, sobre todo en los estados más pobres.
  • The co-evolution of emotional well-being with weak and strong friendship ties
    Social ties are strongly related to well-being. But what characterizes this relationship? This study investigates social mechanisms explaining how social ties affect well-being through social integration and social influence, and how well-being affects social ties through social selection. We hypothesize that highly integrated individuals–those with more extensive and dense friendship networks–report higher emotional well-being than others. Moreover, emotional well-being should be influenced by the well-being of close friends. Finally, well-being should affect friendship selection when individuals prefer others with higher levels of well-being, and others whose well-being is similar to theirs. We test our hypotheses using longitudinal social network and well-being data of 117 individuals living in a graduate housing community. The application of a novel extension of Stochastic Actor-Oriented Models for ordered networks (ordered SAOMs) allows us to detail and test our hypotheses for weak- and strong-tied friendship networks simultaneously. Results do not support our social integration and social influence hypotheses but provide evidence for selection: individuals with higher emotional well-being tend to have more strong-tied friends, and there are homophily processes regarding emotional well-being in strong-tied networks. Our study highlights the two-directional relationship between social ties and well-being, and demonstrates the importance of considering different tie strengths for various social processes.
  • Influence of Internal Marketing toward Internal Service Quality and impact to Internal Customer Satisfaction
    Internal marketing and internal quality service are the important aspect at the organization that can be increase performance organization and customer satisfaction. Aim to this research an investigate influence of internal marketing toward internal service quality with impact to the internal customer satisfaction at Tourism Industry in Yogyakarta Special of Territory. The sample size was 420 respondent with propusive sampling use to determine the sample. The main instrument in this study is questionaire. The analysis used to examine the hypothesis of the study is Structural Equation Modeling using AMOS Version 20.0 Software. The result of the study show that: Internal marketing influence toward internal quality service. Internal marketing and internal quality service significanly influence toward internal costumer satisfation. Never theless, the internal quality service more significanly influence to the internal customer satisfaction than internal marketing. Therefore manager in tourism industry should be improve more the internal marketing than internal quality service. Keywords: Internal Marketing, Internal Quality Service, Internal Costumer Satisfaction, external customer satisfaction
  • Citizen Typography and Political Brands in the 2016 US Presidential Election Campaign
    The 2016 presidential campaign between Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump saw citizen typography emerge in highly visible and highly impactful ways, particularly as the candidates made seemingly little attempt to maintain full control over their visual brand identities. But what does the surprising significance of typography in this recent campaign reveal about marketing and citizen participation in politics, about political brand management in a networked media environment, and about typography’s role as a key pillar of branded political communication? This essay offers two key concepts: the networking of political brands and an emerging logic of participatory aesthetics—both of which point to a decentralisation of traditional ‘brand management’ in favour of affectively-driven political engagement through visual communications disseminated over communication networks.
  • “Passing” and the Politics of Deception: Transgender Bodies, Cisgender Aesthetics, and the Policing of Inconspicuous Marginal Identities
    Billard raises important questions about the nature of “deception” and status of “deceiver,” analyzing media discourses surrounding instances of transgender “passing.” These discourses position transgender people as deceivers who live out their genders to seduce heterosexuals, scrutinizing their appearances for signs of their “true gender.” Contradictorily, the successful attainment of cisgender aesthetics deemed “passing” legitimates a transgender person’s gender identity, but also renders them more malicious in their deception. As such, media discourses surrounding transgender people who “pass” justify punishment for their deception through violence. In this chapter, Billard explores these tensions, challenging the application of the label “deception” by the social majority to those of marginal identities, particularly inconspicuous ones, as it serves to delegitimate authentic identities and police the boundaries of social hierarchies.
  • Fonts of Potential: Areas for Typographic Research in Political Communication
    As the prevalence of digital technologies has increased, so too has the prevalence of graphically designed content. In particular, typography has emerged as an increasingly important tool for visual communication. In recent years, political actors have seized upon the expressive potential of typography to communicate their messages, to support their campaign efforts, and to establish viable brand identities. However, researchers have been slow to address the new role typography plays in the processes of political communication. Therefore, this article both synthesizes and proposes key areas for research on typography in political communication. Drawing on extant literature across the fields of design, communication, and political science, this article identifies the ways in which typography contributes to the communicative and organizational aims of political actors, demonstrates these contributions with examples from recent political campaigns, and concludes by pointing toward unanswered questions for future studies to address.
  • How to translate Liangzhu (良渚)hieroglyphs in a Black ear jar
    From the paper, we can see the connection between Egyptian hieroglyphs and Chinese characters in the earthenware.
  • Writing in the Margins: Mainstream News Media Representations of Transgenderism
    This study examines representations of transgender individuals and identity in mainstream American newspapers in an effort to understand the extent to which the transgender community is legitimized or delegitimized by news media. To do so, 200 articles from 13 of the 25 most circulated daily newspapers in the United States were coded for the presence or absence of Legitimacy Indicators. The study finds that mainstream newspaper coverage of the transgender community is extremely limited. What coverage existed, however, contains a significant amount of delegitimizing language, which it is argued will detrimentally impact both the projected legitimacy of transgender claims in the political arena and public perceptions of the transgender community.
  • Use of Death Counts From Vital Statistics to Calculate Excess Deaths in Puerto Rico Following Hurricane Maria
  • Stable random projection: lightweight, general-purpose dimensionality reduction for digitized libraries
  • What Quantile Regression Does and Doesn't Do: A Commentary on Petscher and Logan (2014)
  • Is it worth door-knocking? Evidence from a UK-based GOTV field experiment on the effect of leaflets and canvass visits on voter turnout
    What impact do party leaflets and canvass visits have on voter turnout? Get Out The Vote (GOTV) experiments consistently find that campaigning needs to be personal in order to be effective. However, the imbalance between United States and European-based studies has led to recent calls for further European GOTV experiments. There are also comparatively few partisan experiments. I report the findings of a United Kingdom-based field experiment conducted with the Liberal Democrats in 2017. Results show that party leaflets boost turnout by 4.3 percentage points, while canvassing has a small additional effect (0.6 percentage points). The study also represents the first individual level experiment to compare GOTV effects between postal voters and in-person voters outside the United States.
  • Population projections for all U.S. counties by age, sex, and race controlled to the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways
    Small area and subnational population projections are important for understanding long-term demographic changes. I provide county-level population projections by age, sex, and race in five-year intervals for the period 2015-2100 for all U.S. counties. Using historic U.S. census data in temporally rectified county boundaries and race groups for the period 1990-2015, I calculate cohort-change ratios (CCRs) and cohort-change differences (CCDs) for eighteen five-year age groups (0-85+), two sex groups (Male and Female), and four race groups (White NH, Black NH, Other NH, Hispanic) for all U.S counties. I then project these CCRs/CCDs using ARIMA models as inputs into Leslie matrix population projection models and control the projections to the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways. I validate the methods using ex-post facto evaluations using data from 1969-2000 to project 2000-2015. My results are reasonably accurate for this period. These data have numerous potential uses and can serve as inputs for addressing questions involving sub-national demographic change in the United States.
  • Damascius on the One's causality as 'All Things' (ta panta)
    Damascius posits a split for the Neoplatonic first principle into two aspects, or entities: the Ineffable as the ‘true’ first principle, and the One as the first cause of all things, as in Proclus, but subordinated to the Ineffable. Behind this distinction is an essential shift in the One’s causality, both as a response to and critique of Proclus’ One. I look at De Principiis I, 2–4, and I, 92–94, in relation to Proclus, seeing how Damascius transforms the One as causally synonymous with 'all things' (τά πάντα). In doing so, I show that Damascius both retains Proclus' basic argument that the One does not directly pre-contain plurality, and that the One *indirectly* anticipates plurality by causing 'all things'. By holding these two stances, Damascius appears to lead a *via media* between a Plotinian and a Proclean view of the One. [Colloquium presentation (LMU Munich/MUSAPH, Jan. 17, 2017; Universität Bonn, Jan. 30, 2017; KU Leuven, Mar. 23, 2017) and conference presentation (NAAP, Edinburgh, Apr. 10, 2017) summarizing a basic argument of the final chapter of my PhD thesis. The attached PDF is from the KU Leuven presentation.]
  • Nonresponse to Items on Self-Reported Delinquency. A Review and Evaluation of Missing Data Techniques
    The present study focuses on the application of missing data techniques in self-reported delinquency research. Although missing observations are at least as common in research on crime and delinquency as in any other social science, little systematic research has been conducted on the application of modern missing data techniques in research on delinquency. The present study provides a comprehensive and non-technical review of conventional and modern missing data techniques. It gives an introduction into problems of missing data and assess the performance and applicability of modern missing data techniques when used for solving missing data problems in crime research. In order to do so, a secondary data analysis of a SRD survey among high school students in Germany and Russia will be conducted. This is my master thesis, I can't really remember what the results were. The thesis was on-line for a long time and I think it only recently disappeared. Given that it was seemingly read quite often and sometimes even cited, I thought I should put it online again.
  • Intergenerational Social Mobility and Allostatic Load in Great Britain
    Background: Intergenerational social mobility is hypothesized to be a stressful process that has a negative effect on health. By examining the relationship between own socioeconomic position, parental socioeconomic position, and allostatic load in a representative sample of the British population, we test this hypothesis. Methods: Our study uses cross-sectional data from 9,851 adult participants of waves 2 and 3 of Understanding Society. The relationship between parental occupational class at age 14, respondents’ social class at the time of the interview, and allostatic load (AL) is explored by means of diagonal reference models (DRM), which allow us to disentangle the effects of parental social class, own social class, and the mobility process. The AL score comprises the biomarkers 1) total cholesterol, 2) HDL cholesterol, 3) triglycerides, 4) glycated haemoglobin, 5) C-reactive protein, 6) fibrinogen, 7) systolic blood pressure, 8) diastolic blood pressure, 9) resting heart rate, 10) BMI, and 11) waist circumference. Results: AL is particularly high among the stable working class and low among the stable upper class. On average, current class and origin class exert about equal weight on current AL. However, social mobility—regardless of whether upwards or downwards—is not detrimental for AL. Further, we find evidence that class of origin may be less important among those outside the labor market for reasons other than retirement. Conclusion: Both own social class and parental social class influence AL to a similar extent. However, we find no evidence that mobility trajectories exert any effects, good or bad, on allostatic load.
  • The transformation of economic analysis at the Federal Reserve during the 1960s
    In this paper, we build on data on Fed officials, oral history repositories and hitherto under-researched archival sources to unpack the torturous path toward crafting an institutional and intellectual space for postwar economic analysis within the Fed. We show that growing attention to new macroeconomic research was a reaction to both mounting external criticisms against the Fed’s decision-making process and a process internal to the discipline whereby institutionalism was displaced by neoclassical theory and econometrics. We argue that the rise of the number of PhD economists working at the Fed is a symptom rather than a cause of this transformation. Key to our story are a handful of economists from the Board of Governor’s Division of Research and Statistics (DRS) who paradoxically did not always held a PhD, but envisioned their role as going beyond mere data accumulation and got involved into large-scale macroeconometric model building. We conclude that the divide between PhD and non-PhD economists may not be fully relevant to understand both the shift in the type of economics practiced at the Fed and the uses of this knowledge in the decision making-process. Equally important was the rift between different styles of economic analysis.
  • Mobilized to Take a Vanguard Role: Communist Party Members’ Participation in the Community Building Campaign
    In the community building campaign launched at the beginning of this century in urban China, the transfer of welfare responsibility to communities and democratization at the grassroots level both have featured prominently. Participation on the part of community residents as volunteers and voters are indispensable to the success of these initiatives. Therefore, grassroots state agents are eager to solicit involvement from those susceptible to their mobilization, including Communist Party members. In this article, we intend to investigate the role of Party members in community volunteering and voting and its differentiation across various social groups and neighborhood contexts. Drawing on nationally representative data, we find that Party members indeed have a stronger propensity to participate than the non- member residents. The effect of Party membership is statistically significant on volunteering but not on voting, and more distinguishable among employed than retired residents. In danwei neighborhoods, the direction of Party membership’s influence is reversed. These findings shed some light on the targets, emphasis, channels and constraints of Party-state’s grassroots mobilization in its quest of maintaining legitimacy in a cost-effective way.
  • The Global Traffic in Looted Cultural Objects
    The looting, trafficking, and illicit sale of cultural objects is a form of transnational crime with significant social and legal dimensions that call into question competing ideas of ownership and value, as well as how we define organized crime, white collar crime, and crimes of the powerful. The looting of cultural objects from archaeological and heritage sites is inherently destructive and is almost always illegal. However, through a complex smuggling chain which depends on lack of import/export regulation standardization in transit and opaque business practices at market, stolen cultural objects are able to be passed onto the international market in large quantities and at little risk to market actors.
  • Opportunity Begets Merit: Mobility and Heritability in Education
    It is widely accepted that how much education an individual gets should not be determined by the education of his or her parents. Consequently, education policy in many countries aims to equalize the attainment of children from different backgrounds. However, equality of opportunity requires knowing not only whether education is inherited, but how. Many see genetic endowment as a more legitimate basis for inheritance than differences in environment, which we presumably know better how to alter. In this study we ask how the relative weight of each differs depending on how far a country has come in realizing intergenerational opportunity. We benefit from newly available World Bank estimates of educational mobility that we pool with 27 behavior genetics estimates from nearly 50,000 twins. In high-inequality regimes where schooling is strongly transmitted from parent to child, the environmental channel turns out to be relatively more important. Conversely, in egalitarian systems where the influence of family background is less pronounced, genetic factors gain in explanatory power. Our results suggest that education systems that improve the mobility from parent to child are also better placed to promote individuals based on their innate endowment.
  • How victims conceptualize their experiences of hate crime
    The aim of the study is to provide the victims’ perspective to the contemporary conceptualization of hate crime. Much attention has been given to the interpretational frameworks of offenders, and although victims’ definitions of hate crime are sometimes mentioned in passing in interview studies, this has never been a primary subject of study. The present study applies phenomenological analysis to 28 semi-structured interviews with victims of hate crime. The results show that the participants primarily apply meaning to their experiences in social groups and use previous experiences to guide their interpretations. While the conceptualization of victims largely concurs with theory presented by the research community and special interest organizations, they diverge from how hate crime is contextualized in hate crime legislation.
