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SocArXiv papers

  • Are Matching Funds for Smallholder Irrigation Money Well Spent?
    Irrigation can dramatically affect agricultural production and productivity. However, modern on-farm irrigation systems have high fixed costs, suggesting that irrigation investments may only have positive net benefits for producers who achieve a minimum scale. We add to the evidence on the benefits of irrigation investments for small producers by evaluating the Rural Business Development (RBD) program of the Millennium Challenge Corporation in Nicaragua for small plantain producers. The RBD program offered matching funds covering up to 30% of the cost of two years of inputs, extension services, and diesel-powered micro-sprinkler irrigation for individual farms. In order to estimate the average impact of the RBD program on its beneficiaries, we combine model selection via the Lasso with doubly robust treatment effect estimation as applied to two years of panel data for 146 producers. We find that the program raised revenue by 44% relative to what would have been obtained in the absence of program participation, but that it had no effect on consumption expenditure. We combine our estimated impacts for revenue and planted area with administrative data on producer costs in order to carry out a cost-benefit analysis of the program. The net economic benefit of the program is negative under most scenarios, and is only large when disregarding the fixed costs of irrigation equipment. Our results demonstrate that policymakers need to consider fixed costs when promoting irrigation and other technologies for small producers.
  • A Standard for the Scholarly Citation of Archaeological Data as an Incentive to Data Sharing
    How do archaeologists share their research data, if at all? We review what data are, according to current influential definitions, and previous work on the benefits, costs and norms of data sharing in the sciences broadly. To understand data sharing in archaeology, we present the results of three pilot studies: requests for data by email; review of data availability in published articles, and analysis of archaeological datasets deposited in repositories. We find that archaeologists are often willing to share, but discipline-wide sharing is patchy and ad hoc. Legislation and mandates are effective at increasing data-sharing, but editorial policies at journals lack adequate enforcement. Although most of data available at repositories are licensed to enable flexible reuse, only a small proportion of the data are stored in structured formats for easy reuse. We present some suggestions for improving the state of date sharing in archaeology, among these is a standard for citing data sets to ensure that researchers making their data publicly available receive appropriate credit.
  • Estimating the Impact of the Hajj: Religion and Tolerance in Islam's Global Gathering
    We estimate the impact on pilgrims of performing the Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca. Our method compares successful and unsuccessful applicants in a lottery used by Pakistan to allocate Hajj visas. Pilgrim accounts stress that the Hajj leads to a feeling of unity with fellow Muslims, but outsiders have sometimes feared that this could be accompanied by antipathy toward non-Muslims. We find that participation in the Hajj increases observance of global Islamic practices, such as prayer and fasting, while decreasing participation in localized practices and beliefs, such as the use of amulets and dowry. It increases belief in equality and harmony among ethnic groups and Islamic sects and leads to more favorable attitudes toward women, including greater acceptance of female education and employment. Increased unity within the Islamic world is not accompanied by antipathy toward non-Muslims. Instead, Hajjis show increased belief in peace, and in equality and harmony among adherents of different religions. The evidence suggests that these changes are likely due to exposure and interaction with Hajjis from around the world, rather than a changed social role of pilgrims upon return.
  • Inequality in Process: Income’s Role in Generating Black and White Educational Gradients in Health
    Extensive literature documents Black-White heterogeneity in the health-protective effects of education; though education is a salient determinant among both groups, Whites, typically, benefit more from additional schooling than Blacks. While many studies have documented this disparity, few have attempted to unpack the black box, and describe the processes that give rise to these disparate outcomes. To make progress in understanding this inequality, I examine how a key mechanism of the education-health relationship---income---differs in how it propagates educational gradients among Blacks and Whites. I use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (n = 8,926) and sequential g-estimation, to model how a college degree's effect on health status depends on income among Blacks and among Whites. I find that income varies, markedly, across groups in how it participates as a mechanism of education's health effect, and that this differential behavior helps clarify disparities in education's health effect.
  • Sustainability of minority culture when inter-ethnic interaction is profitable
    An improved version of this paper is currently in press with Nature Human Behaviour. Theoretical models suggest that cultural variation among ethnic groups can be maintained if inter-ethnic interaction is curtailed, or if groups are balanced in size and prestige. However, inter-ethnic interaction often takes place between members of groups that differ in size and prestige, as well as in power. We construct a model to examine the effects of ethnic asymmetries in inter-ethnic coordination benefits on changes in the frequency of cultural norms in a population comprising minority and majority ethnic groups. In the absence of other processes, conditions favourable for the sustainability of minority culture may be broadened through establishment of a territory with a border that is permeable to members of a dis-empowered minority group, but not to members of a powerful majority. We show how model predictions can complement empirical studies of cultural change, and demonstrate the model's relevance to our understanding of norm dynamics in an indigenous Amazonian population.
  • Entrepreneurship among the Unemployed: The Effects of Unemployment Benefits
    This paper probes the drivers and constraints that affect an unemployed individual's decision to start a business. Using linear probability model and survival analysis, we find that unemployment benefits have a significantly negative effect on switching from unemployment to self-employment and a positive effect on the duration before the switch, especially on the unincorporated self-employment. Moreover, unemployed individuals are less likely to start a business after being laid off, if their spouse does not have a job or most people expect the unemployment rate to go down in the coming 12 months.
  • Service provider difficulties in operationalising coercive control
    We examined perspectives of social workers, police officers and specialist domestic abuse practitioners about their perceived ability and organisational readiness to respond effectively to incidents of coercive and controlling behaviour. Interviews revealed intervention and risk assessment strategies structured around an outdated, maladaptive concept of domestic abuse as an unambiguous and violent event and frontline services that lacked appreciation of the power dynamics inherent in controlling relationships. The analysis demonstrates how lack of definitional clarity around non-physical domestic abuse can increase the use of discretion by frontline services and, by extension, increase the discounting of coercive control by pressured frontline officers.
  • The Teotihuacan Anomaly: The Historical Trajectory of Urban Design in Ancient Central Mexico
  • The new U.S. FDA regulations on biocompatibility and reprocessing for medical devices
    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration ("FDA") regulates all medical devices in the United States. As part of its regulatory duties, the FDA provides guidance documents on various regulatory topics as mandated by the U.S. code of federal regulations. Since 2015, the FDA has begun to issue many substantial revisions to their guidance documents that directly affects the regulatory framework on biocompatibility, reprocessing, and sterilization. These regulatory issues are of paramount importance for many companies because of the potential high costs involved in changing their internal design, controls, manufacturing, and quality systems. This master’s thesis examines the various changes made by the FDA in recent years on the inter-related topics of biocompatibility, reprocessing, and sterilization. Some of the major changes by the FDA involve an increase in the importance of chemical characterization, a reduction in the use of animal testing, a requirement for an independent validation of the user instructions for reusable devices, and increased usability testing. The principal reasons for these major policy changes by the FDA are shown to be the major device scandals that recently involved duodenoscopes, metal-on-metal hip implants, and vaginal surgical mesh implants. Along with several other regulatory failures that made national news headlines in the United States, the FDA began to revise several of their previous medical device guidances. The information from this master’s thesis can be used by medical device developers and manufacturers, especially when they are located outside of the United States and lack sufficient regulatory affairs resources to provide independent advice and recommendations on these important FDA changes. A thorough analysis is made of the new FDA guidances to clarify several potentially difficult questions for medical device manufacturers, specifically the following: (1) "Use of International Standard ISO 10993-1, ‘Biological evaluation of medical devices - Part 1: Evaluation and testing within a risk management process", (2) "Reprocessing Medical Devices in Health Care Settings: Validation Methods and Labeling", and (3) "Submission and Review of Sterility Information in Premarket Notification (510(k)) Submissions for Devices Labeled as Sterile". This master’s thesis is intended to provide not only an overview of the current FDA requirements, but to function as a guide for both researchers and engineers to improve their medical device design and development process.
  • Marital Status and Mothers’ Time Use: Childcare, Housework, Leisure, and Sleep
    Assumptions that single mothers are “time-poor” compared with married mothers are ubiquitous, but variation in mothers’ time use is less studied than differences between mothers and fathers. We use the 2003-2012 American Time Use Surveys (ATUS) to examine marital status variation in mothers’ time spent in housework, childcare, leisure, and sleep. We find no difference in time spent on childcare between mothers, suggesting that behavioral propensities to engage in childcare are similar for all mothers; children’s needs are immutable. Married mothers do more housework and spend less time sleeping than all other mothers. Never married and cohabiting mothers have significantly more leisure time than married mothers, although this time is mostly spent watching television. Differences in demographic characteristic explain two-thirds of the variance in sedentary leisure time between married and never married mothers. These results provide no support for the time poverty thesis but offer some support for the doing gender perspective.
  • Is Family Decision-making Power?
    Do ‘final say’ survey questions measure power within families? Researchers rely on these items as proxy indicators of gender inequality within households, although there are reasons to doubt decision-making is equated with power. I review relative resources and exchange theory predictions about decision-making and two potential moderators: the gender system and methods of allocating income. Using original data (n = 3,975) from a vignette-survey experiment to disentangle the mechanisms leading to decision making authority, I find higher relative earners within families are not regarded as entitled to the final word in decisions. Whether respondents considered earnings individually or community owned did not explain the lack of association between financial resources and decision-making clout. Findings show a significant association between the decider’s gender and perceptions of fairness: specifically, when women were presented as the decider over monetary family choices, unilateral decision-making was viewed more favorably. Results from the qualitative analysis of the reasoning behind these evaluations were consistent with beliefs in egalitarian essentialism, that women and men are equal but characteristically different. Findings suggest ‘final say’ measures should be interpreted cautiously as markers of power and offers insights in to why gender equality within families remains stalled.
  • Normative Beliefs about Money in Families: Balancing Togetherness, Autonomy, and Equality
    Using original data from a nationally representative vignette-survey experiment (n = 3,986), this study investigated norms about income sharing within families. Respondents were asked to select a preferred income allocation strategy for a fictional couple with varied circumstances. Findings showed that despite differences in fictional couples’ marital and parental statuses, the majority of respondents indicated all couples should ideally pursue some level of autonomy within their relationships. Respondents also believed higher-earning partners ought to hold back a greater absolute value of their income, potentially reproducing unequal labor market conditions within families. When women were presented as the primary earner, the ideal level of withholding income was slightly larger in magnitude than when men were shown as the primary earner. Findings challenge the notion that marriage distinctively establishes a unitary family interest and suggest normative support for women’s self-determination in lieu of a push for gender equality.
  • Separating Spheres? Diverging Trends in Youth's Gender Attitudes About Work and Family
    Youth's Gender Attitudes About Work and Family
  • Separating Spheres
    The authors investigated whether trends in attitudes about gender were consistent with the gender stall primarily occurring in the family domain and examined potential mechanisms associated with changing gender norms. Using data from Monitoring the Future surveys (1976–2015), the authors assessed three components of trends in youth’s beliefs about gender: the marketplace, the family, and mothers’ employment. Findings showed continued increases in egalitarianism from 1976 through the mid-1990s across all three dimensions. Thereafter, support for egalitarianism in the public sphere plateaued at high levels, rising support for mothers’ employment persisted at a slower pace, and conventional ideology about gender in families returned. The changing demographic composition of American high school students did not account for the gender attitude trends. Youth’s mothers’ employment and increased education were related to increased egalitarianism. Changes in population averages of mothers’ employment and educational attainment were only weakly associated with increases in egalitarian attitudes.
  • The value in ‘value’: An exercise for embedding heterodox economics into sociology and social policy education
    With continuing resistance by economics departments to pluralising their curricula, heterodox economists have suggested an alliance with other social sciences. This article suggests the labour theory value (LTV) as an appropriate concept for embedding heterodox ideas into sociology and social policy teaching. While often seen as a relic of nineteenth century political economy, teaching LTV is beneficial as (1) it is one of few economic theories addressing causes of economic inequality and (2) the contrast with neoclassical subjective value theory (STV) facilitates discussion about relationships between different ideas of ‘value’ and conflicting political ideas about social justice. We present a series of exercises designed to introduce students to differences between STV and LTV. After running and modifying exercises over three years, we find the intervention broadly successful in encouraging students to engage with economic ideas and draw connections between personal experience, society, economics and politics.
  • congressbr: An R Package for Analysing Data from Brazil's Chamber of Deputies and Federal Senate
    In this research note, we introduce congressbr, an R package for retrieving data from the Brazilian houses of legislature. The package contains easy-to-use functions that allow researchers to query the Application Programming Interfaces of the Chamber of Deputies and the Federal Senate, perform cleaning data operations, and store information in a format convenient for future analyses. We outline the main features of the package and demonstrate its use with some practical examples.
  • It Just Ain't Dope to Drop the Slope! Why You Should Always Include a Random Slope for the Lower-Level Variable of a Cross-Level Interaction
    Mixed effects multilevel models are often used to investigate cross-level interactions, a specific type of context effect where an upper-level variable moderates the association between a lower-level predictor and the outcome. We argue that multilevel models involving cross-level interactions should always include random slopes on the lower-level components of those interactions. Failure to do so will usually result in severely anticonservative statistical inference. Monte Carlo simulations and illustrative empirical analyses of the European Social Survey suggest that models omitting the random slope will underestimate true standard errors on cross-level interaction terms and the main effects of lower-level components by 30 to 50 percent in typical applications. Many practitioners seem to be unaware of these issues. Roughly half of the cross-level interaction estimates published in the European Sociological Review between 2011 and 2016 are based on models that omit the crucial random slope term. Detailed analysis of the associated test statistics suggests that many of the estimates would not meet conventional standards of statistical significance if estimated using the correct specification. This raises the question how much robust evidence of cross-level interactions sociology has actually produced over the past decades.
  • Education and Poverty as Factors in White and Black Rural and Urban Prison Admission Rates
    The rise in White imprisonment in rural areas has gone almost completely unnoticed and undiscussed until very recently. Using data newly analyzed from the National Corrections Reporting Program restricted files for 2000-2013, this report documents the higher rates of prison admissions for Whites in rural areas and shows that these higher rates are tied to the higher rates of White poverty and lower White educational levels in rural areas. Further, places with less educated White people showed more growth in White imprisonment. Poverty and education explain the urban-rural difference in a statistical sense, but this does not mean that there is no rural-urban difference. Rather, the analysis points to the high concentration of White disadvantage in rural areas and smaller cities. The Black patterns are different: although rates of poverty and high school dropouts are higher in rural areas for Blacks, the correlations are weaker than for Whites and rural areas have lower Black imprisonment rates both before and after controls for education and poverty. Looking at changes in imprisonment rates between 2000-6 and 2007-11, both Black and White imprisonment rose in areas with higher high school dropout rates and lower Black percentages, but the effects of poverty and college graduation rates and percent Hispanic varied by race in multivariate models. Overall, the findings point to the importance both of disaggregating Black and White imprisonment rates and of recognizing that overall national trends obscure marked differences in the trends between places. They also point to concentrated White disadvantage in White rural areas as linked to rising White imprisonment rates. Further research is necessary to understand these trends.
  • Open Educational Science
    Scientific progress is built on research that is reliable, accurate, as well as verifiable. The methods and evidential reasoning that underlie scientific claims ought to be available for scrutiny. Like other fields, educational science suffers from problems such as failure to replicate, publication bias, and high costs of access to publications—all of which are symptoms of a closed and nontransparent approach to research. We discuss why and how each aspect of the scientific cycle—research design, data, analysis, and publication—can and should be made transparent. Open approaches to science, such as pre-registration, data sharing, open analyses, and open access publication, provide us with practical tools engage in Open Educational Science. Transparency is a functional imperative which comes with many benefits for the individual researcher, the scientific community, and society at large—as such, Open Educational Science is the way forward.
  • Linguistic Dissent on Jordanian Radio: Implicature and Stance as Ambiguous Subversion
    This paper examines the mobilisation of linguistic ideologies as a form of dissent from dominant discourses of identity in contemporary Middle Eastern media. As part of my broader doctoral research on non-government Jordanian radio today, it takes a linguistical anthropological perspective focused on the notion of indexicality: the non-referential meanings that are invoked contingently in language use, and thus articulate links to broader social and cultural ideologies, including stereotypes of identity categories such as gender and geographic origins. I examine two case studies in which speakers problematise and reframe such stereotypes. The first involves the indexical mechanism of implicature, whereby a talk show caller mounts a challenge to dominant discourses of urban linguistic refinement through the ironic use of a ‘sanitised’ pronunciation of a local Jordanian dish (ča‘āčīl / ka‘ākīl). The second, from a programme in honour of a Jordanian pilot executed by the Islamic State (IS) in Syria, exhibits the performance of an evaluative stance towards Jordanian military activity as a form of patriotic nationalism, through the use of the [g] pronunciation of the sound /q/ (qāf) by a female broadcaster – a usage that defies gendered linguistic norms Jordanian radio, which require female speakers to use the [ʔ] (glottal stop) pronunciation instead. While these contingent uses of implicature and stance form challenges to certain dominant discourses, they are nevertheless ambiguous in that they draw on other problematic ideologies, including localist linguistic ‘authenticity’ and patriotic Jordanian nationalism. Thus, while details of language use provide important potential for dissent, this paper also problematises this potential – asking whether (1) subversive linguistic practices always need to draw on other dominant discourses in order to be meaningful, and (2) whether such references necessarily make dissent compromised or illegitimate.
  • Changes in time-related academic behaviour are associated with contextual motivational shifts
  • The IMF and the Political Economy of Data Production
    Abstract: Cross-national macroeconomic statistics are nearly ubiquitous in international relations and comparative politics research. While we know that these data can only be measured with error, our reliance on them implies a belief that those errors are random, or, at a minimum, unrelated to the political phenomena we use them to understand. But that is implausible. Measuring the economy is largely a state function, and the political- economic backdrop against which it occurs inherently shapes it. The implicit belief that the politics of data production are inconsequential to political science research should be scrutinized. We examine this belief using a newly available dataset of ex post revisions to World Development Indicators data, with a particular focus on GDP growth statistics. We find that revisions to these data reveal a form of measurement error that is both consequential—simple political economy relationships vary substantially depending on which version of the data is used—and systematic. We focus particularly on the IMF’s role in the political economy of data production, but our analysis reveals other political factors that inform the scale and direction of ex post revisions.
  • Post-Truth Overexposure: Media Consumption and Confidence in Institutions
    Does increased consumption of media affect how the public views the institutions of government and media? This study analyzes the relationships between time spent consuming television and Internet, where a respondent gets their news from (television vs. Internet), and confidence in these institutions. I predict an inverse relationship between exposure to television and Internet and confidence in media and government. I further hypothesize that people who get their news primarily from the Internet have less confidence in these institutions than those who get their news from television. I test this relationship using a sample of 370 respondents from the 2016 General Social Survey (GSS) dataset, controlling for race, gender, political views, education, respondents' family income at the age of 16, and age. OLS regression analysis shows that more hours spent watching television positively impacts confidence in media, and that those who get their news from the Internet have less confidence in the media, as do conservatives, regardless of media consumption. No independent variables determine confidence in government, which is only associated negatively with being conservative. A second regression model using confidence in press instead of media shows that females are significantly less likely to trust the press and that people of color are significantly more likely to trust the press. The relationships from the first model retained their significance. This model shows a higher significance level for the conservative relationship. These differences are discussed along with recommendations for further research.
  • Social vulnerability projections improve sea-level rise risk assessments
    Rising seas will impact millions of coastal residents in coming decades. The vulnerability of coastal populations exposed to inundation will be greater for some sub-populations due to differences in their socio-demographic characteristics. Many climate risk and vulnerability assessments, however, model current populations against future environments. We advance sea-level rise risk assessments by dynamically modeling environmental change and socio-demographic change. We project three scenarios of inundation exposure due to future sea-level rise in coastal Georgia from 2010 to 2050. We align the sea-level rise projections with five population projection scenarios of socially vulnerable sub-populations via the Hamilton-Perry method and the theory of demographic metabolism. Our combined fast sea-level rise and middle population scenarios project a near doubling of the population exposed, and a more than five-fold increase for those at risk (i.e., residing in a census tract with high social vulnerability) and most at risk (i.e., high social vulnerability and high exposure) compared to the same estimate based on 2010 population data. Of vulnerable sub-populations, women had the largest absolute increase in exposure for all scenario combinations. The Hispanic/Latinx population’s exposure increased the largest proportionally under the fast and medium sea-level rise projections and elderly people’s (65+) under the slow sea-level rise scenario. Our findings suggest that for coastal areas experiencing rapid growth (or declines) in more socially vulnerable sub-populations, estimates based on current population data are likely to underestimate (or overestimate) the proportion of such groups’ risk to inundation from future sea-level rise.
  • Advertising morality: Maintaining moral worth in a stigmatized profession
    Although a great deal of literature has looked at how individuals respond to stigma, far less has been written about how professional groups address challenges to their self-perception as abiding by clear moral standards. In this paper, we ask how professional group members maintain a positive self-perception in face of moral stigma. Drawing on pragmatic and cultural sociology, we claim that professional communities hold narratives that link various aspects of the work their members perform with specific understanding of the common good. These narratives allow professionals to maintain a shared view of their work as benefitting society and to perceive themselves as moral individuals. As a case study, we focus on the advertising industry, which has long been stigmatized as complicit in exploitative capitalist mechanisms and cultural degradation. We draw on 9 total months of fieldwork and 74 interviews across three U.S. advertising agencies. We find that advertising practitioners use narratives to present their work as contributing to the common good, depicting themselves as moral individuals who care about others in the process. We analyze three prevalent narratives: the account-driven narrative, which links moral virtue to caring for clients; the creative-driven narrative, which ties caring to the production of meaningful advertisements; and the strategic-driven narrative, which sees caring in finding meaningful relationships for consumers and brands.
  • The Mechanisms of Generational Change: Triggers and Processes
    The persistent use of generational labels like “Millennials” by media commentators, research firms, and even sociologists shows that the processes by which generations and generational change are created remain poorly understood. Although social scientists agree upon the basic formula for sound generational analysis [cohort replacement x (impressionable-years hypothesis + persistence hypothesis)], this consensus obscures fundamental terminological problems and conceptual dilemmas that continue to stifle generational research. This paper describes the four interlinked mechanisms that are required to produce generational change and argues that studying the relations between two of the linked mechanisms—structural triggers and agentic processes—helps to overcome the persistent ambiguities in generational theory and can provide a measure of clarity for an empirical research program on generational change. A catalog of generational triggers is developed, and the utility of the mechanism-centered approach to generational analysis is illustrated with familiar examples.
