Papers

Papers on SocArXiv appear here as they are posted, with the latest first. This is intended both to show the latest papers and also to demonstrate the potential of our platform.


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SocArXiv papers

  • From the Trenches: A Global Survey of Anti-TIP NGOs and their Views of US Efforts
    Amid the academic and policy critiques of the United States’ 15-year push to eliminate human trafficking, the perspective of the nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) working with anti-trafficking advocacy and services has been largely ignored. This article presents the results of a global survey of nearly 500 anti-trafficking NGOs in working in 133 countries, and is the first NGO-focused survey of its kind. Based on the results of the survey, we provide an overview of the anti-trafficking NGO sector as a whole, detail the relationship between anti-trafficking NGOs and the US, and account for some of the variation in NGO opinions of US efforts. Notably, we find that NGOs are remarkably satisfied with US-led efforts—despite their acknowledged flaws—and that NGOs believe that American anti-TIP policies are important and, on balance, helpful. These results also provide a warning for the future of the United States’ anti-trafficking advocacy, suggesting that the US avoid politicizing its annual Trafficking in Persons Report.
  • A Standard for the Scholarly Citation of Archaeological Data as an Incentive to Data Sharing
    How do archaeologists share their research data, if at all? We review what data are, according to current influential definitions, and previous work on the benefits, costs and norms of data sharing in the sciences broadly. To understand data sharing in archaeology, we present the results of three pilot studies: requests for data by email; review of data availability in published articles, and analysis of archaeological datasets deposited in repositories. We find that archaeologists are often willing to share, but discipline-wide sharing is patchy and ad hoc. Legislation and mandates are effective at increasing data-sharing, but editorial policies at journals lack adequate enforcement. Although most of data available at repositories are licensed to enable flexible reuse, only a small proportion of the data are stored in structured formats for easy reuse. We present some suggestions for improving the state of date sharing in archaeology, among these is a standard for citing data sets to ensure that researchers making their data publicly available receive appropriate credit.
  • Demand Estimation with Availability Variation
    Estimates of demand are identified from variation in the choice sets that consumers face and the corresponding purchase probabilities for individual products. Retail settings often provide an opportunity to observe variation in consumer choice sets that arises not only through changes in observable product characteristics, such as price, but also through changes in product availability. We review the literature that develops methods for estimating demand in these settings, with emphasis on two mechanisms through which product availability may vary: product assortment decisions, and stockout events. We also briefly discuss variation in availability that may arise from limited consumer information.
  • Scratch Commuinty Blocks: Supporting Children as Data Scientists
    In this paper, we present Scratch Community Blocks, a new system that enables children to programmatically access, analyze, and visualize data about their participation in Scratch, an online community for learning computer programming. At its core, our approach involves a shift in who analyzes data: from adult data scientists to young learners themselves. We first introduce the goals and design of the system and then demonstrate it by describing example projects that illustrate its functionality. Next, we show through a series of case studies how the system engages children in not only representing data and answering questions with data but also in self-reflection about their own learning and participation.
  • Distributional effects of transport policies on inequalities in access to opportunities in Rio de Janeiro
    The evaluation of the social impacts of transport policies is attracting growing attention in recent years. Yet, this literature is still predominately focused on developed countries. The goal of this research is to investigate how investments in public transport networks can reshape social and geographical inequalities in access to opportunities in a developing country, using the city of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) as a case study. Recent mega-events, including the 2014 Football World Cup and the 2016 Olympic Games, have triggered substantial investment in the city’s transport system. More recently, though, bus services in Rio have been rationalized and reduced as a response to a fiscal crisis and a drop in passenger demand, giving a unique opportunity to look at the distributional effects this cycle of investment and disinvestment have had on peoples’ access to educational and employment opportunities. Based on a before-and-after comparison of Rio’s public transport network, this study uses a spatial regression model and cluster analysis to estimate how accessibility gains vary across different income groups and areas of the city between April 2014 and March 2017. The results show that recent cuts in service levels have offset the potential benefits of newly added public transport infrastructure in Rio. Average access by public transport to jobs and public high-schools decreased approximately 4% and 6% in the period, respectively. Nonetheless, wealthier areas had on average small but statistically significant higher gains in access to schools and job opportunities than poorer areas. These findings suggest that, contrary to the official discourses of transport legacy, recent transport policies in Rio have exacerbated rather than reduced socio-spatial inequalities in access to opportunities. These results also suggest that future research should consider how the modifiable areal unit problem (MAUP) can influence the equity assessment of transport projects.
  • A Preliminary Study of Smithport Plain Bottle Morphology in the Southern Caddo Area
    This study expands upon a previous analysis of the Clarence H. Webb collection, which resulted in the identification of two discrete shapes used in the manufacture of the base and body of Smithport Plain bottles. The sample includes the Smithport Plain bottles from the Webb collection, and four new bottles: two previously repatriated specimens in the Pohler Collection, and two from the Mitchell site (41BW4) to test whether those specimens align morphologically with the Belcher Mound or Smithport Landing specimens. Results indicate significant allometry and a significant difference in Smithport Plain body and base shapes for bottles produced at the Smithport Landing and Belcher Mound sites in northwest Louisiana. The Pohler and Mitchell specimens do not differ significantly from those found at Smithport Landing or Belcher Mound. Analysis of the aggregated sample indicates some significant relationships between bottle shape and size, bottle shape and type, and bottle shape and site, highlighting assemblage-level and type-specific variability. The test of morphological disparity by period indicates a possible gradual trend toward standardization, and the test of morphological integration indicates that Caddo bottles are significantly integrated, meaning that those discrete traits used to characterize their shape (rim, neck, body, and base) vary in a coordinated manner. The iterative development of this research design can lead to substantive theoretical gains that augment discussions of decorative components and motifs as well as ceramic technological attributes.
  • Covering the Campaign: News, Elections, and the Information Environment in Emerging Democracies
    Scholars debate whether and how campaigns influence political behavior and electoral outcomes. No consistent theoretical framework, however, defines, measures, and analyzes election-related content from within the media's coverage, particularly in emerging democracies. We apply machine learning techniques on texts from nearly 100,000 news articles during South Africa's 2014 election, and use a theoretically-informed classification of election coverage to demonstrate how the conceptual scope of elections shapes voters' campaign information environment. Our results produce distinct representations of political actors and institutions during elections: a narrow classification provides heuristics cuing race, party, and incumbent performance; a broad definition reflects policy and service concerns parties debated. Topic models and word vectors show that campaign content clusters with parties and their associations with government performance and policies, but candidates vary in how much distinct coverage they obtain on valence issues. We provide methods and evidence to replicably study electoral news coverage across developing countries.
  • How Were Encounters Initiated That Resulted in the Fatal Shooting of Civilians by Police?
    An abbreviated version of this paper has been published in Contexts: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/1536504218776970 .......................................................................................................... This paper examines police-public encounters that resulted in the fatal shooting of civilians during 2015 and 2016. Data published by The Washington Post is merged with data collected by the author regarding how encounters were initiated. Descriptive analysis and basic statistical analysis is performed and the results indicate that how police contact was initiated varies by race/ethnicity, age, sex, mental health status, and whether (or how) the individual killed by police was armed with a weapon. The implications of the results for understanding police use of force are discussed. This paper recommends that databases on civilian fatalities include information on how contact was initiated. Without this crucial information, understandings of police use of force are incomplete.
  • The Limits of Income Inequality: Public Support for Social Policy across Rich Democracies
    Does public opinion react to inequality, and if so, how? The social harms caused by increasing inequality should cause public opinion to ramp up demand for social welfare protections. However, the public may react to inequality differently depending on institutional context. Using ISSP and WID data (1980-2006) we tested these claims. In liberal institutional contexts (mostly English-speaking), increasing income inequality predicted higher support for state provision of social welfare. In coordinated and universalist contexts (mostly of Europe), increasing inequality predicted less support. Historically higher income concentration predicted less public support, providing an account of the large variation in inequality within the respective liberal and coordinated contexts. The results suggest opinions in liberal societies – especially with higher historical inequality – reached the limits of inequality, reacting negatively; whereas in coordinated/universalist societies – especially with lower historical inequality – opinions moved positively, as if desiring more inequality.
  • Definitions across the Disciplines: Surveying Primary Sources in the Classroom
    In C.P. Snow’s The Two Cultures (1959) the divide between scientists and humanists is described as both practical and cultural. That is, scientists and humanists not only perform different jobs, but they also understand the world differently. Humanities for STEM: Using Archives to Bridge the Two Cultures Divide, a two-year research collaborative funded by New York University’s Center for the Humanities, re-investigates Snow’s thesis through the study of primary sources and archival research. Archives, often thought to be squarely in the domain of the humanities, also contain primary source documents from the sciences and, therefore, can be used to enhance the understanding of STEM. Because this research collaborative posits that primary sources can aid STEM education and research, it becomes important to define what scientists and humanists understand primary sources to be. Is the term “primary source” part of the conceptual and cultural divide Snow describes? In order to understand how a primary source is defined by various disciplines, research collaborative members created and disseminated a survey to faculty at New York University. The results of this survey led to an awareness that what is considered to be a primary source varies between disciplines. Although the notion that primary sources contain first-hand accounts of actual events was established across the disciplines, there was disagreement as to which formats were considered to be primary sources. Practitioners in STEM and social sciences considered journal articles and data sets to be primary sources. Humanities professionals were unique in their belief that “physical documents from an archive (eg., correspondence, photographs)” were one of the top forms of primary sources. With two working definitions of primary sources, it becomes clear that while faculty in most disciplines insist they are using primary sources, faculty from across the divide may disagree as to which documents are in fact primary sources. The differing definition of primary sources could lead to potential projects for either side: raw data and journal articles in historical contexts for humanities classrooms or innovative uses of letters, journals, and objects in STEM classrooms.
  • America in 'British' History Textbooks
    Most assessments of Britain’s ‘postwar consensus’ emphasize the so-called Anglo-American (a.k.a. UK-US) special relationship. Always far more special in London than in Washington, this relationship greatly influenced British foreign policy since the second half of the twentieth century, and in many ways continues to influence it in the current ‘Brexiting’ period. Indeed, Britain’s strategy and operations in security and military matters—British nuclear deterrent, intelligence, and counter-terrorism included—are all still predicated on this ‘specialness’. In this paper, I examine the cultural underpinning of this phenomenon by considering how ‘America’ was constructed in British history textbooks from the late 1940s onwards.
  • Bumper Stickers on the Twitter Highway: Analyzing the Speed and Substance of Profile Changes
    We describe a novel longitudinal study of the frequency and significance of social media users' profile changes. Drawing upon two formative theories from communication and psychology: self-construal and signaling theory, we examine the likelihood that users will change their profiles and what constitutes a significant profile change. Our findings indicate that users are more likely to change their Profile Summaries and Display Names than their Locations and Screen Names (i.e. handles). Further, we used topic modeling to partition users based on their profiles to identify themes and explored how profile changes differ among these thematic groups (e.g., Trump supporters). Last, we identified the most significant word changes by users in their profiles. Our findings provide valuable baseline data for further study of Twitter profiles, including the spread of social contagion through these profiles.
  • Network analysis of the social and demographic influences on name choice within the UK (1838-2016)
    Chosen names reflect a society’s changing values, aspirations and cultural diversity. Vogues in name usage can be easily shown on a case by case basis, by plotting the rise and fall in their popularity over time. However, individual name choices are not made in isolation and trends in naming are better understood as group-level phenomena. Here we use network analysis to examine onomastic (name) datasets in order to explore the influences on name choices within the UK over the last 170 years. Using a large representative sample of approximately 22 million chosen forenames from England and Wales given between 1838 and 2014, along with a complete population sample of births registered between 1996 and 2016, we demonstrate how trends in name usage can be visualised as network graphs. By exploring the structure of these graphs, various patterns of name use become readily apparent, which can be interpreted in the context of historic events, such as known waves of migration. In general, we show that the topology of network graphs can reveal naming vogues, and that naming vogues are a reflection of social and demographic changes. Many name choices are consistent with a self-correcting feedback loop, whereby rarer names become common because there are virtues perceived in their rarity, yet with these perceived virtues lost upon increasing commonality. Towards the present day, the comparatively greater range of media, freedom of movement, and ability to maintain globally-distributed social networks increases the number of possible names, but also ensures they may more quickly be perceived as commonplace. Consequently, contemporary naming vogues are relatively short-lived with many name choices appearing a balance struck between recognisability and rarity. The data are available via an easy-to-use web interface at http://demos.flourish.studio/namehistory.
  • The Diverging Beliefs and Practices of the Religiously Affiliated and Unaffiliated in the United States
    Since 1990, the percent of Americans with no religious affiliation has grown substantially. Prior work has shown that between 1990 and 2000, the religiously unaffiliated population also became more religious in belief and practices, both in absolute terms and relative to the affiliated population. This curious empirical finding is believed to be driven by a dilution effect in which moderate believers disaffiliated from organized religion without giving up religious beliefs and practices. In the current article, I use data from the General Social Survey to show that this convergence of beliefs and practices of the religiously affiliated and unaffiliated ended around 2000. Since 2000, the religiously unaffiliated have decreased their belief in god and the afterlife, and have not increased their prayer frequency. The trends for the affiliated have been either increasing or unchanging and thus the religious practices and beliefs of the religiously affiliated and unaffiliated have diverged since 2000. The change in trend for the religiously unaffiliated after 2000 cannot fully be explained generational succession or the growing percentage of Americans raised without religion. Although the unaffiliated remain very heterogeneous in their beliefs and practices, these results point to a growing religious polarization in the United States.
  • Economic Inequality and Belief in Meritocracy in the United States
    How does the context of income inequality in which people live affect their belief in meritocracy, the ability to get ahead through hard work? One prominent recent study, Newman, Johnston, and Lown (2015), argues that, consistent with the conflict theory, exposure to higher levels of local income inequality lead lower-income people to become more likely to reject—and higher-income people to become more likely to accept—the dominant U.S. ideology of meritocracy. Here, we show that this conclusion is not supported by the study's own reported results and that even these results depend on pooling three different measures of meritocracy into a single analysis. We then demonstrate that analysis of a larger and more representative survey employing a single consistent measure of the dependent variable yields the opposite conclusion. Consistent with the relative power theory, among those with lower incomes, local contexts of greater inequality are associated with more widespread belief that people can get ahead if they are willing to work hard.
  • Communication, Observability and Cooperation: a Field Experiment on Collective Water Management in India
    This study is an empirical investigation of the potential for communication and observability interventions to increase cooperation around communal water treatment systems amongst villagers in rural India. Despite the dependence of many rural communities in India on communal water sources and treatment plants for safe drinking water, they often fail to collectively manage these resources, resulting in abandoned water points and treatment systems with consequent health and mortality impacts. Results of public goods games framed in terms of the management of communal water treatment systems suggest that observability (public disclosure of behaviour) had the very significant effect of decreasing contributions to the public good. Analysis suggests this was mainly due to conformity to frequently-observed free-riding. Only when participants were actively encouraged to negotiate agreements, did cooperation increase significantly - albeit intermittently. These results show that the success of institutional design principles devised to increase cooperation depends on existing social norms and practices in the community of interest. A failure to account for these informal rules and standards of behaviour may result in unintended consequences, such as a decline in collective action around the public good.
  • Redistribution and Social Information (ReSoc)
    We use a ‘multi-player dictator game’ (MDG) to examine how aggregate and individual redistribution behaviour is influenced by the observable actions of peers, and to identify whether the redistributive strategy selected by individuals is subject to an ‘anchoring effect’. We find that in the aggregate, individuals positively condition their redistribution choices on the contributions of first-movers in their group, suggesting conformity to peers. However, examination of second-mover ‘types’ (classified using the full vector of individual contributions stated in response to a range of first-mover donations) indicates that only 17% can be classed as ‘conformists’; the remaining major 'types' include self-interested players (42%), unconditional givers (22%) and ‘compensators’ (8.3%). Most strikingly, the first observable amount presented to second-movers in the strategy game (the anchor) is found to influence the likelihood of choosing a giving strategy versus a self-interested strategy. Specifically, low anchors increase the likelihood of selecting self-interested strategies, whilst high anchors increase the likelihood of conformist and compensating strategies. The distribution of ‘types’ is therefore dependent on the initial conditions of play in the strategy game. Thus, not only is individual redistribution behaviour observed to be path dependent, but initial conditions strongly determine the path.