  • Gerakan Bupolo Magrib Mengaji sebagai Media Aktualisasi Pruralisme
    Tujuan penelitian ini mendapatkan gambaran primer tentang pruralisme yang terbangun antar struktur masyarakat maupun antar pemeluk agama di Kecamatan Namlea dengan mengidentifikasi pelaksanaan program bupolo magrib mengaji. Pendekatan yang dipergunakan dalam penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif dan Jumlah informan yang akan diwawancarai sebanyak 40 orang yang diambil secara purposive dengan pertimbangan responden dianggap sebagai pihak-pihak yang terkait untuk mencapai tujuan penelitian. Penelitian dilakukan di Kecamatan Namlea Kabupaten Buru dengan sampel wilayah adalah Desa Namlea, Desa Jamilu dan Desa Lala. Penelitian ini menggunakan teknik pengumpulan data atau teknik yang menggunakan observasi, wawancara mendalam untuk mendapatkan data kondisi kondisi sosial ekonomi masyarakat, terkait pelaksanaan bupolo magrib mengaji. Teknik analisis yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah analisis data kualitatif mengikuti konsep yang diberikan Miles and Huberman dan Spradley.
  • The use of informative priors and Bayesian updating: implications for behavioural research
    The stereotype threat literature has become one of the latest in behavioural research to be accused of publication bias. By simulating datasets based on this literature, we examine how using different methods of statistical analysis affect the development of a field of research. Specifically, we consider how different analysis techniques can result in certainty or uncertainty about the true presence of an effect in a population. We simulated 30,000 datasets in total and compared four different analyses including commonly used frequentist methods (ANOVA and a generalized linear mixed model), as well as more novel Bayesian methods. We found that using posterior passing, a Bayesian approach in which past experiments inform subsequent analyses, allowed the true effect in the population to be found with higher certainty and accuracy than all other analysis types. We conclude that different statistical methods have important effects upon the ability of a literature to reliably come to accurate conclusions, in particular we suggest that using informative priors could help researchers to be more certain about the presence of a true effect in a population. We suggest that the use of informative priors better reflects the cumulative nature of scientific research than the current norm of null hypothesis significance testing.
  • Integrating CALL into the Language Curriculum
    This initial proposal aims at suggesting one way in which Information Technology in the form of CALL (Computer-Assisted Language Learning) could be integrated into the foreign language curriculum of the licenciatura programs in Colombia. This task can be carried out as the project within the different universities in order to support and improve the learning and teaching of English which is one of its main objectives.
  • Zoltan Istvan y el Partido Transhumanista: Política y transhumanismo en el siglo XXI
    El propósito de mi tesis es analizar el discurso político y transhumanista de Zoltan Istvan, candidato a la presidencia de los Estados Unidos de América en 2016. En primer lugar, se demarca el trasfondo histórico que crea como consecuencia el Partido Transhumanista. En segundo lugar, se explica la orientación política del partido. En tercer lugar, se analiza las soluciones que propone a los problemas que ellos observan en la sociedad. Por último, se estudia el pensamiento de Zoltan Istvan, creador del Partido Transhumanista.
  • Ecofeminism in Doris Lessing’s Mara and Dann: An Adventure
    Doris Lessing's Mara and Dann: An Adventure (1999) is a fantasy novel with focus on nature. Lessing portrays a world in which oppression by a male-dominated society is at the root of countless problems. It depicts the effects of global warming in the future emphasizing that the domination of women is the core of all crises in the environment. The novel implies that women are able to lead as most of the female characters in the novel play the role of the leader starting from Daima, the woman who protects Mara and Dann as children, to Orphne the woman who heals Dann from addiction. Applying Greta Claire Gaard’s (1993) principles of ecofeminism to literature classifies and justifies the cause of the movement (p. 20). This paper sheds light on Gaard’s four types of ecofeminism in Lessing’s Rama and Dann: An Adventure: liberal, culture, social and socialist by discussing the apocalypses, patriarchal legacy, pathetic fallacy and radical orthodoxies as features of ecofeminism.
  • Variation in Caste Homophily Across Villages and Contexts in Rural India
    This paper studies on caste homophily across seventy-five villages in rural Karnataka, India. Caste is conceptualized as a system of ethnic categories that map onto positions within the social structure of each village. Despite being a salient category across India, the caste structure is not uniform across villages, caste groups or network contexts. Using social network and demographic data collected by Banerjee et al. (2013) I investigate how caste homophily varies within villages across social contexts and between villages. Overall I find strong evidence of caste homophily across the majority of contexts; people tend to exchange resources and socialize with other people occupying a similar position in the caste order. However this varies across villages, relations, and groups. It appears to be strongest among higher caste groups, although it weakens with regards to the lending and borrowing of money, a vertical relationship between high and low castes. The lending of rice and kerosene and social relationships involving advice giving and important decisions are also particularly homophilous for both groups. This demonstrates how the strength of ethnic boundaries can vary based on the relational and spatial context.
  • Thinking Allowed: Reforming Indicator-Based Accountability to Enhance Innovation
    NPM- flavoured accountability regimes in many instances stifle innovation rather than foster it. Today, New Public Governance (NPG) creates new challenges for indicator-based accountability systems. NPG raises questions on how to reform indicator-based accountability to make it work in complex multi- actor settings. What is the use of performance indicators when dealing with unruly problems? How to stimulate innovation without calling accountabil- ity in itself into question? This chapter proposes some prospective directions based on a critical analysis of indicator-based accountability.
  • Performance management in Europe: An idea whose time has come - and gone?
    New Public Management reforms in Europe, as elsewhere, heavily rely on performance indicators and targets. All corners of the public sector, from local to European and from policy formulation to management practice, have been affected. This focus on measurement fits well in a long tradition of measurement and state building. Yet, in recent years, disenchantment with performance management grows. More often than not, target regimes produce dysfunctional consequences. While the performance of performance target regimes is wanting, performance management is being reinvented. Rather than a system of accountability, performance management should prompt learning and dialogue. Performance management as a learning system may well be the next idea whose time has come.
  • Public opposition and the neighborhood effect: how social interaction explains protest against a large infrastructure project
    We find that distance to an infrastructure project has a significant impact on the levels of protest in neighborhoods, but distance is not the whole story. The presence of social capital and the presence of active protesters are good predictors of protest participation in the neighborhood. Contrary to expectations, the aggregated socio-demographic profile of a neighborhood is not significantly related to levels of opposition. These findings support theories on the collective efficacy of neighborhoods.
  • Genetic Ancestry Testing among White Nationalists
    Using a data set drawn from the website Stormfront, this paper presents a qualitative analysis of online discussions of white nationalist individuals’ genetic ancestry test (GAT) results. Seeking genetic confirmation of personal identities and having a strong ideology of the genetic basis of race and the value of white “purity,” white nationalists using GATs are sometimes confronted with information they consider evidence of non-white or non-European ancestry. Despite their essentialist views of race, Stormfront posters use GAT information to police individuals’ membership far less commonly than working to develop a variety of scientific and anti-scientific responses enabling them to repair identities by rejecting or reinterpreting GAT results. Simultaneously, however, Stormfront posters use the particular relationships made visible by GATs to debate the collective boundaries and constitution of white nationalism. Bricoleurs with genetic knowledge, white nationalists use a “racial realist” interpretive framework that departs from canons of genetic science but cannot be dismissed simply as ignorant.
  • The Educational Context of Computer-assisted Language Learning (CALL)
    This article deals with the spread of computer applications in education in general and in Higher Education, in particular, making up the new context of Information and Communication Technology and the need for teacher training. Today, only a comparatively small proportion of teachers and schools are using the technology in an extended way. However, it is still very early to show significant or dramatic changes since the current situation cannot be taken as anything other than an initial stage. However, the impact on individual schools and individual practitioners, where the innovation has been made available, is said to be significant.
  • The Effects of the Multimedia ‘English Discoveries’ Program on the Learning of Five Different Language Skills with High School Students
    This study determines the effects of the application of multimedia technology -Computer-Assisted language learning (CALL) in the development of five language skills using ‘English Discoveries’. It shows that the effects of multimedia materials for language learning are not necessarily better as a whole, but different from those obtained in traditional classroom work. Only two of the five variables showed significant differences in favor of the use of Multimedia: pronunciation and oral production. However, grammar showed opposite results. The teachers’ and students’ reactions suggest the need to adapt their roles to the new context in the future use of CALL and multimedia. The high level of acceptance of this type of materials by the students shows the need for more research and better adaptation of activities to the new context.
  • CALL within the Language Learning Methodology
    This article presents the initial steps and theoretical considerations for Computer-assisted Language Learning within the realm of language learning methodology. Based on the expectations created by the rapid changes caused by the Information Revolution many language teachers and researchers have considered the potential of CALL as a sound methodological framework in language teaching and learning. The familiarization and use de computers in language learning settings have led many language educators to envisage a methodological framework for CALL
  • El Computador en el Desarrollo de la Lectura en Inglés
    En esta investigación pre-experimental se proporciona evidencia del efecto del uso de un programa informático de reconstrucción de texto en el campo del aprendizaje de lenguas asistido por computador (ALAC) sobre la velocidad de lectura y el aprendizaje de vocabulario en inglés. Utilizando un grupo de sujetos del programa del programa de Idiomas de la Universidad Mariana de la Ciudad de San Juan de Pasto y trabajando con un programa de reconstrucción de texto durante diez semanas se obtuvieron ganancias significativas en cuanto a la velocidad de lectura, comprensión y el aprendizaje de vocabulario que apuntan hacia la incidencia positiva de uso del computador en actividades de lectura indirecta mediada por la reconstrucción de texto en la velocidad y la comprensión.
  • La Lectura Rápida en el Desarrollo de la Velocidad y la Compresión en Inglés
    En esta investigación de tipo pre-experimental se determinó y evaluó la incidencia de la aplicación de una técnica de lectura rápida para hacer posible la comprensión en forma directa sin que medie la traducción. fenómeno natural pero de demasiada dependencia en estudiantes de inglés técnico. La aplicación de la lectura rápida guiada permitió observar y determinar cuantitativamente mejorías significativas en cuanto a la velocidad de lectura sin detrimento de la comprensión. El estudio apunta como lo establece la teoría psicolingüística de la lectura a que la velocidad está positivamente correlacionada con la comprensión.
  • Exploring Materials and Activities for CALL
    This article deals with the availability of materials and the implementation of activities within Computer-assisted Language Learning. With the rapid grow of this field in language education many areas of language learning and teaching have been enriched by the availability of commercial and non-commercial pieces of software that can be put to work. Especial attention is given to CALL communicative activities as a reaction to the kind of Programmed Instruction which abounded during the initial stages of CALL.
  • Правление как разновидность выборного органа управления речной компанией Обь-Иртышского водного бассейна (конец XIX- начало XX вв.)
    В статье рассматривается общие тенденции формирования руководящего органа самой крупной речной компании Обь-Иртышского водного бассейна в период активного развития товаро-денежных отношений, прослеживается состав и численность выборных управленцев. В ходе исследования выяснилось, что традиции семейных компаний часть руководителей стремились перенести в новую организацию – это обеспечивало безграничную власть над объединенным капиталом. Сотрудничество с банковским капиталом способствовало как получению новых инвестиций, так и включения представителей финансово-кредитных организаций в состав правления. The article discusses the General trends in the formation of the governing body of the largest river company of the Ob-Irtysh water basin in the period of active development of commodity-money relations, traces the composition and number of elected managers. The study found that the traditions of family companies of the leaders sought to move to a new organization – it provides unlimited power over the combined capital. Cooperation with Bank capital contributed to both the receipt of new investments and the inclusion of representatives of financial and credit institutions in the Board
  • El Computador como Modo de Presentación de la Lectura en Inglés
    En esta investigación de tipo pre-experimental se proporciona evidencia sobre el efecto del modo de presentación del texto para la lectura en el computador en cuanto velocidad y comprensión de lectura en inglés con estudiantes de tercer semestre de inglés técnico del programa de licenciatura en informática de la Universidad de Nariño en la Ciudad de San Juan de Pasto. Después del tratamiento con ambos modos de presentación de la lectura (en papel y en el computador) los sujetos mostraron una diferencia significativa en cuanto al nivel de velocidad y comprensión de lectura a favor del modo de presentación en papel. Esto indicaría inicialmente que la lectura en papel es más eficaz sin embargo, también se considera la poca familiaridad del estudiante leyendo desde la pantalla del computador.
  • Does School Composition Matter More for Lower-SES Students? A Cross-National Examination of School Socioeconomic Composition, Individual Socioeconomic Status, and Standardized Test Scores
    This paper investigates whether school socioeconomic composition has a stronger association with standardized test scores among lower-socioeconomic status (lower-SES) students than it does among higher-SES students. School socioeconomic composition, measured here as average SES, has repeatedly been demonstrated to have a strong influence on a variety of student outcomes, but there has been little systematic examination of whether this association is stronger for more disadvantaged students. Such a finding would be consistent with evidence from related research areas suggesting that the learning outcomes of disadvantaged students are particularly sensitive to schools and school characteristics. We use data from a large, cross -national study—the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA)—to examine patterns across a wide variety of economic, demographic, and cultural contexts. Contrary to expectation, we find no general pattern of school socioeconomic composition being more strongly associated with test scores among lower-SES students; if anything, the relationship appears to be slightly weaker among lower-SES students.
  • Combating climate change with matching-commitment agreements
    Countries generally agree that global greenhouse gas emissions are too high, but prefer other countries reduce emissions rather than reducing their own. The Paris Agreement is intended to solve this collective action problem, but is likely insufficient. One proposed solution is a matching-commitment agreement, through which countries can change each other’s incentives by committing to conditional emissions reductions, before countries decide on their unconditional reductions. Here, we study matching-commitment agreements between two heterogeneous countries. We find that such agreements (1) incentivize both countries to make matching commitments that in turn incentivize efficient emissions reductions, (2) reduce emissions from those expected without an agreement, and (3) increase both countries’ welfare. Matching-commitment agreements are attractive because they do not require a central enforcing authority and only require countries to fulfil their promises; countries are left to choose their conditional and unconditional emissions reductions according to their own interests.