  • Research update on findings from the USM campus climate survey: Results related to LGBTQ students
    LGBTQ students nationally experience bias, discrimination, bullying, harassment, and assault on college campuses. The effects of these negative experiences are known. They can lead to depression, suicidal ideation, lowered earning potential, and a range of other negative outcomes. Also known are the effects of diversity on a college campus. These outcomes are positive for all members of the campus community. This is why it is incumbent on universities to provide safe, inclusive, and diverse campus communities. The present results make clear that LGBTQ students at USM do not find themselves subject to a supportive and inclusive environment. They are almost twice as likely to become the victim of assault or harassment on campus as their counterparts. They report hearing negative comments from staff, administrators, and other students more often than their counterparts. They witness threatening behavior more often, particularly with regard to sexual orientation and gender identity. That experience isn’t unique to LGBTQ students, though. Across all students sampled, 1 in 5 report witnessing threatening behavior on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity at least somewhat often on the USM campus. Although nearly 4 in 10 students surveyed agreed that a diverse and inclusive campus environment was a factor in deciding which college to attend, LGBTQ students surveyed were less likely to find the USM campus inclusive and committed to diversity. These results present a clear picture of a challenge and an opportunity. The challenge is to serve the university’s LGBTQ students and create an inclusive campus environment despite budget shortfalls and a difficult political/cultural environment in Mississippi for LGBTQ issues. The opportunity is that there is already much work going on at USM to create just such an environment, and that diversity and inclusion may lead to increases in recruitment and retention, particularly among LGBTQ students.
  • Trajectories of Poverty and Economic Hardship among American Families Supporting a Child with a Neurodisability
    Caring for a child with a neurodisability (ND) impacts the financial decisions, relationships, and well-being of family members. Using the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), we tracked families from 5 years before child with ND birth until the child reached 20 years of age and used latent growth curve modeling to estimate different trajectories for risk of two indicators: poverty and economic hardship. In bivariate terms, families raising a child with ND had higher risks of poverty and economic hardship across time. Five latent growth trajectories were identified for each indicator. After controlling for family and caregiver characteristics that preceded the birth of the child with an ND, families raising a child with a ND were more likely to experience persistent economic hardship. However, raising a child with a ND was not associated with a unique poverty risk, suggesting that families already in poverty are more likely to remain poor if they have a child with a ND. The study establishes descriptive evidence for how having a child with a ND relates to changes in family economic conditions. The importance of social and economic conditions that precede the child’s birth lend support for a social causation framework of health inequalities.
  • Contesting Market Rationality: Discursive Struggles over Prison Privatization
    Market rationality suffuses many areas of modern criminal justice. Prison privatization is one area in which market rationality is particularly salient. This paper presents a case study of how market rationality was deployed in public discourse on prison privatization. It answers four questions: (1) Who shaped public discourse on prison privatization?, (2) How frequently were market-rational themes invoked in the public discourse?, (3) Who employed (and who avoided) market-rational themes in the discourse?, and (4) Why did rates of market-rational discourse change over time? To answer these questions, the paper analyzes public discourse in four major American newspapers from 1985 to 2008. It employs a series of descriptive statistics and regression analyses, as well as an underutilized method--formal decomposition analysis. The research contributes to historical knowledge of the development of prison privatization; methodological techniques for analyzing textual data; and theoretical understanding of how public actors engage in discursive struggles over the meaning of criminal justice policies.
  • Radical First Contact: Bridging Astrobiology and SETI
    Abstract for SOCIA 2018: Accepted October 2017 The astrobiological search for life in the universe is rarely discussed in terms of communicative first contact, a concept often reserved for the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI). What are the implications for astrobiology of inheriting historical conclusions that there is no value in attempting communication with seemingly non-intelligent life on Earth? By imagining a radical first contact protocol, to bridge work in astrobiology and SETI, this paper challenges the assumption that certain forms of life elsewhere (those we might categorize as like microbial, plant, insect, computer, geologic, or other non-human forms and systems) can be eliminated in advance from attempts at communicative or cultural first contact. A radical first contact protocol asks that we push the limits of both our astrobiological and anthropological imaginations beyond the traditional scope of anthropological subjects and functional SETI-focused definitions of intelligence. By drawing on anthropological theory, ontological anthropology, multispecies ethnography, decolonizing methodologies, speculative fiction, as well as from fieldwork with astrobiologists and SETI scientists (Wright and Oman-Reagan 2017), this paper proposes how and why a radical first contact protocol might approach any potential life, broadly defined, as though it is also a potential intelligence, culture, or agent inviting communicative contact and moral consideration. By drawing on expansions of contemporary anthropology along with other theory and practice this project also aims to help scientists “step out of our brains” (Cabrol 2016) to build methods and insights which successfully bridge key aspects of first contact and the search for life in astrobiology and SETI. Keywords: first contact, ontology, multispecies ethnography, decolonizing, astrobiology, SETI, anthropology
  • The Relationship between Format and Cognitive Depth of Science Teacher-Generated Questions
    Asking questions is an important component of promoting inquiry and argumentation in the science classroom. We investigated the relationship between the cognitive depth and format of teacher-generated questions to be used with classroom response technologies. Twelve middle school science teachers were randomly assigned to write constrained or free-response questions on four different topics and to rate the cognitive depth of those questions. Using Bloom’s Taxonomy to guide question classification, we found that the teacher-generated free-response questions were 5.58 times more likely to be at the understanding level than the remembering level and 2.05 time more likely to be at the applying level than the understanding level. Our findings provide evidence of a potential barrier to adopting inquiry-based science teaching practices.
  • Not Everyone is Xenophobic in South Africa
    Objective: Show that South Africa is not uniquely xenophobic. Methods: Regression analysis of SASAS 2013. Results: There are clear patterns who tends to be more xenophobic: people in vulnerable positions, and people who have less contact with foreigners. These patterns reflect those found in other countries. Conclusion: South Africa is not uniquely xenophobic. This is a brief summary of research prepared for "Reflecting on 10 Years of South African Xenophobic Violence" workshop at the University of the Witwatersrand, 15 March 2017.
  • Beyond the Great Recession: Labor Market Polarization and Ongoing Fertility Decline in the United States
    ABSTRACT In the years since the Great Recession, social scientists have anticipated that economic recovery in the U.S., characterized by gains in employment and household income, would augur a reversal of declining fertility trends. However, the expected post-recession rebound in fertility rates has yet to materialize. In this study, I propose an economic explanation for why fertility rates continue to decline regardless of improvements in conventional economic indicators. I argue that ongoing structural changes in U.S. labor markets have prolonged the financial uncertainty that leads women and couples to delay or forego childbearing. Combining statistical and survey data with restricted-use vital registration records, I comparatively examine how cyclical and structural changes in metropolitan-area labor markets were associated with changes in total fertility rates (TFR) across racial/ethnic groups between 2006-2014. The findings suggest that changes in industry composition – specifically, the loss of manufacturing and construction businesses – have a larger effect on TFR than changes in the unemployment rate for all racial/ethnic groups. Since structural changes in labor markets are more likely to be sustained over time – in contrast to unemployment rates which fluctuate with economic cycles – the results indicate that further reductions in unemployment are unlikely to reverse declining fertility trends.
  • Socioeconomic Status and Performance Outcomes of Only-children in a Cross-national Perspective
    Despite the growing number and increased visibility of only-children (children raised without any siblings) in low-fertility societies, our social scientific understanding about this group has been surprisingly limited. Using data of 15-year old students in 31 countries from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2000, we examine how family’s socioeconomic status and cognitive and non-cognitive performance outcomes of only-children vary across countries. Based on the literatures of sibling effects and demographic transition, we predict that the demographic context of individual countries matters for explaining cross-national differences in the only-child group. Our analysis supports this prediction in three aspects. First, only-children tend to have a higher family SES in countries where overall family size is small compared to countries with larger average family size. Second, only-children’s performance tends to be consistently better in countries where small families prevail. Third, such cross-country patterns in most non-social outcomes are largely explained by the cross-national variation in SES selectivity of only-children, but those in social outcomes are not, which suggests there could be different societal-level factors at work. We conclude by discussing the implications of our findings for comparative studies of intergenerational processes.
  • Central banking and the infrastructural power of finance: The case of ECB support for repo and securitisation markets
    The pre-crisis rise and post-crisis resilience of European repo and securitisation markets represent political victories for the interests of large banks. To explain when and how finance wins, the literature emphasises lobbying capacity (instrumental power) and the financial sector’s central position in the economy (structural power). Increasingly, however, finance also enjoys infrastructural power, which stems from entanglements between specific financial markets and public-sector actors, such as treasuries and central banks, that govern by transacting in those markets. To demonstrate the analytical value of this perspective, the article traces how the European Central Bank, motivated by monetary policy considerations, has shaped post-crisis financial policymaking in the EU. It shows that the ECB has played a key part in fending off a financial transaction tax on repos and in shoring up and rebuilding the securitisation market. With market-based forms of state agency on the rise, infrastructural entanglement and power shed new light on the politics of finance.
  • Land grab / data grab
    Developments in the area of ‘precision agriculture’ are creating new data points (about flows, soils, pests, climate) that agricultural technology providers ‘grab,’ aggregate, compute, and/or sell. Food producers now churn out food and, increasingly, data. ‘Land grabs’ on the horizon in the global south are bound up with the dynamics of data production and grabbing, although researchers have not, as yet, revealed enough about the people and projects caught up in this new arena. Against this backdrop, this paper examines some of the key issues taking shape, while highlighting new frontiers for research and introducing a concept of ‘data sovereignty,’ which food sovereignty practitioners (and others) need to consider.
  • “Not Just a Taxi”? For-Profit Ridesharing, Driver Strategies, and VMT
    The spread of GPS-based location services using smartphone applications has led to the rapid growth of new startups offering smartphone-enabled dispatch service for taxicabs, limousines, and ridesharing vehicles. This change in communicative technology has been accompanied by the creation of new categories of car service, particularly as drivers of limousines and private vehicles use the apps to provide on-demand service of a kind previously reserved for taxicabs. One of the most controversial new models of car service is for-profit ridesharing, which combines the for-profit model of taxi service with the overall traffic reduction goals of ridesharing. A preliminary attempt is here made at understanding how for-profit ridesharing compares to traditional taxicab and ridesharing models. Ethnographic interviews are drawn on to illustrate the range of motivations and strategies used by for-profit ridesharing drivers in San Francisco, California as they make use of the service. A range of driver strategies is identified, ranging from incidental, to part-time, to full-time driving. This makes possible a provisional account of the potential ecological impacts of the spread of this model of car service, based on the concept of taxicab efficiency, conceived as the ratio of shared vs. unshared miles driven.
  • “Not just a taxi”? For-profit ridesharing, driver strategies, and VMT
    The spread of GPS-based location services using smartphone applications has led to the rapid growth of new startups offering smartphone-enabled dispatch service for taxicabs, limousines, and ridesharing vehicles. This change in communicative technology has been accompanied by the creation of new categories of car service, particularly as drivers of limousines and private vehicles use the apps to provide on-demand service of a kind previously reserved for taxicabs. One of the most controversial new models of car service is for-profit ridesharing, which combines the for-profit model of taxi service with the overall traffic reduction goals of ridesharing. A preliminary attempt is here made at understanding how for-profit ridesharing compares to traditional taxicab and ridesharing models. Ethnographic interviews are drawn on to illustrate the range of motivations and strategies used by for-profit ridesharing drivers in San Francisco, California as they make use of the service. A range of driver strategies is identified, ranging from incidental, to part-time, to full-time driving. This makes possible a provisional account of the potential ecological impacts of the spread of this model of car service, based on the concept of taxicab efficiency, conceived as the ratio of shared versus unshared miles driven. Copyright Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014 Taxicabs, Ridesharing, Vehicle miles travelled (VMT), Transport ethnography,
  • Re-Imagining Digital Copyright Through the Power of Imitation: Lessons from Confucius and Plato
    For millennia, Western and Eastern culture shared a common creative paradigm. From Confucian China, across the Hindu Kush with the Indian Mahābhārata, the Bible, the Koran and the Homeric epics, to Platonic mimēsis and Shakespeare’s “borrowed feathers,” our culture was created under a fully open regime of access to pre-existing expressions and re-use. Creativity used to be propelled by the power of imitation. However, modern policies have largely forgotten the cumulative and collaborative nature of creativity. Actually, the last three decades have witnessed an unprecedented expansion of intellectual property rights in sharp contrast with the open and participatory social norms governing creativity in the networked environment. Against this background, this paper discusses the reaction to traditional copyright policy and the emergence of a social movement re-imagining copyright according to a common tradition focusing on re-use, collaboration, access and cumulative creativity. This reaction builds upon copyright’s growing irrelevance in the public mind, especially among younger generations in the digital environment, because of the emergence of new economics of digital content distribution in the Internet. Along the way, the rise of the users, and the demise of traditional gatekeepers, forced a process of reconsideration of copyright’s rationale and welfare incentives. Scholarly and market alternatives to traditional copyright have been plenty, attempting to reconcile pre-modern, modern and post-modern creative paradigms. Building upon this body of research, proposals and practice, this Article will finally try to chart a roadmap for reform that reconnects Eastern and Western creative experience in light of a common past, looking for a shared future.
  • New Players, New Game: The role of the public and political debate in the development of action on international tax issues
    The last few years have seen an enormous rise in public concern and dissatisfaction with the taxation of multinational companies (MNCs). In the wake of the financial crisis, public and political interest in corporate taxation rose significantly, with debt-challenged states looking to shore up national fiscal systems, and attention focused on corporate tax practices deemed overly aggressive or immoral. International tax rules as a matter of ‘front page’ public debate is an unusual situation; while taxation itself is always and everywhere a political topic, the fine workings of international taxation has largely been the domain of technical debates between experts. This is no longer the case: issues such as tax havens, transfer pricing, and structures like the “Double Irish Dutch Sandwich” have become topics of popular debates and campaigns. These issues have gone from being solely the subject of technical expert debates to being topics of public interest and popular media reporting. In consequence, new political initiatives have also progressed at an unexpectedly high pace. How has this rapid and unexpected change come about? Existing accounts of international tax change have emphasised the role played by international state relations, International Organisations’ standard-setting, the influence of transnational elites or the role of leaks in driving lawmaking. These analyses have often emphasised formal policymaking processes. Some accounts have zoomed in on the role of activists, in particular the Tax Justice Network, analysing the tactics and strategy of individual ‘outsider’ organisations in changing public and policy debates. This paper offers a complementary narrative of the dynamics of international tax change, looking at the role of various actors in shaping popular debates on international tax issues.
  • From Horizontal to Vertical: An Intermediary Liability Earthquake in Europe
    As part of its Digital Single Market Strategy, the European Commission would like to introduce vertical regulations, replacing — or better conflicting with — the well-established eCommerce Directive horizontal intermediary liability regime. An upcoming revision of the Audio-visual Media Services Directive would ask platforms to put in place measures to protect minors from harmful content and to protect everyone from incitement to hatred. Meanwhile — under the assumption of closing a ‘value gap’ between rightholders and online platforms allegedly exploiting protected content — the Draft Directive on Copyright in the Digital Single Market would implement filtering obligations for intermediaries. Finally, the EU Digital Single Market Strategy has also endorsed voluntary measures as a privileged tool to curb illicit and infringing activities online. Each of these actions will erode the eCommerce intermediary liability arrangement by bringing in — in a way or another — proactive monitoring obligations and causing a systemic shift from a negligence-based to a strict liability regime for hosting providers. This systemic shift would apparently occur against public consensus and absent any justification based on empirical evidence. Nonetheless, it will bring about dire consequences by pushing privatization of enforcement online through algorithmic intelligence, based on murky, privately-enforced standards, rather than transparent legal obligations. This reform might cause a policy earthquake that will shake and crack EU law’s systemic consistency, due process and fundamental rights online.
  • Social origin and the ability to self-evaluate school performance accurately
    As for students many consequential life decisions still lie ahead it is vitally important that their choices suit their abilities. Concerning education a misperception of academic ability can lead to educational misinvestment with potentially severe consequences. That is why this paper investigates if there are disparities in the ability to accurately self-evaluate school performance by social origin. To the best of the author’s knowledge, this is the first paper considering this important research question. In doing so, the paper has two emphases: firstly, a theoretical model, arguing why disparities in the ability to accurately self-evaluate school performance by social origin are likely, is proposed and secondly an empirical study is conducted in order to examine if disparities by social origin are findable. The key results indicate that both students with less and students with highly educated parents underestimate their school performance if they have school grades higher than the average, and overestimate their school performance if they have school grades lower than the average. However, this relationship is intensified for students with less educated parents and therefore they self-evaluate their school performance compared to students with highly educated parents less accurately.
  • Ser ou não ser – políticas que se implementam e outras que não saem do papel
    In this article the authors purpose a practical and working framework to apply the Multiple Streams Approach, considering this model is extended to explain de decision process in several dimensions. It is essentially a proposal for systematising research, that is susceptible of replication in studies where the departing question is linked to the understanding of the reason some policies are enacted and others not. This proposal aims at finding balances among the streams that lead to create the necessary conditions of policy applicability. We propose a formula of anticipating the possibility of policy enactment given the combination of the streams, policy entrepreneur and window of opportunity openness at the policy approval moment.
  • Social-Institutional Structures That Matter: A Quantitative Monograph of Sexual/Gender Minority Status and Income in Japan
    While most previous studies examining the effects of sexual orientation on earnings rely on lesbian women, gay men, and their heterosexual counterparts in Western societies, this quantitative monograph argues that focusing on specific stratification processes based on various sexual/gender minority statuses as well as social-institutional structures of a society is indispensable to the theory of sexuality stratification. Using the LGBT Workplace Environment Survey 2015, this study explores the association between sexual/gender minority status and income in Japan. The analysis shows that there is a negative association between being a sexual/gender minority and income among both designated females at birth and designated males at birth. The results suggesting the lesbian premium found in Western economies are not observed in Japan. In addition, the findings indicate that the processes through which sexuality stratification operates depend on various categories of sexual/gender minorities such as lesbian, gay, bisexual, asexual, transgender, and a Japanese local transgender category “X-gender.”
  • Where Men Appear More Religious Than Women: Turning a Gender Lens on Religion in Israel
    Past research, typically focused on Christians in Christian nations, has found that women tend to be more religious than men. This study uses original nationally-representative data (N=5,601) with strategic oversamples of minority groups to examine variation in how religion and gender intersect across ethnoreligious identities in Israel. We demonstrate that Israel diverges from the typical pattern of women appearing more religious than men. In fact, Israeli men are consistently more religious than Israeli women on commonly used measures and frequently more religious on a broader set of questions specific to Judaism and Israel. Subgroup analyses highlight the intersectional nature of gender and religion, showing that men’s greater religiosity in Israel is limited to Jews, and, more specifically, non-secular Jews. We suggest that gender gaps arise, at least in part, because religions are gendered institutions with gendered norms, expectations, and incentives, and that these norms, expectations, and incentives vary from religion to religion.
  • Holocaust and Human Rights Education: Cultivating Three Rs
    Three ideas, simplified as three ‘Rs,’ can guide us in Holocaust and human rights education. First, remembering the Holocaust is part of our ethically driven and inspired multicultural educational work. Second, respecting the memories of historical injustices can and should involve humanizing historical events through individual narratives. Third, people who endure genocide and other traumatic injustices represent examples of resilience. Holocaust examples and narratives can easily be used in teaching about problems of discrimination and injustice, especially as we include and describe examples of long-standing problems of antisemitism. Our work as educators can be developed as we recognize these three Rs: remember and respect resilience among those who endured (and still endure) injustice.
  • Investigating the position and effect of the Chamber of Commerce, Industries, Mining and Agriculture in the economy of Kashan City
    The purpose of this study is to investigate the position and effect of the Chamber of Commerce, Industries, Mining and Agriculture on the economy of Kashan city. In this research, we use descriptive and survey methods to investigate and describe the general characteristics of respondents and inference that is calculated using sample values of the statistics and then, through estimating or testing the statistical hypothesis, generalizes the statistics to the parameters of society. The statistical population of this study was all real and legal members of the Chamber of Commerce in Kashan city (500 subjects) from among which the sample size is calculated to 220 using the Morgan table. Validity of the questionnaire was assessed through face validity and based on the opinion of some university professors and Cronbach's alpha test was used for the reliability of the questions in the questionnaire where the obtained coefficient is equal to 0.941 which indicates a very good relationship between the questionnaire's questions. Three hypotheses were also suggested in this research, that there is a meaningful relationship between the activities of the Chamber of Commerce, the participation of the real and legal members of this organization and the satisfaction of its members with the activities of the Chamber of Commerce and Economic Development of the city. The obtained results indicated that all three factors affect the economic development of the city and have a meaningful relationship with each other. At first, the activities of the chamber of commerce, then the satisfaction of the real and legal members of the Chamber of Commerce of Kashan, and finally the participation of the real and legal members of the chamber of commerce, respectively, have the highest impact on the city economic development variable. (Eisenberg, 2009)
  • Research on Study Abroad, Mobility, and Student Exchange in Comparative Education Scholarship
  • Research on Study Abroad, Student and Staff Mobility, and Student Exchange in Comparative Education Scholarship
    For many years there has been research on study abroad, student and staff mobility and international student exchange, however in the last two decades the volume and scope of this work has increased significantly. By now there are specific academic journals, a host of new books each year, expansive reports by international research organizations, and an increasing number of annual conferences that are all publishing on trends and issues related to this phenomenon. Yet surprisingly, in the comparative education scholarship much of this research still appears relatively infrequently in its main journals. This paper examines the seeming contradiction of, on the one hand, more student, staff and institutional participation in worldwide international education each year and new research accompanying this trend and, on the other hand, the relative scarcity of reflection on this activity in the core comparative education journals. In this article we take stock of international education themed research that has appeared in the past in a selection of comparative education journals, share the advice of the editors of these journals to future authors seeking to submit research on these areas, and conclude with our own reflections on the future nexus of scholarship in international education and comparative education.
