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SocArXiv papers

  • Experimenting on 3D GIS: The Case of Sennacherib's South-West Palace at Nineveh
    Alongside traditional recording in 2D, new tools now allow us to analyze 3D data in archaeology. My case study in a 3D GIS concerns Sennacherib's South-West palace in Nineveh. The 3D model of the building has been georeferenced. Specific external databases were organized to collect all available data, both for archi-tecture and visual finds, while the associated geometries were organized in different layers according to their content. This allows for the simultaneous visualization of the 3D model with embedded information, which becomes an integral part of it, and not just metadata. In this way, it was possible to create a system that al-lows the full enhancement of the whole of the information belonging to such a rich and complex context through decades of field researches recorded in a variety of ways of differing accuracy. Thanks to coopera-tion with the CRANE project we now strive to make the model a public one on the web.
  • Racial Animosity and Black Financial Advisor Underrepresentation
    This study investigates whether racial animosity across metropolitan markets is associated with Black financial advisor underrepresentation. Using a dataset of all U.S. securities-licensed individuals (N = 642,543), we first estimate the racial and ethnic composition of the industry using an algorithm that accounts for name, gender, and location. Second, we use a dataset enhanced by a commercial vendor to restrict the analysis to only those identified as working as financial advisors (n = 237,435). Using racially charged Google search queries as a proxy for racial animosity, we find that greater racial animosity is associated with greater Black advisor underrepresentation. We estimate lower underrepresentation of 0.9 percentage points when comparing markets with the highest and lowest levels of animosity. For the average market with an estimated 11.4% Black advisor representation, an increase of 0.9 percentage points would represent a 7.9% increase in Black advisor representation.
  • How Voters Distort their Perceptions and Why this Matters
    Voters' ability to perceive political parties' positions on policy scales is a precondition for a functioning and responsive electoral democracy. Appropriate measures of policy distance are thus key to addressing the link between political parties and the citizens. This chapter reviews the scholarship on ideal point estimation, identifying the main methodological and substantial implications for empirical studies involving issue scales. Next, the chapter applies two-stage Bayesian Aldrich-McKelvey scaling to European Election Studies data to find evidence of systematic perceptual distortions: right-wing voters perceive political parties as more progressive than they actually are, while knowledgeable voters perceive greater differences between parties. Perceptual bias is also shown to correlate with standard polarization measures based on perceived party positions.
  • Parliamentary Mandate Fulfilment. An automated approach to measuring congruence between the pre and post-electoral discourse of parties using word embeddings
    The idea that electoral competition, party promises and manifestos are important for how the representative behaviour of parties unfolds post-electorally is central to democratic theories of representation. Scholars of Party Mandate fulfilment have for long been focusing methodologically on the number of pre-electoral pledges parties in government manage to realize. This paper analyses existing research and its limitations and proposes a novel approach for mandate fulfilment, extending past research (both conceptually and methodologically) by looking at the extent to which the parliamentary discourse of parties matches their electoral discourse. It designs, tentatively validates and implements a novel measure of how similar is the pre and post-electoral rhetoric of parties by utilizing recent advances in computational linguistics and the diffusion of text analysis tools in the social sciences. It applies it on the Irish parliament and compares electoral manifesto data with post-electoral parliamentary data from 1997 to 2019.
  • Perang Semesta (Total War) Strategy for Preventing Terrorism Act (Study in Sultan Hasanuddin International Airport)
    Total war is involving all national components such as citizens, territories and national resources in order to defend territorial integrity, sovereignty, and national security from any threats. One of these threats is the act of terrorism which endangers the unity, sovereignty and security of the nation. Acts of terrorism are carried out to create a terror with ideological, political and religious motives and are carried out in vital objects of the state, the environment, and public facilities. One of the vital objects of a country that is prone to acts of terrorism is an airport, which is a place for various activities such as the movement of aircraft, people and goods. Moreover, an airport is a very important infrastructure in supporting the national defense. In this study, the researcher took Sultan Hasanuddin International Airport, Makassar, as the research site considering that several large cases of terrorism and radicalism have occurred in the South Sulawesi region. The objective of this study is to analyze the total war strategy carried out in the Sultan Hasanuddin Airport area as an effort to prevent acts of terrorism at the airport as a vital national object. The research method used is qualitative. The data have been collected from interviews, observations and literature study. The results of this research are in preventing terrorism, a total war strategy that is implemented has three components, including the 'ends,' which could prevent the acts of terrorism in Sultan Hasanuddin Airport and strengthen the national defense. The 'means' which is manifested in all national components, both government and private agencies, military, police and civil society, as well as facilities and infrastructure. The 'ways' which is the intelligence operations, strengthening cooperation between the military and civilians, strengthening synergy between ministries / agencies, training, counseling, completing security tools to prevent acts of terrorism.
  • Health Personnel and the Implementation of National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria
    Acknowledged as a policy target for the government of Nigeria, healthcare provision represents an important preoccupation for the government. As with other public policies, the achievement of policy goals in Nigeria is usually encumbered by numerous factors of implementation across various sectors. In the health sector, factors such as inadequate physical infrastructure, shortage of healthcare personnel, limited medical supplies etc. have hindered the implementation of several health policies. National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) is one of such policies and this study examined the effects of shortage of healthcare personnel on the implementation of NHIS policy in FCT, Abuja. Specifically, the study evaluated the opinions of health workers as well as enrollees of NHIS in four purposively chosen Area Councils of the six Area Councils in FCT. This study adopted a survey research design with Rensis Likert's five-point scale questionnaire instrument administered to both categories of respondents. The data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Version 25) and the T-tested statistical tool was used to test the hypothesis. The study found out that shortage of health personnel is a major barrier to the effective implementation of NHIS in the FCT, Abuja. Consequently, the study recommends that there should be massive recruitment of qualified healthcare personnel; training and retraining of healthcare workers; and timely and adequate remuneration for the healthcare workers in FCT, Abuja.
  • Academicians' Views on Career Barriers and Academic Alienation
    The aim of this study is to reveal the relationship between academicians' career barriers and academic alienation. General screening model which is used in the research work of the working group in Turkey are 203 state universities academics. In the study, 19-item Career Barrier Scale was used to determine the career barriers of academics, and the Academic Alienation Scale with 21 items was used to determine the level of academic alienation. According to the results of the research, there is a positive relationship between career barriers and isolation. In addition, isolation is explained by career barriers to a great extent.