  • Pynamical: Model and visualize discrete nonlinear dynamical systems, chaos, and fractals
    Pynamical is an educational Python package for introducing the modeling, simulation, and visualization of discrete nonlinear dynamical systems and chaos, focusing on one-dimensional maps (such as the logistic map and the cubic map). Pynamical facilitates defining discrete one-dimensional nonlinear models as Python functions with just-in-time compilation for fast simulation. It comes packaged with the logistic map, the Singer map, and the cubic map predefined. The models may be run with a range of parameter values over a set of time steps, and the resulting numerical output is returned as a pandas DataFrame. Pynamical can then visualize this output in various ways, including with bifurcation diagrams, two-dimensional phase diagrams, three-dimensional phase diagrams, and cobweb plots. These visualizations enable simple qualitative assessments of system behavior including phase transitions, bifurcation points, attractors and limit cycles, basins of attraction, and fractals.
  • Goal-Directed Allostasis: The Unique Challenge of Keeping Things as They Are and Strategies to Overcome It
    We introduce the concept of Goal-Directed Allostasis (GDA), the mental process that underlies individuals’ deliberate and proactive attempts to maintain the current state of affairs. GDA is distinct from Goal-Directed Progress (GDP), the mental process that underlies the pursuit of change in the current state of affairs. We argue that GDA plays a crucial role in human life, but that it has been largely overlooked in psychological research. We discuss the unique cognitive and motivational challenges that arise during GDA, and suggest strategies to overcome these challenges. Finally, we outline how acknowledging the distinction between GDA and GDP might contribute to the study and treatment of mental illness, and highlight several directions for future research.
  • Neighborhood Boundaries and Violent Crime. An Introduction to Boundary Detection Methods in R
    Neighborhood boundaries are a defining aspect of highly segregated urban areas. Yet, few studies examine the particular challenges and spatial processes that occur at the bordering region between two neighborhoods. This guide introduces readers to different methods to measure neighborhood boundaries. It illustrates the use of boundary detection methods in the social science based on the R package 'BoundaryDetection'. The analysis example estimates the relationship between violent crimes and racial neighborhood boundaries in Chicago.
  • Trends in Black and White Opioid Mortality in the United States, 1979–2015
  • Sentiment Analysis on Interview Transcripts: An application of NLP for Quantitative Analysis
    One-on-one interviews and the analysis of their transcripts is the most common way researchers get into depth to obtain detailed insights. These insights are highly subjective and lack objectivity. We demonstrate in this paper a method and a use case to bring objectivity to this analysis. We present the use of NLP to generate sentiment analysis and perform various quantitative techniques. This analysis is useful in deriving insights by finding patterns and building a simple linear model to explain the variation in sentiment pattern. We also present a view about the usage of this technique for the effective and optimal time usage by researchers to learn maximum from outlier interviews.
  • The Global in Canada
    Paper prepared for “Generations: The Sources and Evolution of Canadian Foreign Policy”, September 28-29 2016, Hart House, University of Toronto. 7,000 words, 1 cartoon, to appear International Journal's themed issued edited by Brian Bow and Andrea Lane.
  • The Aggregation Problem: Implications for Ecological Economics
    This article discusses the aggregation problem and its implications for ecological economics. The aggregation problem consists of a simple dilemma: when adding heterogeneous phenomena together, the observer must choose the unit of analysis. The dilemma is that this choice affects the resulting measurement. This means that aggregate measurements are dependent on one's goals, and on underlying theory. Using simple examples, this article shows how the aggregation problem complicates tasks such as calculating indexes of aggregate quantity, and how it undermines attempts to find a singular metric for complex issues such as sustainability.
  • Noise and the City: Leveraging crowdsourced 311 data to examine the spatio-temporal relationship between urban development and noise annoyance
    This study investigates the spatio-temporal relationship between urban development and noise annoyance in Vancouver, Canada. Noise is one of the most frequently complained nuisances and public health hazards in many cities. Chronic exposure to noise is known to increase stress levels and decrease work productivity. While traffic-related noise has been studied extensively, research on other sources of noise has been lacking. Using a historical inventory of major development projects and novel crowdsourced citizen report data from 2011 to 2016, this study finds that neighborhood noise complaints are significantly associated with year (IRR = 1.074, 95% CI = 1.053–1.098) and counts of major construction (IRR = 1.059, 95% CI = 1.026–1.093), while controlling for neighborhood-level confounders. To our knowledge, this is one of the first studies to empirically show adverse effects of urban development on neighborhood wellbeing with respect to noise. Results inform urban planning policies and decisions for determining how and where to target more concerted effort to mitigate chronic noise problems in rapidly growing cities.
  • The State of The Art in Peer Review
    Scholarly communication is in a perpetual state of disruption. Within this, peer review of research articles remains an essential part of the formal publication process, distinguishing it from virtually all other modes of communication. In the last several years, there has been an explosive wave of innovation in peer review research, platforms, discussions, tools, and services. This is largely coupled with the ongoing and parallel evolution of scholarly communication as it adapts to rapidly changing environments, within what is widely considered as the ‘open research’ or ‘open science’ movement. Here, we summarise the current ebb and flow around changes to peer review and consider its role in a modern digital research and communications infrastructure and discuss why uptake of new models of peer review appears to have been so low compared to what is often viewed as the ‘traditional’ method of peer review. Finally, we offer some insight into the potential futures of scholarly peer review and consider what impacts this might have on the broader scholarly research ecosystem.
  • Matching survey responses with anonymity in environments with privacy concerns: A practical guide
    In many cases, public management researchers’ focus lies in phenomena, embedded in a hierarchical context. Conducting surveys and analyzing subsequent data requires a way to identify which responses belong to the same entity. This might be, for example, members of the same team or data from different organizational levels. It can be very difficult to collect such data in environments marked by high concerns for anonymity and data privacy. This article suggests a procedure for matching survey data without compromising respondents’ anonymity.
  • Public Perceptions of Food-related Risks: A Cross-national Investigation of Individual and Contextual Influences
    Public concerns about food risks have grown in recent decades in response to many food-related scandals. Despite some evidence that risk concerns vary across societies and risk domains, these variations remain understudied. To address this gap, this paper conducts a multi-level analysis of public concerns about biological and chemical/technical food risks in 26 European countries. Findings confirm previous work on individual predictors of risk concern and suggest that several contextual factors contribute to cross-national variations: aggregate perceptions of risks as unnatural, retail concentration in the food sector, and media coverage. The effect of institutional trust on risk concerns varies substantially across nations. Findings also reveal important differences in public concerns about biological versus chemical/technical food risks, supporting the view that food risk perception is multi-dimensional and complex.
  • Public perceptions of food-related risks: a cross-national investigation of individual and contextual influences
  • A systematic assessment of 'Axial Age' proposals using global comparative historical evidence
    Proponents of the Axial Age contend that parallel cultural developments between 800 and 200 BCE in what is today China, Greece, India, Iran, and Israel-Palestine constitute the global historical turning point towards modernity. While the Axial Age concept is well-known and influential, deficiencies in the historical evidence and sociological analysis available have thwarted efforts to evaluate the Axial Age concept’s major global contentions. As a result, the Axial Age concept remains controversial. Seshat: Global History Databank provides new tools for examining this topic in social formations across Afro-Eurasia during the first two millennia BCE and first millennium CE, allowing scholars to empirically evaluate the many varied— and contrasting—claims put forward about this period. Our systematic investigation undercuts the notion of a specific 'age' of axiality limited to a specific geo-temporal localization. Critical traits offered as evidence of an axial transformation by proponents of the Axial Age concept are shown to have appeared across Afro-Eurasia hundreds and in some cases thousands of years prior to the proposed Axial Age. Our analysis raises important questions for future evaluations of this period and points the way towards empirically-led, historical-sociological investigations of the ideological and institutional foundations of complex societies.
  • A generalized definition of critical thinking
    The concept of critical thinking enjoys a near-universal positive connotation. Existing defnitions of critical thinking, however, tend to be rather vague, and, as a consequence, they provide neither an accurate nor a precise understanding of critical thinking. In this paper, I propose to understand critical thinking as a metacognitive skill applicable to the evaluation of truth claims. Critical thinking as a metacognitive skill consists of three components: Minimization of logical fallacies, minimization of cognitive biases, and a probabilistic epistemology. Understood in this manner, critical thinking can improve the quality of our inferences about the world.
  • Missing Scholars: Social Exclusion at the Indian Institutes of Managment
    The Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs) suffer from an acute social diversity deficit in the composition of their faculty bodies. Using administrative data obtained under Right to Information Act (RTI), we show that one of the central drivers of this diversity deficit is the IIMs’ failure to pay attention to questions of diversity and inclusion in their doctoral programmes that account for a third of all current faculty members across IIMs. We document the omissions and commissions of IIM doctoral programmes across four decades and conclude that IIMs are responsible for a phenomenon we describe as “missing scholars.” A conservative estimate of missing scholars suggests that this phenomenon accounts for at least 130% of IIM-trained scholars currently on the faculty of IIMs. We argue that IIMs must take immediate ameliorative actions as part of a programme of restorative, rather than retributive reparation.
  • Smart Cities Are Little More than Technological Utopianism
    On November 23 of last year, Infrastructure Canada announced its utopian vision for the country’s cities in its Smart Cities Challenge. Contra the hype surrounding the challenge, smart cities are merely an evolution in how cities are planned and developed. They are not as revolutionary as their proponents claim.
  • Self-Repetition and East Asian Literary Modernity, 1900-1930
    Histories of East Asian literary modernity have often begun as historiographies of the narrative self. For some scholars, the emergence of a decidedly self-referential mode of fiction in the early twentieth century is part and parcel of what defines this modernity. In Japan there was the "I-novel"; and in China, Romantic fiction. The two are recognized as foundational genres that distinguished themselves from prior fiction by the adoption of a narrow autobiographical focus, extended psycho-narration, and a new vernacular writing style. At the same time, others have struggled to define these genres in more precise stylistic or formal terms. Edward Fowler once said of the I-novel that "writing about [it] is not unlike pursuing a desert oasis...How is one to analyze a form that critics have debated for well over half a century but for which they have failed to come up with a workable definition?" The case is similar for China's Romantic fiction, which, since the work of C.T. Hsia and Leo Ou-fan Lee, has been conventionally defined by its social milieu rather than through a coherent set of generic qualities.
  • Beyond Poet Voice: Sampling the (Non-) Performance Styles of 100 American Poets
  • Teacher Moments: an online platform for preservice teachers to practice parent-teacher conversations
    Simulations allow preservice teachers to connect education theory and practice in low-risk environments. This study presents findings from our investigation of the suitability of a simulation called “Teacher Moments” for two parent-teacher conference scenarios. Students in a preservice education class completed two Teacher Moments simulations as assignments during the semester. Using a design-based approach, we document how we learn from multiple implementations and discuss the outcome of the revised design. Our findings suggest that students perceive simulations within Teacher Moments as authentic experiences that provoke cognitive dissonance. Additionally, the simulation allows education students to practice key skills in teaching such as remaining calm in difficult situations and articulating their pedagogical and classroom management approaches to parents.
  • Heterogeneities in adaptation to income - Comparative evidence from GSOEP and UKHLS
    Do people adapt to different levels of household income? Using data from GSOEP (1984-2015) and UKHLS (1996-2015), I show that while German women do, German men and those living in the UK do not. Following Vendrik (2013), I arrive at this surprising answer by estimating (dynamic) life satisfaction equations, in which I simultaneously enter contemporaneous and lagged terms for a respondent’s own household income and that respondent’s estimated reference income. Additionally, I instrument for own income and include lags of all control variables. I further find that adaptation is limited to those in the middle of the German income distribution and that in both countries, the long-run effects of own and reference income are greater at the bottom of the distribution than at the top. Moreover, I give a comprehensive account of the puzzling and often divergent results of Di Tella et al. (2010), Pfaff (2013), Ferrer-i Carbonell and van Praag (2008) and Binder and Coad (2010). What was found to be adaptation to raw household income in these studies, turns out to have been driven by reinforcement of an initially small negative effect of household size that grows large over time. Implications of this result for the estimation of equivalence scales with subjective data are discussed.
  • Qualitative Data Sharing: Data Repositories and Academic Libraries as Key Partners in Addressing Challenges
    Data sharing is increasingly perceived to be beneficial to knowledge production, and is therefore increasingly required by federal funding agencies, private funders, and journals. As qualitative researchers are faced with new expectations to share their data, data repositories and academic libraries are working to address the specific challenges of qualitative research data. This paper describes how data repositories and academic libraries can partner with researchers to support three challenges associated with qualitative data sharing: (1) obtaining informed consent from participants for data sharing and scholarly reuse; (2) ensuring that qualitative data are legally and ethically shared; and (3) sharing data that cannot be deidentified. This paper also describes three continuing challenges of qualitative data sharing that data repositories and academic libraries cannot specifically address—research using qualitative big data, copyright concerns, and risk of decontextualization. While data repositories and academic libraries can’t provide easy solutions to these three continuing challenges, they can partner with researchers and connect them with other relevant specialists to examine these challenges. Ultimately, this paper suggests that data repositories and academic libraries can help researchers address some of the challenges associated with ethical and lawful qualitative data sharing.
  • LGBT bias and discrimination: Occurrence, outcomes, and the impact of policy change
    Bias and discrimination are an ongoing, persistent problem for LGBT Mississippians. They report experiencing discrimination, harassment, assault, and negative experiences with public official, among others. These experiences with bias and discrimination begin early on, with pervasive issues in the K-12 schooling system, and continue through college and university settings. In adult life, LGBT Mississippians experience workplace bias and discrimination, medical stigma, difficulty accessing medical care, and public bias and harassment. All of these experiences take a toll, resulting in a number of negative outcomes. These include depression, suicidal thoughts, lowered academic outcomes, lowered ability to perform at the job, and lower overall physical health. However, these experiences can be lessened and negative effects mitigated. Diversity resolutions, nondiscrimination policies, and nondiscrimination ordinances make a real and positive difference in the lives of LGBT people. They provide affirming messages, decrease the perception that anti-LGBT discrimination and bias is officially sanctioned, and provide a sense of social support. All of these factors combine to result in better outcomes for LGBT people, and for the communities in which they live.
  • Collectors on illicit collecting: Higher loyalties and other techniques of neutralization in the unlawful collecting of rare and precious orchids and antiquities
    Trafficking natural objects and trafficking cultural objects have been treated separately both in regulatory policy and in criminological discussion. The former is generally taken to be ‘wildlife crime’ while the latter has come to be considered under the auspices of a debate on ‘illicit art and antiquities’. In this article we study the narrative discourse of high-end collectors of orchids and antiquities. The illicit parts of these global trades are subject to this analytical divide between wildlife trafficking and art trafficking, and this has resulted in quite different regulatory structures for each of these markets. However, the trafficking routines, the types and levels of harm involved, and the supply–demand dynamics in the trafficking of orchids and antiquities are actually quite similar, and in this study we find those structural similarities reflected in substantial common ground in the way collectors talk about their role in each market. Collectors of rare and precious orchids and antiquities valorize their participation in markets that are known to be in quite considerable degree illicit, appealing to ‘higher loyalties’ such as preservation, appreciation of aesthetic beauty and cultural edification. These higher loyalties, along with other techniques of neutralization, deplete the force of law as a guide to appropriate action. We propose that the appeal to higher loyalties is difficult to categorize as a technique of neutralization in this study as it appears to be a motivational explanation for the collectors involved. The other classic techniques of neutralization are deflective, guilt and critique reducing narrative mechanisms, while higher loyalties drives illicit behaviour in collecting markets for orchids and antiquities in ways that go significantly beyond the normal definition of neutralization.