  • The Ethnic Dimensions in Social Movements
    This paper draws on work in the social construction of race and ethnicity to explain why race/ethnic divisions are so often axes of domination and why these divisions are central to social movements. (1) Ethnic/racial groups are constructed in political processes that are tied to state formation and social movements. Many states (including the United States) have an ethnic/racial bias or footprint in their construction. Ethnic/racial groups that are numerical majorities have an advantage in determining state policies and state actions that advantage dominant groups over subordinate groups, create chains of interrelations that amplify differences in power and privilege, and take actions to prohibit or prevent reparations or redress for these past actions. (2) Network isolation and intergenerational transmission interact with structures of domination to reproduce domination over time. “Ethnicity” matters when ethnic boundaries are relatively sharp, consequential, and highly correlated with domination structures and social networks. Strong “ethnic” boundaries tend to divide societies into majorities and minorities. (3) Dominant groups develop and reproduce cultures of domination that include both hostile and benign paternalistic relations with other groups. Subordinate groups develop and reproduce cultures that intermingle opposition and submission. Collective identities are both imposed from without by the actions of others and asserted from within. Identities and cultural practices are developed collectively within social networks and influenced by the actions and speech of political actors, including social movements. (4) Regardless of whether their goals are group-oriented or issue-oriented, all movements in an ethnically-divided or ethnically-hierarchical society have an “ethnic” dimension in the sense that they draw from or map onto one or more ethnic groups. Movements arising from privileged “ethnic” majorities have different dynamics from movements by disadvantaged “ethnic” minorities or mixed-ethnic movements. Processes of group formation derived from theories of the social construction of ethnicity illuminate other movement-relevant group formation processes, including class formation and political subcultures. Lying at the intersection of the sociology of social movements and the sociology of race and ethnicity, the “ethnic” dimensions are revealed as a lens for understanding the general problems of group and identity formation and collective mobilization that lie at the heart of both areas. Presented at the 2016 meeting of the American Sociological Association. NOTE: The published peer-reviewed version in Mobilization December 2017 has been substantially revised over this preprint version.
  • Interfaces and divisions in the Dublin Docklands 'Smart District'
    The study of physical and social divisions in divided societies has long been an area of study, such as the continued usage of 'peace walls' in Belfast, hostile architecture to prevent anti-social behaviour and rough sleeping, and the securitisation of private spaces. In the context of a new drive to create a smart district, this paper looks at the relationship between smart urbanism and planning, and at the spatial and social divisions between a new 'gentrifying' and well-educated community in the Dublin Docklands and established communities in the area. The Dublin Docklands redevelopment marks a significant break from a pattern of suburbanisation and inner-city decline and repurposes part of the former port area as a city centre extension. The paper accounts for the reshaping of the Dublin Docklands as a ‘smart district’ in collaboration with the city authorities, based on over thirty semi-structured interviews and participant-observation at consultation events. It argues that reductive definitions of smart cities as networking technologies be reworked into broader considerations on urban technologies and the future of cities, with greater emphasis on the relationship between technologies branded as ‘smart’ and the material and digital manifestation of boundaries in urban form.
  • Large hydropower and legitimacy: A policy regime analysis, applied to Myanmar
  • Review of Cheap Sex: The Transformation of Men, Marriage, and Monogamy, by Mark Regnerus
    This is a book review of Mark Regnerus' book, Cheap Sex.
  • Income Inequality and Household Labor
    Income inequality has increased dramatically in the United States since the mid 1970s. This remarkable change in the distribution of household income has spurred a great deal of research on the social and economic consequences of exposure to high inequality. However, the empirical record on the effects of income inequality is mixed. In this paper, we suggest that previous research has generally overlooked a simple but important pathway through which inequality might manifest in daily life: inequality shapes the ability of women to outsource domestic labor by hiring others to perform it. One important venue where such dynamics might then manifest is in time spent on housework and in particular in the time divide in housework between women of high and low socio-economic status. We combine micro-data from the 2003-2013 American Time Use Survey with area-level data on income inequality to show the class divide in housework time between women with a college degree and from high earning households and women of lower socio-economic status is wider in more unequal places. We further assess whether this gap can be explained by domestic outsourcing by combining micro-data from the 2003-2013 Consumer Expenditure Survey with area-level inequality and show that the gap in spending for household services between households of high and low socio-economic status also increases in contexts of higher inequality.
  • An Anatomy of Intergenerational Transmission: Learning from the educational attainments of Norwegian twins and their parents
    Research on the intergenerational transmission of educational attainment, and transmission of social positions more generally, have long attempted to separate the relative roles of ascription and achievement. In these efforts, the bulk of research has ignored genetic inheritance. We use structural equations models and data on 4590 twin pairs and their parents to distinguish the roles of genetic and environmental influences on educational attainment in Norway, a country with high affordability and easy access to education at all levels. Our quantitative genetic models confirm the status quo; not of sociology, but of behavior genetics. Heritable factors play an important role in the transmission process, and the postulated direct effects of parents own educational attainments are negligible. The family environment does matter, but only those features that are shared between the twins themselves and not those that involve their parents. These results represent a challenge to conventional sociological theory on intergenerational transmission processes and the role of education in social stratification.
  • How Individual Income Tax Policy Affects Entrepreneurship
    We review the empirical literature on the effects of individual income tax policy on entrepreneurship. We find no evidence of consensus, even on relatively narrow questions such as whether individual income tax rates deter or encourage entrepreneurial entry. We believe the absence of consensus reflects both the complexity of mechanisms connecting tax policy to entrepreneurial decision making and the infeasibility of employing the most reliable empirical methods, such as experiments, in this domain.
  • Status and the Demand for Visible Goods: Experimental Evidence on Conspicuous Consumption
    Some economists argue that consumption of publicly visible goods is driven by social status. Making a causal inference about this claim is difficult with observational data. We conduct an experiment in which we vary both whether a purchase of a physical product is publicly visible or kept private and whether the income used for purchase is linked to social status or randomly assigned. Making consumption choices visible leads to a large increase in demand when income is linked to status, but not otherwise. We investigate the characteristics that mediate this effect and estimate its impact on welfare
  • Change in and through practice: Pierre Bourdieu, Vincent Pouliot, and the end of the Cold War
  • Change in and through practice: Pierre Bourdieu, Vincent Pouliot, and the end of the Cold War
    The end of the Cold War led to intense debates about how change happens in international politics. In this article, we argue that practice theory has great potential for illuminating this question. Drawing on Vincent Pouliot's empirical analysis of NATO-Russia relations after the end of the Cold War, we elaborate how change happens in and through practice. We show that post-Cold War security practices are inherently unstable, because there is a fundamental uncertainty about whether the Cold War is really over or whether the Cold War logic of bipolar confrontation still applies. Uncertainty about the meaning of the past destabilizes present practices and thus makes sudden and drastic change possible. To date, many contributions to the literature on international practices have, however, failed to grasp the inherent instability of practice. We argue that this failure is due to a particular conception of change that can be found in the works of Pierre Bourdieu. Through a close reading of Pouliot's Bourdieusian analysis of post-Cold War politics, we demonstrate the limitations of such a perspective, notably that it is unable to grasp how change originates in practice.
  • JChain: A new way to look inside the firm
    JChain takes advantage of the blockchain mechanism to measure all activities into the firm. The idea is that to create a large database where all activities are masured and recorded by means of a Eurocoin-based-payment system.
  • An (increasingly) visible college: Mapping and strengthening research and innovation networks with open data
    Innovation policymakers need timely, detailed data about scientific research trends and networks to monitor their evolution and put in place suitable strategies to support them. We have analysed the Gateway to Research, an open dataset about research funding and university-industry collaborations in the UK in a project to map innovation in Wales. We use supervised learning and Natural Language Processing to improve data coverage and measure activity in research topics, build a recommendation engine to identify new opportunities for collaboration in the Welsh innovation system, and present the results through interactive visualisations. Our results suggest that Wales is becoming more competitive in areas identified as strategic targets by Welsh Government, that its research ecosystem is geographically diversified, and that research collaborations tend to take place between organisations that are geographically close. The data sources and methods we have used in the project can help understand this system better, and support it more effectively.
  • Mapping without a map: Exploring the UK business landscape using unsupervised learning
    Policy interventions have to be timely and tailored to specific sectors of the economic ecosystem to maximise their potential impact. We propose a system based on open data that offers policy makers two capabilities. First, it enables them to explore the digital and tech company space with high granularity through keywords, specific technologies or company names, and identify relevant organisations and those most similar to them. Second, it provides an overview of the ecosystem by creating thematic topics that characterise the activities of these companies. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this system in three activity areas not currently captured in the SIC codes.
  • Führung in der deutschen Verwaltungsforschung
  • Führung in der deutschen Verwaltungsforschung: Ein Überblick über die Entwicklung der wissenschaftlichen Diskussion und eine Agenda für die Zukunft
    Seit einiger Zeit lässt dich beobachten, dass dem Thema Führung in Verwaltungspraxis und -forschung immer mehr Bedeutung beigemessen wird. Dies soll zum Anlass genommen werden, den aktuellen Stand der Führungsforschung im öffentlichen Sektor in Deutschland zusammenzufassen, Entwicklungen nachzuzeichnen und Forschungslücken aufzuzeigen. Insgesamt lässt sich feststellen, dass für Deutschland bisher nur sehr wenig empirische Forschung zum Führungsverhalten im öffentlichen Sektor vorliegt. Stattdessen dominierten in der Vergangenheit konzeptionelle und normative Beiträge. In den letzten Jahren ist jedoch ein zunehmendes Interesse der Forschung zu verzeichnen, was sich auch in einer zunehmenden Zahl empirischer Beiträge niederschlägt. Es bleiben allerdings noch viele Fragen unbeantwortet. Dieser Beitrag zeigt daher auf, wie diese adressiert werden können und entwirft damit eine Agenda für die weitere Führungsforschung im öffentlichen Sektor.
  • The Hoabinhian of Southeast Asia and its Relationship to Regional Pleistocene Lithic Technologies
    The Hoabinhian is a distinctive Pleistocene stone artefact technology of mainland and island Southeast Asia. Its relationships to key patterns of technological change both at a global scale and in adjacent regions such as East Asia, South Asia and Australia are currently poorly understood. These key patterns are important indicators of evolutionary and demographic change in human prehistory so our understanding of the Hoabinhian may be substantially enhanced by examining these relationships. In this paper I present new evidence of ancient Hoabinhian technology from Northwest Thailand and examine connections between Hoabinhian technology and the innovation of other important Pleistocene technological processes such as radial core geometry. I present some claims about the evolutionary significance of the Hoabinhian and recommend future research priorities.
  • Consumer demand for time of use electricity tariffs - a systematized review of the emprical evidence
    Time of use (TOU) tariffs, if widely adopted, could help make electricity more secure, clean and affordable. However, little is known about whether consumers will switch to a TOU tariff or what might increase uptake if switching rates are lower than required. This paper presents the results of a systematized review and meta-analysis combining the results of 66 measures of uptake to a variety of TOU tariffs across 27 studies conducted in six countries. It provides the first robust estimate of consumer demand and correlates of demand for TOU tariffs that is not based on the results from just a single study or tariff. Four main conclusions emerge. First, if consumers are left to opt-in to TOU tariffs, uptake could be as low as 1% unless efforts are made to close the intention-action gap, otherwise enrolment could reach 43%. Second, if enrolment is opt-out, uptake could approach 100%. Third, whilst national surveys indicate the potential appetite for TOU tariffs in a population, they are insufficient for predicting future TOU tariff adoption rates; the median proportion of domestic energy bill payers who say they would be willing to switch to a TOU tariff in national surveys is five times higher than the median enrolment rate to commercially available TOU tariffs. Fourth, real-time pricing tariffs, in which the price of electricity varies freely throughout the day, are less popular than static TOU tariffs which have fixed peak and off-peak rates. This paper discusses the limitations of opt-out enrolment for TOU tariffs and presents results suggesting that small upfront financial payments, bill protection and automation are promising alternative methods of increasing opt-in enrolment. Policymakers and researchers should now consider how recruitment will be performed, weighing up the benefits to society as a whole against the distributional impacts for individuals and groups.
  • The Konar Sandal 'Geometric' inscriptions: a graphotactic analysis
    An analysis of the distributional properties of the signs in the Konar Sandal 'Geometric' inscriptions (3rd millenium B.C.E.) suggests that they may in fact be musical scores.
  • Delaying Access to a Problem-Skipping Option Increases Effortful Practice: Application of an A/B Test in Large-Scale Online Learning
    We report on an online double-blind randomized controlled field experiment (A/B test) in Math Garden, a computer adaptive practice system with over 150,000 active primary school children. The experiment was designed to eliminate an unforeseen opportunity to practice with minimal effort. Some children tend to skip problems that require deliberate effort, and only attempt problems that they can spontaneously answer. The intervention delayed the option to skip a problem, thereby promoting effortful practice. The results reveal an increase in the exerted effort, without being at the expense of engagement. Whether the additional effort positively affected the children's learning gains could not be concluded. Finally, in addition to these substantial results, the experiment demonstrates some of the advantages of A/B tests, such as the unique opportunity to apply truly blind randomized field experiments in educational science.
  • Delaying access to a problem-skipping option increases effortful practice: Application of an A/B test in large-scale online learning
  • “Journal of the History of Economic Thought Preprints - The Contribution of Robert Torrens to Ricardo’s Theory of Natural Wage”
    This paper reconsiders the anteriority of Torrens’ theory of natural wage to that of Ricardo. Ricardo was influenced by Torrens’ thinking when writing the chapter on “Wages” of the Principles. For many historians of economic thought, this influence is limited to Torrens’ focus on the sociocultural aspect of necessity goods, which determine the natural price of labor. While this interpretation is consistent with that of Ricardo, we argue that the anteriority of Torrens to Ricardo more generally focuses on the method used by the latter to justify the indexation of money wages on the money price of subsistence goods. Finally, this paper shows that the tribute paid to Torrens by Ricardo paradoxically explains the misunderstanding of his theory by posterity.
  • Comments on Conceptualizing and Measuring the Exchange of Beauty and Status
    This is a working paper of a comment that is now available in the American Sociological Review 82(5):1293-1299. The code (but not the data) to reproduce this analysis, as well as my own output, is also available at: In this comment, I identify two methodological issues in McClintock’s (2014) article on beauty exchange. First, McClintock’s difference models, which find no evidence of exchange, are poor measures of exchange that fail to account for important confounders and rely upon an overly narrow conceptualization of exchange. Second, McClintock codes her log-linear models to find a difference in the effect of men and women’s beauty in exchange rather than the total effect of women’s beauty, which is both statistically significant and substantively large.
  • The epistemic value of p-values
    How do p-values relate to beliefs? p-values are widely used in data analytic contexts, and the misuse of p-values can have grave consequences. In order to get a better grip on p-values, we need to make epistemological sense of them. I argue that the least inappropriate way of understanding the relation of p-values to beliefs is to regard p-values as a degree of epistemic luck, or, in the rare contexts in which the belief in a null model is justified, as a degree of justifiedness. When we handle p-values in an epistemically responsible way, there is no need to abandon them. What should be abandoned, however, is the use of p-values as a default tool in data analysis: Instead of relying on default tools, we should justify our data analysis tools each time we perform some data analytic task.
  • How many (queer) cases do I need?: Thinking through research design
    Epistemological choices made during the very early stages of research impact empirical outcomes in meaningful ways. Defining the population of interest, choosing a sample size, and confronting questions of representativeness are particularly complex when studying LGBTQ topics. There are certainly methodological guidelines, but in the end, research design is a matter of making informed choices and interrogating the histories of the questions we ask. While this is important to all social scientists, scholars are more likely to get methodological critiques as dismissals when doing queer work because of heteronormative assumptions and practices. Employing strong research designs helps us to defend our work and gain legitimacy in the discipline.
  • When History and Genetics Tell Different Stories,
    Biologist Shai Carmi et al. demonstrated several years ago (in Nature Communications) that the entire contemporary community of Ashkenazic Jews, numbering very roughly ten million individuals, can trace its ancestry to an effective population of about 350 persons living in Poland at the midpoint of the Fourteenth Century. Historians have been slow to examine the powerful and deeply troubling implications of Carmi’s work, which invites exploration of how a once extensive population of Jews in the Roman Empire could have been almost completely extinguished during the Medieval era. This paper examines several possible historical hypotheses that have been put forth to explain Carmi’s so-far uncontested scientific finding, and concludes that the most powerful contributor to the decimation of the root population in the Roman Empire was likely to have been religious-inspired violence taking place during the lengthy period of the Crusades and immediately after the Black Plague epidemic.
  • Lithic Technological Organization and Paleoenvironmental Change
  • The Authentic Appeal of the Lying Demagogue: Proclaiming the Deeper Truth About Political Illigitimacy
    We develop and test a theory to address a puzzling pattern that has been discussed widely since the 2016 U.S. presidential election: that a constituency of voters can find a candidate “authentically appealing” (i.e., view him positively as authentic) even though he is a “lying demagogue” (someone who deliberately tells lies and appeals to non-normative private prejudices). Key to the theory are two points: (a) that “common knowledge” lies may be understood as flagrant violations of the norm of truth-telling; and (b) that when a political system is suffering from a “crisis of legitimacy” (Lipset 1959) with respect to at least one political constituency, members of that constituency will be motivated to see a flagrant violator of established norms as an authentic champion of its interests. Two online vignette experiments on a simulated college election support our theory. These results demonstrate that mere partisanship is insufficient to explain sharp differences in how lying demagoguery is perceived, and that several oft-discussed factors—information-access, culture, language, and gender—are not necessary for explaining such differences. Rather, for the lying demagogue to have authentic appeal, it is sufficient that one side of a social divide regards the political system as flawed or illegitimate.
  • Killing death: Some implications of extending human lifespan indefinitely
    Ending natural biological death through rejuvenation means overcoming one particular biological limitation. In that sense, ending death is not much different than many other technological advances that overcome some part of our limited biology. The benefits of ending natural biological death are potentially immense. However, even though rejuvenation technology should be pursued and implemented as soon as possible, there are some risks that should be taken into account early on. Primarily, we need to address the problem of potential unequal access to and the monopolization of the rejuvenation technology.
  • Opiate of the Masses? Social Inequality, Religion, and Politics
    This study considers the assertion that religion is the opiate of the masses. Using a special module of the General Social Survey and drawing on structuration and positionality theories, I first demonstrate that religion functions as a compensatory resource for disadvantaged groups—women, racial minorities, those with lower incomes, and, to a lesser extent, sexual minorities. I then demonstrate that religion—operating as both palliative resource and values-shaping schema—suppresses what would otherwise be larger group differences in political values. This study provides empirical support for Marx’s general claim that religion is the “sigh of the oppressed creature” and suppressor of emancipatory politics. It expands upon and refines the economics-focused argument, however, showing that religion provides (1) compensatory resources for lack of social, and not just economic, status, and (2) traditional-values-oriented schemas that impact social attitudes more than economic attitudes. I conclude that religion is not a simple distraction, but instead a complex and powerful social structure in which people both receive psychological compensation and develop rules-based belief systems that shape their political values.
  • How Troubling is our Inheritance - A review of genetics and race in the social sciences
    This article addresses the argument that there is variation between races in the biological basis for social behavior. The article uses Nicholas Wade’s popular book, *A Troublesome Inheritance*, as the point of departure for a discussion of attendant issues, including the extent to which human races can be definitively demarcated biologically, the extent to which genetics is related to contemporary definitions of race, and the role of natural selection as a possible mechanism for change in modern societies. My critical review of the theory and evidence for an evolutionary view of racial determinism finds that genetics does not explain the relative status and well-being of today’s racially identified groups or their broader societies.
  • A temporal geography of encounters
    Integrating social and spatial networks will be critical to new approaches to cities as systems of interaction. In this paper, we focus on the spatial and temporal conditions of encounters as a key condition for the formation of social networks. Drawing on classic approaches such as Freeman’s concept of segregation as ‘restriction on contact’, Hägerstrand’s time-geography, and recent explorations of social media locational data, we analysed the space-time structure of potential encounters latent in the urban trajectories of people with different income levels in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This approach allows us to estimate trajectories examining spatiotemporal positions in tweets, and assess spaces of potential encounter and levels of social diversity on the streets. Finally, we discuss the utility and limitations of an approach developed to grasp how clusters of encounters between groups with different income levels are produced.
  • Point Pattern Analysis as Tool for Digital Geoarchaeology: A Case Study of Megalithic Graves in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany
    AbstractIn this contribution, we apply different methods of spatial and geomorphometric analysis in order to present a general approach of data exploration in areas where detailed local information is absent. Our data are based on locations of megalithic graves from Funnel Beaker societies (3700–2800 BCE) in the area of Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. Using these locations, we apply methods of point pattern analysis in order to reconstruct the spatial processes that created the sample: We use density-based measures to show the influence of first-order effects on the dataset. While first-order effects are related to the underlying areal characteristics of the point locations and hence are determinant of their intensity, second-order effects are the result of interactions between points. We conduct distance-related approaches, e.g. focusing on nearest-neighbour characteristics, in order to investigate the interaction between the points. The point pattern analyses are complemented by integrating geomorphometric measures that are indirectly indicative for some general environmental conditions, even in prehistoric times. This helps (a) to relate first-order effects to societal or environmental features and (b) to understand the specific pattern of interactions between the points. The necessary raw data in the form of digital elevation models are freely available for large parts of the globe. All analyses are conducted using free and open-source software in order to provide their limitless application.