  • The Role of Principal Interpersonal Communication on Teacher's Work Motivation
    The purpose of this study was to determine the role of the principal's interpersonal communication on the work motivation of teachers in Public High School 1 Merapi Barat. The research method used is descriptive qualitative which is specific to describing, then first of all the author will describe what the results obtained at the research location in this case are the role of the principal's interpersonal communication on the work motivation of teachers in Public High School 1 Merapi Barat. Interpersonal communication aims to convey everything about the contents of his thoughts and feelings to the communicant. The expression of the contents and thoughts and feelings if applied correctly with the right ethics will be able to prevent and avoid conflicts between individuals, between groups and even between nations so as to maintain national unity and integrity. From the analysis of this research, a leader is required to be able to communicate effectively interpersonal in order to be able to have emotional closeness between leaders and subordinates and fellow subordinates so that when the delivery of information takes place it will be easier and more relaxed in achieving the goals of information, the closeness that is owned makes the information. what is delivered is easy to accept and run. Where later these factors can increase and play a role in teacher motivation.
  • The Role of School Leadership in Improving Teachers and Employee Work Disciplines
    This study aims to determine and describe the role of principal leadership in improving the work discipline of teachers and employees and to find out what obstacles are obstacles to the role of principal leadership in improving the work discipline of teachers and employees at SMA Negeri 2 Lahat. This research is a descriptive qualitative research type and uses purposive sampling technique. There are five roles of the Principal and two obstacles faced by the Principal in improving the work discipline of teachers and employees. From the results of the research shows that the principal of SMA Negeri 2 Lahat carries out the role as a leader by planning and deliberating, as a manager by creating collaboration between teachers and employees, as educators by preparing learning program plans as administrators by managing facilities and infrastructure as well as financial administration, motivators. by providing motivation with a conducive school environment. The obstacles faced by school principals in improving the work discipline of teachers and employees are teachers and employees who are less disciplined in carrying out their duties so that they are also difficult to improve their work discipline, as well as obstacles in inadequate school facilities and infrastructure.
  • Stack Overflow - Informal learning and the global expansion of professional development and opportunities in programming?
    The purpose of this study is to examine if, and to what extent, online Community Question Answering platforms expand the opportunities for professional development in programming. Longitudinal and cross-sectional analyses of Stack Overflow Developer Surveys were used to examine users' geographical distribution, gender, experience, professional status, platform usage and education. In order to study differences between the countries with the largest number of respondents, the developer survey data was combined with indicators of human development, gender equality and educational attainment. The results show that the Stack Overflow community has expanded to some extent, both in terms of wider geographical distribution and the programming expertise of users. However, the community reflects and fails to mitigate the apparent gender disparity in the field of programming. Furthermore, participation seems to be conditioned by formal education, especially in developing countries. In general, participation patterns in Stack Overflow seem to be heavily influenced by local conditions in different countries.
  • Rewilding - the farmers perspective. Perceptions of rewilding impacts among English farmers using a socio-ecological wellbeing and values approach.
    1. Minimal intervention, process-oriented ecological restoration, popularly called rewilding, is rapidly gaining traction in the UK as a forward-looking, optimistic agenda for ecological recovery and reversing biodiversity losses. However, proposals for projects of this nature have also created polarisation between people with differing views on the future of the countryside. 2.To increase the social equitability of rewilding, reduce conflict and improve the success of such programs, it is necessary to ensure that stakeholder views are deeply understood. The farming community is a key stakeholder group in the debate about how restoration and rewilding should be done. However, the way farmers perceive rewilding to affect them is not well documented. 3.We combined an integrative social-ecological wellbeing perspective with farming values to examine the perceived linkages between rewilding, farmers' wellbeing, and factors affecting support for different rewilding scenarios (beaver release, a farm restoration, and landscape restoration). We conducted semi-structured interviews (n = 36) with farmers, land managers and farming association representatives. 4.Using thematic analysis, we identified the perceived wellbeing impacts of different rewilding scenarios, farming values, factors affecting the extent of support or opposition, and mitigation options available to lessen the negative impacts. 5. Our results detail the range of rewilding impacts perceived by farmers, including little-explored issues regarding autonomy and agency in farm management; food security and ethics of food production; and conservation of existing wildlife. We show that farm-scale enclosed projects are perceived to retain greater control of potential impacts and to be more compatible with farming than landscape-scale rewilding or unenclosed species reintroductions. However, our findings demonstrate a variety of positions towards rewilding among the farmers, underpinned by different value orientations. Our results can usefully inform rewilding policy and practice to account for the needs of different stakeholders and navigate conflicts between them.
  • Sounds like meritocracy to my ears: Exploring the link between inequality in popular music and private culture
    Economic inequality is on the rise in Western societies and 'meritocracy' remains a widespread narrative used to justify it. An emerging literature has documented the impact of meritocratic narratives in media, mostly focusing on newspapers. In this paper, we study music as a potential source of cultural frames about economic inequality. We construct an original dataset combining user data from Spotify with lyrics from Genius to inductively explore whether popular music features themes of economic inequality. In order to do so, we employ unsupervised computational text analysis to classify the content of the 3,660 most popular songs across 23 European countries. Informed by Lizardo's enculturation framework, we study popular music lyrics through the lens of public culture and explore its links with individual beliefs about inequality as a reflection of private culture. We find that, in more unequal societies, songs that frame inequalities as a structural issue (songs about "Struggle" or omnipresent "Risks") are more popular than those adopting a meritocratic frame (songs we describe as "Bragging Rights" or those telling a "Rags to Riches" tale). Moreover, we find that the presence in public culture of a certain frame is associated with the expression of frame-consistent individual beliefs about inequality (private culture). We conclude by offering reflections on the promise of automatic text classification for the study of music lyrics, the theorized role of popular music in the study of culture, and by proposing venues for future research.
  • Knowledge sharing in tension: Interacting and documenting on Stack Overflow
    This exploratory paper examines a tension between interacting and documenting as knowledge sharing tasks on Stack Overflow, a platform that supports informal learning at scale in the domain of programming. The study works with platform data in the form of the text of posts and accompanying metadata along with 16 interviews with users. Drawing on trace ethnography as an approach to maintaining an interpretive stance while combining several types of data, this preliminary analysis discusses two interrelated particularities of the tension. The discussion of these particularities, platform mechanics and competing temporalities, helps to unpack a tension that is both a phenomenon of analytic interest and a member's concern for users of the platform.