  • The Contact Hypothesis Reevaluated
    This paper evaluates the state of contact hypothesis research from a policy perspective. Building on Pettigrew and Tropp’s (2006) influential meta-analysis, we assemble all intergroup contact studies that feature random assignment and delayed outcome measures, of which there are 27 in total, nearly two-thirds of which were published following the original review. We find the evidence from this updated dataset to be consistent with Pettigrew and Tropp’s (2006) conclusion that contact “typically reduces prejudice." At the same time, our meta-analysis suggests that contact’s effects vary, with interventions directed at ethnic or racial prejudice generating substantially weaker effects. Moreover, our inventory of relevant studies reveals important gaps, most notably the absence of studies addressing adults’ racial or ethnic prejudice, an important limitation for both theory and policy. We also call attention to the lack of research that systematically investigates the scope conditions suggested by Allport (1954) under which contact is most influential. We conclude that these gaps in contact research must be addressed empirically before this hypothesis can reliably guide policy.
  • Identity and Foreign Policy: Around the World in Around Eighty Readings
    Identity and Foreign Policy. Part I, “Shortcuts,” brings together key articles, textbook chapters and literature reviews. Part II, “Fundamentals,” annotates sources that have proven to be exceptionally influential in setting this research agenda. Loosely structured by IR’s idea of regions, Part III is a world tour of sorts, covering “Africa and the Middle East,” “Asia,” “The Americas,” “Europe,” “The Post-Soviet Space,” and “Comparative” and with reference to both acclaimed and more overlooked contributions to scholarship. Part IV is small selection of works representing “New Directions.”
  • Status Threat, Material Interests, and the 2016 Presidential Vote
    The April 2018 article of Diana Mutz, “Status Threat, Not Economic Hardship, Explains the 2016 Presidential Vote,” was published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences and contradicts prior sociological research on the 2016 election. Mutz’s article received widespread media coverage because of the strength of its primary conclusion, declaimed in its title. The current article is a critical reanalysis of the models offered by Mutz, using the data files released along with her article. Contrary to her conclusions, this article demonstrates that (1) the relative importance of economic interests and status threat cannot be estimated effectively with her cross-sectional data and (2) her panel data are consistent with the claim that economic interests are at least as important as status threat. The preexisting sociological literature has offered interpretations that incorporate economic interests, and, as a result, provides a more credible explanation of the 2016 election.
  • 17세기 이후 농업기술 발전과 인분의 재활용이 대도시 유지와 도시민 기생충감염에 미친 영향
    [Korean Abstract] 이 글에서 우리는 20세기 이전 조선시대에 왜 토양매개성 기생충 감염률이 그처럼 높게 유지될 수 밖에 없었는가 하는 사회적 배경을 살펴볼 수 있었다. 잘 알려진 바와 같이 동아시아 기생충 감염률은 최근까지도 매우 높았는데 그 이유중 하나로 인분비료의 사용을 지적한 경우가 많았다. 이는 매우 타당한 추측이지만 이를 단순히 위생상태의 저열함의 결과로만 이해 할 수 없는 부분이 있으며 당시 많은 도시 인구를 부양할 수 있는 농업생산을 지탱하기 위한 불가피한 측면에도 주의할 필요가 있다. 한국을 포함한 동아시아 국가에서 인분비료 사용은 농업생산력 제고의 측면에서 긍정적 측면이 있다는 점을 생각해 본다면, 이들에게 있어 토양 매개성 기생충의 감염은 상대적으로 감수해야 할 작은 부작용에 불과한 것이었을 수도 있다. [Acknowledgements] 이 원고는 농업박물관 대중 강연을 위해 아래와 같은 필자의 선행 논문에 바탕을 두고 작성되었음. 기호철, 배재훈, 신동훈. 『조선후기 한양 도성 내 토양매개성 기생충 감염 원인에 대한 역사 문헌학적 고찰』 의사학 제22권 제1호(통권 제43호) 89-132 및 Myeung Ju Kim, Ho Chul Ki, Shiduck Kim, Jong Yil Chai, Min Seo, Chang Seok Oh and Dong Hoon Shin. Parasitic infection patterns as correlated with urban-rural recycling of night soils in Korea and other East Asian countries: the archaeological and historical evidence. Korean Studies (submitted). 원고의 내용에 포함된 우리나라 인분 리사이클링 실태에 관한 문헌고고학적 검토는 한국고전번역원 기호철 선생의 도움을 받았으며 일본의 해당 연구 업적에 대한 검토는 서울대학교 김시덕 선생의 협조가 있었음을 밝혀둔다.
  • Mind, Modernity, Madness: or how Anglomania causes Anomie, Delusion and Deception
    Although Liah Greenfeld's book Mind, Modernity, Madness (2013) certainly received negative reviews, none of the reviewers exposed Greenfeld's deceptive use of sources. This article also raises the question whether Greenfeld violated the Code of Ethics in her transdisciplinary excursions. Greenfeld systematically ignores literature of specialists and it seems clear that she did not take the required reasonable steps to ensure competence in disciplines she enters as a layperson. Obviously falling well short of academic standards, her book was nonetheless published by Harvard University Press and lavishly praised in reviews by Thomas Cushman and Karen A. Cerulo. They are all invited to respond. A broader debate on the practice of reviewing seems welcome.
  • A Unified Psychological and Anthropological Model of Religion
    There are many psychological and anthropological models of religion. However, in many cases, the models produced in psychological research are not compatible with those from anthropological research, and in some cases, these models contradict core anthropological concepts. This paper identifies apparent cognitive signatures of religious belief, and integrates them with Ninian Smart's seven dimensions of religion in order to construct a unified model of religion. This model defines religion as an integrated system of beliefs of a specific kind, and cultural elements considered to be common among the world's religions.
  • Music perception: No strong evidence to reject innate biases
    McDermott et al. (Nature 535, 547–550; 2016) used a cross-cultural experiment to show that an isolated South American indigenous group, the Tsimane', exhibit indifference to musical dissonance. The study acts as an important counterweight to common beliefs that musical preferences reflect universal, mathematically based harmonic relationships that are biologically determined by low-level perceptual mechanisms. While we applaud their cross-cultural approach, the limited number of populations studied (n=5) makes it difficult to draw strong conclusions about causal processes. In particular, the conclusion that consonance is thus "unlikely to reflect innate biases" seems too strong, as innateness does not require complete universality. Exceptions are always found in any phenomenon as complex as human music. Indeed, our own global analysis of traditional music found dozens of aspects of music that were common cross-culturally, but none that were absolutely universal without exception (Savage et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 112, 8987-8992; 2015). We showed a consistent tendency to avoid dissonance, yet we still found many examples of sustained dissonance in Western and non-Western music (e.g., Eastern European harvest songs, Papua New Guinean lullabies). Such trends and exceptions are not necessarily indicative of the degree of innateness of aspects of music (which, like other domains of culture, likely reflects some combination of nature and nurture). For example, humans and other animals display an innate aversion to bitter and sour foods, but these can be overridden by cultural conventions and developmental experience (Chandrashekar et al. Nature 444, 288-293; 2006). Diversity in musical perception and production could emerge in the context of weak cognitive biases or relaxation in selective pressures (such as the unusual absence of group performance among the Tsimane'). Broader cross-cultural studies of both perception and production of music and other aspects of human behavior (including cultural evolutionary and developmental frameworks) will be needed to clarify the roles of nature and nurture in shaping human diversity.
  • Why NASA Developed a Cookbook
    In 2010, the 111th Congress and President Obama both published long term goals for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Both included a long term mission for manned space flights to Mars in the 2030s. Since that time NASA has shifted the majority of its efforts toward that target. Research on the International Space Station (ISS), for example, has focused on subjects like the long term impacts of microgravity environments. On earth NASA has focused its efforts toward a similar goal. Several projects through the Human Research Program have endeavored to research factors such as human health countermeasures, exploration medical capability, and human factors and behavioral performance in analog environments, simulating how explorers will inhabit and exist on the surface of Mars. One such project, the Hawai’i Space Exploration Analog and Simulation (HI-SEAS), began its first mission in 2013, sending six crew members to live in a 1,200 square foot dome for four months in the barren volcanic ash fields of Mauna Loa. HI-SEAS’ first campaign’s objective was to research the nutritional and psychosocial issues of a proposed Mars food system. This study helped show that cooking and eating will be an important activity for Mars astronauts for physical and psychological health by improving appetites, building community relationships, and maintaining morale. The HI-SEAS team maintained a blog and youtube channel, documenting their lives and scientific pursuits. Much of this content recorded information about cooking and eating on the station, including a video series entitled Meals for Mars, a makeshift cooking show about producing meals with freeze dried and shelf stable ingredients. These psychosocial and nutritional results make an interesting comparison to the theoretical work completed at the Johnson Space Center in the previous decade. In my presentation I will use NASA’s digital Technical Reports Server to look at documents from the Human Research Program in conjunction with the HI-SEAS blog and video archives. By using these materials as primary source documents, I will show how the development of food science in human spaceflight has shifted from theoretical nutrition to a more humanistic model, incorporating personal insights on the comforts of earth. keywords: space food, Mars food, HI-SEAS, food studies, food preferences
  • Spatial Segregation, Multi-scale Diversity, and Public Goods
    We develop a general multi-scale diversity framework to account for spatial segregation of ethnic groups in politically %and administratively nested geographic aggregations. Our framework explains why the celebrated ``diversity-debit hypothesis'' in political economy of public goods is sensitive to spatial unit of analysis, and how not accounting for segregation biases empirical diversity-development models. We test our framework using census data from Indian villages ($n \approx 600,000$) and sub-districts containing these villages ($n \approx 6,000$), for twenty-five different public goods.
  • Why NASA Developed a Cookbook
    Conference proceeding for https://osf.io/view/HumforSTEM2018/
  • Opioid Deaths by Race in the United States, 2000–2015
    The opioid-related mortality rate in the United States more than tripled between 2000 and 2015. However, there were stark differences in the trend for the non-Hispanic black and non-Hispanic white populations. In this paper we assess differences in opioid deaths by race. We analyze patterns and trends in multiple cause-of-death data to gain a better understanding of how deaths differ by race and what has contributed to changes over time. The trend in race-specific opioid death rates over 2000–2015 can be divided into two periods: 2000–2010 and 2010–2015. The increase in 2000–2010 was more substantial for the white population and was driven by prescription painkillers. Since 2010, the rates of opioid-mortality increase for both the white and black populations have been similar and largely due to heroin and fentanyl-type opioids. For the white population, death rates due to heroin and fentanyl-type drugs decrease with age, but for the black population, the opposite is true. In addition, the number of deaths that involve more than one opioid drug has increased over time, with the rate of increase coinciding with the overall rate of increase in opioid deaths.
  • Technology, Diversity, Web Accessibility, and ALA Accreditation Standards in MLIS
    Published in: The International Journal of Information Diversity and Inclusion. http://publish.lib.umd.edu/IJIDI/article/view/300 This paper discusses an interconnection between diversity and technology: web accessibility for all, including people with disabilities. Qualitative interviews were conducted with eight MLIS professors and two students or recent alumni. Findings showed attitudes regarding teaching web accessibility and recruitment of a diverse student body varied between professors who were familiar with web accessibility and those who were not. Participants who were familiar with web accessibility often thought it should be included within ALA Standards for Accreditation. Findings suggested that, in one school, incorporating diversity in their curriculum, including web accessibility, allowed recruitment of a more diverse student body and was furthering diversity-related curriculum content. At another school, a professor expressed concern about recruiting a diverse student body, particularly students with disabilities. The research suggests that stronger practices for teaching technology, teaching diversity, and recruiting diverse students could assist the field of LIS to further realize its inclusive goals. Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives License (CC-BY-NC-ND)
  • “There is Nothing Inherently Mysterious about Assistive Technology” A Qualitative Study about Blind User Experiences in US Academic Libraries
    Eighteen academic library users who are blind were interviewed about their experiences with academic libraries and the libraries’ websites using an open-ended questionnaire and recorded telephone interviews. The study approaches these topics from a user-centered perspective, with the idea that blind users themselves can provide particularly reliable insights into the issues and potential solutions that are most critical to them. Most participants used reference librarians’ assistance, and most had positive experiences. High-level screen reader users requested help with specific needs. A larger number of participants reported contacting a librarian because of feeling overwhelmed by the library website. In some cases, blind users and librarians worked verbally without the screen reader. Users were appreciative of librarians’ help but outcomes were not entirely positive. Other times, librarians worked with users to navigate with a screen reader, which sometimes led to greater independence. Some users expressed satisfaction with working with librarians verbally, particularly if websites did not seem screen reader user friendly, but many users preferred independence. Participants agreed it would be helpful if librarians knew how to use screen readers, or at least if librarians were familiar enough with screen readers to provide relevant verbal cues. Many users liked and used chat reference and many preferred Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL) to learn citation style, though learning citation style was challenging. Questions such as reference librarians’ role when e-resources are not equally accessible deserve wider discussion in the library literature and in practice. Given the challenges described by the research participants and legal requirements for equally effective electronic and information technologies, libraries and librarians should approach reference services for blind users more proactively. Recommendations are provided. This paper was originally published in Reference and User Services Quarterly at https://journals.ala.org/index.php/rusq/article/view/6528
  • Eighteen Blind Library Users’ Experiences with Library Websites and Search Tools in U.S. Academic Libraries: A Qualitative Study
    Telephone interviews were conducted with 18 blind academic library users around the U.S. about their experiences using their library and its website. The study uses the perspective that blind users’ insights are fundamental. A common theme was that navigating a webpage is time consuming on the first visit. Issues identified include the need for “databases” to be defined on the homepage, accessibly coded search boxes, logical heading structure, and several problems to be resolved on result pages. Variations in needs depending on users’ screen reader expertise were also raised. Suggestions for libraries to address these issues are offered. This is also available as an advanced online publication at the journal College and Research Libraries. Retrieved from https://crl.acrl.org/index.php/crl/article/view/16947
  • Exploring Authenticity and Playfulness in Teacher Practice Spaces
    Teacher practice spaces are learning experiences, inspired by games and simulations, that allow novice teachers to rehearse for and reflect on important decisions in teaching. Practice-based teacher educators use various approaches to simulation in methods courses, and these simulations often attempt to holistically replicate the complexity of teaching conditions. In this research, we present a range of practice spaces that don’t attempt to replicate teaching, but explore design spaces with varying levels of authenticity. We define four dimensions of authenticity in teaching simulations: authenticity of complexity, of situation, of role, and of task. We discuss how these different dimensions of authenticity intersect with playfulness in the examination of five case studies of teacher practice spaces. We hypothesize that authenticity of task is essential to most teacher practice spaces, but interesting new design spaces can be found by moving away from other dimensions of authenticity.
  • Teacher Practice Spaces: Examples and Design Considerations
    Teacher practice spaces are learning environments, inspired by games and simulations, that allow teachers to rehearse for and reflect upon important decisions in teaching. Practice-based teacher educators use a variety of approaches to simulation in methods courses and other professional learning opportunities, and existing simulations often attempt to holistically replicate authentic teaching conditions. We extend this work by developing new kinds of practice spaces that do not attempt to fully simulate teaching, but rather offer playful and creative opportunities for novice teachers to develop skills and dispositions valuable for teachers. We summarize six different practice spaces developed through design research, and then articulate a set of design considerations emerging from this work to expand the genre of pedagogies of enactment in teacher professional development.
  • Less Equal, Less Trusting? Longitudinal and Cross-sectional Effects of Income Inequality on Trust in U.S. States, 1973–2012
    Does income inequality reduce social trust? Although both popular and scholarly accounts have argued that income inequality reduces trust, some recent research has been more skeptical, noting these claims are more robust cross-sectionally than longitudinally. Furthermore, although multiple mechanisms have been proposed for why inequality could affect trust, these have rarely been tested explicitly. I examine the effect of state-level income inequality on trust using the 1973–2012 General Social Surveys. I find little evidence that states that have been more unequal over time have less trusting people. There is some evidence that the growth in income inequality is linked with a decrease in trust, but these effects are sensitive to how time is accounted for. While much previous inequality and trust research has focused on status anxiety, this mechanism receives the little support, but mechanisms based on social fractionalization and on exploitation and resentment receive some support. This analysis improves on previous estimates of the effect of state-level inequality on trust by using far more available observations, accounting for more potential individual and state level confounders, and using higher-quality income inequality data based on annual IRS tax returns. It also contributes to our understanding of the mechanism(s) through which inequality may affect trust.