  • Point Pattern Analysis as Tool for Digital Geoarchaeology – A Case Study of Megalithic Graves in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany
    In this contribution we apply different methods of spatial and geomorphometric analysis in order to present a general approach of data exploration in areas where detailed local information is absent. Our data are based on locations of megalithic graves from Funnel Beaker societies (3700-2800 BCE) in the area of Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. Using these locations, we apply methods of point pattern analysis in order to reconstruct the spatial processes that created the sample: We use density based measures to show the influence of first order effects on the dataset. While first order effects are related to the underlying areal characteristics of the point locations and hence are determinant of their intensity, second-order effects are the result of interactions between points. We conduct distance related approaches, e.g.\ focusing on nearest neighbor characteristics, in order to investigate the interaction between the points. The point pattern analyses is complemented by integrating geomorphometric measures that are indirectly indicative for some general environmental conditions, even in prehistoric times. This helps (a) to relate first-order effects to societal or environmental features and (b) to understand the specific pattern of interactions between the points. The necessary raw data in form of digital elevation models are freely available for large parts of the globe. All analyses are conducted using free and open source software in order to provide their limitless application.
  • An Analysis and Brief History of Foreigners' Rights under the US Constitution
    In response to the various travel restrictions put in place by President Donald J. Trump's various executive orders, the author analyzes their implications in the context of existing policy and the structure of recognized constitutional rights for foreigners visiting the United States.
  • How do people connect with nature? Quantifying recreational ecosystem services using social media
    The way people connect with nature influences their environmental attitudes and behaviour. The primary mean people have to connect to nature is nature-based recreation which has important socio-economic and health benefits but can also have severe ecological impacts. Despite its importance, recreation is one of the least quantified ecosystem services. Here, we determine which attributes of nature-based tourism destinations provide recreational services. We used pictures of wildlife posted on Flickr to quantify wildlife-watching activities in Scotland. We then determined the environmental variables key to attracting wildlife watchers to a destination, such as protected areas (PAs), the perceived naturalness, and the presence of different types of infrastructure. Infrastructure is the best predictor of intensity of wildlife watching activities in Scotland, while areas of high natural value are not used. Pas act as a weak attractor of wildlife watchers, with PAs designated to protect threatened habitats or species having low recreational value. In accessible and highly visited areas, higher biodiversity increases the intensity of wildlife watching activities. Areas of high natural and conservation value and areas of high recreational value do not overlap. Recreational ecosystem services are mainly provided by the wider countryside and highly transformed landscapes as opposed to wild ecosystems. These results question the synergy between the goals of recreation and those of conservation and the use of recreation as a justification for economic investment in conservation. Most people experience an urbanised, highly transformed nature; we should focus our attention on how this human-dominated nature can influence environmental attitudes.
  • Social Space Diffusion
    Social networks represent two different facets of social life: (1) stable paths for diffusion, or the spread of something through a connected population, and (2) random draws from an underlying social space, which indicate the relative positions of the people in the network to one another. The dual nature of networks creates a challenge – if the observed network ties are a single random draw, is it realistic to expect that diffusion only follows the observed network ties? This study takes a first step towards integrating these two perspectives by introducing a social space diffusion model. In the model, network ties indicate positions in social space, and diffusion occurs proportionally to distance in social space. Practically, the simulation occurs in two parts: positions are estimated using a latent space model, and then the predicted probabilities of a tie from that model – representing the distances in social space – or a series of networks drawn from those probabilities – representing routine churn in the network – are used as weights in a weighted averaging framework. Using a school friendship network, I show that the model is more consistent and, when probabilities are used, the model converges faster than diffusion following only the observed network ties.
  • Network Diversity, and Tweets Credibility Assessment
    Credibility assessment plays a central role in people's attitude towards, and acceptance of information. The tremendous amount of information available online has resulted in considerable research on information and source credibility. Yet, the majority of research is focused on individuals as making credibility judgments in isolation from one another, thereby ignoring more social means and tools of credibility evaluation. More specifically, despite the central role social networking sites play in users' information consumption, the credibility assessment mechanisms utilized within these platforms are understudied (Hayat, Brainin, & Neter, 2017; Hayat, Samuel-Azran & Galily, 2016). This study is drawn from theories of online information assessment, specifically the Prominence-Interpretation theory and the Elaboration Likelihood Model. Guided by these theories, we explored the social dimension of content credibility assessment. Specifically, we wished to explore how the level of diversity within people who shared a given piece of information (e.g. family, friends, colleagues. etc.) on twitter, effect the recipient credibility assessment regarding that piece of information (Hayat, & Samuel-Azran, 2017). We utilized a between subjects design, our participants (N=88 undergraduate students) were divided into control and experiment groups. The twitter network of each participant was collected and analyzed in advance, in order to identify (1) people to whom our participants are actively connected to on twitter (i.e. they have re-tweeted their tweets at least once); and (2) social clusters among these active connections (i.e. people who are tightly connected with one another, and less connected to other people). Based on this analysis, participants in both the experimental and control groups were shown the same fictitious tweet that was presumably re-tweeted by people they have active ties with. In the experimental group, three people from different social clusters were presented as re-tweeting the content; in the control group three people from the same social cluster were presented as re-tweeting the content. The participants were then asked to rank the fictitious tweet credibility and to explain the score they gave. In the condition where the tweet was re-tweeted by people from diverse social clusters, the tweet was perceived as statistically significantly more credible, when compared with the credibility scored given in the condition where the tweet was re-tweeted by people from the same social cluster. These results highlight the role interpersonal ties plays in the process of credibility assessment. More specifically, these findings emphasize the relevancy of ties diversity within the credibility assessment process. While this insights offer a deeper understanding of credibility assessment mechanisms within twitter; they can also guide researchers interested in gaining a more exhaustive understanding of these processes within other social networking sites.
  • When the Public Seeks Anonymity Online: How News, Industry, and Socio-Political Conditions Shape Interest in the Tor Anonymity Network, 2006-2015
    With the growth of the post-9/11 national counter-terror apparatus and as digital systems became more ubiquitous in Americans’ daily lives, the U.S. government engaged in unprecedented forms of mass surveillance during the first two decades of the 21st century. Since 2004, users have been able to download the Tor web browser, an anonymity-granting technology, allowing them to avoid government and commercial surveillance as well as to access content on the deep web. While existing research has shown that Tor is most likely to be downloaded in countries with very high and very low levels of political repression, little is known about the social conditions that produce interest in Tor within the United States. This study examines the issue attention cycles, socio-political conditions, and state-level industry composition associated with public interest in the Tor browser in the U.S. Using data at the state-year level from 2006-2015, this study examines whether social conditions (including population, education, median income, and age composition), the presence of tech and political jobs, state political ideology, or public interest in the Snowden/NSA revelation or the Silk Road marketplace are most strongly associated with Google search volume for the Tor browser. The results indicate strong time period effects, greater interest in Tor in small population states, and more searches for Tor where there was greater interest in the Snowden surveillance revelations. The findings contribute to a sociological understanding of the structural conditions that promote adoption of anonymity-granting technologies in an era of surveillance.
  • Journal of the History of Economic Thought Preprints - "Keynes, Mill and Say's Law: A Comment on Professor Ahiakpor's Mistaken Defence of Mill"
    This note is a reply to James Ahiakpor's critical blast against my 2016 paper on the subject of Keynes, Mill and Say's Law. Professor Ahiakpor has apparently missed the point I was trying to make: his slings and arrows hit no targets.
  • Are the World's Languages Consolidating? The Dynamics and Distribution of Language Populations
    Scholars have conjectured that the return to speaking a language increases with the number of speakers. Long-run economic and political integration would accentuate this advantage, increasing the population share of the largest languages. I show that, to the contrary, language size and growth are uncorrelated except for very small languages (
  • Journal of the History of Economic Thought Preprints - Wicksell on Walras's early treatment of capital and interest
    In this paper we examine the criticism that Knut Wicksell advanced against Walras’s treatment of capital and interest at the end of the nineteenth century, as well as the views of two distinguished followers of Walras concerning the points raised by the Swedish economist. As regards the first aspect, it should be noted that the criticism put forward by Wicksell at that time refers to the earlier editions of the Éléments, in which circulating capital is excluded from the analysis. We thus endeavour to clarify Wicksell’s remarks on the consequences of that exclusion for both the representation of the social production process and the determination of the interest rate. As to the second aspect, our discussion indicates that the appropriate way of treating the capitalistic element of production was an unsettled issue within the small circle of Walras’s followers at the end of the nineteenth century.
  • Training Aspiring Entrepreneurs to Pitch Experienced Investors: Evidence from a Field Experiment in the United States
  • Training Aspiring Entrepreneurs to Pitch Experienced Investors: Evidence from a Field Experiment in the United States
    Accredited investors finance more than 75,000 U.S. start-ups annually. We explain how training aspiring entrepreneurs to pitch their new business ideas to these investors affects their odds of continued funding discussions. We model accredited investors’ decision to continue investigation as a real option whose value is a function of their experience and the information contained in the entrepreneurs’ pitches. We derive four hypotheses from the model, which we test through a field experiment that randomly assigns pitch training at four elevator pitch competitions. The data support all four hypotheses, and are inconsistent with alternative explanations.
  • Um panorama dos estudos críticos em educação e tecnologias digitais
    Selwyn N., (2017) Um panorama dos estudos críticos em educação e tecnologias digitais. in Rocha, C., El Kadri, M. and Windle, J. (eds). Dialogos sobre tecnologia educatcional. Sao Paulo, Pontes (pp.15-40)
  • Problems of Pre-service Teachers during the Practicum: An Analysis of Written Reflections and Mentor Feedback
    Knowledge of pre-service teachers’ problems during the practicum is supremely important to the design and implementation of an effective field experience. Based on this, the current study aimed to explore the most frequent problems of a cohort of English as foreign language (EFL) beginning teachers (n = 60) enrolled in a training program. Results of an in-depth content analysis of post-lesson written reflections (n = 1511), mentor feedback (n = 1624) and end-of-each-practicum reports (n = 337) reveal 23 frequent problems with teaching methodology, class control and time management as the top concerns. Results also indicate that trainees’ development seems to go through five distinct stages. These findings offer for the first time an insight into the most pressing needs of Moroccan EFL pre-service teachers. Interpretations of the results and recommendations are discussed in relation to the context of the study.
    This is the first study to suggest “Coolabilities” as a general concept for particular enhanced abilities that may accompany disabling conditions. Similar to how blind people can have exceptional hearing and people with Autism Spectrum Disorder can have superior sense for detail, many other conditions may come with similar coolabilities that remain to be investigated. The Coolabilities concept can be useful in any context that aims to increase the value of people, with a large impact on the labor market. Individuals labeled as “disabled” are defined by what they cannot do, while “coolabled” people are defined by their strengths and are an untapped resource of special talent. The purpose of this study is to present the general coolabilities concept, discuss its validity and demonstrate its relevance by suggesting future research and applications enabled by it, with the main focus on human resource management.
  • Tornado casualties in the United States: A model involving interaction between population density and energy dissipation
    A recent study showed the importance of tornado strength as a factor in a model for tornado deaths and injuries (casualties). The model was additive under the assumption of uniform threat. Here we test two explicit hypotheses designed to examine this additive assumption. The first hypothesis concerns energy dissipation's effect conditional on population density and the second concerns population's effect conditional on energy. Both hypotheses are tested using a regression model that contains the product of population density and energy dissipation. Results show that the elasticity of casualties with respect to energy dissipation increases with population density. That is, the percentage increase in casualties with increasing energy dissipation {\it increases} with population density. Similarly, the elasticity of casualties with respect to population density increases with energy dissipation. That is, the percentage increase in casualties with increasing population density {\it increases} with energy dissipation. Allowing energy and population elasticities to be conditional rather than constant provides a richer description of how tornado casualties are influenced by these two important factors.
  • Love Wins?: Legal Challenges for LGBT Families After Marriage Equality
    In June 2015, the U.S. Supreme Court rendered its decision in favor of marriage equality, prompting widespread declarations of victory for LGBT couples. Access to legal marriage has been a game changer for LGBT families. Despite these important shifts, treating marriage equality as the catch-all solution for legal obstacles faced by LGBT families is problematic. Interactions with the law are determined by more than simply the law on the books. Prior experiences with the law and legal and sociopolitical environment shape the degree of trust people place in the law and legal institutions, including the willingness to engage with the legal system. We interviewed 137 parents located across the United States to explore when and how LGBT individuals use the law on behalf of their families. We found that a history of LGBT conflict with the legal system has produced, for many, an enduring distrust of the law within their family lives.
  • LG(BT) Families and Counting
    Counting and understanding lesbian and gay families has gained attention over the last decade in popular culture, policy and academic research. Contentious debates on family values and same-sex marriage, increasing rates of social tolerance for homosexuality, and a greater general academic attention on issues of sexual orientation have partially spurred this attention in demographic analysis of lesbian and gay families. It is becoming increasingly clear that sexual orientation and gender identity have an effect on demographic processes and life outcomes. Although not perfect, practically speaking, drawing on nationally representative survey data has allowed us to illuminate the presence of same-sex families and their children.These findings have an iterative relationship with social change, public policy, and increasing tolerance for diversity. This article reviews the recent demographic contributions related to lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) families. Due to research concentrations, the content of this article mostly addresses what is known about gay and lesbian families, but also offers future directions to fill research voids including a call for greater attention to and visibility for families with bisexual and transgender members.
  • Patterns of Bisexuality in America
  • Patterns of Bisexuality
    In this paper we use data from the 2002 and 2006-2008 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) to analyze the most recent patterns of bisexuality in the United States. There has been little demographic work done on the issue of bisexuality, and this paper strives to explore some aspects of the sexual orientation. Using a social constructionist definition of sexuality, we both enumerate those who identify, desire, and behave as bisexual as well as compare some basic demographic characteristics of bisexuality with heterosexuality, homosexuality, and asexuality. Overall, we find that conclusions about the prevalence of bisexuality and the characteristics of bisexual individuals versus other sexualities do differ depending on the dimension employed. Most generally, however, we find that in bisexual respondents are more likely to be in poorer health condition than heterosexual respondents (but in better health compared to gay and lesbian respondents), engaged in full time employment, and less likely to have ever been married.
  • Queer Eye on the Gay Rodeo
    I do not remember how or when I first heard about gay rodeos, but I do remember how excited I felt. Yet this excitement was coupled with some hesitation. I felt the need to disguise my excitement among my queer friends. I presented the gay rodeo’s allure as rooted in simple curiosity, a chance to further my academic study of queer life. However, I was personally interested in finding others like me - other queers who appreciated country as a lifestyle or one might even say as an ethnicity - rather than simply as a place. Country meant good things to me; I dreamt of owning land and livestock and I loved country music and dancing. One of the most difficult aspects of coming out for me was how drastically the setting for my social life changed as I moved away from the country spaces and country activities that I had previously known and enjoyed.My previous “straight” life involved what one could call “country” entertainment. It took place in dusty arenas, around animals and in bars that played country music. Upon coming out, my social life moved to house parties or venues that played dance and pop music and I rarely took road trips to small towns for markets, fairs, or rodeos. Rather, I was more likely to make trips to a big city for nightlife, shopping, and art. While I know this sounds like a simplistic juxtaposition of bad stereotypes, it really felt that way tome at the time. The sociologist inme often reflected on why this occurred. I now suspect one influential factor was the lack of mainstream knowledge regarding the true diversity of queer life at the time, which was almost two decades ago. On the level of appearances, it seemed simple. Queer people were unwelcome in country places - places associated with rednecks, Republicans, and ignorance. Thus, we did not go there.After all, the mass media had taught us that country was a place where we would die not only from isolation, but also from even more horrible cruel, painful, violent, and undignified deaths like Brandon Teena or being crucified on a fence like Matthew Shepard. Yet, at times I was uncomfortable in ostensibly safe, queer spaces due to tomy country background. Ironically, it often felt like my rural conservative friends and acquaintances were less disapproving of my sexual orientation than my liberal queer friends were of my country tastes.So one can understand why I was so excited to hear about a gay rodeo. I anticipated a queer country wonderland extravaganza that encompassed all of the “good” that country culture had to offer and none of the bad. I did not have to worry about coming out or being too gay and cowboy hats were not associated with fears of homophobic harassment.
  • The Residential Segregation of Same-Sex Households from Different-Sex Households in Metropolitan USA, circa-2010
    Residential segregation is a major area of research in demography. By far the majority of the research has focused on the segregation of racial/ethnic minorities from the majority white group in metropolitan areas of the United States and several other countries. Few analyses have focused on the spatial segregation of sexual minorities from the majority. In this paper we analyze the residential segregation of gay male and lesbian households from heterosexual married and heterosexual cohabiting households. We use two dissimilarity measures of residential segregation and draw on data from the American Community Surveys for 2008 through 2012 to calculate segregation scores for the 100 MSAs with the largest gay male and lesbian populations in around the year 2010. We show that there is a sizable amount of homosexual-heterosexual residential segregation. We also show that gay males are more segregated from different-sex partners than are lesbians, and that levels of segregation vary positively across the cities with the size of the gay and lesbian populations.
  • Implementing and Analyzing Social Media in Higher Education
    This article examines how social media can incorporate into the higher education setting in meaningful ways using optional participation, active content production, and active moderation. The authors use two authoethnographic case studies. The first case pertains to pedagogical use through a student created and maintained Facebook group for a Sociology of Gender course. The second case pertains to the construction and maintenance of a participatory learning culture through a departmental Facebook page. The article includes accounts from each case and an analysis of the successful components.
  • Developing and Assessing Intercoder Reliability in Studies of Group Interaction
  • Developing and Assessing Inter-coder Reliability in Studies of Group Interaction
    Although group interaction is a rich source of data, it offers many challenges for analysis. We discuss how pretesting can solve many coding and reliability issues before the actual data collection and analysis. We discuss some considerations for how coding schemes can be developed, how coders can be trained, and how coder reliability can be ascertained. We examine the properties of different estimates of inter-coder reliability and detail how these relate to decisions about the data
  • Fiscal fault, financial fix? Capital Markets Union and the quest for macroeconomic stabilization in the euro area
    This paper argues that Capital Markets Union – the EU’s attempt to establish a more market-based financial system – is a result less of financial policymaking than of macroeconomic governance in a politically fractured polity. The current governance structure of Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) severely limits the capacity of both national and supranational actors to provide a core public good, macroeconomic stabilization. While member states have institutionalized fiscal austerity and abandoned other macroeconomic levers, the European polity lacks the fiscal resources necessary to achieve stable macroeconomic conditions: smoothing the business cycle, ensuring growth and job creation, and mitigating the impact of asymmetric output shocks on consumption. Capital Markets Union, we argue, is an attempt by European policymakers to devise a financial fix for this structural capacity gap. Using its regulatory powers, the European Commission, supported by the European Central Bank (ECB), seeks to harness private financial markets and instruments to provide the public policy good of macroeconomic stabilization. We trace how technocrats, think tanks, and financial-sector lobbyists, through the strategic use of knowledge and expertise, established securitization and market-based finance as solutions to EMU’s governance problems.
  • Voting contagion: Modeling and analysis of a century of U.S. presidential elections
  • Voting contagion: Modeling and analysis of a century of U.S. presidential elections
    Social influence plays an important role in human behavior and decisions. Sources of influence can be divided as external, which are independent of social context, or as originating from peers, such as family and friends. An important question is how to disentangle the social contagion by peers from external influences. While a variety of experimental and observational studies provided insight into this problem, identifying the extent of contagion based on large-scale observational data with an unknown network structure remains largely unexplored. By bridging the gap between the large-scale complex systems perspective of collective human dynamics and the detailed approach of social sciences, we present a parsimonious model of social influence, and apply it to a central topic in political science--elections and voting behavior. We provide an analytical expression of the county vote-share distribution, which is in excellent agreement with almost a century of observed U.S. presidential election data. Analyzing the social influence topography over this period reveals an abrupt phase transition from low to high levels of social contagion, and robust differences among regions. These results suggest that social contagion effects are becoming more instrumental in shaping large-scale collective political behavior, with implications on democratic electoral processes and policies.
  • A Wikipédia como fonte de informação de referência: avaliação e perspectivas
    Resumo A Wikipédia é citada em revistas científicas de alto impacto, apesar de sua má reputação como fonte de informação. O que sustenta essa aceitação? Em busca de respostas, este artigo apresenta uma avaliação da Wikipédia anglófona segundo o roteiro de Silberger para obras de referência quanto ao propósito, alcance, arranjo, informação dada, acesso e características especiais, com um aspecto adicional: o controle da qualidade do conteúdo. Complementa essa avaliação um relato da experiência do autor na criação de um verbete em português. Em conclusão, a Wikipédia tem conteúdo de alta qualidade, com vantagens como o grande volume de conteúdo em muitas línguas, bem como desvantagens, como a ênfase em tópicos “populares”. Há também conteúdo inadequado, cuja contenção e reparo dependem da capacidade e engajamento da comunidade linguística que a edita, bem como do respeito a seus princípios editoriais. Há oportunidade para engajar estudantes do ensino superior na criação de conteúdos, bem como na avaliação, que é uma forma de “revisão por pares”. O bom uso da Wikipédia depende essencialmente da capacidade crítica do leitor. Abstract Wikipedia is cited in high-profile scientific journals, despite its poor reputation as information source. What warrants this acceptance by scientists? In search for answers, this article presents an assessment of the English Wikipedia according to Silberger's guide for reference works, analyzing its purpose, scope, arrangement, information given, access, and special characteristics, with an additional aspect: quality control of new content. An account of the author's experience in creating an entry in the Portuguese Wikipedia complements the assessment. In conclusion, Wikipedia has high quality content, with advantages such as the large volume of content in many languages, as well as disadvantages such as the emphasis on “popular” topics. There is also inadequate content, whose containment and repair depend on the literacy and engagement of the linguistic community that publishes it, as well as on following Wikipedia's editorial principles. Content creation is an opportunity to engage higher education students, as well as content evaluation, which is a form of peer review. Fruitful use of Wikipedia content depends essentially on the reader's critical judgment. Keywords: Wikipedia; Encyclopedias; Reference materials; Digital curation; Peer review.
  • We the (Christian) People: Christianity and American Identity from 1996 to 2014
  • Diversity Regimes and Racial Inequality: A Case Study of Diversity University
  • Valuing subjectivity in journalism: Bias, emotions, and self-interest as tools in arts reporting
  • Deception Declassified: The Social Organisation of Cover Storying in a Secret Intelligence Operation
  • Is restorative justice conferencing appropriate for youth offenders?