  • Fertility, Mobility, and Educational Reproduction: A New Method to Estimate Prospective Models Using Retrospective Data
    Prospective models of intergenerational reproduction consider not only the social reproduction of attributes such as education, but also the demographic reproduction of individuals who carry these attributes. This study introduces a method that substantially reduces the data requirements of prospective models. The method allows estimating prospective models based on retrospective data commonly available in surveys. It addresses two key issues – retrospective sampling bias, and the problem of identifying representative cohorts. Additionally, we introduce a decomposition technique disentangling social and demographic pathways of reproduction. We illustrate the method using German data from NEPS and SOEP, focusing on educational reproduction of German men and women born between 1930 and 1945. The analysis offers new estimates of the expected number of higher and lower educated children born to men and women of different levels of education. Findings show that reproduction is constrained by educational gradients in women’s fertility, particularly in West Germany. We conclude that prospective designs advance our understanding of social inequality and its reproduction in families. The method that we introduce will facilitate future prospective research on social stratification.
  • CALL, Self-access, and Autonomous Learning
    The idea of autonomous learning through a process of self-access learning is a very powerful one since CALL (Computer-Assisted Language Learning) can provide environments which could cope with a large variety of learning possibilities and learning styles. The autonomous computer user is free to choose his own course, topics, and work at his own pace. However, in this approach, high motivation may not necessarily mean learning efficiently. The student may not be very good at selecting his own learning strategy, especially at initial stages. This problem could be alleviated if the introduction of learning autonomy, through self-access learning, is done as a process where the learner is being trained to progressively go from an externally-directed-learning approach to a self-directed learning approach.
  • Social Inequality and Social Mobility: Is there an Inverse Relation?
    While accepting that an inverse relation of some kind exists between inequality and mobility, we begin by reviewing criticisms of recent attempts by economists to express this relation in terms of income inequality and mobility – the ‘Great Gatsby Curve’. This appears to be neither empirically secure nor theoretically well-grounded. Using a newly constructed European dataset, we then aim to show that if mobility is treated in terms of social class, rather than income, an inverse relation with social inequality can be suggested that is more complex but that has a stronger empirical and a more coherent theoretical basis. Our results indicate that European countries are best seen not as displaying entirely continuous variation in their relative rates of class mobility, but rather as falling into a number of comparatively high and low fluidity groups. We offer an interpretation of these results that starts out from the proposition that within societies with a capitalist market economy, a nuclear family system and a liberal democratic polity, some limit exists to the extent to which relative mobility rates can be brought towards equality. Variation in such rates can then be understood in terms of how close nations are to this limit, and whether they are moving towards or receding from it, but with different forms of inequality impacting on their fluidity trajectories in differing ways.
  • Practicing Reflexivity: Ethics, Methodology and Theory Construction
    Reflexivity as a concept and practice is widely recognized and acknowledged in qualitative social science research. In this paper, through an account of the ‘reflexive moments’ I encountered during my doctoral research which employed critical theory perspective and constructivist grounded theory methodology, I elaborate how ethics, methodology and theory construction are intertwined. Further, I will dwell on the significance of reflexivity, particularly in qualitative research analyzing bioethics concepts. Through an account of the universal ethical principles that ‘I’, as a researcher, encounter, and micro-analysis of the observed relationships that influence the theoretical construction and arguments developed, this paper explores the quandaries an ethics researcher undertaking reflexive approach faces. I elucidate that reflexivity unveils for both the researcher and the reader how the researcher arrives at certain positions that the researcher puts forward and endorses during the knowledge construction process. I conclude by stating that reflexivity demystifies the moral and epistemological stances of the study and researcher.
  • How could a rational analysis model explain?
    Rational analysis is an influential but contested account of how probabilistic modeling can be used to construct non mechanistic but self-standing explanatory models of the mind. In this paper, I disentangle and assess several possible explanatory contributions which could be attributed to rational analysis. Although existing models suffer from evidential problems that question their explanatory power, I argue that rational analysis modeling can complement mechanistic theorizing by providing models of environmental affordances
  • Experimental studies of modern human social and individual learning in an archaeological context: People behave adaptively, but within limits
    It has been proposed that one reason for the success of Homo sapiens is our advanced learning abilities. Theoretical models suggest that complex cultural adaptations can arise from an optimal mix of (i) individual learning that is of sufficient accuracy plus (ii) social learning that is of sufficiently high fidelity and is payoff- biased. Here I review the findings of a series of experimental studies of human learning, designed to simulate the kind of technology-based tasks that our ancestors would have faced. Results of these studies support the predictions of the models, and show that contemporary humans’ learning strategies are broadly adaptive. Performance typically improved through effective individual learning and payoff-biased social learning. The latter crucially allowed participants to escape low-fitness locally optimal artifact designs and jump to higher-fitness designs, assuming a realistic multimodal adaptive landscape underlying artifact fitness. On the other hand, people also exhibited predictable flaws in their learning, such as the copying of neutral traits exhibited by successful models along with their functional traits (i.e. cultural hitchhiking), and an unwillingness to share information with others under certain circumstances.
  • A Standard for the Scholarly Citation of Archaeological Data as an Incentive to Data Sharing
    How do archaeologists share their research data, if at all? We review what data are, according to current influential definitions, and previous work on the benefits, costs and norms of data sharing in the sciences broadly. To understand data sharing in archaeology, we present the results of three pilot studies: requests for data by email; review of data availability in published articles, and analysis of archaeological datasets deposited in repositories. We find that archaeologists are often willing to share, but discipline-wide sharing is patchy and ad hoc. Legislation and mandates are effective at increasing data-sharing, but editorial policies at journals lack adequate enforcement. Although most of data available at repositories are licensed to enable flexible reuse, only a small proportion of the data are stored in structured formats for easy reuse. We present some suggestions for improving the state of date sharing in archaeology, among these is a standard for citing data sets to ensure that researchers making their data publicly available receive appropriate credit.
  • Effects of Extensive Reading on Thai Tertiary Students’ Reading Attitudes
    An exposure to free choice of inspiring reading materials among Thai students has not been largely promoted in English language class, affecting negative language learning attitudes and development of a reading habit. This present study examined the effects of extensive reading (ER) on Thai university students. To measure their attitudes towards comfort, anxiety, intellectual value, practical value and linguistic value before and after 15-week extensive reading. 68 undergraduate students were asked to complete the 5-point Likert scale questionnaire of 23 items adopted from Yamashita (2013). A semi-structure interview was also employed. The results revealed students had positive feelings in which ER increased their comfort and decreased their anxiety at the significance level of 0.05. They also had positive beliefs about the intellectual benefits. However, the practical value that ER might bring advantages to students’ study or future career was lower in the posttest. There was no significant difference between the pretest and posttest in their beliefs about English language study benefits. Qualitative data from the semi-structured interviews showed that students satisfied with their own choice of reading preference. The findings suggested the use of ER approach in English as a foreign language (EFL) classes to increase students’ positive attitudes, decrease their negative ones towards reading, and develop good reading habits through their reading engagement.
  • Syllable Structure of Totok Chingkho
    This research presents a phonological description of Totok Chingkho. The aim is to construct a phonemic and vocalic inventory of the language, as well as look into the syllable structure. The main objective of this research is to provide a phonological basis for further research in this language. Field methodology was used during data collection for this project. A word list of approximately 413 words was constructed and translated to Totok Chingkho by a native speaker. The translated words were transcribed using the IPA system, and were analyzed manually. The phonemic and vocalic inventory were created from minimal pairs extracted from the word-list. To determine the syllable structure, words were divided according to the number of syllables and their onset-nucleus, nucleus-coda relationship was investigated. There is a possibility for further research in phonological system as well as suprasegmental phonology of Totok Chingkho. Certain anomalies were observed, such as, the presence of labial stops and nasal sounds but absence of a labial fricative sound. Similarly, diphthongs were observed but not all could be confirmed. The data for onset-nucleus-coda relationship was found to be irregular which needs more explanation. This study provides requisite groundwork for further research in various facets of Totok Chingkho.
  • Age and perceived benefits are associated with willingness to participate in an electric load control program
    Load control programs allow power system operators to coordinate the power consumption of residential electric loads, such as air conditioners and refrigerators. Such programs can facilitate greater integration of variable renewable energy sources like wind and solar power into the grid. However, load control programs are uncommon in the U.S., and it is unclear what factors are associated with consumer willingness to participate in such programs. We examine the effect of demographic characteristics and types of benefits on willingness to share static and dynamic load information with the utility and participate in a load control program. A U.S. general population survey experiment presented respondents with short descriptions of refrigerator information sharing or control, with varying descriptions of benefits (including cost incentives and environmental benefits). Willingness to participate was highest when environmental benefits were described and among younger respondents, with respondent age having the largest effect. Respondents were more willing to share static than dynamic load information. Willingness to share dynamic information and participate in load control were comparable. These results suggest that targeted communication strategies that leverage consumer preferences for environmental benefits along with individual demographic characteristics may be most effective in eliciting adoption of load control programs.
  • The Implicit Activation Mechanism of Culture: A Survey Experiment on Associations with Childbearing
    This paper proposes a mechanism by which exposure to forms of culture “in the world” activates individuals’ cognitive associations beneath conscious awareness, making certain behaviors more likely. A survey experiment illustrates part of the proposed mechanism, testing whether cues that make salient a shared cultural representation affect the activation of individuals’ associations with childbearing. Drawing on cultural beliefs regarding the ostensible contradiction between close relations and monetary exchange, we expect that making one of these spheres salient would inhibit activation of associations with the other sphere. As predicted, respondents randomly assigned to a cue regarding family have fewer associations between childbearing and finances. We demonstrate the relevance of these findings to respondents’ fertility desires, a measure connected to behavior. We discuss the conditions under which this mechanism may exert the most influence on behavior and outline key future research questions that the proposed model introduces.
  • Measuring the Complexity of Urban Form and Design
    Complex systems have become a popular lens for analyzing cities and complexity theory has many implications for urban performance and resilience. This paper develops a typology of measures and indicators for assessing the physical complexity of the built environment at the scale of urban design. It extends quantitative measures from city planning, network science, ecosystems studies, fractal geometry, statistical physics, and information theory to the analysis of urban form and qualitative human experience. Metrics at multiple scales are scattered throughout diverse bodies of literature and have useful applications in analyzing the adaptive complexity that both evolves and results from local design processes. In turn, they enable urban designers to assess resilience, adaptability, connectedness, and livability with an advanced toolkit. The typology developed here applies to empirical research of various neighborhood types and design standards. It includes temporal, visual, spatial, scaling, and connectivity measures of the urban form. Today, prominent urban design movements openly embrace complexity but must move beyond inspiration and metaphor to formalize what "complexity" is and how we can use it to assess both the world as-is as well as proposals for how it could be instead.
  • Second Language Learning and the Clash of Civilizations
    This researchinvestigates the relationship amongsecond language learning, identity, culture, and motivation in Saudi Arabia (SA). SA’s education system concentrates on teaching, while identity and social aspects have only been given little attention. The researcher seeks to redress this balance by exploring the impact of pupils’ negative views toward the linguistic communities and of themselves as Muslim pupils. It aims to investigate how negative views toward the English language speaking communities could affect or demotivate Arab Muslim female learners to learn the language. The researcher supports the arguments using a qualitative approach and data drawn from pupils’ focus group interviews and one-to-one teachers’ interviews. The current study involves 132 second-year pupils from a secondary public school in Taif city, in SA and three Saudi English language teachers.The findings indicate the impact of various social factors relevant to the Saudi identity and culture on pupils’ English as a second language (ESL) learning in the Saudi context. Participants’ beliefs and practices of ESL appear to be influenced by certain negative views towardthe English- speaking communities.Finally, the study recommends extending the setting of the sample for future study to include more than one city in order to compare cultural and social attributes that impact ESL, ascultures and identities vary from one area to another in SA.
  • From copper to steel: Police militarization at the end of the 20th century.
    WORKING PAPER. ABSTRACT: By 2016, ongoing police shootings of unarmed black men had increased public awareness of policing processes; chief among those was militarization. Prior researchers explored this relatively new process, but very few had systematically analyzed it. In this paper, I conceptualize, operationalize, and describe police militarization across the United States. I transformed publicly available data, the Law Enforcement and Administrative Statistics (LEMAS) dataset, into a panel of over 4,000 police departments over an eighteen-year period. I then constructed an index based on each of three dimensions of militarization: (1) increased stock of military equipment; (2) increased usage of paramilitary tactics; and (3) increased focus on military-style policing. I explain the indicators within each sub dimension, and describe their unique trend across time. Using both this Absolute LEMAS Militarization Index (ALMI) and a summary analysis of each indicator, I describe militarization between 1990 and 2007 using hierarchical linear modeling. Among key findings are three trends. First, I provide nationally representative evidence of an increasing trend in police militarization across most departments, despite statistical controls. I also found that larger departments were both more militarized and militarized faster over time than smaller departments. Finally, I found that diverse departments (either proportionately more women or more black officers) militarized at a slower rate over the period. This paper provides the theoretical and methodological basis for follow-up analyses of processes affecting militarization, including variations in crime control, organizational characteristics and racial dynamics.
  • *PREPRINT* Supporting evidence-informed policy and scrutiny: a consultation of UK research professionals
    Access to reliable and timely information ensures that decision-makers can operate effectively. The motivations and challenges of parliamentarians and policy-makers in accessing evidence have been well documented in the policy literature. However, there has been little focus on research-providers. Understanding both the demand- and the supply-side of research engagement is imperative to enhancing impactful interactions. This study reports on a recent online consultation with research professionals on their policy experience, including motivations and barriers to engage with decision-makers.
  • The Happiness Gap in Eastern Europe
    Citizens in Eastern Europe are less satisfied with life than their peers in other countries. This happiness gap has persisted over time, despite predictions to the contrary by earlier scholars. It holds after controlling for a variety of covariates, such as the standard of living, life expectancy and Eastern Orthodox religion. Armed with a battery of surveys from the early 1990s to 2014, we argue that the happiness gap is explained by how citizens in post-communist countries perceive their governments. Eastern Europeans link their life satisfaction to higher perceived corruption and weaker government performance. Our results suggest that the transition from central planning is still incomplete, at least in the psychology of people.