  • Multi-district preference modeling
    Generating realistic artificial preference distributions is an important part of any simulation analysis of electoral systems. While this has been discussed in some detail in the context of a single electoral district, many electoral systems of interest are based on multiple districts. Neither treating preferences between districts as independent nor ignoring the district structure yields satisfactory results. We present a model based on a multi-urn extension of the classic Eggenberger-Polya urn, in which each district is represented by an urn and there is correlation between urns. We show in detail that this procedure has a small number of tunable parameters, is computationally efficient, and produces ``realistic-looking" distributions. We present applications to retrospective analysis and forecasting of real elections, and intend to use the methodology to help set optimal parameters for electoral systems.
  • Let's Open the Media's Black Box: The Media as a Set of Heterogeneous Actors and not only as a Homogenous Ensemble
    This commentary aims to complement and enrich Zavyalova and her colleagues’ model by offering to consider the media as a set of heterogeneous actors, with their own motives and strategic decisions. The following development will make three key points: (i) Media reporting can be heterogeneous, often due to partisanship: A variance exists in events’ attention and presentation across media outlets. This variance is often not randomly distributed; different media outlets choose the cues that matter to them, and report them in a way that aligns with their motives and strategic goals. This is of crucial importance because: (ii) Different media outlets have different reaches: Media outlets reach broader or smaller audiences depending on whether these audiences have self-selected to follow these outlets. Thus, variances in perceptions among audiences can be due to the specific narrative an audience is exposed to. The previous two points are currently augmented by the recent surge of online and social media, which leads to: (iii) The media field has become more fragmented: Anyone can use social media and online platforms—such as Facebook or Twitter—to act as media themselves. This makes capturing media discourse more challenging.
  • Social conditions of outstanding contributions to computer science : a prosopography of Turing Award laureates (1966-2016)
    The Turing Award, commonly described as computer science's highest award and equivalent of the Nobel prize in that discipline, has now been awarded for half a century. In the following, we describe the social regularities that underlie and the conditions that embed these high achievements in computer science innovation. We find, contrary to a meritocratic ideal of one's only abilities determining success or recognition within sciences, that several characteristics of scientists, exogenous and non-exogenous alike to their scientific work and identities, are of overbearing or disproportionate importance in defining academic acknowledgement. We find in particular that nationality or birth place, gender and one's network have a big role in making Turing Award laureates. As do social origins, with a significant portion of Turing Award winners coming primarily from middle- and upper-class family backgrounds, especially households with significant cultural capital i.e. one or both parents hold an advanced degree or are engaged in an academic profession). Reviewing the data before us, we were also unable to ignore the non-participation of visible minorities and non-white computer scientists to the body of Turing Award recipients. In short, place of birth, nationality, gender, social background, "race" and networks play a role in making Turing Award laureates. This paper also explores the ways in which a social history or sociology of computer science and the wider technology sector may unfold in the future, by discussing theoretical implications, methods and sources.
  • Development and Implementation of a Mainstreaming Process to Transition Students from Self-Contained Special Education into General Education Placements
    We developed a set of computational tools specifically to guide special education students back into general education. These tools include a decision tree to identify candidate students and elucidate successful placement in general education. Candidate students enter a 7-step process. In 2015-2016, we undertook a pilot implementation of these tools and facilitated the transition of 10 of 20 students from self-contained academic special education classrooms into general education placements. In 2016-2017, we extended this process to include 4 schools. 16 of 53 students from self-contained academic special education classrooms transitioned into general education placements. Extending the model district-wide, 9 of 26 students from behavior/SEL unit classrooms, and 9 of 9 students from Life Skills/SID classrooms transitioned into a general education placement. A high percentage of the remaining candidates received >50% of their day in general education classrooms and/or were placed in less restrictive self-contained classrooms. Overall, 54% of identified candidate students were able to access a less restrictive environment as defined by IDEIA. Further computational analyses using regression tree, unbiased hierarchal clustering, and support vector machine methods are presented to demonstrate the robustness of these methods by recapitulating the results.
  • “There is Nothing Inherently Mysterious about Assistive Technology”: A Qualitative Study about Blind User Experiences in US Academic Libraries
  • Faculty Visions for Teaching Web Accessibility within LIS Curricula in the United States: A Qualitative Study
    This qualitative study explores the understanding and perspectives of faculty in US library and information science (LIS) programs about teaching web accessibility. “Web accessibility” can be defined simply as making websites accessible for all, including people with disabilities. Eight LIS professors and two graduate LIS students or recent alumni with interests in accessibility were interviewed for the study. Results showed that, although some faculty were novices, most interviewees thought it would be beneficial to teach web accessibility in a variety of LIS courses. However, despite the seeming consensus, discussion of incorporating web accessibility into curricula was rare. This study explores possible reasons for the marginalization of web accessibility in LIS. The authors contend that greater support for initiatives to integrate web accessibility into LIS curricula is essential for enabling LIS practitioners to comply with legal standards and with LIS values of inclusion.
  • Two values are sufficient for choice consistency
    In many situations, people make choices which are optimal under some social and moral rules. So how can an outside observer, with no access to such private rules, make sense of their behavior? One way to understand choices is by assigning different values (or meanings) to the alternatives depending on the context. The number of additional values can then be viewed as a measure of the background information involved while making the choice. In this paper, we show that two values are sufficient to perceive any choice behavior as consistent. This implies that the information gleaned from a menu is never less than the background information involved in making the choice.
  • Coverage of highly-cited documents in Google Scholar, Web of Science, and Scopus: a multidisciplinary comparison
    This study explores the extent to which bibliometric indicators based on counts of highly-cited documents could be affected by the choice of data source. The initial hypothesis is that databases that rely on journal selection criteria for their document coverage may not necessarily provide an accurate representation of highly-cited documents across all subject areas, while inclusive databases, which give each document the chance to stand on its own merits, might be better suited to identify highly-cited documents. To test this hypothesis, an analysis of 2,515 highly-cited documents published in 2006 that Google Scholar displays in its Classic Papers product is carried out at the level of broad subject categories, checking whether these documents are also covered in Web of Science and Scopus, and whether the citation counts offered by the different sources are similar. The results show that a large fraction of highly-cited documents in the Social Sciences and Humanities (8.6%-28.2%) are invisible to Web of Science and Scopus. In the Natural, Life, and Health Sciences the proportion of missing highly-cited documents in Web of Science and Scopus is much lower. Furthermore, in all areas, Spearman correlation coefficients of citation counts in Google Scholar, as compared to Web of Science and Scopus citation counts, are remarkably strong (.83-.99). The main conclusion is that the data about highly-cited documents available in the inclusive database Google Scholar does indeed reveal significant coverage deficiencies in Web of Science and Scopus in some areas of research. Therefore, using these selective databases to compute bibliometric indicators based on counts of highly-cited documents might produce biased assessments in poorly covered areas.
  • Unbundling Open Access dimensions: a conceptual discussion to reduce terminology inconsistencies
    The current ways in which documents are made freely accessible in the Web no longer adhere to the models established Budapest/Bethesda/Berlin (BBB) definitions of Open Access (OA). Since those definitions were established, OA-related terminology has expanded, trying to keep up with all the variants of OA publishing that are out there. However, the inconsistent and arbitrary terminology that is being used to refer to these variants are complicating communication about OA-related issues. This study intends to initiate a discussion on this issue, by proposing a conceptual model of OA. Our model features six different dimensions (authoritativeness, user rights, stability, immediacy, peer-review, and cost). Each dimension allows for a range of different options. We believe that by combining the options in these six dimensions, we can arrive at all the current variants of OA, while avoiding ambiguous and/or arbitrary terminology. This model can be an useful tool for funders and policy makers who need to decide exactly which aspects of OA are necessary for each specific scenario.
  • Scholar Mirrors: Integrating evidence of impact from multiple sources into one platform to expedite researcher evaluation
    This paper describes the creation of “Scholar Mirrors”, a prototype web application that aims to provide a quick but accurate representation of the situation of a scientific discipline by integrating data from multiple online platforms. We chose the discipline of Bibliometrics / Scientometrics as a case study. After carrying out a series of keywords searches in Google Scholar Citations (GSC) and Google Scholar (GS), 813 relevant researchers were identified. Researchers were further classified as core (those who work mainly on Scientometrics) or related (those who work in other disciplines, with occasional incursions into Scientometrics). Additional information about these researchers was collected from other platforms (ResearcherID, ResearchGate, Mendeley, and Twitter). Up to 28 author-level indicators were collected about each researcher, as well as data about up to 100 of the most cited documents displayed in their GSC profile. The document-level data from all GSC profiles, as well as the data extracted from the keyword searchers in GS, was aggregated to create a list of the top 1000 most cited documents in the discipline. This document collection was further processed to generate a list of the most influential journals and publishers in the discipline. The results are accessible from the “Scholar Mirrors” website, which presents the results in four sections: authors, documents, journals, and book publishers. Lastly, the paper presents the main features of the web application, and the main limitations and future challenges of the product.
  • The Sources and Political Uses of Ambiguity in Statecraft
    A perennial question in the scholarship of the state asks how states rule and expand their capacity to do so. Within this field, scholars have paid special attention to activities that rationalize and build administrative capacity, known as legibility projects. In this article, I argue that alongside these legibility projects, state actors also use a technique given less attention, which I term institutionalized ambiguity. Using the case of U.S. imperial rule and decolonization of the Philippines, I introduce a framework for research on ambiguity and the state. I show how state actors institutionalize ambiguity resolve conflicts inherent to empire states, such as the United States. I detail the productive uses of ambiguity, demonstrating how U.S. politicians used ambiguity to define territory and membership in seemingly contradictory ways, to exclude colonial subjects from social and juridical citizenship, and to maintain territorial sovereignty over the archipelago. Overall, the institutionalized ambiguity of Philippine legal status enabled the persistence of inequality in citizenship, social welfare benefits, and geopolitical arrangements in the first half of the twentieth century. More generally, institutionalized ambiguity allows state actors to manage imperial conflicts over racial hierarchies and treat populations in differentiated ways all whilst maintaining state control.
  • Generations and Protest in Eastern Germany: Between Revolution and Apathy
    How is the protest behavior of citizens in new democracies influenced by their experience of the past? Certain theories of political socialization hold that cohorts reaching political maturity under dictatorship are subject to apathy. Yet, it remains unclear whether mobilization during the transition can counterbalance this effect. This article examines the protest behavior of citizens socialized in Eastern Germany, a region marked by two legacies: a legacy of autocracy and, following the 1989-90 revolution, a legacy of transitional mobilization. Using age-period-cohort models with data from the European Social Survey, the analysis assesses the evolution of gaps in protest across generations and time between East and West Germans. The results demonstrate that participation in demonstrations, petitions, and boycotts is lower for East Germans socialized under communism in comparison with West Germans from the same cohorts. This participation deficit remains stable over time and even increases for certain protest activities.
  • Dissecting Explanatory Power
    Comparisons of rival explanations or theories often involve vague appeals to explanatory power. In this paper, we dissect this metaphor by distinguishing between different dimensions of the goodness of an explanation: non-sensitivity, cognitive salience, precision, detail, factual accuracy and degree of integration. These dimensions are partially independent and often come into conflict. Our main contribution is to go beyond simple stipulation or description by explicating why these factors are taken to be explanatory virtues in the first place. We accomplish this by using the contrastive-counterfactual approach to explanation and the view of understanding as an inferential ability. By combining these perspectives, we show how the explanatory power of an explanation in a given dimension can be assessed by showing the range of answers it provides to what-if-things-had-been-different questions and the theoretical and pragmatic importance of these questions. We also show how our account explains intuitions linking explanation to unification or to the exhibition of a mechanism.
  • Are Matching Funds for Smallholder Irrigation Money Well Spent?
    Groundwater irrigation can dramatically affect agricultural production and productivity. Despite its potential as an agricultural development tool, little credible evidence exists for the impacts of groundwater development on smallholder agriculture. We add to the evidence on the benefits of irrigation investments for small producers by evaluating the Rural Business Development (RBD) program of the Millennium Challenge Corporation in Nicaragua for small plantain producers. The RBD program offered matching funds covering up to 30% of the cost of two years of inputs, extension services, and diesel-powered micro-sprinkler irrigation for individual farms. In order to estimate the average impact of the RBD program on its beneficiaries, we combine model selection via the LASSO with doubly robust treatment effect estimation as applied to two years of panel data for 146 producers. We find that the program had substantial impacts on plantain revenue and production, while achieving nearly complete irrigation coverage of plantain land among beneficiaries. We find no discernible impact on household expenditure.
  • Ancestry of the American Dream
    Inequality and economic opportunity are among the defining political challenges of our time. While some scholars claim that more unequal countries exhibit a stronger persistence of income across generations, others argue that mobility rates are unaffected by social equality and are equally low in most societies. We document a gradient of income inequality and mobility across U.S. areas populated by different European ancestral groups almost identical to the gradient across descendants’ countries of origin. Our finding of a “Great Gatsby” curve within the U.S. suggests that present cross-country differences in inequality and intergenerational mobility are real and may have deeper historical origins than has hitherto been recognized.
  • Inequality is a problem of inference: How people solve the social puzzle of unequal outcomes
    A new wave of scholarship recognizes the importance of people’s understanding of inequality that underlies their political convictions, civic values, and policy views. Much less is known however about the sources of people’s different beliefs. Meanwhile, a separate line of research has made great advances in understanding how people make inferences about the unobservable causes of (social) outcomes. In this paper, I bring the two lines of research together to show how inequality beliefs are problems of causal inference: people observe unequal outcomes and must infer the invisible forces that brought these about, be they meritocratic or structural in nature. I argue that a synthesis of cognition, psychology, and sociology allows for a view of lay causal inference as shaped by (1) general cognitive bias, (2) specific contextual factors, and (3) the durable impact of social environment. Specifically, I suggest that we study people’s understanding of inequality as an inferential process based on biased and incomplete information, and shaped by the environments that constitute the social context in which they learn about the world. To the extent that these environments expose people only to a certain type and range of information about inequality, institutions like neighborhoods, schools and workplaces are inferential spaces that deeply shape the development of inequality beliefs.
  • Political, moral, and security challenges of space colonization
    Space colonization, the goal of establishing permanent and self-sustaining human habitats beyond Earth, is not only a technological challenge: Colonizing space will confront humankind with a set of political, moral, and security challenges. If the outcomes of those challenges are negative, space colonization will either fail completely (political challenges), or we will commit potentially immense moral damage (moral challenges), or we will expose humankind to enormous security risks (security challenges). In order to minimize these risks, we need to start crafting policy blueprints today that are aimed at steering space colonization in a desirable direction.
  • Using Online Practice Spaces to Investigate Challenges in Enacting Principles of Equitable Computer Science Teaching
    Equity is a core component of many computer science teacher preparation programs. One promising approach is addressing unconscious bias in teachers, which may impact teacher expectations and interactions with students. Since early intervention literature indicates that asking individuals to suppress biases is counterproductive, our work uses online interactive case studies as practice spaces to focus on teaching decisions that may be impacted by unconscious bias. Our initial findings indicate that when embedded within teacher preparation programs, practice spaces produce rich learning opportunities, and our analysis yields insights into how beliefs or biases may interfere with principles of equity like disrupting preparatory privilege.
  • Special quantitative methods for orienteering training in areas without orienteering map
    The objective of this study was to deal with the training problem of orienteering in the areas that suitable for orienteering but lack orienteering map since current training methods do not quantify the level of orienteering athletes. This study proposes to use the decomposition method to divide the problem of foot-orienteering into sub-parts and use the special quantitative methods to solve specific sub-problems. Experiments results show that the proficiency of the participants’ sub-skills is increasing. All participants took part in the Orienteering Competition of the National Student, and the team performance increased by nearly 13% and the proportion of the normal athletes who gain the ranking was increased from 0% to 60%. The results of this study demonstrate that applying the decomposition method and the above training methods are effective and reasonable, it also offers a useful solution for coaches to operate training and quantify easily.