  • Process-based ideology of participative experimentation to foster identity-challenging innovations: The case of Gmail and AdSense
  • Tethered Venues
    Discerning Distant Influences on a Field Site
  • Election proximity and representation focus in party-constrained environments
  • On the Sociodynamics of Choice and Group Stability: A Bridge Over the Micro/Macro Divide
    This paper explores a sociological paradox born of the following axioms: 1) Individuals, their circumstances and their interactions are heterogeneous and subject to constant change; 2) Individuals and their interactions make up groups; 3) Groups are normally very stable, lacking change. After defining social stability and reviewing current rational choice theorizing, this paper contends that neither past nor current sociological thinking sufficiently explains how social stability can come from the arbitrariness of individual interactions. It then posits that all choices have accompanying ‘entrained' choices, subsumed to conscious decision-making, one being for ‘predictability’; a ubiquitous yet useful characteristic of sociodynamics that addresses the problem above in a testable, falsifiable way, and could be a sociological ‘constant’ for use in further research.
  • A systematic assessment of 'Axial Age' proposals using global comparative historical evidence
    Proponents of the Axial Age contend that parallel cultural developments between 800 and 200 BCE in what is today China, Greece, India, Iran, and Israel-Palestine constitute the global historical turning point towards modernity. While the Axial Age concept is well-known and influential, deficiencies in the historical evidence and sociological analysis available have thwarted efforts to evaluate the Axial Age concept’s major global contentions. As a result, the Axial Age concept remains controversial. Seshat: Global History Databank provides new tools for examining this topic in social formations across Afro-Eurasia during the first two millennia BCE and first millennium CE, allowing scholars to empirically evaluate the many varied— and contrasting—claims put forward about this period. Our systematic investigation undercuts the notion of a specific 'age' of axiality limited to a specific geo-temporal localization. Critical traits offered as evidence of an axial transformation by proponents of the Axial Age concept are shown to have appeared across Afro-Eurasia hundreds and in some cases thousands of years prior to the proposed Axial Age. Our analysis raises important questions for future evaluations of this period and points the way towards empirically-led, historical-sociological investigations of the ideological and institutional foundations of complex societies.
    Pre-print surveying policies and open science practices in Hong Kong, hopefully providing lessons on how best to make open research data available, and how that will support Hong Kong's innovation policy.
  • The Impact of Political Cleavages, Religiosity, and Values on Attitudes towards Nonprofit Organizations
  • Graphical representations of international and interdisciplinary links in science
    Patterns of connectedness in science among national contexts and scientific disciplines are described in the form of illustrative diagrams. The analyses are based on large-scale citation data covering the historical period between 1985 and 2012. Global illustrations as well as some more differentiated trends are presented for both international and interdisciplinary links. Such graphical illustrations may not only help to better understand patterns of information exchange in science but also promote attention for the field of scientometrics.
  • Social and labor integration of people with intellectual disabilities using mobile technologies.
    Personal autonomy is a key factor leading to both social and labor integration. People with intellectual disabilities have to cope repeatedly with situations where they have limited autonomy. This leads to difficulties to independently perform both tasks of daily life and of the workplace. This article makes an evaluation of how mobile technologies (phones, tablets and PDAs) can help to improve personal independence of people with cognitive limitations. Also presents two projects carried out jointly by the ‘Instituto de Biomecánica Valencia’ (IBV) and the ‘Asociación FEAPS para el empleo’ (AFEM), in which specific software has been developed in order to facilitate the adaptation to the workplace of this collective.
  • The Impact of Dialogic Teaching on English Language Learners’ Speaking and Thinking Skills
    This paper aims to investigate the influence of dialogic teaching on the development of the learners' speaking skills and critical thinking. It is questioning why Sudanese tertiary students are unable to express themselves efficiently and comfortably. This seems crucial and imperative for a college student and it shouldn’t shape any obstacle as a prerequisite for future development. Accordingly, this paper poses a significant issue that every learner of English needs to ponder. To collect data for the study, three tools has been used; a questionnaire, an interview and an observational checklist. The questionnaire was distributed throughout the students of second, third and fourth year university students who had been selected from different Sudanese universities. The collected data is analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. Data analysis has shown that dialogic teaching enables students to develop the skills of argumentation, questioning and debate which contribute to the development of their critical thinking and speaking skills. Generally, the findings indicate that authentic dialogic teaching components are effective if students are given enough time to practice its skills. Hence recommendations for exposing learners to a variety of medium of speaking like dialogues, debate, argumentation and questioning are made to facilitate teachers to be more well-informed with dialogic teaching approach.
  • The charcoal forest: Ecology, aesthetics and the Anthropocene
    This paper explores the significance of local forms of knowledge of the natural world, especially the role of this knowledge in cultural coherence and persistence through time, and its consequent significance to the intellectual challenges of the Anthropocene. The text examines the activity of a master charcoal-maker and forest-manager in Wakayama Prefecture, Japan, who works within a landscape recognized by the United Nations’ Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) as a Globally Important Agricultural Heritage System (GIAHS)—a place of special cultural and agroecological value. Drawing on theories of the evolution of knowledge and material culture studies, charcoal is seen as embodiment of particular understandings of the agencies of the natural world. Attention to the various stages in the production and use of charcoal sheds light on the structure of this knowledge, especially on the important areas in which qualities of one field of activity are transferred to or become essential to another. These “overlaps” link what otherwise appear to be disparate fields of activity into mutually constitutive elements of a whole. They shed light on the dynamics of cultural persistence and indicate the diversity of forms environmental knowledge; they can amplify understanding of the nature of the Anthropocene.
  • Using Habits of Mind to Develop EFL Writing Skills and Autonomy
    The main purpose of this study was to determine the impact of habits of mind (HoM) based strategies on students’ writing skills and autonomy. Questions formulated to achieve the purpose of the study focused on. (1) Determining the habits of mind suitable for EFL students. (2) Finding out differences in both English as a foreign language (EFL) students’ writing performance test regarding experimental and control group. (3) Finding out differences in both EFL students’ autonomy scale of experimental and control group. Thirty three EFL students constituted the sample for this study and four instruments-designed by the researchers- were used for data collection. Results indicated that students of experimental group outperformed their counterparts of the control group in EFL writing performance test and autonomy scale scores. The effect of using HoM on students writing skills and autonomy was profound and significant.
  • The Ideology of the-Best-English-Teaching-Method in Taiwan’s Children English Language Schools
  • The Ideology of the-Best-English-Teaching-Method in Taiwan’s Children English Language Schools
    Taiwanese people’s motivation to learn English is a desire to communicate: a major obstacle to the mastery of spoken English has been the lack of opportunities to speak it. The traditional English teaching method cannot produce fluent English speakers. English teaching methodologies, such as English-only and Communicative Language Teaching (CLT), have been widely adopted as practical and the best way to acquire English speaking proficiency in children English language schools, to the point where they are taken for granted by many Taiwanese people. The central argument of this study is that the evaluation of the so-called the-best-English-teaching-method in children English language schools and as common practice in Taiwanese society is ideological. To explore the ideological concept of the-best-English-teaching-method used in children English language schools, Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) was employed to analyze data drawn from children English language schools’ promotional materials or advertisements. The results indicate the promotion of the-best-English-teaching-method by children English language schools has resulted in social injustice, such as native speaker ideology, native and non-native division, white and non-white division, and English proficiency gap in the rich and the poor and urban and rural areas. It is hoped that the results of this study can enable Taiwanese people to escape the ideologies which have been taken for granted for so long.
  • A Study on Possible Selves of Turkish Pre-Service EFL Teachers
    There is no doubt that teaching profession requires passing through a long and challenging path where student teachers/teacher candidates undergo a variety of processes, phases and transformations. Beauchamp and Thomas (2009) point out that examining new teacher identity can be considered as an important step to develop more effective teacher training programmes and identity development of a teacher is related to understanding the notion of ‘self’. This study investigates the possible selves of pre-service EFL teachers in relation to the concept of developing new teacher identity. Aim of the study is to measure possible selves of new teachers that they expect to become and/or fear becoming in the near feature. In order to achieve this goal, ‘New Teacher Possible Selves Questionnaire’ (Hamman, Wang & Burley, 2013; Dalioğlu & Adıgüzel, 2015) was used to measure EFL teacher candidates’ expected and feared teacher possible-selves. A six-point Likert type scale of questionnaire on possible selves was applied to 149 pre-service EFL teachers from two universities. Results indicate that EFL teacher candidates have positive expectations and no certain fears for their first year of teaching, especially female teacher candidates who have higher scores than males in terms of expected possible-selves.
  • A Study on Possible Selves of Turkish Pre-Service EFL Teachers
  • The Impact of Dialogic Teaching on English Language Learners’ Speaking and Thinking Skills
  • Using WhatsApp in EFL Instruction with Saudi Arabian University Students
  • Using WhatsApp in EFL Instruction with Saudi Arabian University Students
    Messaging tools such as SMS are effective tools for foreign language learning. While many quasi-experimental studies confirm efficacy and positive student attitudes towards these types of tools, little is known about existing teaching practices that utilize messaging tools in tertiary contexts, or the attitudes of students or instructors towards them. This qualitative study investigates the use of WhatsApp, one popular messaging application, in teaching English as a Foreign Language (EFL) through examining the attitudes of Preparatory Year students and faculty members at a university in the central-north of Saudi Arabia. Thematic analysis of focus group interviews indicated that WhatsApp is used in EFL instruction for information exchange, language learning support, and language practice. This is achieved through teacher-directed learning, peer learning, and autonomous learning instructional strategies. Thematic analysis also identified the affordances and affective outcomes of using WhatsApp. Student and faculty attitudes towards WhatsApp were positive although some faculty members expressed reservations towards its use. It is argued that applications such as WhatsApp should be leveraged to encourage autonomous and peer learning, repositioning instructors as facilitators, and to develop learning communities. However, increasing the informal, anywhere-anytime learning supported by mobile learning must be tempered with guidelines for students regarding faculty contact hours and response times to allay faculty fears and encourage greater student autonomy.
  • The Effect of Using Authentic Videos on Training Center and Community Service Students'Prosodic Competence and Motivation
  • The Effect of Using Authentic Videos on Training Center and Community Service Students' Prosodic Competence and Motivation
    This study aims at investigating the effect of using authentic videos on training center and community service students' prosodic competence and motivation. Its sample consisted of 50 male students randomly chosen from Training Center and Community Service at King Saud University, Saudi Arabia, and assigned to experimental and control groups of 25 students per each. Its data were gathered within a two- month period using a pre-post-test design for equivalent groups. The researcher taught both groups deliberately using contrasting instructional approaches; the first were solely exposed to textbook content, excluding all visual aids throughout the process; whereas the second had authentic videos incorporated. As his work pressed ahead, these methodological techniques variably had a visible influence on the trainees' in-class interactivity, attentiveness, and keenness to grasp information. Accordingly, the findings show the experimental group's students bolstered their prosodic competence and motivation. To recap, the use of authentic videos in teaching and learning English has a positive effect on the said prosodic competence and motivation domains.
  • Morphological Analysis of the Glorious Qur'an: A Comparative Survey of Three Corpora
    Some attempts have been made in the academic community to carry out an automatic morphological analysis of the Qur'anic text. Among the well-known endeavors in this regard is the morphological annotation of the Quranic Arabic Corpus (QAC) which was carried out in Leeds University, UK. In addition, researchers in the University of Haifa had previously implemented a computational system for the morphological analysis of the Qur'an. More recently, a new Quranic corpus has been built in Mohammed I University in Morocco. To the best of our knowledge, these are the only three studies to produce a morphologically analyzed part-of-speech tagged Qur'an encoded as a structured linguistic database. This paper surveys the morphological analysis in the above-mentioned annotation projects and compares between them to test the quality of their analysis using five criteria related to display of the text in the corpus, word segmentation, morphological disambiguation, part of speech (POS) tag set and manual verification. The paper concludes that the QAC of Leeds and the Quranic corpus of Morocco surpass the Quranic corpus of Haifa with regard to most of these criteria. Furthermore, some additional POS tags for derivative nouns are suggested in a step to reach a more fine-grained tag set that could be proposed for POS tagging of Qur'anic Arabic.
  • Morphological Analysis of the Glorious Qur'an: A Comparative Survey of Three Corpora
  • The Effect of Role Play Strategy on Jordanian EFL Tenth Grade Students' Speaking Skill
  • The Effect of Role Play Strategy on Jordanian EFL Tenth Grade Students' Speaking Skill
    This study examines the effect of role-play strategy on the Jordanian tenth grade English as a foreign language (EFL) students' speaking skill. It is an attempt to answer if there is a statistical significance difference between the experimental and control groups' scores on the speaking test due to the teaching method (role-play strategy vs. the Teacher's Book instructions). A total of 86 homogeneous participants were selected through a random sampling technique from two sections at Lameece Secondary School for Girls in Amman, Jordan during the second semester of the academic year 2016-2017. The experimental group was 42 students while the control group was 44 students. For data collection, a role-play instructional program based on the speaking activities in Action Pack 10, a speaking test and a rating scale were used. The collected data were analyzed using proper statistical measures such as ANCOVA and MANCOVA. The results revealed that the role-play strategy had a significant effect on the five components of the speaking skill with the students of the experimental group. Further empirical studies on the effect of role-play strategy on developing other language skills are needed.
  • English Phraseology: Cognitive, Symbolic and Terminological Aspects (Based on Idioms with Colour Adjectives Black/White/Red)
  • English Phraseology: Cognitive, Symbolic and Terminological Aspects (Based on Idioms with Colour Adjectives Black/White/Red)
    The authors focus on idioms as means of categorization of the world and means of keeping temporal and spatial cultural-historical data transmission. Special attention is given to the symbolic meaning of idiom components. Aspects of English phraseology are analyzed by emphasizing phraseological antonymy as an important linguistic universal that is pointed out as binary structures playing an important role in cognition by participating in cognitive and structural processes. The analysis considers explicit and implicit representation of the concept of ‘white’, its semiotic and symbolic meanings and its psychical effect on a human being. The article focuses on the process of phrase-forming as a language phenomenon and an efficient means of term-formation in the English language. The authors discusses possibility of using and reproducing idioms with the phraseological model adjective + noun and forecasts further term-formation according to the phraseological model. The article is aimed at showing interaction of linguistic and extra linguistic aspects within an idiom, as a linguistic unit, and the way the linguistic aspects transform into extra linguistic ones and vice versa.
  • Exploring the Construction of Professional Selves of Non-native EFL Teachers at a Saudi Arabian University
  • Exploring the Construction of Professional Selves of Non-native EFL Teachers at a Saudi Arabian University
    This study aims to investigate the factors that develop the professional identity of Pakistani English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers in Saudi Arabia. This study is unique in the sense that there has been hardly any systematic investigation that has considered the professional identity of Pakistani EFL teachers in Saudi Arabia. This study has two considerations: the way EFL teachers' selves evolve and the personal, professional, social and pedagogical factors constructing a teacher’s professional identity. This study was conducted at the English Language Institute of Saudi Arabian University and the study employed a quantitative survey method. The quantitative data was collected from 41 Pakistani EFL teachers by using an online questionnaire. The findings from the research revealed that a number of intrinsic and extrinsic factors develop the professional identity of Pakistani EFL teachers. Among these factors are the participants' pre-Saudi Arabia lives and the decision to become EFL teachers, the decision to come to Saudi Arabia, the impact of their overseas EFL experience, and the social influence on their own professional identity. Moreover, other factors that develop these teachers' professional identities are: being non-native, their views on continuing professional development (CPD), interaction with other EFL teachers, and their professional futures.
  • Integrating Local Knowledge into Language Learning: A Study on the Your Language My Culture (YLMC) Project
  • Integrating Local Knowledge into Language Learning: A Study on the Your Language My Culture (YLMC) Project
    Language and culture share a nebulous relationship with multiple considerations like which culture and how it should be represented, taking into account the diverse contexts in which English is taught. This paper investigates the integration of local knowledge into English language learning by examining the cultural content of the Your Language My Culture supplementary reading module and teachers and students’ acceptance of the module. Using a conceptual framework that incorporated types of culture, cultural senses and representation of cultural information, data were collected using a questionnaire, reflective blogs and evaluation checklists from 57 teachers from various schools in the state of Terengganu in Malaysia. Content and thematic analysis were carried out and the findings show that while local, target and international culture were represented, the emphasis was towards local culture. Most of the cultural information was represented in the form of visual illustrations and less in dialogue and video recordings with the aesthetic sense dominating in terms of cultural sense. It is recommended that types of representations like dialogues, recordings, written tasks, visuals, texts and realia be included to help students attain pragmatic skills to use the language. A richer inclusion of the cultural senses in a balanced way can help students reach a holistic understanding of culture and recognize different perspectives embedded in the language.
  • Using Habits of Mind to Develop EFL Writing Skills and Autonomy
  • Post-Class Reflections of English Language Lecturers Working at a Kazakhstani University
  • Post-Class Reflections of English Language Lecturers Working at a Kazakhstani University
    This study describes post-class reflections of 10 English language lecturers working at a university located in Almaty, Kazakhstan in order to learn more about their perceptions of reflection in education and different ways they engage with teacher reflections after conducting their English as a foreign language (EFL) classes. The research design utilized multiple semi-structured, recorded interviews. The participants’ responses were grouped and analyzed through a reflection framework comprised by Hatton and Smith (1995), which discusses four types of reflections: technical, descriptive, dialogic, and critical. The findings revealed that most participants understood the concept of reflection in education similarly rather than differently. Second, the results showed that the most frequently produced single reflection type was descriptive, followed by technical, dialogic and critical. Overall, all 10 participants produced different single as well as hybrid reflection types, which was a rather important finding of this study as hybrid reflections have not yet been thoroughly explored in the research literature. The use of hybrid reflections also indicated that reflective thinking is not a linear process that can be easily categorized based on a certain reflection type. Third, the study describes a few characteristics of highly and less reflective participants. The main teaching implication entails a need for the organization of seminars focused on introducing and exploring the impact of different types of reflections on EFL teaching in higher education.
  • A Study on the Impact of Arabic Diglossia on L2 learners of Arabic: Examining Motivation and Perception.
  • A Study on the Impact of Arabic Diglossia on L2 learners of Arabic: Examining Motivation and Perception.
    One of the most distinctive features of the Arabic language is the occurrence of diglossia (Al-Batal, 1995). Diglossia involves the use of two varieties of the same language by the same society for different functions. The principle objective of this independent inquiry is to study the impact of Arabic diglossia on L2 learners of Arabic studying this language in the native Arab environment i.e. Saudi Arabia, which is the centre of MSA variety of Arabic. This study also aimed at understanding the effect of awareness about Arabic diglossia on the motivation of L2 learners. Qualitative methodology has been used to gain an in-depth view of the perceptions and the motivation level of L2 learners in two language institutes in Saudi Arabia. The primary data has been collected through self-administered questionnaires from 15 participants studying Arabic at various stages of language learning in the selected language institutes. The secondary data has been taken from various past researchers and literary works related to the topic of this dissertation. It has been found that the L2 learners of Arabic are generally aware of the Arabic diglossia and understand the functional differences between CA and MSA, but this situation doesn’t significantly affect their learning progress as assessed by their academic learning progress before and after attending the language centre and their willingness to continue learning the Arabic language. Indeed, learners studying at advanced stages of Arabic find the diglossic situation motivating and challenging, unlike the starters who were negatively affected (demotivated) by the presence of multiple varieties of Arabic as they find it an intimidating task to learn multiple varieties of Arabic under the umbrella of learning one language.Additionally, social circle and the number native Arabic speaking people around the L2 learners of Arabic have a huge impact on the motivation level of the learners who not only get a higher exposure to CA but also learn the spoken variety from their peers which in return positively motivate them to learn Arabic in the native Arab setting
  • The Significance of Teacher Leadership in TESOL: A Theoretical Perspective
    This paper reviews literature on the notion of teacher leadership to ascertain what skills, knowledge and competencies teachers require to assume leadership roles in educational institutions. The historical evolution of teacher leadership through various phases gives useful insights into how this concept has emerged, developed and perceived in different educational contexts and how it appears in today’s institutions around the world. The definitions of teacher leadership delineate various features of teachers’ roles, responsibilities and their expected contribution to organisational effectiveness while operating in a wide range of formal and informal leadership roles. Review of the literature also shows the significance of leadership knowledge and skills for the academic leadership positions that need to be fostered in a school context. Moreover, it highlights factors that might hinder the emergence of teacher leadership in academic institutions. The last section of this paper indicates a void in the literature on the issue of teacher leadership in the field of Teaching of English to the Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) that also directs researchers’ endeavours towards investigating this concept in the context of English language teaching.
  • The Significance of Teacher Leadership in TESOL: A Theoretical Perspective
  • Perceiving Native English Speaking Teachers: EFL University Students’ Perspectives
  • Perceiving Native English Speaking Teachers: EFL University Students’ Perspectives
    To allude to the ‘native speaker’ concept and investigate the native speaker effects, this research looks into the perceptions of 25 Thai EFL university students towards native English speaking teachers. How native English speaking teachers influence the participants’ learning behaviours and motivation to learn English are also perceptually reported. Two research instruments, the survey questionnaire and the semi-structured interview, are employed for this study. The findings indicate overall positive perceptions towards native English speaking teachers, pointing that their classes are mostly fun, interactive and motivating. The flexible and interactive teaching methods and styles used by native English speaking teachers are found to be most favoured, followed by their approachable personality traits and the students’ vast opportunity to practice oral and written English. Most participants, if given an option to choose a teacher, have a salient preference to study with native English speaking teachers in which case neither teachers’ age nor gender matters. There seems to be a strong relationship between studying with native English speaking teachers and the participants’ learning behaviours and motivation to learn English.