  • Branding Spin-Off Scholarly Journals: Transmuting Symbolic Capital into Economic Capital
    In this article, we analyse a relatively recent commercial strategy used by large academic publishers to capitalize on the brand names of their most prestigious scientific journals. Using Pierre Bourdieu's model of capital conversion, we explain how publishers transfer the symbolic capital of an already prestigious journal to derivative journals that share in the prestige of the original brand and transform it into new economic capital. As shown by their high impact factors, these newly created journals benefit from the name recognition and reputation of the originals after which they are named. Plus, through a manuscript routing mechanism, the publishers recycle some of the submissions rejected by their highly selective flagship journal by redirecting those manuscripts, along with their re?views, to derivative journals or to one of the lower-impact journals on their list, which may require an article processing charge for publication.
  • Tres decadas de muy baja fecundidad en Espana, 1991 - 2018
    Con datos de la Encuesta de Fecundidad de 2018 (14.556 mujeres y 2.619 hombres), en este articulo (i) examinamos la evolucion de la fecundidad de las generaciones de mujeres y hombres nacidos en Espana entre 1962 y 1989 y sus preferencias reproductivas en cuanto al tamano ideal de familia y al deseo de tener hijos en los proximos tres anos; (ii) analizamos los motivos por los que mujeres y hombres no han alcanzado el numero deseado de hijos y estimamos la fecundidad no realizada segun sea el motivo principal que la ha impedido; y, finalmente, (iii) examinamos la probabilidad de tener un primer hijo en funcion de la edad y la situacion de pareja y laboral de las personas. Los resultados constatan el caracter estructural de la baja fecundidad en Espana para mujeres y hombres. La fecundidad observada esta claramente por debajo de la fecundidad deseada. Los motivos materiales - asociados con la precariedad laboral, la inestabilidad, los recursos economicos - son los principales responsables de que mujeres y hombres no alcancen el numero de hijos deseados. Tras estos motivos aparecen los relacionados con la pareja (no tener pareja estable) y la salud (dificultades de quedar embarazada). Tener pareja estable entre los 25 y 35 anos es un determinante proximo de la transicion al primer hijo.
  • Gender role attitudes cannot explain how British couples responded to increased housework demands during the COVID-19 pandemic
    Previous research has shown that gender role attitudes can predict changes in couples' housework division over critical life events, but these studies might have suffered from endogeneity because the occurrence of such life events is anticipated and may be affected by gender role attitudes. In contrast, the COVID-19 pandemic was a truly exogenous shock that hit couples unexpectedly. This study examines the role of gender ideologies in how couples adjusted their division of housework during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 compared to a pre-pandemic baseline observation. The data cover 3,219 couples from the UK Household Longitudinal Study, with a baseline wave and four COVID-19 panel waves between April and September 2020. We found no evidence that individuals' or couples' pre-crisis gender role attitudes affected changes in men's and women's absolute or relative contributions to housework at any time during the lockdown. However, both partners spent substantially more time on housework throughout the COVID-19 crisis than before, especially in the early stages, and in relative terms, the pandemic seems to have contributed to at least a temporary, modest increase in gender equality in housework. We discuss our results against the background of previous research whose results may have suffered from endogeneity problems and argue that the COVID-19 'shock' was likely perceived as a merely temporary disruption of couples' established housework arrangements.
  • How the health of contemporary hunter-gatherers is a victim of 'civic-colonial' policies and politics?
    Hunting-gathering is considered the oldest mode of subsistence strategy. It combines hunting animals, fishing and foraging for wild foods and nutrients and mobility as a sustenance mechanism. During colonial times, there can be seen a trend of undermining hunter-gatherer's identity, culture, belief, worldview, practices by implementing various policies e.g. capitalisation of nature as a natural resource, displacement led development, etc. It has not only marginalised the hunter-gatherer community socially, culturally, economically and politically but also affected their health adversely. It has been observed worldwide that the post-colonial government has not only renewed colonial marginalisation politics and policies but also legalised it in the name of development, service, national obligation, legislation, institution, nationalism, civic responsibility, citizenship, and morality. This act of local government has been described as civic-colonisation. The civic-colonial policies and politics have used the western capitalist framework, technology-led development in the livestock area, politics of nomenclature etc. as a roadmap for the politics of reconciliation. These policies and politics have categorised the hunter-gatherer as an ethnic minority and cost their land, culture, health and identity. In this article, I have discussed what is civic-colonisation? and how civic-colonial policies are linked to health problems of the present-day hunter-gatherer's community?
  • Maximizing the effectiveness of national commitments to protected area expansion for conserving biodiversity and ecosystem carbon under climate change.
    Global commitments to protected area expansion should prioritize opportunities to protect climate refugia and ecosystems which store high levels of irrecoverable carbon, as key components of an effective response to biodiversity loss and climate change. The United States and Canada are responsible for one-sixth of global greenhouse gas emissions but hold extensive natural ecosystems that store globally-significant above- and below-ground carbon. Canada has initiated a process of protected area network expansion in concert with efforts at reconciliation with Indigenous Peoples, and acknowledged nature-based solutions as a key aspect of climate change mitigation. The US, although not a party to global biodiversity conventions, has recently committed to protecting 30% of its extent by 2030 and achieving the UNFCCC Paris Agreement's mitigation targets. The opportunities afforded by these dual biodiversity conservation and climate commitments require coordinated national and regional policies to ensure that new protected areas maximize biodiversity-focused adaptation and nature-based mitigation opportunities. We address how global commitments can best inform national policy initiatives which build on existing agency mandates for regional planning and species conservation. Previous analyses of global conservation priorities under climate change have been tenuously linked to policy contexts of individual nations and have lacked information on refugia due to limitations of globally available datasets. Comparison and synthesis of predictions from a range of recently-developed refugia metrics allow such data to inform planning despite substantial uncertainty arising from contrasting model assumptions and inputs. A case study for endangered species planning for old-forest-associated species in the US Pacific Northwest demonstrates how regional planning can be nested hierarchically within national biodiversity-focused adaptation and nature-based mitigation strategies which integrate refugia, connectivity, and ecosystem carbon metrics to holistically evaluate the role of different land designations and where carbon mitigation and protection of biodiversity's resilience to climate change can be aligned.