  • Blood donation across the life course: the influence of life events on donor lapse
    This paper examines how blood donation loyalty changes as a result of life events over the life course. Previous studies have shown that life events such as childbirth and job loss affect involvement in prosocial behavior, allegedly as a result of time constraints, and loss of human and social capital. To test these assumptions, we examined whether life events in the work and family domains as well as health-related events in the family are related to blood donor lapse – from being active to being inactive donors – and whether human and social capital mechanisms explain these relations. Using registry data from the blood collection agency in the Netherlands, linked to longitudinal survey data from the Donor InSight study (n = 20,560), our findings show that childbirth, and losing a job and starting a job increase the likelihood of donor lapse by 79% and 57%, respectively. A blood transfusion for a family member and the death of a family member decrease the likelihood of donor lapse by 11% and 10%, respectively. Regarding human and social capital mechanisms, increasing difficulty to plan a donation, decreasing perceived health status, and knowing fewer other blood donors partially explain why donors are more likely to lapse after childbirth, starting a job, and losing a job, respectively. Blood donor identity did not mediate effects of life events. We conclude that social and practical concerns seem to play a role in blood donation decisions and that these decisions are susceptible to change over the life course.
  • The Social Stratification of Skills from Infancy to Adolescence – Evidence from an Accelerated Longitudinal Design
    When do socially-determined gaps in cognitive achievement emerge, how large are they before children enter school, and how do they develop over schooling? Exceeding previous research, we study the evolution over time of social gaps in achievement from birth to adolescence in Germany. Our theoretical framework juxtaposes two sets of compensation and polarization mechanisms which shape the overall extent of social inequality in learning as children navigate through early years and school. For Germany, with the most stratified education system in the Western world, our theoretical considerations predict that achievement gaps will be particularly magnified during tracked secondary schooling. We exploit data from 57 competence tests taken from age of 7 months to 16 years by the National Educational Panel Study. Composite skill measures and domain-specific skills were analyzed. Our findings point to striking socio-economic status (SES) gaps in skills which emerge and expand long before children enter school but then remain astoundingly stable throughout their school careers. We tentatively conclude that schooling decreases social inequality in learning. Our study adds to an emerging body of longitudinal research concerned with the evolution of inequality of educational opportunity in the early life course.
  • Those who differentiate by skin tones are at the top: status attributions and skin pigmentation in Chile
    A growing body of research has shown that skin pigmentation plays a fundamental role in stratification dynamics in Latin American countries. However, the relevance of skin color on status attribution for different status groups has been poorly studied in the region. This article seeks to broaden the research on phenotypic status cues using Chile as a context for analysis – a Latin American country with a narrow although continuous spectrum of skin tones, marked status differences, and a mostly white elite. We draw on status construction theory to hypothesize that skin pigmentation in Chile has become a status cue, although its heuristic relevance could differ across status groups. Using visual stimuli and a repeated measure design, we studied this relationship and tested whether the use of skin pigmentation as a status cue is conditional upon the status of those categorizing others. The results reveal that, although skin pigmentation has a negligible direct effect on status attribution, it does have a conditional effect on the social status of the rater: whereas skin pigmentation does not work as a status cue for lower status participants, it is an important status marker for the categorizations that high-status participants perform. The phenotypic composition of reference groups of low and high-status individuals and system justification are discussed as potential explanations for these results.
  • Wutong God(五通神)of Suzhou
    Wutong God (五通神 ) is actually Amun-Ra or Amun in China. Shangfang Hill(上方山), Suzhou is the cult centre of Amun-Ra or Amun in China, Shangfang Hill(上方山),Suzhou resembles in the Valley of the Kings.
  • Beyond notification: Filling gaps in peer production projects
    In order to counter systemic bias in peer production projects like Wikipedia, a variety of strategies have been used to fill gaps and improve the completeness of the archive. We test a number of these strategies in a project aimed at improving articles relating to South Africa’s primary school curriculum and find that many of the predominant strategies are insufficient for filling Wikipedia’s gaps. Notifications that alert users to the existence of gaps including incomplete or missing articles, in particular, are found to be ineffective at improving articles. Only through the process of trust-building and the development of negotiated boundary objects, potential allies (institutional academics in this case) can be enrolled in the task of editing the encyclopaedia. Rather than a simple process of enrolment via notification, this project demonstrated the principles of negotiation required for engaging with new editor groups in the long-term project of filling Wikipedia’s gaps.
  • Studying crime and place with the Crime Open Database
    The study of spatial and temporal crime patterns is important for both academic understanding of crime-generating processes and for policies aimed at reducing crime. However, studying crime and place is often made more difficult by restrictions on access to appropriate crime data. This means understanding of many spatio-temporal crime patterns are limited to data from a single geographic setting, and there are few attempts at replication. This article introduces the Crime Open Database (CODE), a database of 16 million offenses from 10 of the largest United States cities over 11 years and more than 60 offense types. Open crime data were obtained from each city, having been published in multiple incompatible formats. The data were processed to harmonize geographic co-ordinates, dates and times, offense categories and location types, as well as adding census and other geographic identifiers. The resulting database allows the wider study of spatio-temporal patterns of crime across multiple US cities, allowing greater understanding of variations in the relationships between crime and place across different settings, as well as facilitating replication of research.
  • Institutional logics
    *Abstract: *We survey research on institutional logics, which are systems of cultural elements (values, beliefs, and normative expectations) by which people, groups, and organizations make sense of and evaluate their everyday activities, and organize those activities in time and space. Although there were scattered mentions of this concept before 1990, this literature really began with the 1991 publication of a theory piece by Roger Friedland and Robert Alford. Over the past twenty years, it has become a large and diverse area of organizational research. Several books and thousands of papers and book chapters have been published on this topic, addressing institutional logics in sites as different as climate change proceedings of the United Nations, local banks in the United States, and business groups in Taiwan. Next, we review this literature, beginning with a detailed explanation of the concept and the theory surrounding it. To show how this literature developed over time within the broader framework of theory and empirical work in sociology, political science, and anthropology, we evaluate several intellectual precursors to institutional logics. We then sample papers published in ten major sociology and management journals in the United States and Europe between 1990 and 2015, and analyze this sample of papers to identify trends in theoretical development and empirical findings. After we detail these trends, we conclude by suggesting three gentle corrections and potentially useful extensions to this literature to guide future research: (1) limiting the definition of institutional logic to cultural-cognitive phenomena, rather than including material phenomena; (2) recognizing both “cold” (purely rational) cognition and “hot” (emotion-laden) cognition; and (3) developing and testing a theory (or multiple related theories), meaning a logically interconnected set of propositions concerning a delimited set of social phenomena, derived from assumptions about essential facts (axioms), that details causal mechanisms and yields empirically testable (falsifiable) hypotheses, by being more consistent about how we use concepts in theoretical statements; assessing the reliability and validity of our empirical measures; and conducting meta-analyses of the many inductive studies that have been published, to develop deductive theories.
  • Educational Background and Stratification in the Legal Academy: Invasion of the Body Snatchers… or More of the Same?
    *Abstract*: Since the 1960s, law schools have seen an influx of faculty with graduate training and research presences in fields outside the law – primarily in the social sciences, statistics, and the humanities, but also in biology and medicine – which has brought “interdisciplinarity” into law schools, in the form of scholarship under the banners of “law and [ ]” or “critical [ ] studies.” As their names suggest, these lines of inquiry either seek to extend traditional legal scholarship with complementary insights from external disciplines or else seek to question (if not overturn) traditional legal scholarship based on such insights. The rise of interdisciplinarity has been discussed in depth, with some scholars arguing that the rise of interdisciplinarity has strengthened the legal academy by broadening legal curricula and legal scholarship beyond traditional disciplinary law, while others aver that the rise of interdisciplinarity has reduced the autonomy of law in the university by introducing “alien” ideologies and practices. To trace this phenomenon, we use data-science methods to gather and analyze “big data” on the educational backgrounds of all faculty who held tenured and tenure-track positions in all accredited law schools in the United States in the 2011-12 academic year. Our analysis reveals a persistent increase in law-school faculty with PhDs, but most of those are faculty with both PhDs and JDs. This suggests that law schools have not been invaded by PhD-toting “pod people” importing alien values and practices from the arts and sciences Rather than reducing the autonomy of the law, the influx of PhD-trained faculty is more likely to be promoting an intellectual culture and academic practices that are a hybrid of the traditional legal academy and the arts and sciences, which involves taking only selected external elements and adapting them to fit traditional law-school culture and practices, rather than adopting them wholesale to replace traditional law-school culture and practices. Such hybridization would yield more of (almost) the same culture and practices. Our analysis also reveals that although PhD-trained faculty are concentrated in the most prestigious law schools, the influx of PhD-trained faculty has trickled down the ranks to many less prestigious schools. This suggests that PhD credentials have become an important axis of competition in the law school market, in which prospective law professors increasingly accumulate advanced degrees to compete for law-school positions, and law schools increasingly hire candidates with multiple advanced degrees to compete in prestige and media rankings. Finally, our analysis shows that male law professors are far more likely than their female counterparts to hold PhDs, but male professors are also far more likely than their female counterparts to be employed by top-tier law schools when they do not hold PhDs. The gender gap in the stratification of law faculty across the law-school prestige hierarchy indicates that even though the training of legal academics has changed, patterns of inequality in achievement have persisted.
  • Sokolovskiy, Sergei. Russia, anthropology in (2018) In: The International Encyclopedia of Anthropology, in 12 vols. / edited by Hilary Callan. New York: Wiley Blackwell, 2018. Vol.??. P.?? (in press)
    The encyclopedia entry provides the description of the main periods in the history of Russian anthropology from the early 18 th c. to the present, with special attention to Soviet and post-Soviet periods, its institutional structure, current subdivisions into sub-disciplines and research fields, thematic differentiation, area specializations, and current development trends.
  • Man Up, Man Down: Race-ethnicity and the Hierarchy of Men in Female-dominated Work
    Scholars have largely overlooked the significance of race and socioeconomic status in determining which men traverse gender-boundaries into female-dominated, typically devalued, work. Examining the gender composition of the jobs that racial minority men occupy provides critical insights into mechanisms of broader racial disparities in the labor market – in addition to stalled occupational desegregation trends between men and women. Using nationally representative data from the three-year American Community Survey (2010–2012), we examine racial/ethnic and educational differences in which men occupy gender-typed jobs. We find that racial minority men are more likely than white men to occupy female-dominated jobs at all levels of education—except highly-educated Asian/Pacific Islander men—and that these patterns are more pronounced at lower levels of education. These findings have implications for broader occupational inequality patterns among men as well as between men and women.
  • Matching survey responses with anonymity in environments with privacy concerns: A practical guide
    In many cases, public management researchers’ focus lies in phenomena, embedded in a hierarchical context. Conducting surveys and analyzing subsequent data requires a way to identify which responses belong to the same entity. This might be, for example, members of the same team or data from different organizational levels. It can be very difficult to collect such data in environments marked by high concerns for anonymity and data privacy. This article suggests a procedure for matching survey data without compromising respondents’ anonymity.
  • Demarcating Legitimate and Predatory Scientific Publishing: The Influence of Status on Institutional Logic Conflicts
    The emergence of online academic publishing has altered incentives and opportunities for scientific stakeholders and publishers. These changes have yielded a variety of new economic and scientific niches, including journals with questionable peer review systems and business models. ‘Blacklists’ of ‘predatory’ publishers have emerged to identify and stigmatize illegitimate scientific publishers and journals. Demarcating boundaries between legitimate and illegitimate science is subjective and contested. In institutionally complex environments, status influences relationships between different institutional logics. High institutional status benefits publishers by reducing conflicts between – if not aligning – scientific and economic logics, which are more likely to conflict and create illegitimacy concerns in downmarket niches. Status and legitimacy underpin the social acceptability of profit-seeking in scientific publishing, rendering low-status publishers vulnerable to being perceived and stigmatized as ‘predatory.’
  • Risks, Returns, and Relational Lending: Personal Ties in Microfinance
    Personal relationships are a common feature of financial intermediation. However, existing research offers different expectations about whether personal ties prove detrimental or beneficial for lenders. Research on embeddedness from economic sociology highlights the advantages lenders accrue when they develop personal ties with borrowers, including enhanced trust, information-sharing and greater social control. Yet research from social psychology offers reason to suspect that personal relationships can be costly because lenders who feel personally tied to borrowers run the risk of escalating commitment to poor performers. Drawing on these lines of research, this study uses data from a Latin American microfinance bank to ask: When are personal relationships detrimental or beneficial for financial intermediaries? It shows that, when lenders and borrowers have personal relationships, lenders are less likely to cut ties with poor performers and borrowers miss fewer payments, consistent with expectations from both literatures. However, these trends vary with frequency of contact. When lenders and borrowers interact less frequently, lenders continue to show heightened commitment, but borrowers become less compliant, creating potential problems for lenders. Overall, this study integrates theories from economic sociology and social psychology to offer a more balanced, temporally-informed understanding of personal ties in finance.
  • Understanding Persistence in the Resistance
    Since Donald Trump’s Inauguration, large-scale protest events have taken place around the US, with many of the biggest events being held in Washington, DC. The streets of the nation’s capital have been flooded with people marching about a diversity of progressive issues including women’s rights, climate change, and gun violence. Although research has found that these events have mobilized a high proportion of repeat participants who come out again-and-again, limited research has focused on understanding differential participation in protest, especially during one cycle of contention. This paper, accordingly, explores the patterns among the protest participants to understand differential participation and what explains persistence in the Resistance. In it, we analyze a unique dataset collected from surveys conducted with a random sample of protest participant at the largest protest events in Washington, DC since the inauguration of Donald Trump. Our findings provide insights into repeat protesters during this cycle of contention. The paper concludes by discussion how our findings contribute to the research on differential participation and persistence.
  • When Three’s a Crowd: How social structure affects the creation of organizational codes in triads
    Communication codes shared among members of an organization facilitate coordination across sub-units. Yet, if groups interact separately, they will each develop a specialized code. Using laboratory experiments, we compare the process of code emergence in transitive and cyclical triads. We find that transitive structures hinder dyadic coordination at the start, in particular for groups consisting of strangers. Our findings suggest that the coordination difficulties in transitive triads may be explained by the difficulty to establish a behavioral common ground due to the asymmetry of such structure. These coordination problems are transient - groups of different structures end up with the same average communication performance if given sufficient time. However, there remain lasting differences in the code: transitive groups of strangers are more likely than cyclical groups to have multiple dyadic codes, which are less efficient than group level codes.