  • An Analysis of Algerian Manufacturing and Engineering Master’s Students’ Needs
  • An Analysis of Algerian Manufacturing and Engineering Master’s Students’ Needs
    Needs analysis is considered as an effective tool to design a course of English for Specific Purposes (ESP) that best fits the students’ needs. Thus, the present paper responds to a main research question focuses on what the Algerian Manufacturing and Engineering Master’s students need English for. It aims at investigating the students’ language needs and identifying the stakeholders’ perceptions of the ESP course. For this purpose, this research is based on a case study design through which a target situation, a present situation, a learner factor and teaching content analyses were undertaken. In fact, this is done in order to help teachers and education leaders in Algeria to draw a clear policy to ensure successful implementation of ESP courses. Two questionnaires and two semi-structured interviews were addressed to Algerian Engineering Master’s students, English language teachers, subject-specialists and administrators. The results revealed that Engineering students were highly motivated to learn English. They also indicated that there is an absence of an adequate proficiency level of English from the part of the students as they are unable to practice effectively the four skills namely listening, speaking, and communication. This is why they need to learn English in order to write exam answer, read textbooks, course handouts, follow lectures, and listen to instructions and explanations. Finally, designing a more focused English language course, training teachers, and providing financial support are highly recommended.
  • Mind Mapping and Students' Writing Performance
    This study examines the potential effect of mind mapping strategy on developing Jordanian students' writing performance. The researchers claim that mind mapping strategy has the potential to improve Jordanian students' writing performance. The study follows a quasi- experimental design in which an experimental group and a control group were purposefully chosen from eleventh grade students at Al Hashymiah School for Boys, Zarqa in Jordan during the second semester of the academic year 2016/2017. In the experimental group, 20 students were taught by mind mapping strategy and 20 students of control group were taught by the conventional teaching method as outlined in the Teacher’s Book. To collect the data, a pre-test and a post-test was utilized. ANCOVA was used to measure statistical differences in the mean scores of the participants of the study. The findings reveal statistically significant differences (at α≤0.05) between the two mean scores of experimental and control groups in the post- test in favor of experimental group. The study recommends an integration of the mind mapping strategy into the English as a foreign Language (EFL) curriculum in Jordan as it facilitates developing students' writing skill. The study also recommends to examine the effect of using mind mapping strategy on EFL students' achievements in other language skills and sub skills. Teachers are also advised to use the mind mapping strategy to increase students’ interest and motivation to write more often
  • Mind Mapping and Students' Writing Performance
  • Using Portfolio as an Alternative Assessment Tool to Enhance Thai EFL Students’ Writing skill
  • Using Portfolio as an Alternative Assessment Tool to Enhance Thai EFL Students’ Writing skill
    This present study investigates the effects of portfolios on the development of English as a foreign language ( EFL) learners’ writing skills. For the purpose of this study 56 senior Thai undergraduate students majoring in Business English at an International University in Thailand were selected and divided into experimental and control groups. Each group, consists of 26 students, both of them were given pretest to ensure the same proficiency level. Throughout the eight weeks in which the experiment was carried, the experimental group was taught through portfolio assessment technique and the control group was taught using the conventional method. Besides, an independent sample t-test was carried out to see the significant differences between the two groups. In order to see the differences within each group, a paired sample t-test was applied. The statistical results showed that there was a significant difference between the experimental and control groups which signifies that those receiving the treatment, in this case, the portfolio based assessment, outperformed their control group counterpart in the area of writing skill.
  • The Relationship between Iraqi EFL Learners’ Vocabulary Learning Strategies Use and Their Receptive Vocabulary Size
    This study investigated the relationship between Iraqi English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners’ vocabulary learning strategies (VLS) and vocabulary size (VS). Participants included 118 EFL learners at Sulaymaniyah University in Iraq, all of whom were studying in the School of Basic-Education English Department. Two instruments were employed to collect data: a VLS questionnaire designed by Schmitt (1997) was administered in order to determine the range and frequency of VLS use, and a four-level (2000, 3000, 5000 and academic word list) vocabulary learning test (VLT) designed by Schmitt, et al. (2001) was used to measure learners’ receptive vocabulary size. The aim of this study was to determine the kinds of strategies learners utilized as well as their relationship to students’ VS. The results demonstrated that students utilized consolidation more frequently than discovery strategies. Moreover, the most frequently utilized VLS was studying the sounds of new words, while the least frequent one was working in groups to discover the meanings of new words. In terms of total VLS, the students can be considered as moderate VLS users (M= 3.003). The results of correlation analysis revealed that there exist positive, negative and sometimes no relationships between learners’ VLS and VS. Finally, the findings of multiple regression analysis concluded the R Square value to be (0.284), which means that the predicted variables could account for 28.4% of the participants’ levels of receptive VS.This study concluded that systematic and appropriate strategies support learners to increase their VS.
  • The Relationship between Iraqi EFL Learners’ Vocabulary Learning Strategies Use and Their Receptive Vocabulary Size
  • Neutralizing the Uncanny through Culturally Relevant Teaching
  • Neutralizing the Uncanny through Culturally Relevant Teaching
    At the height of the Roman Empire’s power, Marcus Aurelius, emperor and stoic philosopher, identified his positionality as neither Athenian nor Roman but rather as “a citizen of the universe.” For a man of his time, power and privilege to have been able to think beyond himself, in terms of the global rather than the local, suggests that he had benefited immensely from the guidance and wisdom of teachers, who through culturally relevant instruction imparted an awareness and holistic appreciation of the value of all of humankind. As one observes the multitude of current global conflicts, one questions why humanity has not been able to move beyond petty grievances to achieve the equitable global harmony and citizenship that Aurelius aspired to so long ago. Motivated by the purpose of improving academic, economic, and social equity, this exploratory essay examines historic and current North American pedagogical theories of culturally responsive teaching practices with the juxtapositional purpose of examining and evaluating the best method for minimizing Drs. Ernst Jentsch and Sigmund Freud’s theories on the uncanny and the uncanny valley-effect phenomena-the objective being the discovery of improved teaching praxis to minimize educational and social cognitive dissonance in refugee, immigrant, minority, and socioeconomically subordinate students both domestically and internationally.
  • Negotiation and Impoliteness Strategies in Saudi and Australian Postgraduate Students’ Emails
    Although negotiation via email takes place every day between students and their supervisors/lecturers, the processes underlying these negotiations have been largely neglected in research to date. Further, there is a need to investigate the linguistic email communication problems that Saudis encounter when they study abroad. This study aims to identify the dominant features of email communication of twenty Saudi and Australian post-graduate students with their lecturers. The research sought to understand the following: to what extent negotiation moves differ from one group to another; if there is a significant difference between the two raters when rating native speakers (NS) versus non-native speakers (NNS); whether there is a significant relationship between students’ scores and total number of words used in negotiation moves; the most important moves that might have affected the raters’ decisions when giving the highest scores versus the lowest scores; and whether there is difference between total scores of NS and NNS. Whereas the qualitative analysis employed (im)politeness as the theoretical framework, the quantitative analysis focused on the moves used by students in terms of context, proposal, justification, options, and requests. It was found that NS and NNS had similar likelihoods of gaining higher grades when using more details. When both NS and NNS failed to employ a focus-on-context move, they were likely to fail in their negotiations. International students need to be encouraged to give more detailed explanations to improve their negotiation techniques. Pedagogical implications include greater insights into the appropriate use of email negotiation strategies between students and their lecturers.
  • Negotiation and Impoliteness Strategies in Saudi and Australian Postgraduate Students’ Emails
  • Creativity in the EFL Classroom: Exploring Teachers’ Knowledge and Perceptions
  • Creativity in the EFL Classroom: Exploring Teachers’ Knowledge and Perceptions
    As a response to the new requirements and needs of this fast-changing information era, higher education systems all over the world are focusing on developing learners’ higher mental competences including creative thinking. The current study aims at exploring teachers’ knowledge about the general concepts of creative thinking and its related skills. Moreover, the study attempts to investigate teachers’ perceptions about creativity and its incorporation in the English foreign language (EFL) Classroom. To examine these issues, a questionnaire was administered to twenty-seven EFL teachers from the English department of Badji Mokhtar university, Algeria. The Findings reveal that although teachers hold positive perceptions about promoting creative thinking in the EFL classroom, they generally consider creativity as a quite confusing concept and have uncertain knowledge about its characteristics
  • Tongue Twister, Students’ Pronunciation Ability, and Learning Styles
  • Tongue Twister, Students’ Pronunciation Ability, and Learning Styles
    In EFL context, considering appropriate technique in teaching pronunciation is a pivotal issue since it could help students to learn how to pronounce English sounds easy. This study aimed to investigate the effect of tongue twister technique on pronunciation ability of students across different learning styles. This study involved 34 first-year English major students taking Intensive English course at Universitas Lambung Mangkurat, one of leading universities in Indonesia. The students in the experimental group were taught by using tongue twister, while those in the control group were taught by using repetition technique. The students were also grouped based on two types of learning styles, namely active and reflective learning styles referring to Felder and Silverman’s (1988) learning style model. The findings of the study showed that there was no significant difference in pronunciation ability between the groups. No significant difference was either found in pronunciation ability between students with active learning style and those with reflective learning style. In spite of the insignificant results, tongue twister is considered beneficial by the students as they perceived that practicing tongue twisters cultivated joyful learning and it helped them to improve their pronunciation, fluency, and motivation in learning English pronunciation. Tongue twister practice could complement the use of repetition technique to enhance students’ learning experience and learning outcome.
  • Exploring EFL Teachers’ Beliefs and Practices Regarding Pronunciation Teaching in a Saudi Setting
  • Exploring EFL Teachers’ Beliefs and Practices Regarding Pronunciation Teaching in a Saudi Setting
    Recent research has shown that explicit pronunciation teaching is effective in improving learners’ speech comprehensibility, and many studies have presented effective ways to teach pronunciation (Thomson & Derwing, 2014). However, it is still not yet known in many EFL (English as a foreign language) settings whether this finding has any effect on the current beliefs and practices of English language teachers. The current study examines what EFL teachers in a Saudi EFL context believe about teaching pronunciation, how they teach pronunciation, and what pronunciation training they have. Fifty-five English language teachers at the English Language Center at Taif University in Saudi Arabia were asked to complete an online survey regarding pronunciation teaching. Their responses were subjected to quantitative descriptive analysis. The results revealed that the teachers highly valued pronunciation teaching, and most of them considered it as important as teaching other language skills. In addition, most of the teachers reported incorporating pronunciation teaching into their English classes. The unavailability of pronunciation materials and technological recourses forced the teachers to employ traditional strategies to teaching pronunciation. The findings also showed a lack of specific pronunciation training available to the teachers, though the teachers desired to have more training opportunities.
  • Coleridge’s “Ballad of the Dark Ladie”: The Story between the Lines
    The focus of this article is “The Ballad of the Dark Ladie,” a short fragment by the English Romantic poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772-1834). Critics often overlook the piece in their reading of Coleridge although it has an interesting story between the lines. Besides enriching the unfinished surface one, the submerged tale carries significant revelations about Coleridge’s literary relationship with foreign cultures and elements, the Dark Lady in this particular case. The present study intends to divulge the hidden tale in the text and to use its revealed construct to throw light on Coleridge’s engagement with the Other in his literary experience. It employs a formalist reading of the text and pays attention to point of view. It also invokes culture and allegory in the process of eliciting the significance of the embedded tale. My reading intimates that Coleridge’s imaginative aspiration towards the exotic Other is more congenial to his poetic creativity than other modes of the imagination. It also suggests that this Other might as well be the Orient. However, despite such harmony, Coleridge has his own personal concerns about his romantic quest of the Orient.
  • The Present Progressive: A Difficult Aspect to Learn, Evidence from the Moroccan EFL Classroom
  • The Present Progressive: A Difficult Aspect to Learn, Evidence from the Moroccan EFL Classroom
    The present progressive is one of the structures that create immense problems to foreign learners of English in general and Moroccan ones in particular. These learners fail to use this aspect appropriately in discourse due to a difficulty in internalising its real meaning. Our survey shows that these English as a foreign language (EFL) learners associate the present progressive with only one context of use- the one referring to actions/ events happening around NOW or at the moment of speaking. Students generally fail to go beyond this focal meaning. They tend to ignore the other contexts where the present progressive can be used. Along with this complexity/ plurality of meaning, the problem could be attributed to some deficiencies in the learning and the teaching enterprises as well. This paper draws both students’ and practitioners’ attention to a number of facts related to the learning/ teaching of this aspect. The study provides a detailed description of the different functions/ uses of the present progressive with examples. Moreover, it highlights the situations / contexts that are more problematic to students on the basis of our test’s results. Most importantly, the findings show that the conventional traditional grammar course has many limitations. Therefore, there is an urgent need for an alternative course or method of teaching that is capable of helping students become more proficient in the use of tense and aspect in general.
  • The Word List Distribution in Social Science Research Articles
    This study investigates the distribution and coverage of words in New General Service List (NGSL) and the Academic Word List (AWL) in social science research articles. Sixty-four open-access English social science research articles published in 2013-2015 in the ScienceDirect General category were selected and compiled to the Social Science Corpus (SSC). The AntWordProfiler 1.4.0 was utilized to calculate the frequency and coverage percentage of words from the two word lists. Word families in level 1 and level 2 of the NGSL were utilized over 70 percent, whilst level 3 word families were used around 60 percent of the entire SSC. Similarly, 99.65 percent of the AWL word families were discovered. Regarding coverage, the NGSL word families accounted for over 70 percent and the AWL word families covered around 14 percent revealing significant coverage of both word lists. The top 10 NGSL word families represented journals subject areas from which they were derived, whilst the top 10 AWL word families were used more repeatedly and linked with social science research areas. The finding of high distributions and coverage corroborated that the NGSL and the AWL significantly contribute to vocabulary pedagogy in preparing students for reading and writing social science research articles. Additionally, some pedagogical implication guidelines of the NGSL and the AWL such as flash cards, quizzes, and written tests were also introduced.
  • The Word List Distribution in Social Science Research Articles
  • Using Infographics in the Teaching of Linguistics
  • Using Infographics in the Teaching of Linguistics
    Information graphics (infographics) are visualizations of ideas & information in a type of picture. Infographics combine data with design in order to communicate information to an audience in a comprehensible manner. This study is motivated by the lack of resources that directly study the influence of infographics on linguistics. It aims to investigate the impact of using information graphics in the teaching of linguistics on Saudi students. The researchers seek to answer the following questions: (i) What is the Saudi female EFL students' perception of using infographics as a tool for learning linguistics and semantics? (ii) What are the advantages & disadvantages of using infographics as a tool for learning linguistics and semantics? To this end, 186 Saudi female college students from the Department of Translation at the College of Languages in Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University (PNU) took part in this study. They designed infographics as a project in two linguistic courses: Introduction to Linguistics and Introduction to Semantics. They were provided a 26-item questionnaire. The questionnaire was analyzed by using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). The participants’ responses were analyzed according to quantitative data analysis procedures. The findings show the students’ positive attitude towards using infographics even though the majority were not familiar with them. While creating infographics, the participants found practicing various skills such as higher thinking skills beneficial. However, issues such as technical problems were perceived as a hindrance. A number of implications and suggestions are presented based on the results of this research.
  • History of English-as-a-Second-Language Teaching in the Middle East and the Current Scenario in Bahrain
  • History of English-as-a-Second-Language Teaching in the Middle East and the Current Scenario in Bahrain
    In the Middle East, independence from the colonial powers was synonymous with ‘Arabization,’ making Arabic fundamental to education (Findlow 2006). With the member nations of the Arab League striving to promote Arab-Islamic culture and the Arabic language, Arabic came to symbolize tradition and Islamic values and the English language and Western culture, modernity and materialism (Al Zeera 19990; Charise 2007; Findlow 2006). While government-run schools adopted Arabic as their medium of instruction relegating English to the status of a second language, most of post-secondary education continued to be imparted through the medium of English, leaving English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) learners inept at coping with the academic demands of higher education. The introduction of ESL in Grade Four in primary schools is partly to be blamed for the ESL learners’ inadequacies. Rising criticism from tertiary level educators and employers necessitated the introduction of ESL in Grade One in 2004 in Bahrain (Bahrain Ministry of Education, 2003). Sweeping national reforms in the educational arena in Bahrain have led to the revamping of curriculum, instruction and assessment standards in an attempt to ensure Bahrain’s educational system is of international standards (Quality Assurance Authority for Education & Training 2011). The purpose of this review article is to trace the way English Language teaching has changed since the colonial days in the Middle East, especially in Bahrain and the reasons necessitating the change. This paper also has implications for research on the English proficiency levels of freshman students today who have learned ESL since Grade 1.
  • Effect of Bilingualism on the Development of Cognitive Processes among Children
  • Effect of Bilingualism on the Development of Cognitive Processes among Children
    The aim of this paper was to evaluate the contentions and evidence supporting two divergent views about the existence of advantages offered by bilingualism. It also considered whether a definite conclusion was possible. A qualitative research methodology using the published evidence was adopted. The published evidence supporting or rejecting the advantages of bilingualism was collected using search terms in the Google Scholar search engine. A total number of 64 papers were collected, among which only five challenged the claimed advantages enjoyed by bilingual individuals. The papers were classified by their orientation and discussed. Based on the points derived from the evaluation of evidence, some conclusions were drawn. The overwhelming research support in favour of the existence of supposed bilingual advantage tends to suggest a conclusion in favour of that hypothesis. However, the points raised by critics, such as small sample sizes, inadequate matching of other variables, as well as defective measurements and analysis cannot be ignored as they question the very validity of the studies which support bilingual advantage. Future research needs to pay more attention to these aspects.
  • University Teachers’ Views on English as the Medium of Instruction in an Iranian Higher Education Institution
  • University Teachers’ Views on English as the Medium of Instruction in an Iranian Higher Education Institution
    The use of English for instruction at the tertiary level of education by nations whose native language is not English has been the subject of considerable debate. This study aims to survey the attitudes of a group of Iranian university teachers at a state university in central Iran towards the possible use of English as a medium of instruction (EMI) in Iranian higher education, where Persian is currently the medium of instruction except in English language departments. It also explores whether teachers’ attitude towards EMI is affected by their university rank. To this end, 60 teachers were randomly selected from faculties of Humanities, Science, and Engineering, and their perceptions about EMI were explored through questionnaires and interviews. The findings indicated that, in spite of the current emphasis on Persian by authorities, teachers valued English over Persian as the medium of instruction, expressing concerns mainly about inadequacies in resources and English proficiency requirements. Interview results showed that their opinions were divided as they enumerated a variety of economic, academic, cultural, social, and technological reasons both for and against the possible use of EMI at Iranian tertiary levels. The results imply that concerns over the launch of new curricula using EMI are multidimensional. Possible suggestions for future research on EMI are discussed.
  • Against Multiple Agreement – Evidence from Standard Arabic
  • Against Multiple Agreement – Evidence from Standard Arabic
    This paper provides evidence, based on the Case properties of verbless copular clauses in Standard Arabic (SA), against the Multiple Agreement Hypothesis proposed for languages such as Japanese (Hiraiwa, 2001), English (Chomsky, 2005b; Radford, 2006), and SA double-accusative structures (Al-Horais, 2013). It argues that the mismatch in Case value between the two nominal constituents – the DP “subject” and the DP or AP predicate - of verbless copular clauses is incompatible with the claim that a single probe can simultaneously agree with more than one goal. Rather, the Case phenomenon within the copular contexts considered appears to be consistent with, and follows from, an Agree relation between a single active probe and a single active matching goal. Some SA copular clauses which include a modal-like negative element - laysa - will also be used to address the key issue under investigation.
  • Educational Assortative Mating and Income Dynamics in Couples: A Longitudinal Dyadic Perspective
    The gender-gap reversal in education could have far-reaching consequences for marriage and family lives. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 and longitudinal multilevel dyad models, this study investigated how educational assortative mating shaped income dynamics in couples over the marital life course. Based on educational assortative mating, couples were grouped into three categories—educational hypergamy (wives less educated than their husbands), homogamy, and hypogamy (wives more educated than their husbands). Results showed that change in husbands’ income with marital duration was similar across couples, whereas change in wives’ income varied by educational assortative mating such that wives in educational hypogamy exhibited more positive change in income over the marital life course. The findings underscored the asymmetric nature of spousal influence and gender change in heterosexual marriages.
  • Women’s Fertility Autonomy in Urban China: The Role of Couple Dynamics Under the Universal Two-Child Policy
    Under China’s universal two-child policy, decisions about whether to have a second birth become more dynamic, flexible, and subject to negotiation between the spouses; moreover, how women can maintain their fertility autonomy has far-reaching implications for gender equality. Using valuable, new data from the 2016 Survey of the Fertility Decision-Making Processes in Chinese Families, we examine the relationship between couple dynamics and women’s fertility autonomy in urban China. If women want no more than one child and already have one, intending to have a second birth indicates low fertility autonomy. Couple dynamics are measured by conjugal power structure and spousal pressure on fertility. We find that only if women have less marital power than their husbands, greater fertility pressure from husband is associated with a higher likelihood that women intend to have a second birth. In addition, when investigating the determinants of couple dynamics, we find that women’s marital power depends on their relative resources, whereas fertility pressure from husband persists regardless. The findings suggest that in post-reform urban China, growing gender inequalities in labor markets likely reduce women’s marital power, which in turn negatively affects their fertility autonomy. We urge greater research and policy attention to gender equality issues in the era of the universal two-child policy.
  • Case Reports and Open Source Work Products in PAR
  • Estimates of excess deaths in Puerto Rico following Hurricane Maria
    BACKGROUND: This descriptive finding examines excess deaths following Hurricane María, in Puerto Rico for September and October 2017. OBJECTIVE: We seek to determine the degree of excess deaths in Puerto Rico based on historical patterns of variability in deaths by month for the 2010-2016 period and using estimation techniques. METHODS: Data for this study come from death records from the Puerto Rico Vital Statistics system. We aggregated data by month and year (2010-2016) and produced means (expected deaths) and 95% confidence intervals (C.I., or patterns of variability) for each month. Using public statements from the Puerto Rico Department of Public Safety, we estimate the number of deaths for September and October 2017 and compare it to the level of expected deaths considering the pattern of variability. RESULTS: Expected deaths for September and October were 2,383 (95% C.I. 2,296-2,469) and 2,428 (95% C.I. 2,380 - 2,476), respectively. Estimates for total deaths, for September and October 2017 were 2,987 (95% CI 2,900-3,074) and 3,043 (95% C.I. 2,995-3,091), respectively. The difference between our estimates and the upper 95% CI for the average deaths is 518 deaths for September and 567 deaths for October. CONCLUSIONS: The mortality burden may higher than official counts, and may exceed the current official death toll by a factor of 10 or more.