  • Predicting Policy Domains from Party Manifestos with BERT and Convolutional Neural Networks
    Hand-labeled political texts are often required in empirical studies on party systems, coalition building, agenda setting, and many other areas in political science research. While hand-labeling remains the standard procedure for analyzing political texts, it can be slow and expensive, and subject to human error and disagreement. Recent studies in the field have leveraged supervised machine learning techniques to automate the labeling process of electoral programs, debate motions, and other relevant documents. We build on current approaches to label shorter texts and phrases in party manifestos using a pre-existing coding scheme developed by political scientists for classifying texts by policy domain and policy preference. Using labels and data compiled by the Manifesto Project, we make use of the state-of-the-art Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers (BERT) in conjunction with Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) and Gated Recurrent Units (GRU) to seek out the best model architecture for policy domain and policy preference classification. We find that our proposed BERT-CNN model outperforms other approaches for the task of classifying statements from English language party manifestos by major policy domain.
  • Usefulness and Impact of Big Data in Libraries: An Opportunity to Implement Embedded Librarianship
    The concept of Big Data has been extensively considered as a technological modernisation in Library & Information centres. According to IDC, data volume is set to increase exponentially and envisages a data volume of over 160 zettabytes by the year 2025. Size is the first, and at times, the only dimension that leaps out at the mention of Big Data. Big Data is defined as information overload due to the volume, velocity, variety, variability & veracity of the data which must be processed to get value and better visualisation. Big Data contains the answer to several valuable questions related to patterns, trends & associations of user behaviour. It plays a major role in helping libraries to clearly understand the changing user needs, accordingly, reshape & restructure their services & procedures. The primary focus of this study was to explore the concept of Big Data in a library environment, steps to introduce Big Data in libraries and the use of Big Data in providing library services using the concept of data life cycle developed by DataONE. The main influential components to perform this study was the capabilities of Big Data analytics, the need & usefulness of Big Data practices, its significant utilisation in libraries and discuss some globally taken practical initiatives. The study highlights the important role of Big Data analytics capabilities to uncover new challenges of information utilisation, consequently helps a librarian to fulfil his role as an Embedded Librarian, both in theoretical & practical terms.
  • The Normativity of Marriage and the Marriage Premium for Children's Outcomes
    Children born to married parents have better health, behavioral, educational, and economic outcomes than children of unmarried mothers. This association, known as the "marriage premium," has been interpreted as emerging from the selectivity of parents who marry and from a positive effect of marriage. The authors suggest that the positive effect of marriage could be contextual, emerging from the normativity of marriage in society. They test this hypothesis using the case of Chile, where marital fertility dropped sharply from 66% of all births in 1990 to 27% in 2016. The authors find that the benefit of marriage for infant health was large in the early 1990s but declined as marital fertility became less normative in society, to fully disappear in 2016. Multivariate analysis of temporal variation, multilevel models of variation across place, sibling ?fixed effects models, and a falsification test consistently indicate that marriage has a beneficial effect when marital fertility is normative and a weak effect when is not. Generalizing from this case, the authors discuss contextual effects of diverse practices and statuses.
  • UTILIZING ALPHABETICAL CARDS IN IMPROVING EFL STUDENTS' VOCABULARY
    The research aims at improving EFL students' vocabulary through Alphabetical Cards. The subject of this classroom action research was 40 students. The research was a classroom action research which was conducted in two cycles where each cycle consisted of planning, implementation, observation and reflection. The data of this research were obtained from the results of the test and observation sheet, questionnaire, field notes, during the implementation of the action. The findings of the research showed that Alphabetical Cards was effective in improving EFL students' vocabulary. The effectiveness of Alphabetical Cards was shown by the improvement of students' score. The findings revealed that in cycle 1 there were 18 students who achieved minimum criteria of achievement. It means that the classical achievement was 45%. In cycle 2, it showed that there were 36 of 40 students who achieved the minimum criteria of achievement. It means that the gain achievement was 90%. Gain achievement is based on the number of students who get the score at least the criteria of success (70). Both of the gained and individual achievements have met the criteria of success. It can be concluded that the alphabetical cards is very effective to improve the students' vocabulary.
  • How Strikes Can Arise: Sequences of Interaction in the Genesis of a Total Strike in Madrid Underground
    Workers' responses to austerity measures during the Great Recession were multiple and diverse. When and why they opted for contentious collective actions instead of reluctant acquiescence is still a subject of debate. In this article, I revisit the issue by examining the genesis of a total strike in Madrid Underground in June 2010, which occurred in response to a wage cut applied to this publicly owned enterprise. By drawing upon union communica-tions produced at the time of the events and semi-directive inter-views conducted with union representatives and ordinary workers, I retrace the sequences of interaction between workers, unions, the company management, and the regional government, which even-tually led to the total strike. The findings reveal that the question of 'how' is as important as the 'why': the relationship between the wage cut and the strike is in fact anything but direct. Rather, the strike resulted from a largely unintended 'composition effect'-a combination of nested interactions between multiple and inter-dependent players.
  • Changes in fertility plans during the COVID-19 pandemic in Italy: the role of occupation and income vulnerability
    The health and economic crisis generated by the COVID-19 pandemic is unprecedented in recent human history. We investigate the role of objective and subjective indicators of economic uncertainty due to the COVID-19 crisis in young Italians' fertility plans during the year 2020. We use unique repeated cross-sectional data, collected at different time points during the pandemic (March and October/November 2020) together with pre-COVID data (2016). The data offer a standard fertility intention question pre- and during-COVID, and also a direct question on whether pre-COVID fertility plans have been confirmed, postponed or abandoned. We find that individuals with more vulnerable occupations show a lower probability of definitely intending to have a(nother) child in the short-term and a higher probability of having abandoned their pre-COVID fertility plan in March 2020, while in October 2020 changes in fertility plans did not vary by occupation. Instead, those who suffered from a negative income shock and those with negative expectations on their future income and occupation are more likely to abandon their pre-pandemic fertility plan compared to their better off counterparts, and these differences hold both in March and October. Overall, economic uncertainty generated by the pandemic seems to have similarly affected men and women's fertility intentions. Our findings point to the fact that the unequal economic consequences of the pandemic also produced and will produce heterogeneous effects on fertility intentions.