  • Past Due: Combinations of Utility and Housing Hardship in the United States
    Millions of households in the United States are forced to juggle different basic needs. Housing and utility costs consume the majority of many households’ monthly incomes. Consequences for missed payments include large fees, utility shutoffs, and evictions. Either hardship puts households at risk of losing adequate shelter. This study examines the prevalence and persistence of different combinations of housing and/or utility hardship using nationally representative panel data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP). It also predicts transitions into these hardship combinations following commonly studied household dynamics: income changes, household composition changes, and poor health. Utility hardship is both more common and persistent than housing hardship, and households experiencing utility hardship have more disadvantaged characteristics. Entries into poor health are the strongest predictors of hardship. Other shocks predict one form of hardship more than the other. Most notably, income losses predict housing hardship but not utility hardship.
  • Why Are We Here? Patterns of Intersectional Motivations Across the Resistance
    Can a crowd of individuals who are motivated by a range of issues related to racial identity, class, gender and sexuality mobilize around a shared issue, and, if so, how does this process work in practice? To date, limited research has explored intersectionality as a mobilization tool for social movements. This paper expands recent work on how intersectional motivations influence the constituencies at protest events by comparing across some of the largest events that have taken place in Washington, DC since the Resistance began. We explore patterns of motivations of participants in marches over the first year of the Trump Presidency. Our analyses demonstrate how individuals’ motivations to participate represented an intersectional set of issues and how patterns of issues emerge. However, when we look across the marches, we find that the patterns are not durable, indicating the limitations of interpretations of the Resistance as a unified intersectional movement.
  • Who React to to Less Restrictive Divorce Laws?
    Most countries have mandatory separation periods that couples undergo before they can get divorced. Separation allows couples a grace-period, during which they may reconcile and stay together. In this research note, we study what characterized couples who increased divorce risk after Denmark abolished legal separation periods for uncontested divorces. A 2013 reform abolished an existing six-month mandatory separation period for uncontested divorces. Using administrative data for married and divorced couples in Denmark 2012-2014 and a methodological framework derived from instrumental variable models, we identify the average characteristics of couples who the reform caused to divorced. The reform increased divorce risk with more than 20 percent for first marriages of a length below 4.5 years. Complier couples who divorced because of the reform were less likely to have college degrees and more likely to have married younger compared to the population of ever-married couples and couples who never divorce. Compared to couples who always divorced, compliers were more likely to both have high school degrees as well as college degrees. Mandatory separation periods keep together couples at the lower end of the educational distribution and those that marry young.
  • Man Up, Man Down: Race–Ethnicity and the Hierarchy of Men in Female-Dominated Work
    Man Up, Man Down
  • Inequality is a problem of inference: How people solve the social puzzle of unequal outcomes
    A new wave of scholarship recognizes the importance of people’s understanding of inequality that underlies their political convictions, civic values, and policy views. Much less is known however about the sources of people’s different beliefs. I argue that scholarship is hampered by a lack of consensus regarding the conceptualization and measurement of inequality beliefs, in the absence of an organizing theory. To fill this gap, in this paper I develop a framework for studying the social basis of people's explanations for inequality. I propose that people observe unequal outcomes and must infer the invisible forces that brought these about, be they meritocratic or structural in nature. In making inferences about the causes of inequality, people draw on lessons from past experience and information about the world, both of which are biased and limited by their background, social networks, and the environments they have been exposed to. Looking at inequality beliefs through this lens allows for an investigation into the kinds of experiences and environments that are particularly salient in shaping people’s inferential accounts of inequality. Specifically, I make a case for investigating how socializing institutions such as schools and neighborhoods are inferential spaces that shape how children and young adults come to learn about their unequal society and their own place in it. I conclude by proposing testable hypotheses and implications for research.
  • The Burden of Acting Wise: Sanctioned School Success and Ambivalence about Hard Work at an Elite School in the Netherlands
    Sam and his classmates despise ‘nerds’: they say working hard in school makes a student unpopular, and that they purposefully do only the minimum to pass. Research suggests that such ‘oppositional’ attitudes are prevalent among working class students and/or ethnoracial minorities. Like most of his classmates, however, Sam is white, hails from a privileged background, and attends a selective school in the Netherlands. Deeply ambivalent about working hard and ‘acting wise’, Sam and the others constituting his adolescent society are thoroughly caught up in peer dynamics which sanction success and promote mediocrity. We link these anti-school peer dynamics to the institutional configuration of education in the Netherlands, characterized by rigid tracking at the end of primary school and non-selective universities: state structures and policies contribute to these privileged students’ rationale for ‘taking it easy’ and doing poorly in school.
  • The Unfulfillable Promise of Meritocracy: Three Lessons and their Implications for Justice in Education
    This paper draws on a literature in sociology, psychology and economics that has extensively documented the unfulfilled promise of meritocracy in education. I argue that the lesson learned from this literature is threefold: (1) educational institutions in practice significantly distort the ideal meritocratic process; (2) opportunities for merit are themselves determined by non-meritocratic factors; (3) any definition of merit must favor some groups in society while putting others at a disadvantage. Taken together, these conclusions give reason to understand meritocracy not just as an unfulfilled promise, but as an unfulfillable promise. Having problematized meritocracy as an ideal worth striving for, I argue that the pervasiveness of meritocratic policies in education threatens to crowd out as principles of justice, need and equality. As such, it may pose a barrier rather than a route to equality of opportunity. Furthermore, meritocratic discourse legitimates societal inequalities as justly deserved such as when misfortune is understood as personal failure. The paper concludes by setting a research agenda that asks how citizens come to hold meritocratic beliefs; addresses the persistence of (unintended) meritocratic imperfections in schools; analyzes the construction of a legitimizing discourse in educational policy; and investigates how education selects and labels winners and losers.
  • „Formalizing the future: How central banks set out to govern expectations but ended up (en-)trapped in indicators“
    Modern ‘inflation targeting’ monetary policy has been one of the prototypes of future-oriented modes of social coordination which in recent years have captured the sociological imagination. Modern central banking is commonly presented as achieving greater efficacy by directly managing economic expectations, in particular when contrasted with the previous heavy-handed, “hydraulic” transmission of policy objectives through systems of economic aggregates. Such empirical claims are mirrored in the theoretical distinction drawn by sociologists between the openness and efficacy of future-oriented coordination of expectations, and the more rigid coordination achieved through formal organizing and formalization. This paper uses the case of the US Federal Reserve’s (Fed) transition to inflation targeting in the 1980s to show how the precision and flexibility of social coordination through expectations in fact relies on extensive formalization and rigid proceduralization. I show that the tightly coupled control relation on which inflation targeting rests is not possible without the constitutive exclusion of other modes of representing and intervening the economy achieved by this formalization. However, the price for the robust and precise reactivity that modern central banking has constructed between key indicators of inflation expectations and the interest rate set by monetary policy, is a comprehensive procedural dis-embedding of monetary policy from the structure of economic activities whose path into the future it is meant to govern. The paper concludes that in order to better understand the conditions under which future-oriented modes of coordination fail or succeed, we need to study more closely the formalization of social relations on which they are founded.
  • Central Government Spending at the Micro-Level
    We first introduce centgovspend, an open source software library which provides functionality to automatically scrape and parse central government spending within the United Kingdom at the individual transaction level. The library then optionally reconciles suppliers to the OpenCorporates and Companies House APIs and subsequently analyses payments made to private entities. We briefly discuss the policy environment surrounding the library before explaining the modular structure, implementation and execution which results in scraping over 5.5m payments worth over £4tn in value. We then provide two prototype applications in the fields of public administration and sociology; one of which analyses government procurement across Standard Industry Classifier (SIC) and one which analyses the social stratification of company officers compared to the entire population of Companies House.
  • Jungian typology as a holistic teaching strategy in higher education
    With an eye to the application of principles of holistic education and integrated development to higher education, this discussion has as its aim to describe the work of a reflective teaching team in educational psychology. Using developmental issues within the Jungian psychological functions of sensing (physical), intuition (creative, spiritual), thinking (cognitive), and feeling (social and emotional), our team designed activities and discussions related to the holistic growth of college students. Results indicate a theoretical model that can offer practical applications to teaching and learning of college students
  • Reading Comprehension Strategies among EFL Learners in Higher Learning Institutions
    A variety of reading strategies are required to comprehend reading materials. Without effective reading strategies, students mostly face reading comprehension difficulties. This study aims to investigate reading comprehension strategies among English foreign language (EFL) learners in higher learning institutions. The study employed qualitative method and 10 Arab students of Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA) and Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT) were interviewed. Inductive thematic approach was used to analyze data. The findings indicates that the most commonly used reading strategies among the EFL learners are logical knowledge (under linguistic schema), formal construction (under formal schema), cultural knowledge (under cultural schema), and prior knowledge and conceptual knowledge (under content schema). This study concludes that reading strategies help the EFL learners in understanding English reading materials. To improve reading strategies for EFL learners, there is a need for collective effort of English language teachers, curriculum designers, educationists, education policy makers, and the EFL learners themselves.
  • Estimates of excess deaths in Puerto Rico following Hurricane Maria
    BACKGROUND: This descriptive finding examines excess deaths following Hurricane María, in Puerto Rico for September and October 2017. OBJECTIVE: We seek to determine the degree of excess deaths in Puerto Rico based on historical patterns of variability in deaths by month for the 2010-2016 period and using estimation techniques. METHODS: Data for this study come from death records from the Puerto Rico Vital Statistics system. We aggregated data by month and year (2010-2016) and produced means (expected deaths) and 95% confidence intervals (C.I., or patterns of variability) for each month. Using public statements from the Puerto Rico Department of Public Safety, we estimate the number of deaths for September and October 2017 and compare it to the level of expected deaths considering the pattern of variability. RESULTS: Expected deaths for September and October were 2,383 (95% C.I. 2,296-2,469) and 2,428 (95% C.I. 2,380 - 2,476), respectively. Estimates for total deaths, for September and October 2017 were 2,987 (95% CI 2,900-3,074) and 3,043 (95% C.I. 2,995-3,091), respectively. The difference between our estimates and the upper 95% CI for the average deaths is 518 deaths for September and 567 deaths for October. CONCLUSIONS: The mortality burden may higher than official counts, and may exceed the current official death toll by a factor of 10 or more.
  • Lithic morphological organisation: Gahagan bifaces from the Southern Caddo Area
    This analysis of Gahagan biface morphology enlists the three largest samples of Gahagan bifaces, to include that of the type site (Gahagan Mound) as well as the Mounds Plantation and George C. Davis sites. Results indicate a significant difference in Gahagan biface morphology at the Mounds Plantation site when compared with Gahagan bifaces from the Gahagan Mound and George C. Davis sites. Tests for allometry and asymmetry were not significant. The test of morphological disparity indicates that Gahagan bifaces produced at the Mounds Plantation site occupy a more restricted range of morphospace than those produced at Gahagan Mound, providing evidence for standardisation and diversity in Caddo biface production. While the sample includes a wide range of variability, the test of morphological integration indicates that Gahagan bifaces are significantly integrated, meaning that those traits used to characterise their shape (blade and base) vary in a coordinated manner. These results articulate with a shift in Caddo bottle morphology over the same geography, potentially indicating two previously unrecognised and morphologically-distinct lithic and ceramic production areas.
  • Gossip
    Encyclopedia entry on the anthropology of gossip for the Wiley-Blackwell International Encyclopedia of Anthropology. Briefly reviews the history of anthropological approaches to gossip, from classic debates to more recent treatments, and suggests that it is a human universal and despite its ambiguous moral value, is very important for human cooperation.
  • An Analysis of Learner Autonomy and Autonomous Learning Practices in Massive Open Online Language Courses
    The study investigates the perception of learner autonomy with Massive Open Online Language Course (MOOLC) participants, more specifically; (i) to what extent EFL learners in an English MOOLC are autonomous, (ii) the perception of learners’ and teachers’ roles in learner autonomy, and (iii) the autonomous learning practices the learners are involved in by participating in the MOOLCs. It contributes to the understanding of online learner as an agent in highly heterogeneous language learning contexts and the link between online learning and learner autonomy. The mixed-method design is employed to present data from a Learner Autonomy Questionnaire by Joshi (2011) conducted with 57 participants from three English MOOLCs with a variety of focus as well as a content analysis method was used on the interaction data in the form of open discussion forum posts, which were added by the participants, to create a frame of autonomous learning activities in these MOOLCs and learners’ attitudes towards them. The findings show that the English MOOLC participants are highly autonomous and willing to be more responsible for their own learning. Similarly, the learners’ perception of their own roles indicates a positive inclination towards autonomy. Furthermore, the participants favor the MOOLCs that encourage learner-centered and autonomous language learning practices. Due to the interactive, communicative, and collaborative nature of MOOLCs, learners are advised to develop globalized autonomous skills to participate effectively in such multicultural learning platforms because learner autonomy goes beyond traditional classrooms.
  • Unbundling Open Access dimensions: a conceptual discussion to reduce terminology inconsistencies
    The current ways in which documents are made freely accessible in the Web no longer adhere to the models established Budapest/Bethesda/Berlin (BBB) definitions of Open Access (OA). Since those definitions were established, OA-related terminology has expanded, trying to keep up with all the variants of OA publishing that are out there. However, the inconsistent and arbitrary terminology that is being used to refer to these variants are complicating communication about OA-related issues. This study intends to initiate a discussion on this issue, by proposing a conceptual model of OA. Our model features six different dimensions (prestige, user rights, stability, immediacy, peer-review, and cost). Each dimension allows for a range of different options. We believe that by combining the options in these six dimensions, we can arrive at all the current variants of OA, while avoiding ambiguous and/or arbitrary terminology. This model can be an useful tool for funders and policy makers who need to decide exactly which aspects of OA are necessary for each specific scenario.
  • Did it Matter? Response of public interest in the environment to the papal encyclical, Laudato Si’
    This study investigates changes in public interest in the environment after the release of Laudato Si’. Comparisons between searches for church-related and environmental topics before and after its release demonstrate significantly raised public interest in both areas. There were important differences between developed countries and countries with other economic classifications. After decades of declining interest in the environment, Laudato Si’ may be catalyzing societal transformation similar to that performed by the 1969 encyclical Humanae Vitae. Regulation of abortion went from a non-political issue in 1969 to a primary dividing line between the political parties in 1976. Two years after release of Laudato Si’, public interest in the environment may be growing. With a long-term sustainability plan for a likely growing Catholic environmental movement, there is reason for hope that environmental progress is just around the corner.