  • Beneficial Effects of Accurate and False Brief Biofeedback on Relaxation
  • We the (Christian) People: Christianity and American Identity from 1996 to 2014
    Religious identity, and specifically Christian identity, has long been a dominant symbolic boundary marker for inclusion into American society. But how has the salience of this boundary marker changed in recent years and in comparison to other boundary markers? Using multiple waves of the General Social Survey (1996, 2004, and 2014), we investigate temporal variation in the use of religion and other markers in constructing symbolic boundaries around American identity. First, we find that the Christian symbolic boundary both increased from 1996 to 2004 and declined from 2004 to 2014. Second, this pattern was not unique; in addition to the Christian symbolic boundary, Americans used a variety of both civic and ascriptive boundary markers in order to define American identity. However, our analysis also demonstrates that in 2004 the Christian symbolic boundary was significantly linked to national identity in a unique way while the other boundary markers were not. These results suggest that period effects and cultural events can influence the salience of religion in creating national symbolic boundaries. We discuss each of these findings, their relationship to the study of symbolic boundaries and American identity, and their societal implications.
  • Conspiracy, God's Plan, and National Emergency: Kachin Popular Analyses of the Ceasefire Era and its Resource Grabs
    This chapter draws from periods of ethnographic field research in the Kachin region from 2010 to 2015, covering the lead up to the breakdown of the ceasefire and the discourses that emerged in relation to it subsequently. It therefore discusses in critical terms how large parts of Kachin society understand the ceasefire era and the reasons for its collapse in 2011. It focuses particularly on popular understandings of the large-scale resource grabs that defined much of that era. The chapter lays out a dominant Kachin nationalist-theoretical framework by discussing three core terms: Wunpawng Mungdan (territory/ ‘Kachin country’), Wunpawng myusha (people/ ‘Kachin nation’), and Karai Kasang (divinity/ Christian ‘God’). The chapter then tackles how Kachin nationalists deploy these terms in specific ways to understand their 1994-2011 ceasefire experiences; in doing so, they express ideas of ethno-national emergency, divine predestination, and ethnocidal conspiracy. These understandings guide many people in Kachin society to commit to resistance and the ethno-patriotic project of co-building a ‘land yet-to-be’, instead of engaging in a ceasefire based on compromise. Amid the current battles, anger and humanitarian crisis, the question of whether one wants ‘our Kachin nation’ to pursue full state independence or merely federal autonomy within Myanmar has become a sensitive and barely voiced debate inside Kachin society. While exploring these theories and popular analyses, this chapter steps into an open critical dialogue with Kachin nationalists themselves, suggesting ways in which these understandings are contradicted or complicated by other social realities. This is to draw a fuller, fairer, and more balanced picture of the complex social dynamics in this region. Simultaneously, the chapter cautions against the tendency to make homogenising claims about Burma’s minority ethnic nations, as if these were simple, monolithic entities rather than the internally diverse, class-stratified and complex societies that in fact they are. * See more at:
  • Iran’s grass-roots politics and the nuclear deal
    The recently agreed-upon nuclear framework between Iran and the P5+1 world powers is a great example of how grass-roots participation at the level of domestic politics can interact with important changes at the level of international politics . The nuclear breakthrough could not have happened without important developments that led to the election of Iran’s President Hassan Rouhani in June 2013 . If this agreement turns in to a comprehensive deal by June 2015, it will have important ramifications for Iranian domestic politics .
  • Open Data and the Danger of Sympathetic Magic
    This chapter provides a minimal normative framework for discussing the desired attributes of a published open dataset using Lakatos’ philosophy of science and the metaphor of sympathetic magic. When researchers publish their results, journals and granting agencies increasingly want datasets opened alongside. These datasets may vary in quality, reusability, and comprehensiveness. Yet, without a clear knowledge of how the research methodology and analysis affects the produc- tion of the “raw” data, any future attempts to reproduce analysis will produce the same “magical” results only by following the same steps. While the requirement for Open Data in government funded research can provide an excellent basis for fu- ture research, not all Open Data is created equal. Releasing the methods of analysis alongside a dataset of high quality will also allow for lower technical difficulties when reusing or remixing the data. Then data, collected once, may be reused in multiple projects for a significant research impact. And to some, we can show that data is, indeed, “magic.”
  • The evolution of Western tonality: a corpus analysis of 24,000 songs from 190 composers over six centuries
    The corpus of Western music offers the chance to analyze trends in its evolution. Here, we analyze greater than 24,000 MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) transcriptions of Western classical music from 197 composers spanning from the 15th to 20th centuries. The unique file format of MIDI files (notes of discrete frequencies turning “on” and “off” at specific times) allows us to statistically quantify note usage with respect to pitch class and intervals. We first perform a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) on pitch class and show that the data creates a ring. Songs strongly associated with a particular key fall on the ring, whereas highly chromatic and atonal works fall in the center, revealing that the evolution of Western music is constrained by the circle of fifths. We then examine interval usage. Discriminant analysis on composer identity reveals that a major source of evolutionary change is incremental and linear. Interval usage predicts individual composer identity at levels above chance. A Self-Organizing Map (SOM) reveals four major groups of composers with similar tonal styles. These groups are loosely based on traditional musical eras, but reveal unexpected continuity between co-existing schools of composers.
  • Swing Voting in the 2016 Presidential Election in Counties Where Midlife Mortality has been Rising in White Non-Hispanic Americans
    Understanding the effects of widespread disruption of the social fabric on public health outcomes can provide insight into the forces that drive major political realignment. Our objective was to estimate the association between increases in mortality in middle-aged non-Hispanic white adults from 1999-2005 to 2009-2015, health inequalities in life expectancy by income, and the surge in support for the Republican Party in pivotal US counties in the 2016 presidential election. We conducted a longitudinal ecological study in 2764 US counties from 1999 to 2016. Increases in mortality were measured using age-specific (45-54 years of age) all-cause mortality from 1999-2005 to 2009-2015 at the county level. Support for the Republican Party was measured as the party’s vote share in the presidential election in 2016 adjusted for results in 2008 and 2012. We found a significant up-turn in mortality from 1999-2005 to 2009-2015 in counties where the Democratic Party won twice (2008 and 2012) but where the Republican Party won in 2016 (+10.7/100,000), as compared to those in which the Democratic Party won in 2016 (-15.7/100,000). An increase in mortality of 15.2/100,000 was associated with a significant (p
  • The impact of political cleavages, religiosity, and values on attitudes towards nonprofit organizations
    Individual, micro-level attitudes towards nonprofit organizations (NPOs) can have many potential determinants. In this study, we explore the impact of three categories of potential determinants of attitudes towards NPOs: Political cleavages (the cultural integration vs. demarcation cleavage and the economic integration vs. demarcation cleavage); religiosity and spirituality; and values (the survival vs. self-expression value dimension). Based on a representative survey in Switzerland, we estimate the impact of those factors for five different attitudinal dimensions and six different NPO types. The Bayesian model estimates show that all three categories of determinants have small to moderate impact. The effects of religiosity, spirituality, the self-expression value dimension, and of economic integration are generally positive. The effects of the survival value dimension and of cultural demarcation are generally negative, with the exception of the NPO type of professional associations.
  • The Ayatollahs and the Republic: The religious establishment in Iran and its interaction with the Islamic Republic
    The Islamic Republic of Iran is usually referred to as a theocracy, and this is a correct description in different senses. According to the constitution, a Shi’a cleric must fill the office of the leader, the highest de facto and de jure position in the country; a Shi’a jurist should also fill the head of judiciary; and Islam should be the main source of law-making in the country. On the other hand, if calling Iran a theocracy means that the Shi’a clergy as an institution rules the country, then this is not an accurate description. The clerical establishment, even after the revolution, has been separate from the regime, even though the relationship between these two entities has changed drastically after the revolution. While the Shi’a establishment in Qom claims authority over interpretation of the sacred text, the formation of a Shi’a government in Tehran with similar claims about Islamic authority and legitimacy in Tehran has created tensions and sometimes conflicts between these two. In this essay, I will look at patterns of conflict and cooperation between the Islamic Republic mainly the institution of Velayat-e Faqih (guardianship of jurist) and the clerical establishment in Qom, specifically grand ayatollahs[2] or sources of emulation at the highest levels of the Shi’a clerical hierarchy.
  • A Theory of War and Violence
    It is possible that war in modern societies is largely driven by emotions, but in a way that is almost completely hidden. Modernity individualizes the self and tends to ignore emotions. As a result, conflict can be caused by sequences in which the total hiding of humiliation leads to vengeance. This essay outlines a theory of the social-emotional world implied in the work of C. H. Cooley and others. Cooley’s concept of the “looking-glass self” can be used as antidote to the assumptions of modernity: the basic self is social and emotional: selves are based on “living in the mind” of others, with a result of feeling either pride of shame. Cooley discusses shame at some length, unlike most approaches, which tend to hide it. This essay proposes that the complete hiding of shame can lead to feedback loops (spirals) with no natural limit: shame about shame and anger is only the first step. Emotion backlogs can feed back when emotional experiences are completely hidden: avoiding all pain can lead to limitless spirals. These ideas may help explain the role of France in causing WWI, and Hitler’s rise to power in Germany. To the extent that these propositions are true, the part played by emotions and especially shame in causing wars need to be further studied.
  • Infrastructures of legitimacy: The political lives of marriage contracts in Jordan
    Documentary practices legitimizing marriage in what is now Jordan have taken different forms from the late Ottoman period to the present. I analyze the formal characteristics and materiality of these practices to show how initiatives to standardize, aggregate, and circulate information about marriage introduce new notions of personhood, state, and society. Such legitimizing infrastructures entail new forms of accountability that go beyond and even challenge the intentions of those who promulgate such initiatives. The shift in emphasis in Jordan from oral to written contracts and the subsequent aggregation and circulation of those records reifies categories of individual, state, and society while drawing them into a wide array of gendered, generational, and political conflicts. Ironically, the state’s legitimation of marriage may even draw its own legitimacy into question.
  • OSMnx: New Methods for Acquiring, Constructing, Analyzing, and Visualizing Complex Street Networks
    Urban scholars have studied street networks in various ways, but there are data availability and consistency limitations to the current urban planning/street network analysis literature. To address these challenges, this article presents OSMnx, a new tool to make the collection of data and creation and analysis of street networks simple, consistent, automatable and sound from the perspectives of graph theory, transportation, and urban design. OSMnx contributes five significant capabilities for researchers and practitioners: first, the automated downloading of political boundaries and building footprints; second, the tailored and automated downloading and constructing of street network data from OpenStreetMap; third, the algorithmic correction of network topology; fourth, the ability to save street networks to disk as shapefiles, GraphML, or SVG files; and fifth, the ability to analyze street networks, including calculating routes, projecting and visualizing networks, and calculating metric and topological measures. These measures include those common in urban design and transportation studies, as well as advanced measures of the structure and topology of the network. Finally, this article presents a simple case study using OSMnx to construct and analyze street networks in Portland, Oregon. Comment: peer-reviewed journal article
  • Do Baby Boomers Want Another Baby Boom?: A Gendered Generational Analysis of Abortion Attitudes
    Building on research conducted by sociologists on the predictors of abortion attitudes, through a secondary analysis of 2016 General Social Survey (GSS) data, with a total of 1571 respondents, I investigate the relationship between demographic identifiers, specifically age, sex, and religious fundamentalism, and approval rates of legal abortion. Using the age variable in GSS and drawing from Generational Cohort Theory, I isolate the generational cohorts baby boomers and millennials and hypothesize that baby boomers will approve of legal abortion in fewer instances than millennials. Moreover, I create Abortion Attitude Indexes from GSS questions on abortion, which enable me to separate the questions into two groups: hard and soft abortions. Drawing from Attribution Theory, I propose that there will be an overall higher approval of hard abortions than soft abortions across both generational cohorts. Ultimately, bivariate and multivariate analysis reported that age and sex are not statistically significant predictors of abortion attitudes. However, religious fundamentalism is moderately significant. Therefore, one hypothesis is supported that the more religiously fundamentalist an individual is, the fewer instances they are likely to approve of legal abortion.
  • The Idea Innovation Network and Research Arenas: The Brazilian Case of the INCT INDI-Saúde
    The aim of this article was to study how a successful innovative network on molecular diagnosis for public health in Brazil, emerged as an idea innovation network with six functional research arenas. We adopted a qualitative case study with in-depth interviews and documentary data. We found that the idea innovation network model was predictive of innovation and technological development, presenting connectedness within and between arenas. We extended the model by finding that the structure of relationship within arenas are not the same as of between arenas, with the former being composed of stronger ties and closer networks, while the latter was formed by sparser networks of relationships, connected through structural holes. We also contributed by showing that the functional research arenas of an idea innovation network may not be equally developed, as we found three stages of development of the research areas: consolidated, advanced development stage, and preliminary development stage.
  • Addressing the Challenges of Qualitative Data Sharing through Data Repository and Library Services
    Data sharing is increasingly perceived to be beneficial to scholarly discovery, and is therefore increasingly required by federal funding agencies, private funders, and journals. Qualitative researchers have been discussing the ethical and legal implications of data sharing for some time—with some suggesting that technical, methodological, legal, and ethical issues are insurmountable barriers to open sharing of data. As qualitative researchers are faced with new expectations to share their data, data repositories and academic libraries are working to meet needs of qualitative research, supporting data management planning, data deidentification, data description and metadata, restricted access if necessary, and data governance. This paper also describes three challenges that remain to be solved to enable data sharing and secondary use of data—social media data use, copyright concerns, and risk of decontextualization. Ultimately, this paper presents a role for data repositories and academic libraries as key facilitators of ethical and lawful qualitative data sharing.
  • Validation of a New Geographic Isolation Scale and Comparison with Common Measures of the Urban-Rural Continuum
    The purpose of this study was to develop and test a new measure to characterize geographic areas according to a perspective of resource access for health research. We call the measure Isolation, and it captures the trade-off between access to resource-rich, high-population-density areas and the cost of travel to those areas; thus even intrinsically low-resource areas may have high access to nearby resources. As there is no "gold standard" for what constitutes rurality, validity was tested with proxies such as nighttime outdoor lights and distance to hospitals. The Isolation scale demonstrated good construct validity (i.e., both convergent and criterion validity). Fit statistics indicated that, compared to other commonly-used urban/rural definitions, the Isolation scale was the best overall measure when predicting our proxies for rurality. The measure also shows an ability to differentiate regions of the country according to the distribution of Isolation within them, which is important given the emerging recognition of heterogeneity, and its potential for effects on health, among rural regions of the US.
  • The structural, relational and cognitive dimensions of social capital on innovation and technology in interorganizational and intraorganizational settings
    In this article, we intend to understand how structural, relational, and cognitive dimensions of social capital influence innovation outcomes on interorganizational and intraorganizational networks. For achieving this aim, we adopt meta-synthesis research design with nine selected qualitative case studies. We identified through our analysis the patterns of causal relationships among the variables presented on the case studies. The antecedents of social capital dimensions, the influence of the dimensions on reducing barrier or impediments for innovation and on the enhancement of enablers or facilitators of innovation outcomes, and the direct effects of social capital dimensions on innovation compose the resulting framework. We found a balanced relation among the dimensions on interorganizational settings, with a prevalence of the relational dimension. Regarding interorganizational networks, we perceived a reduced role of structural dimension and the absence of the influence of social capital dimension of reducing barriers or impediments for innovation.
  • An efficient counting method for the colored triad census
    The triad census is an important approach to understand local structure in network science, providing comprehensive assessments of the observed relational configurations between triples of actors in a network. However, researchers are often interested in combinations of relational and categorical nodal attributes. In this case, it is desirable to account for the label, or color, of the nodes in the triad census. In this paper, we describe an efficient algorithm for constructing the colored triad census, based, in part, on existing methods for the classic triad census. We evaluate the performance of the algorithm using empirical and simulated data for both undirected and directed graphs. The results of the simulation demonstrate that the proposed algorithm reduces computational time by approximately 17,400% over the naive approach. We also apply the colored triad census to the Zachary karate club network dataset. We simultaneously show the efficiency of the algorithm, and a way to conduct a statistical test on the census by forming a null distribution from 1,000 realizations of a mixing-matrix conditioned graph and comparing the observed colored triad counts to the expected. From this, we demonstrate the method's utility in our discussion of results about homophily, heterophily, and bridging, simultaneously gained via the colored triad census. In sum, the proposed algorithm for the colored triad census brings novel utility to social network analysis in an efficient package.
  • Black Hole Sun: Binarism and Gravity in Cultural Fields
    ... Using gravity as the force at play in a model offers, I think, an intuitive way out of the stable oppositions of binarism and can help us capture the ways that individuals and their actions make sense in a specific universe of meaning. I’m going to argue that there are some particular benefits to choosing gravity over polarity...
  • “Doing Fear”: The Influence of Hetero-femininity on (Trans)Women's Fears of Victimization
    Heterosexuality, Femininity, and Transwomen's Fear
  • “Doing Fear.” The Influence of Hetero-femininity on (Trans)women’s Fears of Victimization
    Through 26 in-depth interviews with male-to-female transsexuals (transwomen), this study examines transwomen’s perceptions of safety, pre- and post-transition. The majority reported higher levels of fear and believed they would be unable to fight off an attacker post-transition even though most were large-statured and were socialized as males. Exposure to heterosexual practices and to cultural messages depicting women as physically weak and sexually vulnerable, and transwomen’s embodiment of hetero-femininity play a central role in increasing their fears. Their experiences as women are powerful enough to override decades of prior male experiences and expose the socially-constructed nature of fear and bodily agency.
  • Revolutions Against the State
    This chapter is an attempt to provide a more accurate and holistic account of revolution studies than the shackles of generational imagery has allowed. Instead of theoretical generations, I sketch eight theoretical schemas that guide ways of thinking about rebellions and revolutions. Three schemas are classical—Marxism, natural history, and strain theory—and two remain in force today—state-centered and mass mobilization approaches. And three are emergent and not yet institutionalized—cultural, international, and contingency schemas.
  • Black Box Models and Sociological Explanations: Predicting GPA Using Neural Networks
    The Fragile Families Challenge provided opportunity to empirically assess the applicability of black box machine-learning models to sociological questions and the extent to which these models can be used to produce interpretable explanations. I experimented with neural networks to predict grade-point average and assessed how variations in the basic network architecture affected overall performance. I then selected the model that performed best out-of-sample for further evaluation, observing that it generalizes well to the held-out data. Using a recently proposed technique I then study the predictive features and assess the extent to neural networks are amenable to sociological explanations. I conclude by reflecting upon the utility of this approach for social scientific inquiry.
  • Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) May be Valid in Men Ages 18 to 20
  • Estimating the Impact of the Hajj: Religion and Tolerance in Islam's Global Gathering*
    We estimate the impact on pilgrims of performing the Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca. Our method compares successful and unsuccessful applicants in a lottery used by Pakistan to allocate Hajj visas. Pilgrim accounts stress that the Hajj leads to a feeling of unity with fellow Muslims, but outsiders have sometimes feared that this could be accompanied by antipathy toward non-Muslims. We find that participation in the Hajj increases observance of global Islamic practices, such as prayer and fasting, while decreasing participation in localized practices and beliefs, such as the use of amulets and dowry. It increases belief in equality and harmony among ethnic groups and Islamic sects and leads to more favorable attitudes toward women, including greater acceptance of female education and employment. Increased unity within the Islamic world is not accompanied by antipathy toward non-Muslims. Instead, Hajjis show increased belief in peace, and in equality and harmony among adherents of different religions. The evidence suggests that these changes are likely due to exposure to and interaction with Hajjis from around the world, rather than to a changed social role of pilgrims upon return.
  • Using Online Practice Spaces to Investigate Challenges in Enacting Principles of Equitable Computer Science Teaching
    Equity is a core component of many computer science teacher preparation programs. One promising approach is addressing unconscious bias in teachers, which may impact teacher expectations and interactions with students. Since early intervention literature indicates that asking individuals to suppress biases is counterproductive, our work uses online interactive case studies as practice spaces to focus on teaching decisions that may be impacted by unconscious bias. Our initial findings indicate that when embedded within teacher preparation programs, practice spaces produce rich learning opportunities, and our analysis yields insights into how beliefs or biases may interfere with principles of equity like disrupting preparatory privilege.
  • The Experience of Discrimination in Contemporary America: Results from a Nationally Representative Sample of Adults
    A large body of social science research is devoted to understanding the causes and correlates of discrimination. Comparatively less effort has been aimed at providing a general prevalence estimate of discrimination using a nationally representative sample. The current study is intended to offer such an estimate using a large sample of American respondents (n = 14,793) while also exploring perceptions regarding why respondents felt they were discriminated against. The results provide a broad estimate of self-reported discrimination experiences—an event that was only reported by about one-quarter of all sample members—across racial and ethnic categories.
  • Book review: Occupational Ghettos: The Worldwide Segregation of Women and Men
    Review of Occupational Ghettos: The Worldwide Segregation of Women and Men, by Maria Charles and David B. Grusky. (Stanford University Press, 2004.) The review appeared in Contemporary Sociology 35(3), May 2006, pp. 247-249.
  • Narrating imagined crises: Stress tests, post-crisis regulation, and cultural reform in banking
    The scholarly consensus is that the regulatory response to the 2007-9 financial crisis has proven a historic missed opportunity for bringing about transformative reforms. This article argues that the critical evaluation risks missing how regulators’ new tools and procedures are helping them to improve the governance of financial institutions. The focus is on the most significant novelty of the post-crisis period: regulatory stress testing. Guided by 13 interviews with regulators and financial practitioners involved in the Bank of England’s stress tests, the article addresses its ‘qualitative review’ component, which informs the supervision of the UK’s largest bank holding groups. Our findings suggest that the requirement for banks to provide a narrative account of their modelling and governance practices is changing those practices and also weakening the boundaries between banks’ epistemic subcultures. We then reflect on how the pushback against the tests points to the limits of Jens Beckert’s theorisation of the politics of expectations and requires scholars to evaluate judiciously post-crisis regulatory reforms.