  • Identifying urban features for vulnerable road user safety in Europe
    One of the targets of the UN Sustainable Development Goals is to substantially reduce the number of global deaths and injuries from road traffic collisions. To this aim, European cities adopted various urban mobility policies, which has led to a heterogeneous number of injuries across Europe. Monitoring the discrepancies in injuries and understanding the most efficient policies are keys to achieve the objectives of Vision Zero, a multi-national road traffic safety project that aims at zero fatalities or serious injuries linked to road traffic. Here, we identify urban features that are determinants of vulnerable road user safety through the analysis of inter-mode collision data across European cities. We first build up a data set of urban road crashes and their participants from 24 cities in 5 European countries, using the widely recommended KSI indicator (killed or seriously injured individuals) as a safety performance metric. Modelling the casualty matrices including road infrastructure characteristics and modal share distribution of the different cities, we observe that cities with the highest rates of walking and cycling modal shares are the safest for the most vulnerable users. Instead, a higher presence of low-speed limited roads seems to only significantly reduce the number of injuries of car occupants. Our results suggest that policies aimed at increasing the modal share of walking and cycling are key to improve road safety for all road users.
  • A New Framework for Estimation of Unconditional Quantile Treatment Effects: The Residualized Quantile Regression (RQR) Model
    The identification of unconditional quantile treatment effects (QTE) has become increasingly popular within social sciences. However, current methods to identify unconditional QTEs of continuous treatment variables are incomplete. Contrary to popular belief, the unconditional quantile regression model introduced by Firpo, Fortin, and Lemieux (2009) does not identify QTE, while the propensity score framework of Firpo (2007) allows for only a binary treatment variable, and the generalized quantile regression model of Powell (2020) is unfeasible with high-dimensional fixed effects. This paper introduces a two-step approach to estimate unconditional QTEs where the treatment variable is first regressed on the control variables followed by a quantile regression of the outcome on the residualized treatment variable. Unlike much of the literature on quantile regression, this two-step residualized quantile regression framework is easy to understand, computationally fast, and can include high-dimensional fixed effects.
  • "Good Politicians'': Experimental Evidence on Motivations for Political Candidacy and Government Performance
    How can we motivate `good' politicians -- those that will carry out policy that is responsive to citizens' preferences -- to enter politics? In a field experiment in Pakistan, we vary how political office is portrayed to ordinary citizens. We find that emphasizing pro-social motives for holding political office instead of personal returns -- such as the ability to help others versus enhancing one's own respect and status -- raises the likelihood that individuals run for office and that voters elect them. It also better aligns subsequent policies with citizens' preferences. The candidacy decisions are explained by social influence, and not information salience -- we find that social versus personal messaging matters only when randomly delivered in a public setting but not in private. Results also show that changes in political supply, not citizen preferences or behavior, explain policy alignment. Taken together, the results demonstrate that non-financial motivations for political entry shape how politicians perform in office.
  • Occupational Dualism and Intergenerational Educational Mobility in the Rural Economy: Evidence from China and India
    This paper extends the Becker-Tomes model of intergenerational educational mobility to a rural economy characterized by farm-nonfarm occupational dualism and provides a comparative analysis of rural China and rural India. The model builds a micro-foundation for the widely used linear-in-levels estimating equation. Returns to education for parents and productivity of financial investment in children's education determine relative mobility, as measured by the slope, while the intercept depends, among other factors, on the degree of persistence in nonfarm occupations. Unlike many existing studies based on coresident samples, our estimates of intergenerational mobility do not suffer from truncation bias. The sons in rural India faced lower educational mobility compared with the sons in rural China in the 1970s to 1990s. To understand the role of genetic inheritance, Altonji et al. (2005) biprobit sensitivity analysis is combined with the evidence on intergenerational correlation in cognitive ability in economics and behavioral genetics literature. The observed persistence can be due solely to genetic correlations in China, but not in India. Father's nonfarm occupation was complementary to his education in determining a sons' schooling in India, but separable in China. There is evidence of emerging complementarity for the younger cohorts in rural China. Structural change in favor of the nonfarm sector contributed to educational inequality in rural India. Evidence from supplementary data on economic mechanisms suggests that the model provides plausible explanations for the contrasting roles of occupational dualism in intergenerational educational mobility in rural India and rural China. (Stone Center on Socio-Economic Inequality Working Paper Series)
  • Prioritarianism and Equality of Opportunity
    This paper asks whether prioritarianism--the view that social welfare orderings should give explicit priority to the worse-off--is consistent with the normative theory of equality of opportunity. We show that there are inherent tensions between some of the axioms underpinning prioritarianism and the principles underlying equality of opportunity; but also that these inconsistencies vanish under plausible adjustments to the domains of two key axioms, namely anonymity and the transfer principle. That is: reconciling prioritarianism and equality of opportunity is possible but allowing room for individual responsibility within prioritarianism requires compromises regarding the nature and scope of both impartiality and inequality aversion. The precise nature of the compromises depends on the specific variant of the theory of equality of opportunity that is adopted, and we define classes of social welfare functions and discuss relevant dominance conditions for six such variants. The conflicts and the paths to reconciliation are illustrated in an application to South Africa between 2008 and 2017, where results suggest broad empirical agreement among the different approaches. (Stone Center on Socio-Economic Inequality Working Paper Series)
  • The American Racial Divide in Fear of the Police
    The mission of American policing is "to protect and serve," but recent events suggest that many Americans, and especially Black Americans, do not feel protected from the police. Understanding policing-related emotions is vital not only because they are at the heart of the United States' police legitimacy crisis, but also because they may have far-reaching effects on citizens' lives. We measured personal and altruistic fear of the police in a nationwide sample of Americans (N = 1,150), which included comparable numbers of Blacks (N = 517) and Whites (N = 492). Most Whites felt safe, but most Blacks feared the police even more than crime, being afraid both for themselves and for others they cared about. The racial divide in fear was mediated by past experiences with police mistreatment. In turn, fear mediated the effects of race and past mistreatment on support for defunding the police and intentions to have "the talk" with family youths about the need to distrust and avoid officers. A Rawlsian cost-benefit analysis revealed that about half of Blacks would rather be the victim of a serious crime than be questioned or searched by the police. Taken together, the findings indicate that when it comes to the police, Blacks and Whites live in different emotional worlds, one of fear and the other of felt safety. This deep racial divide in fear represents a racially disparate health crisis, a breach of the social contract in which the state promises protection in exchange for compliance, and a primary obstacle to law enforcement's capacity to serve all communities equitably. Acknowledging and reducing Blacks' fear is essential to resolving the police legitimacy crisis in the United States.