  • The new U.S. FDA regulations on biocompatibility and reprocessing for medical devices
    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration ("FDA") regulates all medical devices in the United States. As part of its regulatory duties, the FDA provides guidance documents on various regulatory topics as mandated by the U.S. code of federal regulations. Since 2015, the FDA has begun to issue many substantial revisions to their guidance documents that directly affects the regulatory framework on biocompatibility, reprocessing, and sterilization. These regulatory issues are of paramount importance for many companies because of the potential high costs involved in changing their internal design, controls, manufacturing, and quality systems. This master’s thesis examines the various changes made by the FDA in recent years on the inter-related topics of biocompatibility, reprocessing, and sterilization. Some of the major changes by the FDA involve an increase in the importance of chemical characterization, a reduction in the use of animal testing, a requirement for an independent validation of the user instructions for reusable devices, and increased usability testing. The principal reasons for these major policy changes by the FDA are shown to be the major device scandals that recently involved duodenoscopes, metal-on-metal hip implants, and vaginal surgical mesh implants. Along with several other regulatory failures that made national news headlines in the United States, the FDA began to revise several of their previous medical device guidances. The information from this master’s thesis can be used by medical device developers and manufacturers, especially when they are located outside of the United States and lack sufficient regulatory affairs resources to provide independent advice and recommendations on these important FDA changes. A thorough analysis is made of the new FDA guidances to clarify several potentially difficult questions for medical device manufacturers, specifically the following: (1) "Use of International Standard ISO 10993-1, ‘Biological evaluation of medical devices - Part 1: Evaluation and testing within a risk management process", (2) "Reprocessing Medical Devices in Health Care Settings: Validation Methods and Labeling", and (3) "Submission and Review of Sterility Information in Premarket Notification (510(k)) Submissions for Devices Labeled as Sterile". This master’s thesis is intended to provide not only an overview of the current FDA requirements, but to function as a guide for both researchers and engineers to improve their medical device design and development process.
  • Producer Exploration can Generate Categories without Audiences
    Category theory argues that markets function as an interface between producer candidates and audiences that evaluate those candidates. Audiences lump similar producer into categories in order to facilitate their search process, so that producers who do not fit into one specific category -- or who span multiple categories -- are penalized relative to their single category peers. I present an alternative model of the world in which producers in a market segregate into categories but without any reliance on an audience process: instead categorical boundaries reflect producers' best efforts to explore a complicated marketplace given their limited information about what audiences demand. Categories emerge as a cross-sectional consequence of a dynamic exploration process: At any given time, the world features a mix of high-performing producers within categorical clusters and low-performing producers outside or between them. But spanning positions are more likely to be occupied by entrepreneurial producers, and future categorical clusters emerge from their efforts to explore the terrain. As such any apparent category spanning discount is nothing more than the consequence of bad luck in the process of taking risk. I establish this result in a formal model and illustrate in simulations.
  • Does the Middle Conform or Compete? Risk and Quality Thresholds Predict the Locus of Innovation
    Where does innovation come from? This research models producer incentives to innovate with a focus on the role of audiences in constructing quality thresholds within markets. Market audiences create mechanisms for identifying the highest quality producers in a market. I highlight a key distinction between fixed quality thresholds (such as accreditations) and quality thresholds that respond to producer quality (such as rankings or best-of-breed awards). Producers evaluate how the inherently risky nature of innovation interacts with these thresholds. The model predicts conditions under which innovation emerges from the best producers in a market, from producers near the threshold in a market, from both, or from nowhere. Such predictions generalize and simplify several existing organizational theories of innovation.
  • The Relational Nature of Employment Dualization: Evidence from Subcontracting Establishments
  • Opiate of the Masses? Social Inequality, Religion, and Politics
    This study considers the assertion that religion is the opiate of the masses. Using a special module of the General Social Survey and drawing on theories of positionality, structuration, and system justification, I first demonstrate that religion functions as a compensatory resource for structurally-disadvantaged groups—women, racial minorities, those with lower incomes, and, to a lesser extent, sexual minorities. I then demonstrate that religion—operating as both palliative resource and values-shaping schema—suppresses what would otherwise be larger group differences in political values. This study provides empirical support for Marx’s general claim that religion is the “sigh of the oppressed creature” and suppressor of emancipatory politics. It expands upon and refines the economics-focused argument, however, showing that religion provides (1) compensatory resources for lack of social, and not just economic, status, and (2) traditional-values-oriented schemas that impact social attitudes more than economic attitudes. I conclude that religion is not a simple distraction, but instead a complex and powerful social structure in which people both receive psychological compensation and develop rules-based belief systems that shape their political values. This framework helps explain both why disadvantaged groups tend to be more religious, and why there are not larger and more consistent group differences in politics.
  • Measuring the Complexity of Urban Form and Design
    Complex systems have become a popular lens for analyzing cities, and complexity theory has many implications for urban performance and resilience. This paper develops a typology of measures and indicators for assessing the physical complexity of the built environment at the scale of urban design. It extends quantitative measures from urban planning, network science, ecosystems studies, fractal geometry, and information theory to the analysis of urban form and qualitative human experience. Metrics at multiple scales are scattered throughout diverse bodies of literature and have useful applications in analyzing the adaptive complexity that both evolves and results from local design processes. In turn, they enable urban designers to assess resilience, adaptability, connectedness, and livability with an advanced toolkit. The typology developed here applies to empirical research of various neighborhood types and design standards. It includes temporal, visual, spatial, fractal, and network-analytic measures of the urban form.
  • Talking about Racial Disparities in Imprisonment: A Reflection on Experiences in Wisconsin
    Pamela Oliver "Talking About Racial Disparities in Imprisonment: A Reflection on Experiences in Wisconsin" Preprint of a chapter published in Vincent Jeffires, ed., 2009 Handbook of Public Sociology, Rowman and Littlefield. https://rowman.com/ISBN/9780742566477/Handbook-of-Public-Sociology I describe my public work 2000 to 2009 on racial disparities in imprisonment which has included descriptive data analysis with graphical presentations, over 75 public presentations, and participation in multiple groups and commissions. My work does not fit neatly into any of the four boxes in Burowoy's 2x2 classification of types of sociology as professional, critical, policy, or public. I began the work "as a person" who became concerned about the issue, not "as a sociologist." In the first section I tell the story of how I got drawn into the issue by the efforts of community activists. I had critical concerns about the issue that brought different questions to the table than animated professional criminology, but was not was concerned about criticizing sociology per se. In the second section, I stress that my special contribution was to bring professional skills in data analysis and presentation to the table in the service of a public purpose, and I argue that activist community often need these professional skills. In the third section I discuss the ways in which I have actively engaged with many different types of groups (grassroots activists, professional reformers, community groups) and talk about the ways in which these groups differ and, especially, the racial dynamics of different groups. I attempted to play a bridging role of bringing the discourses from one group (e.g. Black community members) into dialog with the discourses from other groups (e.g. police). In the fourth section, I critique Burowoy's distinction between public and policy sociology and talk about the real politics and racial dynamics of the different real groups I worked with. I stress that pointing to problems is much easier than figuring out how to solve them. In the conclusion I reflect on the ways in which my work may have had influence.
  • Tracking down the gliter of gold in the Diplomatari de Santes Creus
    A study of the kinship, social and proximity links of the individuals that used gold currency as their basis of accountancy in Catalonia between the 10th and 13th centuries AD.
  • Bron/Broen, the Pilot as Space between Cultures, and (re)negotiations of Nordic Noir
    PREPRINT, to be published as: Steiner, Tobias (2018). “Bron/Broen, the Pilot as Space between Cultures, and (re)negotiations of Nordic Noir”. In: The Scandinavian Invasion: The Nordic Noir Phenomenon and Beyond. ed. / Richard McCulloch; William Proctor. Peter Lang, (forthcoming). ------------------------------------------------------- Nordic Noir has, since the early-2000s, evolved into a globally-popular genre that now easily transcends media-specific boundaries. Television has always been at the forefront of that development: Scandinavian TV productions either turned literary successes such as the Henning Mankell novel universe of Wallander into distinct and easily-recognizable television scripts, or developed independent shows such as Forbrydelsen (DR, 2007-12), which, with foreign adaptations such as The Killing (US) (AMC/Netflix, 2011-14) – themselves grew into international format successes. The most recent wave of Nordic Noirs – including blockbuster shows like Bron/Broen [The Bridge] (DK/SWE, 2011-), Dicte (DK, 2012-), Blå ögon [Blue Eyes] (SWE, 2014), Arvingerne [The Legacy] (DK, 2014-), Frikjent [Acquitted] (NOR, 2015-), Herrens veje [Rides upon the Storm] (DK, in development) or Kongen af Danmark [The King] (DK, in development, 2017-) – continues to employ a particular Nordic Noir template. But while doing so, many of these shows also simultaneously transform Nordic Noir through processes of remaking and adaptation that become evident in examples such as Gomorrah (ITA, 2014-) and Les Témoins [Witnesses] (FR, 2015-), within correspondingly-changing generic, narrative, and locational contexts such as ‘Italian’ or ‘French Noir’. This most recent wave thus both affirms and dissolves the specificity of Nordic Noir as a genre. This chapter is particularly interested in the status that Nordic Noir as a genre has as a source for formatting within television, and the specific (re)negotiations that take place when Nordic Noir is transferred to different cultural settings. Following a brief introductory framing of Nordic Noir and its role in larger processes of the global format trade, I will use the analytic perspective of Performance Studies which, as I argue, allows for a more nuanced view on the workings behind the circulation of Nordic Noir formats in the global television business. In particular, I will employ Navarro’s understanding of format adaptation as processual ‘space between cultures’ (2012), and try to identify the onsets of this liminal space in the specific setting of the pilot. It is exactly here, I argue, where adaptation processes first become visible – processes that take a known template and rework it via narrative modulation into transcultural TV remakes. Subsequently, I will illustrate this perspective via the example of Bron/Broen, one of the recent Nordic Noir television series that has itself become a format – travelling on a global scale and thus renegotiating the meaning of Nordic Noir in a variety of cultural settings. This will be done via a comparative analysis of Bron/Broen’s pilot and two of its international iterations – The Bridge (US), and The Tunnel (FR/UK).
  • From Colonialism to Neoliberalism: Critical Reflections on Philippine Mining in the "Long Twentieth Century"
    Through an analysis of archival data and findings from interviews with industry leaders, I explore the genesis, rise, and fall of the various Philippine mineral regimes of the twentieth century. Specifically, I examine the background of successive and overlapping colonial and neocolonial powers in three eras: late colonial (1901-1941), national developmental (1945-1964), and state authoritarianism (1965-1985). I also briefly examine the current neoliberal mineral regime (1986-present). I argue that, to date, capitalist enterprises and neocolonial powers have pursued two contradictory paths to extract precious (gold and silver) and base (chromite, iron, copper, nickel, magnesium, and ore) metals in the Philippines. On the one hand, mining companies appropriated expansive land, underpriced labor and inexpensive food to subsidize capital expenditure and mineral operations. The appropriation of basic inputs - or what is referred to as "cheap natures" - allowed these companies to reduce their sunken investments and operational costs. But on the other hand, as the sector developed more, it became increasingly difficult to appropriate such "cheap natures." While initially profitable because of successful appropriation of "cheap natures," companies eventually experienced decreasing returns because of the problems this caused.
  • Ride with Me - Ethnic Discrimination, Social Markets and the Sharing Economy
    We study ethnic discrimination in the sharing economy using the example of online carpooling marketplaces. Based on a unique dataset of 16,624 real rides from Germany, we estimate the effects of drivers’ perceived name origins on the demand for rides. The results show sizable ethnic discrimination – a discriminatory price premium of about 32% of the average market price. Further analyses suggest that additional information about actors in this market decreases the magnitude of ethnic discrimination. Our findings broaden the perspective of ethnic discrimination by shedding light on subtle, everyday forms of discrimination in social markets; inform ongoing discussions about ways to address discrimination in an era in which markets gradually move online; and respond to increasingly recognized limitations of experimental approaches to study discrimination.
  • What Drives State-Sponsored Violence?: Evidence from Extreme Bounds Analysis and Ensemble Learning Models
    The literature on state-sponsored violence has grown significantly over the last decades. Although scholars have suggested a number of potential correlates of mass killings, it remains unclear whether the estimates are robust to different model specifications, or which variables accurately predict the onset of large-scale violence. We employ extreme bounds analysis and distributed random forests to test the sensitivity of 40 variables on a sample of 177 countries from 1945 to 2013. The results show that GDP per capita, the post-Cold War period, and stable political regimes are negatively associated with mass killings. In contrast, ethnic diversity, civil wars, and previous political turmoils increase the risk of state-led violence. Years since the last episode of mass violence, GDP per capita, urban population, ethnic polarisation, the number of military personnel, and democracy make the greatest contribution to the models' out-of-sample predictive power.
  • About Taking Criticism
    About Taking Criticism Pamela Oliver Pamela.oliver@wisc.edu This was originally published as a blog post at https://scatter.wordpress.com/2018/06/07/about-taking-criticism/ Abstract This essay is about constructive ways for responding to criticism about how your style as a person of power or privilege may be hurting others in your teaching or advising. Along the way it addresses the broader problems of taking criticism in general and of cultural differences in interaction styles. The punchline is about trying to be who you are (no personality transplants) in a way that respects both yourself and others and helps make your environment feel inclusive for more marginalized people. Sections discuss five issues: (1) Pay attention to issues of power and privilege. (2) Let people know you are open to criticism, including suggestions for classroom strategies. (3) Respect cultural and personal differences in interaction style and look for ways to communicate across these differences with attention to have this interacts with issues of power and privilege. (4) Learn general principles of taking criticism, including staying calm, listening for understanding, asking for time to think and reflect on critiques. (5) Pay attention to the problem of destructive criticism, including destructive relationships and bad classroom dynamics. The conclusion emphasizes that including formerly marginalized groups inevitably produces cultural conflict. Openness to criticism is a way forward for bridging differences in cultural and personal styles.
  • Estimates of excess passenger traffic in Puerto Rico following Hurricane María
    BACKGROUND This descriptive finding examines excess net passenger traffic in Puerto Rico following Hurricane María for September and October 2017. OBJECTIVE To determine the degree of excess net passenger traffic in Puerto Rico for September and October 2017 based on historical patterns of variability in net passenger traffic. METHODS Data come from the Monthly Operational Report published by the Puerto Rico Port Authority for the 2010-2018 fiscal years. Data was aggregated by month and year, and means (expected net passenger traffic) and 95% confidence intervals (C.I. or patterns of variability) were produced for each month. Data from 2017-2018 Monthly Operational Report was used to compare the expected passenger flow with the totals for September and October 2017. RESULTS The expected net passenger flow for September and October was -15.39 thousands (95% C.I. = -18.61 thousands and -12.16 thousands) and -0.88 thousands (95% C.I. = -5.01 thousands and 3.26 thousands), respectively. Net passenger flow for September and October 2017 was -34.6 and -88.3 thousand passengers. Excess net passengers for these two months was -19.2 and -87.42 thousand people in comparison to the expected net passenger flow, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Based on this comparison the net passenger flow for September and October 2017 and expected net passenger flow from Puerto Rico was -106.62 thousand passengers. CONTRIBUTION The derivation of excess net passenger flow could inform the government and policy makers concerning the migration dynamics following Hurricane María, as ports and airports are the only exit point in Puerto Rico.