  • Relative Contributions of Self-Efficacy, Self-Regulation, and Self-Handicapping in Predicting Student Procrastination
  • Instrumental variables based on twin births are by definition not valid
    Using twin births for instrumental variables (IVs) is a well-known and widespread method to create exogenous variation in the number of children in families. I propose we interpret the treatment of these IVs as an “unwanted” child rather than the “extra” child born at that birth. This seemingly slight reinterpretation highlights how this method is intrinsically linked to fertility preferences and brings forward several previously overlooked assumptions. The reinterpretation also has the less obvious consequence of making these IVs invalid by definition as long as any effect exists from either the desired or the achieved number of children on the outcome studied. The IVs are invalid because there are by definition systematic differences in the desired number of children between families that did and did not experience a (parity-specific) twin birth. The results of studies using this method are likely to be biased in an unknowable direction.
  • The Experience of Saudi Female Students Attending Mixed Gender ESL Courses in Melbourne, Australia.
  • Violence Against Women: A Feminist Study of Women’s Situation during the Civil War of the Democratic Republic of Congo in Lynn Nottage's Ruined
  • Social Media Usage: The Impact on Feelings of Depression or Loneliness
    Over the past decade, there has been a rapid growth of social media. Much of the problem lies with the new potential for constant social comparisons. Social media also adds a new layer of interaction that can occur anywhere, at any time, with anyone. This allows for a higher quantity of relationships, but strips the depth of these relationships. Does increased social media use affect quality of life? I hypothesize that the more social media sites a respondent is a member or regular user of, the more time he or she reports feeling depressed or lonely. I used a sample of 628 respondents as part of in-person interviews conducted by the 2016 General Social Survey. The results found that overall about 51 percent of the people claimed to feel depressed or lonely none of the time. Meaning that about half of respondents do feel depressed or lonely at least some of the time. The most statistically significant finding revealed that the higher ones income, the less one reports feeling depressed or lonely. However, the hypothesis must be rejected because there is no statistical significance between social media usage and quality of life. Social media site usage does not result in increased feelings of depression or loneliness. Based on the income results, does money buy happiness? Those of lower socio-economic class may not have access to proper medical care and therefore do not get adequate treatment for mental illnesses. Structural forces might be having a direct impact.
  • Effect of Hands-on Activity-Based Method on Interest of Senior Secondary Students in Organic Chemistry
    The study investigated the effect of hands-on activity-based method on interest of senior secondary chemistry students in organic chemistry. The study adopted a quasi-experimental design. A sample of 184 students from four purposively selected secondary schools out of a population of 2,381 SS II students from Makurdi Local Government Area of Benue State, Nigeria was used for the study. The experimental group was taught organic chemistry using hands-on activity-based method while the control group was taught using discussion method. Two research questions and two hypotheses guided the study. A validated 25-item Organic Chemistry Interest Inventory (OCII) was the instrument used to collect data. Reliability coefficients of 0.84 were established using Cronbach Alpha. Mean and Standard Deviation scores were used to answer the research questions while Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The results indicated that students taught using hands-on activity-based had significantly higher mean interest scores than those taught using discussion method (F=387.370, P(0.00010.05). It was recommended that teachers should be encouraged to adopt hands-on activity-based method in teaching organic chemistry to enhance students’ interest in organic chemistry.
  • Improving Senior Secondary Students’ Retention in Electrolysis Using Collaborative Concept Mapping Instructional Strategy (CCMIS)
    In this study, improving senior secondary students’ retention in electrolysis using Collaborative Concept Mapping Instructional Strategy (CCMIS) was examined. A sample of 189 students from six selected secondary schools out of a population of 5,114 Senior Secondary I students from Ardo-Kola Local Government Area of Taraba State, Nigeria was used for the study. Non-equivalent quasi-experimental research design was adopted. The instrument used for data collection was Electrolysis Retention Test (ERT) with the reliability value of 0.78 using Kuder-Richardson. Two research questions and three null hypotheses guided the study. Mean and Standard Deviation scores were used to answer the research questions while Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was used to test the null hypotheses. The study revealed that there is significant difference in the mean retention scores between students taught electrolysis using CCMIS and discussion method in favour of CCMIS; [F(1,97) =6.300, P0.050]. It also found no significant interaction effect between methods and gender on the mean retention scores of students in electrolysis; [F(1,197) =.318, P>0.050]. It was recommended among others that CCMIS should be adopted while teaching electrolysis since it has been proved to be a viable option in enhancing students’ retention capacity regardless of their gender.
  • Gender Liminality: How Gender Inequalities in College Hookup Culture Affect Female Subjectivity
    College hookup culture research suggests that there is a new double standard of sexual injunctions that heterosexual women must follow in order to avoid being stigmatized when pursuing sex outside of relationships. While relationships provide women with greater sexual satisfaction, some women prefer hookups because inequalities still exist within relationships. The following review examines the effects of college hookup culture on female subjectivity and suggests that gender inequalities reposition women into a state of gender liminality. This liminal space is a middle ground between the stereotypical statuses of passive “feminine-object” and agentive “masculine-subject” that prompts women to negotiate how they perform femininity without losing agency.
  • Reaction to Safety Equipment Technology in the Workplace and Implications: A Study of the Firefighter's Hood
    In the 1990s the firefighter’s hood became a standard article of safety equipment worn by municipal firefighters, eliciting a negative reaction among many of these firefighters. I used data from interviews with 42 firefighters to explain why this reaction occurred. Data analysis revealed that negative reactions ultimately stemmed from the hood’s disruption of autonomy, repudiation of the complex mental and physical skill needed to perform tasks required of firefighters, and hindrance in negotiating the life-threatening environment created by a fire. These findings indicate that when introducing new safety equipment technology to emergency response workers, their reaction to this equipment, and its effect on their autonomy and ability to complete complex occupational tasks, may have important prevention implications.
  • An Anatomy of Intergenerational Transmission: Learning from the educational attainments of Norwegian twins and their parents
    Research on the intergenerational transmission of educational attainment, and transmission of social positions more generally, have long attempted to separate the relative roles of ascription and achievement. In these efforts, the bulk of research has ignored genetic inheritance. We use structural equations models and data on 4590 twin pairs and their parents to distinguish the roles of genetic and environmental influences on educational attainment in Norway, a country with high affordability and easy access to education at all levels. Our quantitative genetic models confirm the status quo; not of sociology, but of behavior genetics. Heritable factors play an important role in the transmission process, and the postulated direct effects of parents own educational attainments are negligible. The family environment does matter, but only those features that are shared between the twins themselves and not those that involve their parents. These results represent a challenge to conventional sociological theory on intergenerational transmission processes and the role of education in social stratification.
  • How do people connect with nature? Quantifying recreational ecosystem services using social media
    The way people connect with nature influences their environmental attitudes and behaviour. The primary mean people have to connect to nature is nature-based recreation which has important socio-economic and health benefits but can also have severe ecological impacts. Despite its importance, recreation is one of the least quantified ecosystem services. Here, we determine which attributes of nature-based tourism destinations provide recreational services. We used pictures of wildlife posted on Flickr to quantify wildlife-watching activities in Scotland. We then determined the environmental variables key to attracting wildlife watchers to a destination, such as protected areas (PAs), the perceived naturalness, and the presence of different types of infrastructure. Infrastructure is the best predictor of intensity of wildlife watching activities in Scotland, while areas of high natural value are not used. Pas act as a weak attractor of wildlife watchers, with PAs designated to protect threatened habitats or species having low recreational value. In accessible and highly visited areas, higher biodiversity increases the intensity of wildlife watching activities. Areas of high natural and conservation value and areas of high recreational value do not overlap. Recreational ecosystem services are mainly provided by the wider countryside and highly transformed landscapes as opposed to wild ecosystems. These results question the synergy between the goals of recreation and those of conservation and the use of recreation as a justification for economic investment in conservation. Most people experience an urbanised, highly transformed nature; we should focus our attention on how this human-dominated nature can influence environmental attitudes.
  • The Experience of Saudi Female Students Attending Mixed Gender ESL Courses in Melbourne, Australia.
    This study explored the experience of Saudi female students attending mixed-gender English as a second language (ESL) courses in Melbourne, Australia and the factors that impacted their levels of engagement. A transcendental phenomenological research design was used to provide a thick description of the essence of the Saudi female experience in this learning environment. The participants included four Saudi female students currently attending ESL courses in Melbourne, Australia. Two phases—descriptive and interpretive—were employed in the data analysis to accurately capture the nature of the experience. This study revealed that, while all the participants held a positive attitude towards their experience, language proficiency level and marital status played crucial roles in their adaptation. Participants with high language skills reported smoother adaptation than students with low language skills. The married students tended to be more inhibited than single students by the attendance of male especially Saudi male. Working solely with males or participating in physical activities with males had the greatest impact on levels of engagement in classroom activities. These findings were broadly in line with the sparse literature available on this phenomenon. Therefore, future research suggestions and practical implications were offered.
  • Violence Against Women: A Feminist Study of Women’s Situation during the Civil War of the Democratic Republic of Congo in Lynn Nottage's Ruined.
    The Democratic Republic of Congo is recognized as “the rape capital of the world.” (UN-news center) During the Civil War in Congo, rape and sexual assault had applied as potent weapons to attain military and economical purposes. The sexual violence perpetrated against women had been brutal, and it had resulted in physical and social destruction and psychological trauma. Nottage’s choice to set Ruined in the Democratic Republic of Congo was guided by the severe attitude towards women during the civil war, portraying the female characters as the victims of the war. The study is a brief description of women's situation in the Democratic Republic of Congo. However, it concerns of how the female playwright Lynn Nottage depicts Congolese women’s social struggles, psychological traumas, and physical destruction. The research also discusses the motives and the purposes of writing about a sensitive subject as the violence against women. Consequently, it applies a feminist reading of the text, and it is supported by numerous academic journals, books, articles, and reports from international organizations. It concludes that Lynn Nottage succeeded in presenting the violence against women on stage.
  • The Illusion of Depth of Understanding in Science
    Philosophers of science have a long tradition of making a connection between explanation and understanding, but only lately have they started to give the latter notion a substantial role in their theories. In this chapter I will employ a well-known scientific research heuristic of studying how something works by focusing on circumstances in which it does not work. Rather than trying to describe what scientific understanding would ideally look like, I will try to learn something about it by looking at mundane cases where understanding is partly illusory. The main thesis of this paper will be the following: scientists are prone to the illusion of depth of understanding (IDU), and as a consequence, they sometimes overestimate the detail, coherence, and depth of their understanding. I will start my argument by presenting an analysis of the notion of understanding and its relation to a sense of understanding. In order to make plausible the claim that these are often disconnected, I will describe an interesting series of psychological experiments by Frank Keil and co-authors. These experiments suggest that ordinary people routinely overestimate the depth of their understanding. In Section 3, I will argue that we should take seriously the possibility that scientific cognition is also affected by IDU. Section 4 will spell out some possible causes of explanatory illusions in science. In the final section, I will discuss how scientific explanatory practices could be improved and how the philosophy of science might be able to contribute to this process.
  • Drinking with and without Fun: Female students’ accounts of pre-drinking and club-drinking
  • The European Roots of Postwar U.S. Development Economics
    The postwar field of development economics was heavily informed by interwar debates among economists about welfare and the deveiopment of the European periphery. Note that this paper was composed in 1997, and has never been submitted for publication.
  • Influence of class size on students’ classroom discipline, engagement and communication: A study of senior secondary schools in Ekiti state, Nigeria
    In this study, the influence of class size on students’ classroom discipline, engagement and communication school teachers from 16 purposely selected secondary schools out of a population of 4529 senior secondary teachers from Ekiti State, Nigeria was used for the study. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design. The instrument used for data collection was Influence of Class Size on Classroom Discipline, Engagement and Communication Questionnaire (ICSCDECQ) with the 21). Four research questions and three null hypotheses guided the study. The research questions were answered using Mean rating and Standard Deviation scores and the hypotheses were tested using Chi-square. The study revealed that class size has significant influence on senior secondary classroom discipline, engagement and communic influence on senior secondary classroom discipline, engagement and communic among others that, senior secondary schools in Ekiti State, Nigeria should adopt a maximum of 40:1 student teacher ratio (small class size) for effective classroom discipline, engagement and communication. ation. It was recommended among others that, senior secondary schools in Ekiti State, Nigeria should adopt a maximum of 40:1 student teacher ratio (small class size) for effective classroom discipline, engagement and communication. among others that, senior secondary schools in Ekiti State, Nigeria should adopt a maximum of 40:1 students-teacher ratio (small class size) for effective classroom discipline, engagement and communication.
  • Identity Crisis: Effect of Immigrant Replenishment on Spanish Language Use Among US-born Mexican Descendants
    Immigrant replenishment may affect assimilation patterns of US-born descendants by maintaining the use and relevance of the language of origin. This study asks, how does Mexican immigrant replenishment affect Spanish language use among adult US-born Mexican descendants? Descendants include members of the second or later generations. I propose that greater exposure to Mexican immigrants will encourage adult US-born Mexican descendants to maintain their ethnic origins, especially language of origin. Therefore, the higher the rate of immigrant replenishment, the more likely respondents will speak Spanish at home. I analyze a five-year cumulative data file of the US American Community Survey (ACS) from 2011 to 2015, which represents 5 percent of the US population. The ACS uses stratified cluster sampling to collect data from 15,637,457 respondents. The sample is limited to US-born Mexican descendants, who were 25 years of age, married, and heads of households or spouses thereof. This limited the analysis to 187,212 respondents. I found that college attendance and higher family income decrease the odds of speaking Spanish at home. I also found that as immigrant replenishment increases, the odds of respondents speaking Spanish at home increases and decreases. As immigrant replenishment increases, respondents with Hispanic spouses are more likely to speak Spanish at home. However, respondents with non-Hispanic spouses are less likely to speak Spanish at home, which may be a result of sharpened intragroup boundaries created by new immigrants. The results confirm that Mexican immigrant replenishment significantly affects speaking Spanish at home for adult US-born Mexican descendants.
  • Mapping the Temples of Cyborgism: Exploring the Numinous Potential of Replicants in Ridley Scott’s Blade Runner
    Description: I wrote this in 2007 as a student trying to think about Blade Runner through both religious studies and anthropology. An updated version is in progress. Excerpt: "By threatening binary systems and insisting on an identity of plurality, replicants and cyborgs are granted access to a sanctuary in which they can interface with the numinous place of origin; the place Jenna Tiitsman describes as the chaotic “territory of creation.” The following analysis is a journey of exploration to map the cyborg sanctuaries in that chaotic territory of Tiitsman’s “creative becoming.” This expedition will explore the web of shared conversation between discourse in three regions: investigation into human reactions to robot humanness, relational ordering of religious experience, and the capacity of cyborgs to access the numinous. At the intersection of these cognitive spaces emergent from the “territory of creation” are conceptual-crossroads where cyborgs mediate access to the supernatural. To situate these emergent conceptual-crossroads within more familiar cognitive spaces with supernatural access, I will refer to them as the temples of cyborgism." Keywords: Blade Runner, cyborg, uncanny valley, numinous, creation, supernatural. Please cite as: Oman-Regan, Michael P. 2007. "Mapping the Temples of Cyborgism: Exploring the Numinous Potential of Replicants in Ridley Scott’s Blade Runner." Manuscript. SocArXiv, Open Science Framework.
  • Religious Mobility in the United States: The Effects of Income and Economic Mobility on Religious Conversion
    Why do people switch religions? Under the theoretical framework of interactionism theory of conversion, which posits that the interplay between active, negotiated, and socially constructed aspects of human behavior and different aspects of social context lead to religious conversion, I propose that economic mobility and income affect whether or not one chooses to switch religions from the one in which they were raised. I rely on the 2016 General Social Survey (GSS) that was administered to 2,867 randomly selected adults living in households in the United States in 2016. I analyze data from a subset of 1,068 married respondents to examine the effects of economic mobility, income, exogamy, geographic mobility, education, race, age, and sex on religious mobility and apostasy. There are no significant correlations between economic mobility and income with religious mobility or apostasy. The only significant predictor of religious mobility and apostasy is exogamy. Respondents who have married outside of the religion in which they were raised are more likely to be religiously mobile or abandon religion altogether than those who are endogamous. Additionally, older respondents are less likely to abandon religion than younger respondents. My hypothesis is not supported. However, the results support interactionism theory of conversion as exogamy is a significant predictor of religious mobility. These results confirm that the institution of marriage plays a significant role in whether or not someone converts religions; furthermore, the bonds of marriage outweigh one’s bond to the religion in which they were raised.
  • Constitutional Perspectives on Machine Learning
    This paper discusses the notions of individual fairness and group fairness discussed in the fairness, accountability and transparency in machine learning (FATML) literature, in the light of equality and anti-discrimination provisions in The Constitution of India.
  • Ready for more-than-human? Measuring urban residents’ willingness to coexist with animals
    In the context of rapid urbanisation, geographers are calling for embracing non-humans as urban co-inhabitants, but notions of animals and plants ‘out of place’ manifest in wildlife conflicts. To find paths towards more-than-human cities, we need to better understand residents’ willingness to coexist. This study quantitatively compared residents’ preferences toward sharing their neighbourhood and perceptions of belonging across urban green space in two geographically and culturally distinct cities: Brisbane, Australia and Sapporo, Japan. Results suggest factors influencing respondents’ willingness to coexist were geographical and cultural context alongside educational attainment and age, but not sex and income. Mapping respondents’ preferences for animals in their neighbourhood revealed four categories divided by two axes – global-local and wanted-unwanted animals – arising from the way animals contested human notions of control over urban space. Most respondents chose informal green space (e.g., vacant lots, brownfields etc.) as spaces of belonging after forests and bushland. Drawing upon recent theoretical and empirical research on liminal urban spaces, I argue with Nohl (1990) that such informal green space can offer ‘provisional arrangements’, allowing for conciliatory engagements with non-humans. I thus propose informal green space as territories of encounter – a possible path towards more-than-human cities. Finally, I discuss some implications for planning and management of interspecies interactions.
  • Does the Middle Conform or Compete? Risk and Quality Thresholds Predict the Locus of Innovation
    Where does innovation come from? This research models producer incentives to innovate with a focus on the role of audiences in constructing quality thresholds within markets. Market audiences create mechanisms for identifying the highest quality producers in a market. I highlight a key distinction between fixed quality thresholds (such as accreditations) and quality thresholds that respond to producer quality (such as rankings or best-of-breed awards). Producers evaluate how the inherently risky nature of innovation interacts with these thresholds. The model predicts conditions under which innovation emerges from the best producers in a market, from producers near the threshold in a market, from both, or from nowhere. Such predictions generalize and simplify several existing organizational theories of innovation.
  • Effect of Gender on Senior Secondary Chemistry Students' Achievement in Stoichiometry using Hands-on Activities
    The study examined the effect of gender on students’ achievement in stoichiometry using hands-on activities. A sample of 292 students from eight purposively selected secondary schools out of a population of 8,381 SS II students from zone C of Benue State, Nigeria was used for the study. The study adopted a quasi-experimental research design. Stoichiometry Achievement Test (SAT) was used for data collection. Reliability coefficient of 0.92 was established using Pearson correlation moment coefficient. Two research questions and two hypotheses guided the study. The research questions were answered using mean and standard deviation while the hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance using Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). The study revealed that there is no significant difference in the mean achievement scores between male and female students taught stoichiometry using hands-on activities; (F(1, 145) = 4.160, p>0.05). It also found no significant interaction effect between methods and gender on the mean achievement scores of students in stoichiometry; (F(1, 291) = 0.11, p>0.05). It was recommended among others that since hands-on activities method is not gender sensitive therefore both male and female students should be involved in hands-on activities to enhance their achievement in stoichiometry.
  • A Factor Analytic Examination of the Achievement Goal Questionnaire–Revised Supports a Three-Factor Model
  • How Troubling Is Our Inheritance? A Review of Genetics and Race in the Social Sciences
  • Class Advantage, Commitment Penalty
    The Gendered Effect of Social Class Signals in an Elite Labor Market
  • The USM campus climate survey: Findings and recommendations
    The present investigation of USM Campus Climate was commissioned by the University of Southern Mississippi in 2014, and has been conducted by the Research Initiative on Social Justice and Equity (RISE). RISE is a multi-institutional research consortium with its origins at USM in 2013, and contributions to this report have come from multiple directors, research fellows, research associates, and student fellows of RISE. The data for this project were collected, managed, and have remained under the control and supervision of RISE personnel. We aim in this report to detail the reasons this inquiry was conducted, what we have learned from it, and what we believe are some reasonable recommendations based on the results. Throughout the process of completing this report, we have been in communication with multiple faculty, staff, and student groups to attempt to create a product that is representative of multiple viewpoints, incorporates information about ongoing and upcoming efforts, and that is fair in representing USM as an evolving, unfolding institution working to improve the experience for all students in an environment that is, at times, difficult due to political and financial realities.
  • Critical Searches for Style in the Literature of Boredom: A Discussion on the Implications of its Inconsistent Genre Markers and Ethos
    A noticeable trend in university classes is studying boredom in literature, a theme which ostensibly began to envelope the western canon from the 19th century onwards that centers on the artistic utilization of dilatory space. Critical theorists like Adorno call it free time and warn of capitalism’s propensity to subvert it. Whereas boredom has traditionally been a boon for humanity in its propensity to force contemplation that leads to creativity, in modernity it has been succumbed to en masse and therefore no longer plays its role of detecting the human threshold preceding anger. Critical analyses have prompted many to search for a particular style of boredom, a pursuit of its quiddity in order to crack its style, which in a milieu where method and style is everything equates to numerous staid attempts. While genre identifying stylistic markers perhaps do exist in the generic sense that the plays and novels included in this proposed corpus are typically about white, privileged, and post-lapsarian moderns dealing with vertiginous existential issues, positing an exact style remains intractable. This paper, while not an exhaustive examination of the texts, posits=nevertheless that purported stylistic markers are not consistent or discernable. What is more plausible, rather, is that dispossession affects productions and critical readings. Humans all seek meaning and as it was traditionally signified in cosmologies that no longer provide import in the cultural zeitgeist of western productions about the mundane, the loss of immanence has desultorily impacted artistic expression and the ethos of the poet.