  • Tragic Heroes: A Comparison between "the Defeated Heroes" in the Iliad and Shan Hai Jing
    This essay, applying the method of textual analysis, compares two specific tragic heroes, Hector in the Iliad and Xingtian in Shan Hai Jing, to analyze the individualism manifested by Western literature and the collectivism displayed by Eastern literature.
  • The impact of religious attendance on trust, volunteering, and cooperation: A cross-lagged panel analysis with individual fixed-effects
    Does religious involvement make people more trusting, prosocial, and cooperative? In view of conflicting theories and mixed prior evidence, we subject this question to a stringent test using large-scale, representative panel data from the British Household Panel Survey (1991-2009, N [?] 26,000) and the UK Household Longitudinal Study (2009-2019, N [?] 77,000). We employ cross-lagged panel models with individual fixed effects to account for time-invariant confounders and reverse causality as two issues that have haunted earlier research. We find that religious involvement, measured by frequency of religious service attendance, on average has a positive impact on generalized trust, volunteering, and cooperation. Compared with religious attendance, other indicators of religious involvement, such as subjective importance of religion or whether one is religiously affiliated, have weaker effects on trust, volunteering, and cooperation. We also document substantial variation across religious traditions: the effects of religious attendance are strongest for Anglicans and other Protestants, but weaker and mostly statistically insignificant for Catholics, Hindus, and the nonreligious, while for Muslims we observe a negative effect of religious attendance on cooperation. Our findings are robust to the inclusion of potential confounders and a range of alternative model set-ups. Our study thus shows that religious involvement can indeed foster prosocial behaviours and attitudes, although this effect is in the current study context mostly restricted to religious service attendance and majority religions.
  • Synchronising institutions and value systems: a model of opinion dynamics mediated by proportional representation
    Individuals increasingly participate in online platforms where they copy, share and form they opinions. Social interactions in these platforms are mediated by digital institutions, which dictate algorithms that in turn affect how users form and evolve their opinions. In this work, we examine the conditions under which convergence on shared opinions can be obtained in a social network where connected agents repeatedly update their normalised cardinal preferences (i.e. value systems) under the influence of a non-constant reflexive signal (i.e. institution) that aggregates populations' information using a proportional representation rule. We analyse the impact of institutions that aggregate (i) expressed opinions (i.e. opinion-aggregation institutions), and (ii) cardinal preferences (i.e. value-aggregation institutions). We find that, in certain regions of the parameter space, moderate institutional influence can lead to moderate consensus and strong institutional influence can lead to polarisation. In our randomised network, local coordination alone in the total absence of institutions does not lead to convergence on shared opinions, but very low levels of institutional influence are sufficient to generate a feedback loop that favours global conventions. We also show that opinion-aggregation may act as a catalyst for value change and convergence. When applied to digital institutions, we show that the best mechanism to avoid extremism is to increase the initial diversity of the value systems in the population.
  • Caught by Surprise: The Adaptation of Parental Expectations after Unexpected Ability Track Placement
    The study examines the adaptation of educational expectations. It focuses on the expectations that parents have of their children during the transition from primary to secondary school in Germany. During this transition, students are placed into different ability tracks. It is examined whether parents react to this information about their child's achievement by adjusting their educational expectations or whether their expectations are nonreactive to the achievement information conveyed by track placement. It is hypothesized that parents are more likely to adapt their expectations regarding final educational attainment if their child's track placement is not consistent with the expectations that they held before the track placement was known. Furthermore, SES differences in this adjustment process are expected as parents of different social status have different orientations towards achievement information. The study uses data from the National Educational Panel Study (NEPS), Starting Cohort~2 and focuses on the years between the third grade of primary school and fifth grade, which is the first year of secondary school. This means that students and parents can be followed across the moment in the academic career at which track placement happens. Furthermore, the variations in the tracking decisions across the German federal states is used to examine how the adaptation of parents' expectations is affected based on how much influence parents have on track placement. Two-way fixed effect models are employed to model the change of expectations between the two time points in the data. The results show that low-SES parents do adjust their expectations more strongly downward when their children receive a lower track placement than expected; however, high-SES parents maintain their high expectations even in light of such negative achievement information. High- and low-SES parents do not significantly differ in their expectation adjustment if their children's track placement is higher than their previous expectations.
  • Social Inequality in Student Expectations and Higher Education Enrollment - A Comparison between the United States and Germany
    We examine the link between student expectations and educational attainment. While a close link between expectations and final educational attainment is assumed in the status attainment literature, a growing body of US literature has claimed that expectations have become increasingly unrealistic and decoupled from actual outcomes. However, this claim has rarely been investigated longitudinally on the individual level or beyond the context of the United States. We investigate the relationship for two educational systems with different institutional configurations: The United States and Germany. For Germany, we use data from the National Educational Panel Study (NEPS, Starting Cohort 4). For the US, we rely on data from the High School Longitudinal Study (HSLS, 2009). We find that the level of expectations is overall much higher in the US; however, we also find that the gap between SES groups is larger in the US. Furthermore, we find that the students in these two countries do not differ much in terms of the probability that they will realize their expectations. Additionally, the SES gradient of realization is fairly similar across the different institutional contexts. Finally, we also find that expectations do mediate a substantial part of the effect of SES on higher
  • The power of smart solutions: knowledge, citizenship and the datafication of Bangalore's water supply
    While plans to develop "smart cities" are gathering pace across the world, we know little about the ways in which the discourses of datafication, smartness, and big data play out in material contexts of urban development, including utility and resource management. In this paper, we explore this intersection in the case of Bangalore's water supply, where IBM in alliance with the Bangalore Water Supply and Sewerage Board (BWSSB) is implementing a water-flow sensor network and geographic database system under the label of "big data for water supply." We illustrate how the BWSSB-IBM approach narrows down the complex field of water provision to a question of water in- and out-flow measurements and the monitoring of BWSSB ground personnel. In theoretical terms, we discuss the ways in which these processes constitute both particular claims to knowledge, and the redefinition of citizenship as consumption.