  • Magic, explanations, and evil: On the origins and design of witches and sorcerers
    In nearly every documented society, people believe that some misfortunes are attributable to malicious group mates employing magic or supernatural powers. Here I report cross-cultural patterns in these beliefs and propose a theory to explain them. Using the newly-created Survey of Mystical Harm, I show that several conceptions of evil, mystical practitioners recur around the world, including sorcerers (who use learned spells), possessors of the evil eye (who transmit injury through their stares and words), and witches (who possess superpowers, pose existential threats, and engage in morally abhorrent acts). I argue that these beliefs develop from three cultural selective processes – a selection for effective-seeming magic, a selection for plausible explanations of impactful misfortune, and a selection for demonizing myths that justify mistreatment. Separately, these selective schemes produce traditions as diverse as shamanism, conspiracy theories, and campaigns against heretics – but around the world, they jointly give rise to the odious and feared witch. I use the tripartite theory to explain the forms of beliefs in mystical harm and outline ten predictions for how shifting conditions should affect those conceptions. Societally-corrosive beliefs can persist when they are intuitively appealing or serve some believers’ agendas.
  • Old Version - Annotated Work Instructions
    This is an open-source project about creating documented work processes in organizations whose officials are unwilling to promulgate implementable procedures. This is a project of Center for Public Administrators, http://www.PubAdmin.org
  • Multigenerational Attainment and Mortality Among Older Men: An Adjacent Generations Approach
    BACKGROUND Recent work in stratification and demography argues for the importance of multiple familial generations in status attainment and other transmission processes. Health disparities research in this area generally assumes that the rewards of attainment are paid forward across generations, meaning grandparent and parent achievements give children a health advantage. However, an emerging literature suggests that mortality risk in old age may be more closely related to the attainments of parents and adult children. OBJECTIVE We develop a new approach to understanding family attainments and mortality in later life and test the multigenerational structure of health disparities suggested by the long arm, personal attainment, and social foreground perspectives. METHODS The analysis uses nearly complete mortality data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Older Men, a representative sample of U.S. men aged 45 to 59 in 1966. RESULTS We find that older men with parents who farmed had a median age of death that was 1.3 years higher than those who had parents with manual occupations, and men with adult children who had 16 or more years of schooling had a median age of death almost 2 years higher than those with children with 12 or fewer years of schooling. CONCLUSIONS We find evidence of a three-generation model in which parent occupation, personal wealth, and adult child attainments are independently associated with older men’s mortality. CONTRIBUTION These findings highlight the relevance of adjacent generations for health and mortality in later life and the importance of historical context for accurately measuring socioeconomic attainments in different generations and cohorts.
  • The Spatial Structure of US Metropolitan Employment: New Insights from LODES Data
    Urban researchers have long debated the extent to which urban employment is monocentric, polycentric, or diffuse. In this paper I use high-resolution data based on unemployment insurance records to show that employment in US metropolitan areas is not centralized but is spatially concentrated. Unlike residents, who form a continuous surface covering most parts of each MSA, jobs have a bimodal spatial distribution, with most blocks containing no jobs whatsoever and a small number having extremely high employment densities. Across the 100 largest MSAs about 75% of jobs are located on the 10% of built land in Census blocks with at least twice as many jobs as people. Further, most of these jobs are in clustered business districts of more than 5 contiguous employment blocks. These relative proportions are extremely consistent across MSAs, even though cities vary greatly in the physical density at which they are constructed. Motivated by these empirical regularities, I introduce an algorithm to identify contiguous business districts and classify them into four major types. Based solely on the relative densities of employment and population, this algorithm is both simpler to implement and more flexible than current approaches, requiring no metro-specific tuning parameters and no assumptions about urban form. As one output, it provides an inductive, data-driven method of identifying city centers for the purposes of urban economic analysis.
  • Does curricular tracking explain global SES gaps? an international comparison of the SES achievement gaps from 2000 to 2015
    The literature on achievement inequality has recently started to focus on the dynamics of the socio-economic achievement gap in cognitive abilities. The main findings come from research in the U.S. revealing that the 90th/10th income achievement gap has widened by about 50% in the last 30 years. This chapter aims to investigate whether there are discernible patterns in the evolution of the achievement gap from a comparative perspective. Using over 15 years of data and 32 countries from the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA), I find that there is considerable variation in the way in which the gap is evolving, with the U.S. and Germany closing at about 50% and 30% in the last 15 years while France is widening at a similar rate. I find that curricular tracking and vocational enrollment explain 40% of the variance in the achievement gap between countries and show that the relationship is conditioned by a strong interaction. Low curricular tracking is associated with a small achievement gap, whereas high levels of curricular tracking is associated with wide achievement gaps. However, once tracking is coupled with high vocational enrollment this can remedy the potential adverse effects and reduce the gap by over 1 standard deviation. I use simulations to show that switching to less curricular tracking can help decrease a country’s SES gap by about 11% while switching to more tracking would increase the achievement gap by about 51% percent.
  • La orientación discursiva de la universidad pública colombiana en el contexto de la globalización neoliberal: análisis crítico del discurso de la misión, visión y metas
    The objective of this article is to invite the reader to consider the new field of critical discourse analysis (CDA) as a complementary way to the study of history. It intends to approach several interdisciplinary concepts for the incorporation of critical discourse analysis, a relatively recent theoretical and practical approach of discourse analysis based on critical theory, critical linguistics and discourse analysis into history. It centers its focus on the consideration of discourse as an event, a socio-cultural expression conditioned by social structures and belief systems of groups of power acting upon others and conditioning the social context while being the transmitter of ideology. It presents social practices in parallel to discursive ones thereby creating a dialectal relationship between them. The relations of power, hegemony, dominance, and especially, ideology, are the main concerns of critical discourse analysis thereby making room for interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary joint efforts to research: psychology, sociology, politics, economics, and education, among a few others are related to history in order to describe, interpret and explain the historical relationships between society and language.
  • The Ethnic Dimensions in Social Movements
    This paper draws on work in the social construction of race and ethnicity to explain why race/ethnic divisions are so often axes of domination and why these divisions are central to social movements. (1) Ethnic/racial groups are constructed in political processes that are tied to state formation and social movements. Many states (including the United States) have an ethnic/racial bias or footprint in their construction. Ethnic/racial groups that are numerical majorities have an advantage in determining state policies and state actions that advantage dominant groups over subordinate groups, create chains of interrelations that amplify differences in power and privilege, and take actions to prohibit or prevent reparations or redress for these past actions. (2) Network isolation and intergenerational transmission interact with structures of domination to reproduce domination over time. “Ethnicity” matters when ethnic boundaries are relatively sharp, consequential, and highly correlated with domination structures and social networks. Strong “ethnic” boundaries tend to divide societies into majorities and minorities. (3) Dominant groups develop and reproduce cultures of domination that include both hostile and benign paternalistic relations with other groups. Subordinate groups develop and reproduce cultures that intermingle opposition and submission. Collective identities are both imposed from without by the actions of others and asserted from within. Identities and cultural practices are developed collectively within social networks and influenced by the actions and speech of political actors, including social movements. (4) Regardless of whether their goals are group-oriented or issue-oriented, all movements in an ethnically-divided or ethnically-hierarchical society have an “ethnic” dimension in the sense that they draw from or map onto one or more ethnic groups. Movements arising from privileged “ethnic” majorities have different dynamics from movements by disadvantaged “ethnic” minorities or mixed-ethnic movements. Processes of group formation derived from theories of the social construction of ethnicity illuminate other movement-relevant group formation processes, including class formation and political subcultures. Lying at the intersection of the sociology of social movements and the sociology of race and ethnicity, the “ethnic” dimensions are revealed as a lens for understanding the general problems of group and identity formation and collective mobilization that lie at the heart of both areas. Presented at the 2016 meeting of the American Sociological Association. NOTE: The uploaded version is now a preprint of the 2017 published version, which is a substantial revision of the 2016 ASA version.
  • Data policies of highly-ranked social science journals
    By encouraging and requiring that authors share their data in order to publish articles, scholarly journals have become an important actor in the movement to improve the openness of data and the reproducibility of research. But how many social science journals encourage or mandate that authors share the data supporting their research findings? How does the share of journal data policies vary by discipline? What influences these journals’ decisions to adopt such policies and instructions? And what do those policies and instructions look like? We discuss the results of our analysis of the instructions and policies of 291 highly-ranked journals publishing social science research, where we studied the contents of journal data policies and instructions across 14 variables, such as when and how authors are asked to share their data, and what role journal ranking and age play in the existence and quality of data policies and instructions. We also compare our results to the results of other studies that have analyzed the policies of social science journals, although differences in the journals chosen and how each study defines what constitutes a data policy limit this comparison. We conclude that a little more than half of the journals in our study have data policies. A greater share of the economics journals have data policies and mandate sharing, followed by political science/international relations and psychology journals. Finally, we use our findings to make several recommendations: Policies should include the terms “data,” “dataset” or more specific terms that make it clear what to make available; policies should include the benefits of data sharing; journals, publishers, and associations need to collaborate more to clarify data policies; and policies should explicitly ask for qualitative data.
  • Gossip
  • International cooperation networks of the BRICS bloc
    Since the BRICS Declaration in Cape Town in 2013, its five member countries have committed to cooperation programs in science, technology and innovation (STI), based on the five strategic thematic areas assigned to each signatory: climate change and mitigation of catastrophes (Brazil); water resources and pollution treatment (Russia); geospatial technology and its applications (India); new and renewable energy, and energy efficiency (China); and astronomy (South Africa). Five years after the Declaration and almost a decade after the First BRICS Summit, the evaluation of the strengthening of international cooperation among countries remains a challenge, due to their low presence in the large index databases commonly used for the collection of scientific data, such as Web of Science and Scopus. The proposal of this research is to carry out a study on international cooperation among the countries in the last five years through the Dimensions platform, based on the incidence of international co-authoring and co-financing of research agencies from the five countries, seeking to highlight the following points: the networks that consolidate themselves from the international cooperation among the BRICS countries, areas emerging in research with incidences of co-authorship, and how the research networks have been developed around the five strategic areas defined in the BRICS Cape Town Declaration. It aims to evaluate how the international cooperation of the BRICS bloc in strategic thematic areas has been growing, pointing to possible areas of strengthening of international partnerships that can be deployed through this study.
  • Sect, Nation, and Identity after the Fall of Mosul: Evidence from a Natural Experiment
    What are the identity consequences of war? Do ethnic groups rally behind the nation when confronted with territorial threat? How do we explain any ethnic, or subethnic, heterogeneity in identity responses? A large literature theorizes identity as endogenous to war. However, identifying such endogenous variation is hindered by the difficulties of conducting social inquiry in conflict settings. I address this gap by exploiting a unique source of exogenous variation---the fall of Mosul to the Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham---during the fieldwork for a nationally representative survey in Iraq. I find systematic differences in the identity responses of Sunni and Shi'i Iraqis. While Shi'is cleave to the nation, Sunnis mobilize behind an Arab identity. The finding for Sunnis, however, is confounded by tribal presence: in densely tribal areas Sunnis rally behind the nation. Observed patterns are explicable according to inter- and intra-ethnic differences in threat perception and availability of cross-cutting organizational forms. The findings represent rare systematic empirical evidence of the endogeneity, and subethnic heterogeneity, of identity in an increasingly prevalent form of conflict.
  • Unscientific Visual Representations Used for the "Egg Aging" Campaign in 2010s Japan
    Japan has experienced floods of fake knowledge about human reproduction in recent times. Most of them are created by professionals in the fields of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive medicine and spread widely through a mass media campaign backed by academic associations. Such a knowledge has also been used by the government as scientific evidence to justify encouragement of pregnancy and childbirth for young women. “Egg aging” (卵子の老化) has been the key concept in the campaign. This concept is originally a term of biology for the degeneration of eggs (or female germ cells) owing to a long delay in the process of meiotic division. As it acquired popularity, the concept widened its connotation. “Egg aging” today is not limited to the degeneration of germ cells, but covers a wide range of fertility problems experienced by women of an advanced age. It now serves as a magic phrase to represent many aspects of latent biological mechanisms of declining fertility. In the course of the media campaign, fake knowledge about human reproduction has become popular in books, magazines, and websites giving an impression that it is based on scientific grounds. These are targeted at youths' perception of their body and thereby have an impact on their sexual behavior and family planning. We can regard this as a violation against reproductive rights because it disrupts the reproductive decision-making process with misinformation. It also damages public trust in the medical profession, which will eventually harm the social health system. This brochure, Unscientific Visual Representations Used for the Egg Aging Campaign in 2010s Japan, is a product of the research project “Unscientific knowledge and the egg aging panic” funded by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (KAKENHI #17K02069 for fiscal 2017-2019). This project is run by Tanaka Sigeto, an associate professor at Tohoku University, to explore the courses, contexts, and consequences of the egg aging campaign. According to a literature survey of both academic and popular writings, this brochure introduces some instances of visual representations used in the campaign and explains how they have been widespread in the Japanese society to affect governmental policies and public opinions.
  • The world system in the information age: structure, processes, and technologies
    The new information age has the potential to not only alter the historical path of world system development as other socio-technological paradigmatic shifts have done, but to transform it substantially. One school of thought argues for a complete upending of past patterns with nation-states in their hierarchical alignment as the center core and periphery of power in this system. An alternative view instead argues that the regularized interaction that characterizes a world system may envisage a number of modes of production without altering its fundamental structure). The world system in this view is made up of a variety of complex intraorganizational and interorganizational networks intersecting with geographical networks structured particularly around linked clusters of socioeconomic activity. Information and carrier technologies based on new forms of information technologies and their connection to network technologies play a vital role in the long-term evolution of world system development characterized by both path-dependencies and major transformations that result from technological innovations. While digital information technologies significantly alter the processing and use of information as a central element of power and control within this network structure and therefore its network logic, they do not break the evolutionary process of world system development.