  • geographies of (con)text: language and structure in a digital age
    This paper puts forward the concept of ‘geographies of (con)text’ to critique the metaphors and materialities of ‘the digital’, concentrating on the physical constructs and constraints of language on the web. A landscape of words as opposed to a landscape of code (Thrift & French, 2002), language-as-data becomes material in ways very different from both print and spoken word; its physicality represented in bits, bytes and circuitry, and its limits and variations mediated and governed by the processes which order, sort, move and index it. By virtue of their reproducibility and enhanced means of dissemination, digitised words can have paratextual – and often political – agencies and excesses beyond their linguistic function. Using examples of online search, dictionaries and translation, the paper will imagine how context as a kind of space might be produced, constructed and limited, how competing actors contribute tactically (de Certeau, 1984) to the (in)visibility and (im)mobility of the linguistic data in the searchable database, and how these actors negotiate the conflicting interests of money, efficiency and truth (Lyotard, 1984) in the geo-linguistic spaces of the web. With a geography of (con)text thus imagined, the mathematical and binary logics that construct and mediate the language within it are also clearly exposed. The paper goes on to discuss how creativity and originality might be restricted by ongoing processes of quantification and monetisation of language, before concluding that digitised language falls somewhere in the middle of a structuralist/post-structuralist critique; being at the same time both free from and constrained by the geographies of context.
  • Isolated by Caste: Neighbourhood-Scale Residential Segregation in Indian Metros
    We present the first ever neighbourhood-scale portrait of caste-based residential segregation in Indian cities. Residential segregation studies in Indian cities have relied on ward-level data. We demonstrate in this paper that wards cannot approximate an urban neighborhood, and that they are heterogeneous. For a typical ward, the neighbourhood-ward dissimilarity index is greater than the ward-city dissimilarity index. Using 2011 enumeration block (EB) level census data for five major cities in India – Bengaluru, Chennai, Delhi, Kolkata, and Mumbai – we show how patterns of caste-based urban residential segregation operate in contemporary India. We also present the first visual snapshot of caste-based residential segregation in an Indian city using georeferenced EB level data for Bengaluru. Besides implications for policy, our analysis also points to the need for publicly available, geospatially-linked neighborhood-scale census data that includes data on economic class for a spatial understanding of economic and social stratification within Indian cities. En
  • Pohnpei sohte ehu: A survey- and interview-based approached to language attitudes on Pohnpei
    This dissertation provides an analysis of language attitudes of 1.3% of the adult population of the island of Pohnpei in the Federated States of Micronesia. It presents both quantitative survey and qualitative interview data collected July–August 2016 and July–August 2017. The results are situated within a poststructuralist, postcolonial theoretical framework that critically evaluates the colonial history of the island and its ideological effects on language use, as well as highlighting the diversity of opinions found on the island. Because of this framework, the dissertation does not aim to construct a monolithic narrative of language attitudes on Pohnpei, but rather seeks diversity wherever possible. To carry out these goals, the dissertation adapts quantitative methods (multidimensional scaling, cluster analyses, correspondence analysis, and poststratified Bayesian generalized hierarchical modeling) and combines them with critical theoretical tools such as sociolinguistic scale and translanguaging. The results showed two main different ideological groups both in terms of language use and language attitude patterns. Both groups highly value Pohnpeian, English, and other local languages generally. However, the first group values English over Pohnpeian and other local languages. They in general only use Pohnpeian to connect with Pohnpeians and in situations related to the soupeidi system, but use English for most other situations including education, work, media, and government. This group’s language use patterns with scale-based language ideologies, where local levels of scale (such as family and kousapw) are highly multilingual, but become increasingly monolingual as scale increases toward the translocal level. The other group, conversely, finds Pohnpeian to be the most important language for them overall and tend to find Pohnpeian to be the most important language in every domain. The results of the dissertation indicate a disconnect between the current mostly monolingual English-focused educational practices among both private and public schools on Pohnpei and the desire of the research participants for greater use of Pohnpeian and other local languages. The current educational system likewise devalues the symbolic resources of its students, which has perpetuated negative ideologies about local languages. These ideologies adversely affect both the students and the linguistic future of local languages including Pohnpeian.
  • Indigenous residential segregation in towns and cities, 1976–2016
    Indigenous people tend to live in different parts of Australian towns and cities than the non-Indigenous population. This is due to a combination of historic and contemporary government policies, the agency of Indigenous people, and the constraints placed on residential location by the interaction of the housing and labour markets. This study traces the trajectory of Indigenous residential segregation in 60 Australian towns and cities, using census data from 1976 to 2016. Segregation is measured using the index of dissimilarity and the threshold method. Indigenous residential segregation has been declining steadily since 1976 nationally. However, there has been a great deal of variation in segregation trajectories among towns and cities. In Sydney and Melbourne, segregation remained relatively high over the study period. The level of segregation in 1976 appears to be related to the geographical remoteness of the town, with remote towns generally having lower levels of segregation in 1976. Segregation has been decreasing most rapidly in regional towns in New South Wales and Queensland. Finally, this study has found a long-run increase in the proportion of Indigenous residents living in highly Indigenous neighbourhoods, consistent with the increasingly close settlement of Indigenous people in Australian towns and cities. This trend is at odds with the apparent decrease in segregation found when segregation is measured using the index of dissimilarity. Detailed case studies may be required that examine how concrete historical geographies and policy legacies combine with contemporary housing markets to produce the configuration of segregation that we see today.
  • "Case Study 7.2 Data to Bring Justice: Addressing Disparities in the Criminal Justice System"
    Pamela Oliver "Case Study 7.2 Data to Bring Justice: Addressing Disparities in the Criminal Justice System" Preprint of chapter in Philip Nyden. Leslie Hossfelt, and Gwen Nyden (eds.) 2011 Public Sociology: Research Action and Change. Pine Forge Press. https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/public-sociology/book234763 This is a case study of my racial disparities work that overlaps somewhat with other presentations I have made of the same material. My work has involved doing descriptive statistical analyses of racial patterns of imprisonment and making public presentations on these patterns, as participating in many meetings of boards and committees working on these issues. Part 1 of this article describes the background of my work and how I got involved, partly through connections with community groups and partly through luck. Part 2 describes my public engagement, including giving talks and participating in many meetings as well as doing analyses at the request of community groups. Part 3 is reflections on the differences and tensions between public and professional sociology.
  • Victim or Villain? Racial/ethnic Differences in News Portrayals of Individuals with Mental Illness Killed by Police
    WORKING PAPER As a social problem, little is known about how individuals are portrayed in the news when race/ethnicity and mental illness intersect. This is important because of the ability of news to influence perceptions and policies about mental illness across race/ethnicity. This article examines how individuals with mental illness who were killed by police during 2015 and 2016 were portrayed in the news. Content analysis of 301 online news articles indicates that stereotypes associated with mental illness were differentially applied by race/ethnicity. Findings have implications for public attitudes about mental illness across race/ethnicity. Comments and queries about this project are welcome at frankham@wisc.edu
  • Providing Useful Knowledge, Becoming Embedded: Issues and Tensions as a Racial Justice Ally
    Pamela Oliver 2011. Providing Useful Knowledge, Becoming Embedded: Issues and Tensions as a Racial Justice Ally. Plenary presentation at the 2011 Conference of the Collective Behavior and Social Movements Section of the American Sociological Association. This informal essay based on my experiences working with community groups around issues of racial disparities in criminal justice addresses three topics: (1) What kinds of knowledge are useful and how sociologists can contribute to producing useful knowledge. Here I emphasize that movements typically have a great need for information about the issue and less need for information about how to be an activist. I stress the value of professional skills for producing this knowledge and the problems in making knowledge accessible. (2) The general problem of class and expertise and the interplay of race and class hierarchies in creating knowledge within movements with special attention to the role of sociologists. In this section I stress the importance of listening to the knowledge people have about their own experiences and circumstances and bringing this knowledge into dialog with "professional" knowledge. I also discuss the real tensions and conflicts that arise in mixed-race and mixed-class groups. (3) The generic problem of opportunism and conflicts of interest and perspective and how sociologists fit into these problems. In developing these arguments I draw on longstanding discussions of tensions and conflicts between beneficiary constituents. I also advance the concept of an activist professional, a person whose activism is closely related to or intertwined with their job, and make the point that activist professionals often experience tensions and conflicts of interest between advancing the movement and advancing (or at least not jeopardizing) their careers. I discuss the ways in which Black activist professionals had a different standpoint from White activist professionals around the racial disparity issue because they saw themselves as part of the beneficiary group. I argue that academics in movements are typically conscience constituents and activist professionals and that academics who seek to work with and provide useful knowledge to movements should be aware of these tensions and conflicts. I conclude by honoring the efforts and commitments of the people I have met in the movement and emphasize how much harder it is to find solutions to problems than to identify problems.
  • The Impact of Legal Cannabis on Demographics in Pueblo County
    Demography is the science of people-counting (Anderson, 2015). Demographically-speaking, the impacts of legal cannabis on Pueblo County have been modest thus far. Apart from slow, steady population increases (see Graph 1), the characteristics of Pueblo’s population have largely gone unchanged since the passage of Amendment 64.
  • The Impact of Legal Cannabis on Poverty and Homelessness in Pueblo County
    There is no evidence that poverty has either increased or decreased in Pueblo, Colorado as a result of cannabis legalization. There is evidence that homelessness in Pueblo has increased recently. Apart from anecdotal reports, there is no scientific evidence that links increased homelessness to legal cannabis. Instead, Black Hills Energy disconnected utilities from more than 7,000 Pueblo homes in 2016 and is, according to Posada’s Anne Stattelman, the largest single cause of homelessness in Pueblo, "It's the number one reason families are becoming homeless in our community" (Girardin 2016).
  • A Remedy for Racism
    Racism begins with dehumanization and ends with rehumanization. Racism is a form of suggestion-induced sadism that authorities create by selectively dehumanizing people. Authorities can eradicate racist-sadism by invalidating dehumanizing suggestions. On many occasions, Jane Elliott has created and destroyed “eye pigment racism” purely through the power of suggestion. The US created skin pigment racism by establishing a white supremacist democracy. The US can destroy skin pigment racism by (1) removing dehumanizing white supremacist language from the US Constitution and (2) replacing it with a rehumanizing Declaration of Human Equality. On many occasions the US has generated nationwide support for bad ideas, such as unjust wars in Iraq and Vietnam. In theory, the US could also mobilize nationwide support for good causes, such as eradicating skin pigment racism
  • Law as a user: design, affordance, and the technological mediation of norms
    (Forthcoming in SCRIPTed, 2018) Technology law scholars have recently started to consider the theories of affordance and technological mediation, imported from the fields of psychology, HCI, and STS. These theories have been used both as a means of explaining how the law has developed, and more recently in attempts to cast the law per se as an affordance. This exploratory paper summarises the two theories, before considering these applications from a critical perspective, noting certain deficiencies with respect to potential normative application and definitional clarity, respectively. It then posits that in applying them in the legal context, we should seek to retain the relational user-artefact structure around which they were originally conceived, with the law cast as the user of the artefact, from which it seeks certain features or outcomes. This approach is effective for three reasons. Firstly, it acknowledges the power imbalance between law and architecture, where the former is manifestly subject to the decisions made by designers which mediate and transform the substance of the legal norms they instantiate in technological artefacts. Secondly, from an analytical perspective, it can help avoid some of the conceptual and definitional problems evident in the nascent legal literature on affordance. Lastly, approaching designers on their own terms can foster better critical evaluation of their activities during the design process, potentially leading to more effective ‘compliance by design’ where the course of the law’s mediation by technological artefacts can be better anticipated and guided by legislators, regulators, and legal practitioners.
  • The use of lithic assemblages for the definition of short-term occupations in hunter-gatherer prehistory
    One of the main elements in prehistoric research is the study of settlement patterns. In the last five decades, stemming partially from Binford’s research on the topic, the idea of settlement patterns is based on site typology, including the traditional residential and logistic concepts. Both models of land use and exploitation are certainly marked by the notion of short-term occupation. This concept, used freely by many archaeologists, tends to rely on two main ideas: an occupation lasted a short span of time and resulted in a limited amount of material culture. Our aim, based on our results from various archaeological case studies dated to the Upper Paleolithic of Portugal, is to show that neither idea is necessarily correct: e.g. there may be short-term occupations with the production of large amounts of artifacts, such as lithic workshops; there might be very small collections, such as lithic caches, resulting from short occupations but with very long uses of the site; and most times, both are hardly differentiated within complex palimpsests. Our study shows that the common use of lithic volumetric density and retouch frequency is not always sufficient to differentiate between short and long-term occupations. Also, there are other variables that are more sensitive to indicate the duration of occupation of an archaeological context that should be used in the identification of time length.
  • "Yeah, I know this": Student Experiences in a Blended MicroMasters Program
    As providers of massive open online courses (MOOCs) continue to experiment with new mechanisms for providing transferable course credit and alternative credentials (Caudill, 2017; Hollands, 2017; Wulf, Blohm, & Brenner, 2014), there has been a growing interest in the experiences of students in these programs. This mixed-methods studies uses student interviews, survey responses, and MOOC log data to examine the experience of students participating in an edX MicroMasters in a private university in the Northeastern United States. We found that the program attracted a cohort of mid-career professionals, largely in developed countries, who were seeking to enhance their skills in order to advance their careers. Successful students were more likely to be more motivated by “mastery” goals, focusing on gaining new skills and knowledge, than “performance” goals such as grades or credentials and many students who earned a credential said they did not think the credential by itself would help them advance their careers. For residential instructors, the findings of this study suggest that MOOC-based blended program can be an effective way of recruiting highly-qualified non-traditional applicants to residential programs
  • Chinese Adversative Bèi Passive and Its English Translations in Literary Texts
  • Chinese Adversative Bèi Passive and Its English Translations in Literary Texts
    This research aims at finding the commonalities and distinctive features of translating bèi (被) passive into English in the context of literary texts and investigating different approaches translators adopt. Twelve English translation in the Spring 2015 edition of Pathlight will be analyzed as a way to develop translation resources. The main approaches to translation are: (1) retaining the original passive sentences and/or passive construction, (2) changing to corresponding active sentences, (3) changing into active sentences with the same narrative perspective, and (4) paraphrasing the original passives. Translation of adversative bèi passive sentences is evaluated from the perspectives of semantic equivalence and aesthetic effect in order to investigate whether they effectively and successfully express the original adversative meaning and represent the original aesthetic effect. Reasons for ineffective and unsuccessful semantic equivalence are analyzed, that include translators failing to recognize the adversative expression of bèi passive, and not paying sufficient attention to preserving the original lexical terms which express the adversative connotation and present the literary effect and adversative resultative compounds in bèi passive.
  • Piecing the Puzzle of the “Shameful Intercourse”: How Polyphony Serves Healing in Caryl Phillips’s Crossing the River
  • Piecing the Puzzle of the “Shameful Intercourse”: How Polyphony Serves Healing in Caryl Phillips’s Crossing the River
    This article explores the polyphony as a narrative strategy in Caryl Phillips’s Crossing the River 1993 and how this polyphony serves the healing process the author engages in through his revision of history that thematizes black slavery as a key episode in black modern history. Phillips, the Kittitian-British author, interweaves a variety of narrative voices of both black and white characters in an attempt to provide a thorough scrutiny and a deep diagnosis of a traumatic past that contains the underlining fundaments of present racial issues and identity dilemmas that black communities suffer from in both the United States and Britain. This study is primarily focused on deconstructing and reconstructing Phillips’s portrayal of what he calls “the shameful intercourse” between the slave trader and the African father. The aim of this analysis is to uncover the author’s polyphonic strategy that equally voices both the “white” and the “black”, “the oppressor” and “the oppressed”. This rather experimental study allows us to understand how polyphony is used to serve reconciliation and healing.
  • Families in Comparison: An individual-level comparison of life course and family reconstructions between population and vital event registers
    In demographic research large-scale individual-level data have become increasingly available. At the same time, it remains unknown how varying sources affect the reconstruction of individual life courses and families in databases. In this paper, we conduct individual-level comparisons of family and life course reconstructions of 495 individuals simultaneously present in two well-known Dutch datasets: LINKS-Zeeland and the HSN. The first dataset is based on a province’s full population vital event registration data; the other is based on a national sample of birth certificates, after which individuals were followed in population registers. We compare indicators of fertility, marriage, mortality, and measurements of occupational status of individuals found in both databases and conclude that reconstructions in both the HSN and LINKS reflect each other well. LINKS provides more complete family information on siblings and parents, whereas the HSN provides more complete life course information, especially for individuals who migrate out of Zeeland.