  • American Exceptionalism: Determinants of spreading COVID-19 misinformation online in five countries
    Social media have long been considered a venue in which conspiracy theories originate and spread. It has been no different during COVID-19. However, understanding who spreads conspiracy theories by sharing them on social media, and why, has been underexplored, especially in a cross-national context. The global nature of the novel coronavirus pandemic presents a unique opportunity to understand the exposure and sharing of the same COVID-19 related conspiracies across multiple countries. We rely on large, nationally representative surveys conducted in July of 2020 in the United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand, to begin to understand who shares conspiracies on social media and what motivates them. We find that Americans are no more likely to encounter prominent COVID-19 conspiracies on social media but are considerably more likely to subsequently share them. In all countries, trust in information from social media predicts conspiracy theory sharing, while in the US politics plays a unique role Our results make clear that American behavior on social media has the potential to poison online public discourse globally.
  • Surprise! Measuring Novelty as Expectation Violation
    Novelty assessment is central to the study and management of innovation. Here we argue that new technologies, discoveries, and cultural products are deemed novel insofar as they seem unlikely or improbable, conditional on perceptions of prior knowledge and estimations of the inventive search process. This implies that novelty has different manifestations in fields with distinct prior knowledge and processes of invention; that measuring novelty is sensitive to context and therefore "objectively subjective." Consequently, different novelty measures will be appropriate for different fields. We then survey and systematize existing ex ante novelty measures. We array them according to the speed of simulated search and the complexity of the space over which search is simulated. Using data from 157,595 U.S. patents granted in 2000 and 90,421 patents granted in 1990, we demonstrate that inventive fields vary in their distribution of novelty measures. We also find that familiar impact-based correlates of novelty are predicted by distinct characterizations of novelty in different fields. Consistent with our hypothesis that different inventive processes imply different novelty measures, we find that nearby fields, which share similar inventive processes, also manifest similar profiles in the relationship between novelty and impact. We conclude with principles of measure selection that could lead to more credible analyses of innovation.
  • Understanding and countering the spread of conspiracy theories in social networks: Evidence from epidemiological models of Twitter data
    Conspiracy theories in social networks are considered to have adverse effects on individuals' compliance with public health measures in the context of a pandemic situation. A deeper understanding of how conspiracy theories propagate through social networks is critical for the development of countermeasures. The present work focuses on a novel approach to characterize the propagation of conspiracy theories through social networks by applying epidemiological models to Twitter data. A Twitter dataset was searched for tweets containing hashtags indicating belief in the ``5GCoronavirus'' conspiracy theory, which states that the COVID-19 pandemic is a result of, or enhanced by, the enrollment of the 5G mobile network. Despite the absence of any scientific evidence, the ``5GCoronavirus'' conspiracy theory propagated rapidly through Twitter, beginning at the end of January, followed by a peak at the beginning of April, and ceasing/disappearing approximately at the end of June 2020. An epidemic SIR (Susceptible-Infected-Removed) model was fitted to this time series with acceptable model fit, indicating parallels between the propagation of conspiracy theories in social networks and infectious diseases. Extended SIR models were used to simulate the effects that two specific countermeasures, fact-checking and tweet-deletion, could have had on the propagation of the conspiracy theory. Our simulations indicate that fact-checking is an effective mechanism in an early stage of conspiracy theory diffusion, while tweet-deletion shows only moderate efficacy but is less time-sensitive. More generally, an early response is critical to gain control over the spread of conspiracy theories through social networks. We conclude that an early response combined with strong fact-checking and a moderate level of deletion of problematic posts is a promising strategy to fight conspiracy theories in social networks. Results are discussed with respect to their theoretical validity and generalizability.
  • Automatic Cohort Determination from Twitter for HIV Prevention amongst Ethnic Minorities
    Recruiting people from diverse backgrounds to participate in health research requires intentional and culture-driven strategic efforts. In this study, we utilize publicly available Twitter posts to identify targeted populations to recruit for our HIV prevention study. Natural language processing methods were used to find self-declarations of ethnicity, gender, and age group, and advanced classification methods to find sexually-explicit language. Using the official Twitter API and the available tools, Demographer and M3, we identified 4800 users who were likely young Black or Hispanic men living in Los Angeles from an initial collection of 47.4 million tweets posted over 8 months. Despite a limited precision, our results suggest that it is possible to automatically identify users based on their demographic attributes and characterize their language on Twitter for enrollment into epidemiological studies.
  • Students as Scientists' Co-pilots in the Onset of Technology Transfer: A Two-Way Learning Process
    To generate knowledge and technology transfer, universities are exploring new collaborative models. These new models aim to include actors that can have a positive impact on the technology transfer efforts of engaged academics. While open and collaborative models for technology transfer are seen as promising alternatives to the patent-centric linear model, there are limited insights on how these collaboration processes unfold and on their possible implications for the commercialization of new technologies. We explore the dynamics between the focal actor, i.e., the scientist, and a new actor in technology transfer, i.e., the students, in a university setting. We use an inductive, embedded multiple-case study to explore the contribution of knowledge interactions between scientists and students on the first steps of the technology transfer process. Our results suggest that the students' contribution in the initial stages of the technology transfer process is influenced by the level of the scientist-student team consensus on the technology function as well as the flexibility and openness of the scientist to reconsider the technology meaning. We contribute to the ongoing debate on alternative technology transfer models and on the possible roles of students in academic ecosystems
  • Instantiation of Organisational Routines in Cross-Expertise Collaborative Enterprise Systems
    This study aims to explore the dynamics between the performative and ostensive aspects of organisational routines in the context of cross-expertise collaborative enterprise systems. Specifically, through an ongoing empirical case study of technology, media and communication businesses focusing on social and mobile systems, we will explore cross-expertise collaborative enterprise systems routines and how those influence, and are guided by the concept of gamification.
  • Pre-Service History Teacher's Opinions About the Use of Virtual Museum Applications in History Courses
    The opportunities offered by technology are used in educational processes to make education more qualified. One of the technology-based applications is virtual museums. Virtual museums make important contributions to bringing the works of art in museums to the classroom environment and making the lesson more concrete and understandable. Especially considering the exhibition of the past, virtual museums could be used for history courses but more research needs to be done on the subject. This study aimed at exploring pre-service history teachers' opinions and experiences about virtual museum applications. The research was conducted via qualitative research approach and phenomenology design in line with the nature of this approach. The study group of the research consists of 15, 3rd grade teacher candidates studying in Department of History Teaching at Marmara University Ataturk Education Faculty in 2020-2021 academic year. The data was collected via semi-structured interview form and analysed using the content analysis method. Considering the results obtained, it was reported that the participants responded considering the pandemic conditions, they regarded technology as a way to facilitate the learning-teaching processes of history courses and stated that virtual museum applications would contribute to history courses.