  • Territorial Expansion in the Virú State: Updating Old Settlement Patterns to Explore New Ideas
    The territorial-expansion model, recently proposed as a general model to explain the development of first-generation states, is tested in the Virú Valley of Peru. The Virú state developed around 200 BC and is the earliest known state on the north coast of Peru. The settlement patterns and settlement hierarchies of the Virú Period (ca. 200 BC – 600 AD) are compared with those of the earlier Puerto Morin Period (ca. 400 – 200 BC) to investigate processes of territorial expansion. Two independent polities and several outlying communities occupied the valley during the Puerto Morin Period whereas settlement during the Virú Period was extensive, populations surged, and large swaths of the valley were settled for the first time. Evidence is presented to show that the Virú state incorporated the earlier Puerto Morin polities and that a three-tiered settlement hierarchy existed at this time. Drawing from cross-cultural evidence and recent studies on Virú expansionary dynamics, I propose a hypothesis that the Virú state expanded rapidly throughout the valley early in its developmental history and pursued a policy of territorial consolidation later in its history. Ultimately, the Virú case supports the territorial-expansion model of early state development.
  • Paying for Poverty Alleviation
    The objective of linking grant payments to results can go beyond the incentivization of implementers. We discuss a payment function that was designed with the objective of funding effective poverty alleviation interventions at growing scale without making unwarranted projections of at-scale impact.
  • Income Inequality in the European Union & United States: A Comparative Decomposition
    This study applies improved household income data to measure and decompose trends in pan-European income inequality from 2006 to 2014. To contrast the relative significance of economic homogeneity versus the efficacy of welfare state and labor market institutions in shaping income distributions, we compare the structure of inequality in the EU-28 to that of the 50 United States. This comparison stands in contrast to the standard practice of evaluating the US against individual EU Member States. Despite the greater relative heterogeneity of the 28 EU Member States and our corrections for the underreporting of household income in the US, post-fisc income inequality in the EU-28 remains lower than that of the US from 2006 onward. Moreover, inequality appears to be rising in the US while it has remained stagnant since 2008 in the EU-28. In both unions, and particularly the US, within-state income differences contribute more to union-wide inequality than between-state differences. In a counterfactual analysis, we find that if the EU-28 matched the between-state homogeneity of the US, but maintained its relative within-country inequalities, pan-European inequality would fall by only 20 percent. Conversely, inequality in the US would fall by 34 percent if it matched the within-country inequality of the EU-28. Our findings suggest that the strengthening of egalitarian institutions within the 28 Member States is more consequential than economic convergence in reducing pan-European income inequality. We highlight institutional challenges toward achieving a ‘more equal’ Europe and discuss implications for future EU policymaking.
  • “There’s Always Winners and Losers”: Traditional Masculinity, Resource Dependence, and Post-Disaster Environmental Complacency
    The 2013 Southern Alberta flood was a costly and devastating event. The literature suggests that such disasters have the potential to spur greater environmentalism and environmental action, as residents make connections between global environmental change and local events. However, the literature also suggests that residents in communities dependent on fossil fuel extraction might see technological disasters, like oil spills, as threats to their economic well-being, thereby limiting environmental reflexivity. Given that Alberta is home of the tar sands, how might a flood disaster affect men’s environmental views, given both traditional notions of masculinity and men’s economic dependence on oil production? Using a survey of 407 flood-affected residents of Calgary and in-depth qualitative interviews with 20 men directly impacted by the flood, this article demonstrates men’s decreased tendency to change their environmental views after the flood. The qualitative data reveal that men justify this reluctance by shifting blame for climate change to the Global South, by arguing for the economic centrality of the tar sands for Alberta, and by discussing how a warming climate will largely be a positive outcome for Alberta. The article concludes with discussion of relevance for environmental sociology and for public policy.
  • The Differential Effects of Economic Conditions and Racial Attitudes in the Election of Donald Trump
    Debates over the extent to which racial attitudes and economic distress explain voting behavior in the 2016 election have tended to be limited in scope, focusing on the extent to which each factor explains white voters’ two-party vote choice. This limited scope obscures important ways in which these factors could have been related to voting behavior among other racial sub-groups of the electorate, as well as participation in the two-party contest in the first place. Using the vote-validated 2016 Cooperative Congressional Election Survey, merged with economic data at the ZIP code and county levels, we find that racial attitudes strongly explain two-party vote choice among white voters – in line with a growing body of literature. However, we also find that local economic distress was strongly associated with non-voting among people of color, complicating direct comparisons between racial and economic explanations of the 2016 election and cautioning against generalizations regarding causal emphasis.
  • Personal Income and Hierarchical Power
    This paper examines the relation between personal income and hierarchical power. In the context of a firm hierarchy, I define hierarchical power as the number of subordinates under an individual’s control. Using the available case-study evidence, I find that relative income within firms scales strongly with hierarchical power. I also find that hierarchical power affects income more strongly than any other factor for which data is available. I conclude that this is preliminary evidence for a hierarchical-power theory of personal income distribution.
  • Probabilistic Misconceptions Are Pervasive Among Communication Researchers
    Across all areas of communication research, the most popular approach to generating insights about communication is the classical significance test (also called null hypothesis significance testing, NHST). The predominance of NHST in communication research is in spite of serious concerns about the ability of researchers to properly interpret its results. We draw on data from a survey of the ICA membership to assess the evidential basis of these concerns. The vast majority of communication researchers misinterpreted NHST (91%) and the most prominent alternative, confidence intervals (96%), while overestimating their competence. Academic seniority and statistical experience did not predict better interpretation outcomes. These findings indicate major problems regarding the generation of knowledge in the field of communication research.
  • Party and Cleavage in the 2016 Election
    I fit non-parametric spatial models to a novel set of survey data on the 2016 election (N=8,000). I find two underlying dimensions: "race/identity" and "trade-plus." Attitudes toward Muslim immigration and transgender people emerge as the clearest divides between Trump and Clinton voters. Trade is nearly orthogonal to "race/identity" and cleaves both candidates' blocs. Attitudes toward redistributive policies split both parties, depending on the question asked. Supporters of Republican and Democratic candidates reflect distinct positions on "race/identity" (except those of Kasich). Sanders supporters are at least as liberal as Clinton supporters on "race/identity." They are slightly to the left of all others on "trade-plus." Those Sanders voters who voted for Trump are more conservative on "race/identity" and slightly more liberal on "trade-plus."
  • Intergenerational Mobility at the Top of the Educational Distribution
    Research has shown that intergenerational mobility is higher among individuals with a college degree than among those with lower levels of schooling. However, mobility declines among graduate-degree holders. This finding questions the meritocratic power of higher education. Prior research has been hampered, however, by the small samples of advanced degree holders in representative surveys. Drawing on a large longitudinal dataset of PhD holders –the Survey of Doctorate Recipients– this study examines intergenerational mobility among the American educational elite, separately for men and women and different racial/ethnic groups. Results show substantial mobility among PhD holders. The association between parents’ education and adult children’s earnings is moderate among men and non-existent among women with doctoral degrees. However, women’s earnings converge to an average level that is much lower than men’s, signaling “perverse openness” for women even at the top of the educational distribution. Among men, there is variation in mobility by race and ethnicity. The intergenerational socioeconomic association is null for Asian men, small for white and black men, and more pronounced for Hispanics. Educational and occupational mediators account for intergenerational association among blacks and whites but not Hispanic men. A doctoral degree largely detaches individuals from their social origins in the United States but it does not eliminate all sources of inequality
  • Professionalization Through Attrition?: An Event History Analysis of Mortalities in Citizen Journalism
    Despite both scholarly and popular claims that citizen journalism (CJ) represents a growing democratizing force in the journalistic field, recent scholarship in the area has noted the decline of the organizational population of CJ. In this paper, we investigate how individual characteristics of sites and the dynamics of larger organizational population affect a CJ site’s risk of experiencing a mortality. Drawing on the largest sample to date of U.S-based English-language CJ sites, this study examines risk of site mortality through an event history framework. Findings indicate that the strongest predictor of a site’s mortality is the age of the site, consistent with organizational population theory’s “liability of newness.” We also find that for-profit and community based-sites have lower rates of site mortality, indicating that adopting legitimate conventions of journalism may serve as a protective buffer to site death. The results offer mixed evidence on whether CJ has become more professionalized via attrition.
  • Performing nature's value: software and the making of Oregon's ecosystem services markets
    Full-text, in-print version here: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0308518X15616631 Geographers of technology illustrate software code’s contexts, effects, and agencies as it shapes urban space and everyday life, but the consequences of code for nature remain understudied. Political ecologists have critiqued remote sensing and GIS-based conservation projects, but have not engaged more broadly with the role of software in the contested production, circulation, and application of ecological knowledge. Yet, around the world, data analytics firms and conservation nonprofits argue for optimizing environmental management through faster and bigger data collection and new techniques of data manipulation and visualization. I present a case study from the US state of Oregon illustrating how conservationists and environmental regulators employ computer programming to plan markets in which entrepreneurs restore stream and wetland ecosystem services to earn offset credits. In these markets, code-executed algorithms constituting spreadsheets, web maps, and GIS utilities generate, relate, and make sense of the data that defines credit commodities. I argue that code tends toward three effects: producing a landscape defined by wetlands' modeled value; performing social relations associated with nature’s neoliberalization and financialization; legitimating these moves. Although emphasis on the performativity of code and other technological objects is warranted, the contexts in which these are authored, deployed, and evaluated should remain central to understanding environmental governance. This is to caution against seeing technology as reducing nature and society to state or capitalist rationalities and to hesitate to differentiate prima facie code’s work on space and on nature. I call for bridging political ecology and geographies of technology in ways that can explain how code is generative of environmental knowledge, change, and conflict. Citation: Nost, E. 2015. Performing nature's value: software and the making of Oregon's ecosystem services markets.Environment and PlanningA47(12):2573-2590.
  • Queering Brexit: What’s in Brexit for Sexual and Gender Minorities?
    On 24 June 2016, many people had the feeling that they had gone to bed the night before in the United Kingdom and had woken up in Little Britain – a country prone to isolationism and protectionism, risking hurting its economic and social development for the sake of imperial nostalgia and moral panic about ‘loss of sovereignty’ and ‘mass migration’. That feeling inevitably affected many individuals who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, intersex, queer and other (LGBTIQ+). Although the possible impact of Brexit seems to have been scrutinised from most angles, there has been limited analysis of how it may affect LGBTIQ+ individuals. This contribution assesses Brexit in relation to the situation of LGBTIQ+ individuals. This is particularly timely in the light of the recent UK Supreme Court decision in Walker v Innospec Limited, where the Court relied on European Union (EU) law to hold a provision of the Equality Act 2010 unlawful for violating pension rights of same-sex couples.
  • Postmodern Picture Books as Multimodal Texts: Changing Trends in Children’s Literature
    Literature for children has undergone significant changes over the past years. It has generated new attitudes towards childhood and changing practices around literature. The concept of literature for entertainment along with instruction, as proposed by Peter Hunt, has changed the traditional mode of reading methods and gave new dimensions in reading and experiencing children’s books. Nowadays, children’s books are available in various forms like printed books, audio/video recordings, animated movies, Disney cartoons etc. New developments in computational field and digital media have opened wider ways of exploring children’s stories. This has also led to the notion of cross-reading. Most of the stories for children are re-told or re-visioned adapting to different socio-cultural, linguistic domains. This adaptation is both a product and process as seen by Hutcheon (2012). The chief characteristics of postmodern picture books include usually a non-linear plot structure, using pictures or texts to position the reader and focalizing ideas through the point of view of a character, construction of meaning by the reader, intertextual references and above all, the varied design layout and styles of illustration as envisioned by Anstey (2002). All these developments appease the tastes of the modern child as well as the adult reader. This paper is an attempt to explore the evolving styles in contemporary children’s books where it is thought of more in terms of multimodal texts, with self-referential elements adding to it the notion of metafiction.
  • Usage of Specialized Service Delivery: Evidence from Contiguous Counties
    This study exploits exogenous policy discontinuities along state borders to estimate the influence of differences in local autonomy on the usage of special districts in U.S. counties. Using forty years of data, this analysis compares counties on either side of state borders where local autonomy differs and finds little to no evidence that negative changes in local autonomy leads to increased utilization of special districts. This study suggests that some prior literature may overstate the importance of local autonomy in local service delivery.
  • Supporting affordable housing supply: inclusionary planning in new and renewing communities
    This study examined how planning mechanisms support affordable housing supply in Australia and overseas. In England 43 per cent of affordable housing built in 2015–16 (12,866 units) were delivered due to inclusionary planning requirements, while more than 500 cities in the United States have inclusionary zoning or impact fee requirements to supply affordable housing. In Australia planning systems can support affordable housing supply, but additional funding or subsidy is usually required to produce homes affordable to those on low and very low incomes.
  • Restoring West Africa to its Past in Chinua Achebe's Things Fall Apart and Mary Kingsley's Travels in West Africa
    The article is inspired by Achebe's belief that human stories should be told from distinct perspectives to grasp all it intents. The story of Umuofia, the fictitious Igbo village, in Achebe's Things Fall Apart (1958) can be read intertextually in light of the non-fictional text of Mary Kingsley, Travels in West Africa (1897) to underline the thrust of authenticity and fidelity of Achebe that makes his fiction true to life. This juxtaposition is further staged to question the stereotypical representation of Africa and Africans through the fictional texts of 19thc British writers such as Joseph Conrad, Rider Haggard among many others. Though it is not a purely historical text, Things Fall Apart is spearheaded against the reductive approach applied by 19thc British writers to deny Africa history and culture wholesale, presenting it on a dire need for the enlightenment and mission civilisatrice of the Westerners. Hence, the ostensible aim to enlighten the African heathens living in utter darkness, to free the African minds from the enslavement of superstition, to liberate African women from the sexual laxity endorsed by the barbaric morals of heathenism is counterpointed in Achebe’s Things Fall Apart. Chiefly, Achebe states that the cultural practices of the African people in their particular African environment down through ages have catered them with particular insights into life that are the bedrock of values and outlooks shaping contemporary African life. The same insights are confirmed in Kingsley's text Travels in West Africa.
  • Classic papers: using Google Scholar to detect the highly-cited documents
    In June 2017 Google Scholar launched a new product called Classic Papers. This service currently displays the most cited English-language original research articles by fields and published in 2006. The main goal of this work is to describe the main characteristics and features of this Google Scholar’s new service, as well as to highlight its main strengths and weaknesses. To do this, a total of 2,515 records were extracted. Additionally, for each record, the following bibliographic data were gathered: broad subject category and subcategory, Title of the document, URL, Authors, Google Scholar Citation profiles’ URL, and Citations received. It is finally concluded that, although the product is easy to use and provides original data about highly cited documents at the level of disciplines, it still suffers of some methodological concerns, mainly related to the subject classification of documents and the use of homogenous visualization threshold regardless the discipline, that jeopardizes the utility of this product for bibliometric purposes. In addition to this, the lack of transparency constitutes a methodological concern, since Google Scholar does not to declare in detail how the product has been developed.