  • Rural plastic emissions into the largest mountain lake of the Eastern Carpathians
    The lack of proper waste collection systems leads to plastic pollution in rivers in proximity to rural communities. This environmental threat is more widespread among mountain communities which are prone to frequent flash floods during the warm season. This paper estimates the amounts of plastic bottles dumped into the Izvoru Muntelui lake by upstream rural communities. The plastic pollution dimension between seasonal floods which affected the Bistrita catchment area during 2005-2012 is examined. The floods dumped over 290 tonnes of plastic bottles into the lake. Various scenarios are tested in order to explain each amount of plastic waste collected by local authorities during sanitation activities. The results show that rural municipalities are responsible for 85.51% of total plastic bottles collected during 2005-2010. The source of plastic pollution is mainly local. The major floods of July 2008 and June 2010 collected most of the plastic bottles scattered across the Bistrita river catchment (56 villages) and dumped them into the lake. These comparisons validate the proposed method as a reliable tool in the assessment process of river plastic pollution, which may also be applied in other geographical areas. Tourism and leisure activities are also found to be responsible for plastic pollution in the study area. A new regional integrated waste management system should improve the waste collection services across rural municipalities at the county level when it is fully operational. This paper demonstrates that rural communities are significant contributors of plastics into water bodies.
  • Applicability Increases the Effect of Misattribution on Judgment
    Feelings and cognitions influence judgment through attribution. For instance, the attribution of positive feelings and cognitions to a stimulus leads to a positive judgment of that stimulus. We examined whether misattribution is moderated by the applicability of a distractor to the judgment question. For instance, when are people more likely to attribute to a target person the affective and cognitive experiences triggered by a kitten—when trying to judge the person's cuteness or trustworthiness? The kitten triggers experiences specifically relevant to cuteness, but people might more easily suspect the kitten's potential influence when judging cuteness rather than trustworthiness. Using the Affect Misattribution Procedure, we found that applicability increases the effect of misattribution on valenced judgments. The results emphasize the importance of specific information (rather than only general valence) in attribution and suggest that high applicability of distractors to the judgment question does not elicit effective correction.
  • Jurisdictional Overlap & the Size of the Local Public Workforce
    The United States is a country of many overlapping local governments. Theoretical explorations of the potential influence of this institutional arrangement abound; however, empirical evidence as the influence of such an arrangement on local public sector remains relatively thin. Instead of competing for mobile resources as suggested by Tiebout, overlapping jurisdictions utilize similar tax and voting bases introducing a potential commons problem. Using a county-level dataset from 1972 to 2012, this commons problem is explored. The results suggest that a positive relationship between jurisdictional overlap and the size of local public workforce amounting to approximately a one percent increase in employment or an increase of less than one full-time equivalent employee.
  • Usage of Specialized Service Delivery: Evidence from Contiguous Counties
  • Usage of Specialized Service Delivery: Evidence from Contiguous Counties
    This study exploits exogenous policy discontinuities along state borders to estimate the influence of differences in local autonomy on the usage of special districts in U.S. counties. Using forty years of data, this analysis compares counties on either side of state borders where local autonomy differs and finds little to no evidence that negative changes in local autonomy leads to increased utilization of special districts. This study suggests that some prior literature may overstate the importance of local autonomy in local service delivery.
  • Social Media and Democracy: Assessing the State of the Field and Identifying Unexplored Questions
    This report summarizes the highlights of a discussion that took place at Stanford University on April 19-20, 2018. The conference, titled “Social Media and Democracy: Assessing the State of the Field and Identifying Unexplored Questions,” convened leading social scientists to discuss the state of the field with regard to research on social media and democracy.
  • House Prices & Property Tax Revenues During the Boom & Bust: Evidence from Small-Area Estimates
    Although the Great Recession put the U.S. economy into a tailspin, we know little about how the changes in house prices influenced property tax collections. Using local level housing data from Zillow matched to property tax data from 1998 to 2012, two questions are examined. First, the elasticity of property tax revenue with respect to house values is estimated. Second, the timing of this elasticity is determined. The analysis rules out that local policymakers capture the entire increase of house value in property tax revenues but unable to rule out that increases in house values are completely offset by changes in effective property tax rates. Decreases in values have an elasticity between 0.3 and 0.4 and take three years for changes in values to impact property tax revenues. While property tax collections declined, local policymakers adjusted effective millage rates such that revenues did not decline as much as home values.
  • Ethnic Conflict Regulation Through Territorial Autonomy – A Configurational Analysis of Success and Failure
    Territorial autonomies (TA) are increasingly implemented as tools for regulating ethnic conflicts. Since there are successful as well as failed cases, the ongoing debate about a general conflict-solving potential is not a very fruitful one. The article turns towards the analysis of various factors affecting the success and failure of conflict regulating autonomies. It is argued that autonomy consolidation requires specific conditions which support the process of mutual recognition between ethnic groups. Two causal models are developed and tested on a global data set on all conflict regulating autonomies using a two-step Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA). It is found that a combination of low horizontal inequalities, a high scope of autonomy, inclusive institutions and international support lead to autonomy success whereas persistent inequalities, a low scope of transferred competencies and exclusive institutions result in a return to violent strategies. One important implication of these findings is that favorable conditions for post-conflict institutional engineering can, at least to some extent, be created.
  • A behavioral design approach to improving vector-control campaigns
    Individual behavior change is a critical ingredient in efforts to improve global health. Central to the focus on behavior has been a growing understanding of how the human brain makes decisions, from motivations and mindsets to unconscious biases and cognitive shortcuts. Recent work in the field of behavioral economics and related fields has contributed to a rich menu of insights and principles that can be engineered into global health programs to increase impact and reach. However, there is little research on the process of designing and testing interventions informed by behavioral insights. In a study focused on increasing household participation in a Chagas disease vector control campaign in Arequipa, Peru, we applied Datta and Mullainathan’s “behavioral design” approach to formulate and test specific interventions. In this Methodologies paper we describe the behavioral design approach in detail, including the Define, Diagnosis, Design, and Test phases. We also show how the interventions designed through the behavioral design process were adapted for a pragmatic randomized controlled field trial. The behavioral design framework provided a systematic methodology for defining the behavior of interest, diagnosing reasons for household reluctance or refusal to participate, designing interventions to address actionable bottlenecks, and then testing those interventions in a rigorous counterfactual context. Behavioral design offered us a broader range of strategies and approaches than are typically used in vector-control campaigns. Careful attention to how behavioral design may affect internal and external validity of evaluations and the scalability of interventions is needed going forward. We recommend behavioral design as a useful complement to other intervention design and evaluation approaches in global health programs.
  • In Puerto Rico, excess deaths following Hurricane Georges persisted for three months
    The interruption in basic services such as electricity, drinkable water, and exposure to atypical circumstances following climate disasters increases mortality risk within the settings affected by these events. Recently, some members of academia have argued that no methodology exists to study excess deaths attributable to climate disasters. This study uses death records for Puerto Rico between 1990 and 1998 to assess excess deaths following Hurricane Georges by comparing death counts for 1998 with patterns of variation from the previous eight years. Because no population shift occurred in that decade, other than expected ones based on historical information, the average number of deaths is indicative of expected deaths and the confidence intervals are the ranges of accepted variation. If a count following a climate disaster exceeds the upper limit of the confidence interval these deaths could be considered above the historical ranges of variation and this excess could be associated with the climate disaster of interest. Death counts for September-November 1998 indicate that 819 deaths were in excess of historical ranges of variation. When the year in which Hurricane Hortense is excluded from the construction of the ranges of variation, the excess is 945 deaths. A total of 811 or 937 are missing in comparison to the official death count for this Hurricane. Considering that death counts data structures are comparable across the countries of the world, this method can be used to analyze the effect of other climate disasters.
  • Relative Education and the Advantage of a College Degree
    What is the worth of a college degree when higher education expands? The relative education hypothesis posits that when college degrees are rare, individuals with more education have less competition to enter highly skilled occupations. When college degrees are more common, there may not be enough highly skilled jobs to go around; some college-educated workers lose out to others and are pushed into less skilled jobs. Using new measurements of occupation-level verbal, quantitative, analytic skills, this study tests the changing effect of education on skill utilization across 70 years of birth cohorts from 1971-2010, net of all other age, period, and cohort trends. Higher education expansion erodes the value of a college degree, and college-educated workers are at greater risk for underemployment in less cognitively demanding occupations. This raises questions about the sources of rising income inequality, skill utilization across the working life course, occupational sex segregation, and how the returns to education have changed across different life domains.
  • Components Topology of Oracle Bones Characters
    Oracle bones characters have many variations. As they are still conceivable, there must have some intrinsic essence inside. Disputes of previous studied components exist, while some interpretation are too far -fetched. We introduce some concepts from fluid dynamics and graph theories to interpret the meaning of these components.
  • Training Aspiring Entrepreneurs to Pitch Experienced Investors: Evidence from a Field Experiment in the United States
    Accredited investors finance more than 75,000 U.S. start-ups annually. We explain how training aspiring entrepreneurs to pitch their new business ideas to these investors affects their odds of continued funding discussions. We model accredited investors’ decision to continue investigation as a real option whose value is a function of their experience and the information contained in the entrepreneurs’ pitches. We derive four hypotheses from the model, which we test through a field experiment that randomly assigns pitch training at four elevator pitch competitions. The data support all four hypotheses, and are inconsistent with alternative explanations.
  • Generating measures of access to employment for Canada's eight largest urban regions
    We create and release a publicly available dataset of neighbourhood level measures of access to employment for the eight largest urban regions in Canada. Measures of access to employment are key indicators for analyzing the characteristics of transport networks and urban form. Specifically, we generate cumulative measures (number of jobs reachable within 30, 45, and 60 minute commutes), gravity measures, as well as a competitive measure of accessibility which is standardized to allow for comparisons between regions. These are generated at the census Dissemination Area level for two travel modes, car and transit, including accounting for minute-by-minute variations in transit schedules. We release the data, and the code to generate it, openly on GitHub (https://github.com/SAUSy-Lab/canada-transit-access), as well as visualize the data on an interactive map (https://sausy-lab.github.io/canada-transit-access/map.html) so that they can easily be used by researchers, planners, and the general public. The input data and tools used are all open source so they can be shared or replicated elsewhere with minimal cost.
  • The Revival of Translation as a Fifth Skill in the Foreign Language Classroom: A Review of Literature
  • The Revival of Translation as a Fifth Skill in the Foreign Language Classroom: A Review of Literature
    With the advent of the monolingual principle entrenched by the Reform Movement of the late nineteenth century and exponents of the Direct Method, translation has been treated, for a long time, as a skeleton in the closet. Recently, however, many researchers (Witte, Harden & Ramos de Oliveira Harden, 2009; Cook, 2010; Leonardi, 2010; Malmkjaer, 2010) have questioned the outright dismissal of translation from the foreign language classroom and called for reassessing its role. Moreover, they welcomed it as a fifth skill alongside reading, writing, listening, and speaking that learners need in their learning and future careers. This paper argues for the rehabilitation of translation in the teaching and learning of foreign languages. It attempts to give a panorama of the revival of translation. So, it first reconsiders its dismissal in the method era and then it summarises the literature on its revival in the 21st century. The review of literature has revealed that the onslaught against translation was illegitimate and that the literature in favour of it is a reputable, a recent, and an abundant one.
  • Couple Time and Partnership Quality: an Empirical Assessment using Diary Data
    It is often assumed that partnership quality is positively associated with the amount of time couples and families spend together. However, little about this link has been demonstrated empirically. This study investigates how time spent with the partners, children, parents, siblings, friends, and acquaintances is associated with partnership conflicts and partnership satisfaction. A time-use module was set up as part of a longitudinal survey about family relations and conflicts in Switzerland. The results show a robust association between partnership quality, time shared with the partner, and time shared with the partner and children. Results show that the more time couples spend together, the more likely they are to experience high partnership quality and to report being satisfied with their relationships. Partners who are satisfied with their relationships are more prone to talk to each other, to share leisure time, and to go to bed together. In contrast, time spent with friends and kin is not associated with partnership quality.
  • How to Deal With Reverse Causality Using Panel Data? Recommendations for Researchers Based on a Simulation Study
    Does X affect Y? Answering this question is particularly difficult if Y may in turn affect X. Often facing the possibility of such reverse causality, many social scientists turn to panel data to address questions of causal ordering. Yet even in longitudinal analyses reverse causality threatens causal inference by biasing results obtained from conventional panel models. Having long recognized this problem, the econometric and statistical literature has suggested various alternative approaches to deal with reverse causality. However, these approaches have faced many criticisms, chief among them to be very sensitive to the correct specification of temporal lags. Applied researchers are thus left with little guidance. Seeking to provide such guidance, we compare how different panel models perform under a range of different data-generating conditions. Our Monte Carlo simulations reveal that while most conventional panel models fail to account for reverse causality, Arellano-Bond estimators and a cross-lagged panel model with fixed effects offer protection against bias arising from reverse causality under a wide range of conditions and help to circumvent the problem of misspecified temporal lags. Based on the simulation results, we provide researchers with recommendations on how to analyze panel data if causal inference is threatened by reverse causality.
  • The Unnecessary Nudge: Education and Poverty Policy in a Cairo Slum
  • Planarity and Street Network Representation in Urban Form Analysis
    Models of street networks underlie research in urban travel behavior, accessibility, design patterns, and morphology. These models are commonly defined as planar, meaning they can be represented in two dimensions without any underpasses or overpasses. However, real-world urban street networks exist in three-dimensional space and frequently feature grade separation such as bridges and tunnels: planar simplifications can be useful but they also impact the results of real-world street network analysis. This study measures the nonplanarity of drivable and walkable street networks in the centers of 50 cities worldwide, then examines the variation of nonplanarity across a single city. It develops two new indicators - the Spatial Planarity Ratio and the Edge Length Ratio - to measure planarity and describe infrastructure and urbanization. While some street networks are approximately planar, we empirically quantify how planar models can inconsistently but drastically misrepresent intersection density, street lengths, routing, and connectivity.
  • A Multi-Scale Analysis of 27,000 Urban Street Networks
    OpenStreetMap offers a valuable source of worldwide geospatial data useful to urban researchers. This study uses the OSMnx software to automatically download and analyze 27,000 US street networks from OpenStreetMap at metropolitan, municipal, and neighborhood scales - namely, every US city and town, census urbanized area, and Zillow-defined neighborhood. It presents empirical findings on US urban form and street network characteristics, emphasizing measures relevant to graph theory, transportation, urban design, and morphology such as structure, connectedness, density, centrality, and resilience. In the past, street network data acquisition and processing have been challenging and ad hoc. This study illustrates the use of OSMnx and OpenStreetMap to consistently conduct street network analysis with extremely large sample sizes, with clearly defined network definitions and extents for reproducibility, and using nonplanar, directed graphs. These street networks and measures data have been shared in a public repository for other researchers to use.
  • Inquiry into increasing affordable housing supply: Evidence-based principles and strategies for Australian policy and practice
    This study examined the range of strategies and initiatives governments have used to leverage affordable housing supply across the continuum of housing needs (i.e. from social housing to affordable rental and home ownership) in a constrained funding and increasingly market driven context across a range of different jurisdictions and markets.
  • Translating English Legal Lexical Features into Arabic: Challenges and Possibilities
  • Translating English Legal Lexical Features into Arabic: Challenges and Possibilities
    The challenges of legal translation between English and Arabic are not sufficiently investigated despite the impact such challenges can have on the translation product. There is a huge volume of translation between English and Arabic for legal texts such as contracts of various types, wills, articles of association, lawsuits, to name but a few. Notwithstanding the pitfalls of translation between English and Arabic in general, translating legal texts poses certain challenges of critical implications. Such challenges can be attributed to the difference in the structure of the legal texts, types of legal texts, and, most importantly, the difference in the legal system between the Arab countries on the one hand and the English-speaking countries on the other. The present paper aims to discuss the lack of uniformity in legal translation, differences within the same legal system and the translator’s lack of familiarity with legal terms. It also aims to highlight certain challenges such as the contextual meaning and connotative meaning.