  • Bringing ICT into the Classroom: Perceptions from Tourism Students on Technology-Enhanced Learning
    The advancement of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) can be seen as a blessing in disguise. On one hand, digital information is readily available nowadays, which in turn makes the hardwiring of knowledge less significant and shifts the focus towards competency development. In a digitalized world where information is easily accessible, it is argued that students in higher education need to develop more sensible soft skills that allow them to systematically and critically analyze information. Whilst knowledge can be acquired in a relatively short period, competency development requires more active repetition and patience. Thus, applying relevant and supportive teaching methods is seen as essential. Quantitative data was collected from the participants (n=107) and examined through descriptive analysis. The results of the research revealed that students in higher education generally had a positive perception of technology-enhanced learning (TEL) and considered themselves proficient with the usage of ICT in the classroom. Based on the empirical findings from this paper, a qualitative study was recommended to identify how ICT can be more effectively integrated into the traditional classroom.
  • Interpersonal Intelligence: A Strengthening in Efforts to Improve Student Learning Achievement
    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between interpersonal intelligence and student learning outcomes so that there is an increase and strengthening of student achievement. The method used in this research is field research with a correlational quantitative approach which aims to analyze the relationship between interpersonal intelligence and student achievement. The results of this study found that there is a significant relationship between interpersonal intelligence and student achievement. This can be proven from statistical calculations, namely r count is greater than r table (0.995> 0.347) with a significant stage of 5%. Thus the alternative hypothesis (Ha) in this study is accepted and the hypothesis (H0) in this study is rejected.
  • Influence of Demonstration Methods and Student's Activity on Learning Outcomes
    This research is motivated by the fact in the field that the fourth-grade students' mathematics learning outcomes are still low in Public Elementery School 16 Bengkulu City. This is presumably, the lack of application of demonstration methods and student activeness towards student learning outcomes. On this basis, this study is focused on discussing mathematics learning using demonstration methods. The problem of this research is the low student learning outcomes and the students' lack of understanding of the broad and perimeter material. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of demonstration methods and student activeness on mathematics learning outcomes of fourth-grade students of SD Negeri 16 Bengkulu City. This type of research is a quantitative study with an experimental method approach. Data collection techniques using observation, tests and documentation. The data analysis technique used the t test. The result of this research is the demonstration method and student activeness have a significant effect. So it can be concluded that the higher the student's activity, the higher the learning outcomes and the demonstration method as well as the learning outcomes, which means that the working hypothesis (Ha) in this study is accepted, that is, there are differences in student activeness in the control and experimental classes.
  • Examining the Roles and Competencies of Principals of Project Schools in Terms of Accountability
    The aim of this research is to examine the roles and competencies of school principals working in project schools in terms of accountability, based on the views of school principals. This is a qualitative research which is based on the phenomenology design. The working group is chosen among the most well-known project schools in Istanbul using the maximum variation sampling method. Interviews were held with 12 school principals working at the Science High School, Anatolian High School, Social Sciences High School and Anatolian Religious High Schools in the 2019-2020 academic year. The data obtained from the interviews are coded using content analysis method and different 3 themes such as supervision, the functioning of education and integrity are obtained. In this context, it is indicated that project school principals felt themselves accountable most since they have a right to determine the managers and teachers they want to work with. It came to the conclusion that school principals cooperate with their internal and external stakeholders in all matters for the development of their schools.
  • Choice of Response Strategy Adopted by Indian Private Higher Education Institutions Collaborated with Foreign Education Institutions: Applying Porter's Five Force Model
    Market follows the profit and compete for the resources to get competitive advantage that is inevitable. Private higher education institutions in India collaborate with foreign education providers to deliver education services in variety of modes for enlarging the student share in the market. Applying Porter's Five Force Model it was analysed how the institutions in NCR of India position themselves in the market forces and strategise to get comparative advantage. India with huge size of middle class and vast system of higher education always attract the foreign institutions to collaborate and expand. The restrictive and proscriptive regulation does not allow foreign qualification in India except twinning mode. The finding of the present analysis using porter's five force model suggest that regulation of the state must be comprehensive and supportive to encash the flow of market innovations that happen to be. Thoughtful regulatory framework may reap the benefit other wise institutions under market forces offer unrecognised foreign degree in informal way under the orbit of formal institution that motivate less quality tier II and III institutions to supply educational services disguising under formal system of higher education.
  • Venture Capitalists' Access to Finance and Its Impact on Startups
    Although an extensive literature shows that startups are financially constrained and that constraints vary by geography, the source of these constraints is still relatively unknown. We explore intermediary financing constraints, a channel studied in the banking literature, but only implicitly addressed in the venture capital (VC) literature. Our empirical setting is the VC fundraising and startup financing environment around the passage of the Volcker Rule, which restricted banks' ability to invest in venture capital funds as limited partners (LPs). The rule change disproportionately impacted regions of the U.S. historically lacking in VC financing. We find that a one standard deviation increase in VCs' exposure to the loss of banks as LPs led to an 18% decline in fund size and about a 10% decrease in the likelihood of raising a follow-on fund. Startups were not completely cushioned from the additional constraints on their VCs: capital raised fell and pre-money valuations declined. Overall, VC financing constraints manifest as fewer, smaller funds that change investment strategy and ex- perience increases in bargaining power. Last, we show that the rule change increased the likelihood startups moved out of impacted states, thus exacerbating the geographic disparity in high-growth entrepreneurship.
  • Urban transport and wellbeing: a critical analysis
    The creation of sustainable and human-scale cities for all will be easier if researchers, planners and other stakeholders make room for multiple imaginings of what wellbeing is, how it can be achieved, and what role transport plays in this. Hedonic and eudaimonic conceptions of subjectively experienced wellbeing cannot be taken as universally applicable or always the best ways to think about wellbeing in connection with transport and travel behaviour. Those conceptions have a role to play in research and policy, but the effects generated by the pursuit of those versions of wellbeing should be critically considered. This is particularly important when that pursuit encourages selfish behaviour or research considers people and communities whose beliefs and worldviews are incommensurate with the assumptions of universal emotions, a priori and innate needs, or the individual as fully detached from their social and cultural context. Transport research and planning can benefit significantly from greater engagement with relational and process-oriented understandings of wellbeing and its association with human actions, including different ways of moving around the city. The contours of one such approach, which revolves around a reworked notion of capabilities, are sketched, but experimentation with alternatives is much desired.