  • The contemporary cybercrime ecosystem: A multi-disciplinary overview of the state of affairs and developments
    This article provides a multi-disciplinary overview of the contemporary cybercrime ecosystem and its developments. It does so by reviewing, synthesising and reporting on recent cybercrime research from fields such as cybersecurity, law and criminology. This article is divided into four main parts. The first part offers background on cybercrime and some of its main elements. It defines terminology, sets out a legal taxonomy of cybercrime offences and presents the estimated costs, threat agents and characteristics of various illicit activities and technical aspects of cybercrime. Parts two, three and four build on this preceding analysis by (separately) examining three prominent threat vectors within the ecosystem – malware, the darknet and Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies. For each threat vector, the article identifies and investigates features, history, functions and current and expected states of development within the ecosystem. Through its attention to and synthesis of current research and results from different fields, this article offers a synoptic account of the cybercrime ecosystem, which can bridge potential knowledge gaps between fields.
  • The Coming Divorce Decline
    This paper analyzes the odds of divorce from 2008 to 2016 (soon 2017), using multivariate models of marital events data from the American Community Survey. I find that the falling observed divorce rates over the last decade are apparent in the fully adjusted model as well. Further, age specific divorce rates show that the trend in the last decade has been driven by younger women (despite higher divorce rates among older women than in the past). Finally, I analyze the characteristics of newly-married couples over the last decade, and identify trends that portend further declines in divorce rates. Marriage is become more selective, and more stable, even as attitudes toward divorce are becoming more permissive, and cohabitation has grown less stable. The U.S. is progressing toward a system in which marriage is rarer, and more stable, than it was in the past, representing an increasingly central component of the structure of social inequality.
  • Marriage Systems, Evolution of
  • Agenda Setting and Intra-Party Deliberation: Who gets represented at party national meetings?
    National party meetings provide members with opportunities to express distinct preferences and issue priorities that guide the party’s future policies. Although scholars recognize that party leaders dominate the structure and content of meetings, little empirical research examines the extent of their agenda setting role. Who gets to speak and whose preferences get represented? Adapting theories of legislative agenda setting to the intra-party context, we hypothesize that party candidates are less likely to be chosen as speakers at party conferences when the party’s leadership most demands unity due to their incumbency status. Using self-placements from candidate surveys, we predict the likelihood that MPs and leaders speak at parties’ national meetings in the U.K. We then link candidates’ self-placements to the content of speeches using automated text analysis. These results add to a broad theory of party decision-making which perceives parties’ national meetings as a forum for information sharing, intra-party competition and deliberation. More broadly, evidence in line with this approach suggests that treating parties as unitary actors in a range of settings overlooks important intra-party divisions.
  • Still Hoping: The Relation of International Auxiliary Languages to Worldview and Perception
    Constructed international auxiliary languages (IALs) have been proposed to influence the cultural identities and world perspectives of their speakers. The creation of IALs surged in the late 19th century as a response to rising nationalism; through their sociopolitical neutrality and ease of learning, IALs sought to introduce unity to a divided world. Though IAL adoption remains limited, their speakers still believe that given the ability to spread, IALs could unite our global community. To examine group trends and individual perspectives in how IALs may influence identity and perception, I surveyed and interviewed an online Esperantist community. I also performed close reading of randomly-selected posts on online forums for Esperanto, Volapük, and Toki Pona, as well as the general forum Linguistics and Conlangs. Finally, I analyzed content for six months of posts from the Volapük and Toki Pona forums. Most speakers (68.8%) self-reported that IALs changed their perception and, fewer (34.4%), beliefs. Survey respondents and interviewees cited community membership, broader communication, and IALs’ simplified linguistic features as influences on their worldviews. Accordingly, more years speaking Esperanto, seeking and feeling part of Esperanto communities, and believing the world would be a better place with more IAL adoption significantly correlated with change in beliefs. Different IAL forums statistically differed in their content, interactivity, and post length, which may reflect language-influenced disparities. The results suggest that IALs may affect the beliefs of learners in relation to their community-building properties and widening of communication ranges and impact the perceptions of learners through their unique structures.
  • Science Blogs as Critique—Building Public Identities in the Field of Translational Research
    Clinician scientists are pivotal figures in translational research. Although the discourse on translational research is favorable to clinician scientists, their role within it and their view of themselves has received little attention. In this exploratory study, we attempt to analyze the view of clinician scientists on translational research by drawing on surveillance studies and the pragmatic sociology of critique and examining the potential for critique of science blogs. From analyzing science blogs and the blogging selves they represent, we find a fundamental dilemma of being torn between the two worlds of clinic and research. Although translational research seeks to support clinician scientists, it intensifies this conflict even further. The arguments of clinician scientist-bloggers are emotionally charged with feelings of contradiction, unpredictability, and skepticism. These feelings undergird a critical agenda that shows indignation as the result of being a pivotal figure in the discourse on translational research.
  • Hedonic Pricing of Cryptocurrency Tokens
    A cryptocurrency token offers a method of incentivizing behavior in a way that supports trusted interaction (through its blockchain-based infrastructure). It also acts as a multipurpose instrument that may fulfill a variety of roles, such as facilitating digital use cases or acting as a store of value. Understanding how to value such an instrument is complicated by these multiple roles because the relative valuation of one role cannot be disentangled from another role—a token is a ‘bundled’ good. In this work a general pricing model for cryptocurrency tokens is derived, based upon and extending the hedonic pricing framework of Rosen (1974) in a partial equilibrium framework. It is shown that individual roles (or characteristics) of a token may be priced by inverting in a special way the relationship between the token’s aggregate quantity and its provision of characteristics. Interaction between a monopolistic token seller and a representative buyer results in an equilibrium that clears both the aggregate token market and the characteristic market. Particular attention is given to the case in which a token possesses a security role, as this has been a focus of existing discussions regarding the regulation of the cryptocurrency market. JEL Codes: D46, C60.
  • Quantifying wildlife watchers’ preferences to investigate the overlap between recreational and conservation value of natural areas
    1. Nature-based recreation provides substantial benefits for human wellbeing, including improving physical and mental health, but can also have severe ecological impacts. The recreational value of landscapes and natural areas is often used to generate support for public spending in conservation. However, we still don’t know whether nature-based recreationists place greater recreational value on natural areas that have high conservation value compared to other green spaces. 2. Here, we determine which attributes of nature-based tourism destinations provide recreational services. We used pictures of wildlife posted on Flickr to quantify wildlife-watching activities in Scotland. We then determined the environmental variables key to attracting wildlife watchers to a destination, such as protected areas (PAs), the perceived naturalness, and the presence of different types of infrastructure. 3. Infrastructure is the best predictor of intensity of wildlife watching activities in Scotland, while areas of high natural value are rarely used. PAs act as a weak attractor of wildlife watchers, with PAs designated to protect threatened habitats or species having low recreational value. In accessible and highly visited areas, higher biodiversity increases the intensity of wildlife watching activities. 4. Synthesis and applications. Areas of high natural and conservation value and areas of high recreational value do not tend to overlap. Recreational ecosystem services are mainly provided by the wider countryside and highly transformed landscapes as opposed to wild ecosystems and PAs designated to protect environmental features of high conservation value. These results question the synergy between the goals of recreation and those of conservation and the use of recreation as a justification for economic investment in conservation. During wildlife watching activities most people experience an urbanised, highly transformed nature; it will be important to determine how this human-dominated nature can influence support for conservation of wild and remote areas.
  • Diversifying but not Integrating: Entropic Measures of Local Segregation
    Diversifying but not Integrating
  • Diversifying but Not Integrating: Entropic Measures of Local Segregation
    Scholars of segregation have struggled to adapt indices designed to model two‐group segregation for cities with large populations drawn from more than two racial/ethnic groups. Considering segregation as a social form of entropy resolves that struggle and introduces a family of related measures that offer means of analysing segregation at both the local (neighbourhood) level and the greater (city/region) area. A case study of Philadelphia's level of segregation from 1990 to 2010 illustrates the benefits of the new measures. While Philadelphia has diversified, it remains racially segregated. Further, the new measures show the growing importance of Hispanic segregation and a shift from segregation being visited upon the city's Black residents to being driven by a White population that grows more segregated as its population share shrinks. Integrating measures of segregation and diversity into studies of residential racial patterns enhances our understanding of racial segregation patterns in a multiracial context.
  • Designing for and against Symbolic Boundaries
    I argue that, via the mixture of physical and symbolic boundaries, placemaking and urban design reinforce inequality, albeit less overtly than the architecture of fear Davis identifies and shifted in response to the new political economy. That shift also offers an opportunity to reimagine an urban design that subverts that inequality. To understand urban design today, urban planner Marlon Williams pointedly asks, “As urban planners, are we revolutionaries? Or are we the very reason there needs to be a revolution?”
  • Designing for and against Symbolic Boundaries
    DESIGNING FOR AND AGAINST SYMBOLIC BOUNDARIES
  • Improving metadata infrastructure for complex surveys: Insights from the Fragile Families Challenge
    Researchers rely on metadata systems to prepare data for analysis. As the complexity of datasets increases and the breadth of data analysis practices grow, existing metadata systems can limit the efficiency and quality of data preparation. This article describes the redesign of a metadata system supporting the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study based on the experiences of participants in the Fragile Families Challenge. We demonstrate how treating metadata as data—that is, releasing comprehensive information about variables in a format amenable to both automated and manual processing—can make the task of data preparation less arduous and less error-prone for all types of data analysis. We hope that our work will facilitate new applications of machine learning methods to longitudinal surveys and inspire research on data preparation in the social sciences. We have open-sourced the tools we created so that others can use and improve them.
  • No Landward Retreat: Examining 80 years of population migration and shoreline change in Louisiana
    Louisiana has lost nearly 5,000 sq km of its coastal land area due to relative sea level rise and other factors driving local and regional sea level changes since 1932, mirroring both the hazards associated with sea level rise and the time horizons of sea level rise impacts expected this century. This represents an opportunity to examine the relationship between long-term population changes and shoreline change. Based on detailed land change data for the period 1932-2010 and a small area population estimation technique for the period 1940-2010, we examine intra-parish population changes in relation to shoreline changes for the one million plus residents living in the ten coastal parishes of Louisiana. We find that since 1940, only two of the ten coastal parishes exhibited landward population movement, which we define as movement perpendicular to the shoreline, exceeding 1km and three parishes exhibited seaward population movement in excess of 1km. Overall, we find very little net intra-parish landward population movement for the region and our findings suggest that coastal Louisiana's historical population has not moved in concert with observed shoreline encroachment. We also find a potential tipping point of abandonment when a neighborhood loses 50% of its land area. Our findings suggest that this lack of landward population movement could be attributable to either localized adaptation strategies or migrations to other landward areas.
  • When Colleges Drop Affirmative Action: Trends in Admissions Policies and Student Enrollment at Selective U.S. Institutions, 1990-2016
    Scholarship on elite American colleges has identified the rise and persistence of a “diversity imperative” – an institution’s perceived need to enroll racially heterogeneous student bodies to maintain its status in the field. At the same time, a significant proportion of selective institutions have stopped considering race in admissions. To understand the relationship between affirmative action and enrollment, we analyze enrollment trends by race at 973 competitive institutions in states without affirmative action bans from 1990-2016. We find that considering race is associated with an increase in Black and Latinx enrollments at more competitive institutions. At less competitive schools, considering race is associated with a decrease in Black and Latinx enrollments, and an increase in White and Asian/Pacific Islander enrollments. The results indicate that the relationship between affirmative action in admissions and enrollment demographics varies by institutional competitiveness; considering race does not necessarily translate into higher Black or Latinx enrollments or lower White and API enrollments.
  • Do Cities and Counties Attempt to Circumvent Changes in their Autonomy by Creating Special Districts?
    This study uses forty years of data from the US Census of Governments to examine the impact of changes in local autonomy on the creation of the fastest growing form of local governments, special districts. Using fixed effects regression specified at the urban county and metropolitan statistical area level, we find that restrictions of fiscal autonomy of cities is associated with creation of new special districts. When the limits on fiscal autonomy interacts with grants of functional autonomy, amplification occurs. We find no analogous effects for county governments. These two findings are consistent with the circumvention argument made in the local autonomy literature.
  • The use of lithic assemblages for the definition of short-term occupations in hunter-gatherer prehistory
    One of the main elements in prehistoric research is the study of settlement patterns. In the last five decades, stemming partially from Binford’s research on the topic, the idea of settlement patterns is based on site typology, including the traditional residential and logistic concepts. Both models of land use and exploitation are certainly marked by the notion of short-term occupation. This concept, used freely by many archaeologists, tends to rely on two main ideas: an occupation lasted a short span of time and resulted in a limited amount of material culture. Our aim, based on our results from various archaeological case studies dated to the Upper Paleolithic of Portugal, is to show that neither idea is necessarily correct: e.g. there may be short-term occupations with the production of large amounts of artifacts, such as lithic workshops; there might be very small collections, such as lithic caches, resulting from short occupations but with very long uses of the site; and most times, both are hardly differentiated within complex palimpsests. Our study shows that the common use of lithic volumetric density and retouch frequency is not always sufficient to differentiate between short and long-term occupations. Also, there are other variables that are more sensitive to indicate the duration of occupation of an archaeological context that should be used in the identification of time length.
  • The Limits of Income Inequality: Public Support for Social Policy across Rich Democracies
    Does public opinion react to inequality, and if so, how? The social harms caused by increasing inequality should cause public opinion to ramp up demand for social welfare protections. However, the public may react to inequality differently depending on institutional context. Using ISSP and WID data (1980-2006) we tested these claims. In liberal institutional contexts (mostly English-speaking), increasing income inequality predicted higher support for state provision of social welfare. In coordinated and universalist contexts (mostly of Europe), increasing inequality predicted less support. Historically higher income concentration predicted less public support, providing an account of the large variation in inequality within the respective liberal and coordinated contexts. The results suggest opinions in liberal societies – especially with higher historical inequality – reached the limits of inequality, reacting negatively; whereas in coordinated/universalist societies – especially with lower historical inequality – opinions moved positively, as if desiring more inequality.