  • The Concept of Equivalence in the Age of Translation Technology
  • The Concept of Equivalence in the Age of Translation Technology
    The activity of terminology management and the concept of equivalence offer different insights into the nature of meaning and how words in different languages correspond to each other. This study analyses the challenges posed by high-end technology, particular the management of terminological data, in relation to the notion of equivalence. The author argues that recent translation technology is in dialectic with current developments in translation theory, approaches which displace the notion of meaning in translation away from the idea of equivalence. In addition, the paper suggests that if the concept of equivalence is to have any relevance in translation theory and practice today, a more encompassing approach needs to be embraced, one which considers a diversity of factors, both internal and external to language.
  • Generalized Inflated Discrete Models: A Strategy to Work with Multimodal Discrete Distributions
    Analysts of discrete data often face the challenge of managing the tendency of inflation on certain values. When treated improperly, such phenomenon may lead to biased estimates and incorrect inferences. This study extends the existing literature on single value inflated models, and develops a general framework to handle variables with more than one inflated values. To assess the performance of the proposed maximum likelihood estimator, we conducted Monte Carlo experiments under several scenarios for different levels of inflated probabilities under Multinomial, Ordinal, Poisson, and Zero-Truncated Poisson outcomes with covariates. We found that ignoring the inflations leads to substantial bias and poor inference if the inflations—not only for the intercept(s) of the inflated categories, but other coefficients as well. Specifically, higher values of inflated probabilities are associated with larger biases. By contrast, the Generalized Inflated Discrete models (GIDM) perform well with unbiased estimates and satisfactory coverages even when the number of parameters that need to be estimated is quite large. We showed that model fit criteria such as AIC could be used in selecting appropriate specification of inflated models. Lastly, GIDM was implemented to a large-scale health survey data to compare with conventional modeling approach such as various Poisson, and Ordered Logit models. We showed that GIDM fits the data better in general. The current work provides a practical approach to analyze multimodal data existing in many fields, such as heaping in self-reported behavioral outcomes, inflated categories of indifference and neutral in attitude survey, large amount of zero and low occurance of delinquent behaviors, etc.
  • Building Public Confidence in Medical Registration Revalidation
    Regular ‘revalidation’ of medical registration has been proposed as a way to ‘affirm or establish the continuing competence of physicians’ whilst strengthening and facilitating ethical and professional ‘commitment to reducing errors, adhering to best practice and improving quality of care’ by the medical profession. This project examines revalidation and its potential policy implications through the lens of the Australian general public's attitudes towards it. We designed a Discrete Choice Experiment to elicit information regarding this proposed regulatory reform from the Australian general public.
  • Movement of lithics by trampling: An experiment in the Madjedbebe sediments
    Understanding post-depositional movement of artefacts is vital to making reliable claims about the formation of archaeological deposits. Human trampling has long been recognised as a contributor to post-depositional artefact displacement. We investigate the degree to which artefact form (shape-and-size) attributes can predict how an artefact is moved by trampling. We use the Zingg classification system to describe artefact form. Our trampling substrate is the recently excavated archaeological deposits from Madjedbebe, northern Australia. Madjedbebe is an important site because it contains early evidence of human activity in Australia. The age of artefacts at Madjedbebe is contentious because of the possibility of artefacts moving due to trampling. We trampled artefacts in Madjedbebe sediments and measured their displacement, as well as modelling the movement of artefacts by computer simulation. Artefact elongation is a significant predictor of horizontal distance moved by trampling, and length, width, thickness and volume are significant predictors of the vertical distance. The explanatory power of these artefact variables is small, indicating that many other factors are also important in determining how an artefact moves during trampling. Our experiment indicates that trampling has not contributed to extensive downward displacement of artefacts at Madjedbebe.
  • Early Modern Human Lithic Technology from Jerimalai, East Timor
    Jerimalai is a rock shelter in East Timor with cultural remains dated to 42,000 years ago, making it one of the oldest known sites of modern human activity in island Southeast Asia. It has special global significance for its record of early pelagic fishing and ancient shell fish hooks. It is also of regional significance for its early occupation and comparatively large assemblage of Pleistocene stone artefacts. Three major findings arise from our study of the stone artefacts. First, there is little change in lithic technology over the 42,000 year sequence, with the most noticeable change being the addition of new artefact types and raw materials in the mid-Holocene. Second, the assemblage is dominated by small chert cores and implements rather than pebble toolsand choppers, a pattern we argue is common in island SE Asian sites as opposed to mainland SE Asian sites. Third, the Jerimalai assemblage bears a striking resemblance to the assemblage from Liang Bua, argued by the Liang Bua excavation team to be associated with Homo floresiensis. We argue that the near proximity of these two islands along the Indonesian Island chain (c.100km apart), the long antiquity of modern human occupation in the region (as documented at Jerimalai), and the strong resemblance of distinctive flake stone technologies seen at both sites, raises the intriguing possibility that both the Liang Bua and Jerimalai assemblages were created by modern humans.
  • Adaptations to sea level change and transitions to agriculture at Khao Toh Chong rockshelter, Peninsular Thailand
    Published in: Marwick, B., Van Vlack, H.G., Conrad, C., Shoocongdej, R., Thongcharoenchaikit, C., Kwak, S. 2016 Adaptations to sea level change and transitions to agriculture at Khao Toh Chong rockshelter, Peninsular Thailand, _Journal of Archaeological Science_
  • The Strategies in Translating English Metaphors into Thai: A Case Study of the American Novel Percy Jackson
  • The Strategies in Translating English Metaphors into Thai: A Case Study of the American Novel Percy Jackson
    As metaphors are known as comparative language avoiding “like” or “as” in the sentences, they need special treatment in translation. Regarding comparisons, there are two different objectives: they may be known and unknown in the target language. The objectives become a translation problem according to different languages, cultures, attitudes and other aspects. This study aimed to investigate the translation techniques used for transferring live metaphors found in a novel into Thai, namely, Percy Jackson & the Olympians: The Lightning Thief (2005) and its translated version. The translation strategies were studied and analyzed. The analysis relied on the model of Newmark (1988) which proposed seven techniques for metaphor translation. The results of this research showed that the most frequently technique employed was the source metaphor that can be reproduced as the same image in target language, with a total of fifty-seven sentences out of one hundred thirty-six sentences. Additionally, there were also three techniques that were often applied: the metaphor can be translated as a simile by adding some meaning or translating a metaphor as a metaphor and plus some meaning or explanation and the metaphor can be deleted when it is redundant. It can be inferred that to maintain the native sense of language and prevent reader’s confusion, the translator provided the equivalent or same image in the target language. Therefore, the author avoided deleting the source image and instead converted it to literal language.
  • The Ascent of F6: Exceptional Collaborative Case in Poetic Drama
  • The Ascent of F6: Exceptional Collaborative Case in Poetic Drama
    To write plays are not easy, to make them verse, is difficult but to cooperate in composing poetic drama, is of great challenge. This study tries to prove the capability and manageability in collaboration not only in ordinary prose drama but also in poetic plays. It aims to trace, through an analytical and critical technique, the procedures of collaboration showing, to what degree both of the two collaborators, Auden and Isherwood, achieved success in dealing with contemporary poetic drama using modern language. The research is an approach on one of the likely best plays they shared, The Ascent of F6 (1933). The study starts giving a glance on poetic drama then it traces the collaboration between W. H. Auden and Christopher Isherwood with special reference to the poetic play The Ascent of F6.
  • Formulating Western Fiction in Garrett Touch of Texas
  • Formulating Western Fiction in Garrett Touch of Texas
    Western fiction as one of the popular novels has some common conventions such as the setting of life in frontier filled with natural ferocity and uncivilized people. This type of fiction also has a hero who is usually a ranger or cowboy. This study aims to find a Western fiction formula and look for new things that may appear in the novel Touch of Texas as a Western novel. Taking the original convention of Cooper’s Leatherstocking Tales, this study also looks for the invention and convention of Touch of Texas by using Cawelti’s formula theory. The study finds that Garrett's Touch of Texas not only features a natural malignancy against civilization, a ranger as a single hero, and a love story, but also shows an element of revenge and the other side of a neglected minority life. A hero or ranger in this story comes from a minority group, a mixture of white blood and Indians. The romance story also shows a different side. The woman in the novel is not the only one to be saved, but a Ranger is too, especially from the wounds and ridicule of the population as a ranger of mixed blood. The story ends with a romantic tale between Jake and Rachel. Further research can be done to find the development of western genre with other genres such as detective and mystery.
  • Zayd Mutee Dammaj's Approach to History in The Hostage
    The study examines Dammaj’s The Hostage (1984), the most famous Yemeni novel, as a historical novel. The study aims to investigate the concept of history used by the writer in the novel and compare it to the concept of traditional approach and the concept of new historicism. The researcher used the analytical approach to show the complexity of The Hostage as a historically situated text, as a creation of the re-thinking, on the part of Dammaj of the concept of history. The natural integration of history and fiction makes Dammaj a natural historian, extracting and presenting a single kernel of meaning. With his narrative art, he is trying to manipulate a continuous parallel between contemporaniety and antiquity. The novel is an attempt by the present in the form of fiction to give a meaning to the past in the form of history. The study concludes that Dammaj was able to use a new approach to history which is his own and which puts him closer to new historicism of European decent.
  • Contemporary Verse Drama
  • Contemporary Verse Drama
    The hundred years that passed between 1850 – the year in which Catalina, the first verse play of Henrick Ibsen was published – and 1950 – the year in which another verse play appeared, namely T.S. Eliot’s The Cocktail Party, were very eventful in European drama. In those years, a completely new dramatic movement – the spread of naturalistic prose drama – came into play. On the other hand, verse drama in the twentieth century, and particularly in England and Ireland, came back into the popular theater. At the hands of W.B. Yeats, T.S. Eliot and Christopher Fry, in the main, the dramatists who constituted the chief revolt against naturalism, contemporary verse drama revived against the naturalistic definition of drama, which in a sense considers characterization and action the main ends of drama. The aim of the paper is to compare and contrast the two styles of drama using the criticism of contemporary verse dramatists. The paper delves into the ways these dramatists tried to make verse play and distinguish themselves from naturalists. It continues to prove their failure while showing discontinuity of verse plays’ popularity in the temporary audience’s mind. The question is whether verse dramatists succeeded in instilling a feeling of suspense and popularity in the inner recesses of the audience’s hearts or not; in other words, can verse drama preserve its influence on the audience? The significance of this study is to prove that although the role of verse drama lasted for centuries, its presence nowadays is vanishing as it is losing its power of influence.
  • Introducing Short Stories in EFL Classroom to Explore Culturally Diverse Issues
    The present paper attempts to highlight the use of short stories as an initial motivational literary genre in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) context. It also aims at providing some practical ideas and methods regarding the use of short stories by inquiring about the following questions: What significance can be accorded to the use of short stories in EFL classroom and how can short stories serve as a mediator between the learner’s own culture and other cultures? To address these questions, a questionnaire was collected from 95 third year undergraduate students at Mostaganem University, 24 of the students were selected randomly for an intervention that lasted about 8 weeks. Findings from the questionnaire and experimental study indicate that the study population does not only show positive attitudes towards short stories reading but also manifests a number of signs that reflect their acquisition of cultural issues, they also support the usefulness of examining learners’ cultural knowledge, feelings and experiences before, while and after bringing short stories into the literature class. Therefore, it is recommended to use short stories as a primary motivational reading material to stimulate students’ cultural awareness and their reading envy.
  • Introducing Short Stories in EFL Classroom to Explore Culturally Diverse Issues
  • Female Translation Students’ Knowledge and Use of Online Dictionaries and Terminology Data Banks: A Case Study
  • Female Translation Students' Knowledge and Use of Online Dictionaries and Terminology Data Banks: A Case Study
    This study aims to determine whether translation students at an undergraduate translation program have sufficient awareness of the availability and usability of online vocabulary and terminology search tools that can be of valid assistance to a translator. The study surveyed 50 female translation students of the Translation Program at Prince Sultan University, Saudi Arabia. The survey consisted of questions about knowledge and use patterns and included texts for translating between English and Arabic. Results show that although the students know and use a variety of online resources, they still lack in awareness of some of the very useful ones, and a small minority of the students does not use monolingual dictionaries at all. Analysis of the students’ translations of selected terms reveals that availability of excellent online resources is not enough to prevent mistranslations if the students cannot select the right equivalent. The study has implications for lexicographers about the dictionary features most frequently used by translators-to-be. It also provides pedagogical tips for translator trainers who should guide their students to making use of the full potential of online dictionaries and term banks in order to achieve better translation outcomes.
  • Literature is the Best Tool of Awaking Moral Understanding and Evaluation: Wendell Berry’s The Long-Legged House
  • Literature is the Best Tool of Awaking Moral Understanding and Evaluation: Wendell Berry's The Long-Legged House
    The researcher examines Wendell Berry’s The Long-Legged House (1969) and addresses his engagement with the interlocking bonds between ecological degradation and socioeconomic, psychological, and spiritual disorientations through literature; the researcher also explores Berry's critiques of the dynamics and implications of environmental racism along with his depiction of his locale, concepts of home and community, history, mythology, tradition, , and the vivisectional imperatives of capitalism and imperialism that have wreaked havoc upon his home place. These contested terrains have suffered the ramifications of environmental discrimination, which targets them for toxic strip-mining projects. Throughout this paper, the researcher essentially applies environmental-justice approaches, but also refers to theories of global capitalism, and deep ecology, as they are all intertwined through their search for alternative forms of eco-resistance. Hence, I build on critiques by such scholars as Murphy, Buell, Cornell, and Roach, among others, to provide the ideological, hermeneutical, socio-political, and aesthetic filters through which the nonfiction essay can be given fresh and original examinations. This theoretical synthesis cements my corroboration that global capitalism and maldevelopment go hand in hand with imperialism and androcentrism, constituting an intricate nexus of hegemonies.
  • Restoring West Africa to its Past in Chinua Achebe's Things Fall Apart and Mary Kingsley's Travels in West Africa
    The article is inspired by Achebe's belief that human stories should be told from distinct perspectives to grasp all it intents. The story of Umuofia, the fictitious Igbo village, in Achebe's Things Fall Apart (1958) can be read intertextually in light of the non-fictional text of Mary Kingsley, Travels in West Africa (1897) to underline the thrust of authenticity and fidelity of Achebe that makes his fiction true to life. This juxtaposition is further staged to question the stereotypical representation of Africa and Africans through the fictional texts of 19thc British writers such as Joseph Conrad, Rider Haggard among many others. Though it is not a purely historical text, Things Fall Apart is spearheaded against the reductive approach applied by 19thc British writers to deny Africa history and culture wholesale, presenting it on a dire need for the enlightenment and mission civilisatrice of the Westerners. Hence, the ostensible aim to enlighten the African heathens living in utter darkness, to free the African minds from the enslavement of superstition, to liberate African women from the sexual laxity endorsed by the barbaric morals of heathenism is counterpointed in Achebe’s Things Fall Apart. Chiefly, Achebe states that the cultural practices of the African people in their particular African environment down through ages have catered them with particular insights into life that are the bedrock of values and outlooks shaping contemporary African life. The same insights are confirmed in Kingsley's text Travels in West Africa.
  • Restoring West Africa to its Past in Chinua Achebe’s Things Fall Apart and Mary Kingsley’s Travels in West Africa
  • Maintaining Cultural Identity in Translated Literary Texts: Strategies of Translating Culture-Specific Items in two Arabic plays
  • Maintaining Cultural Identity in Translated Literary Texts: Strategies of Translating Culture-Specific Items in two Arabic plays
    This article focusses on the translator’s task as a cultural mediator who has to transfer the nuances of the literary text faithfully. The translation of culture-specific items, such as proverbs, figurative language, reference to religion, mythology or literature, and stylistics, are at the core of the discussion. This paper discusses generally recommended strategies used in translating culture specific items (CSIs), and further analyses and evaluates such strategies as used in two translated Arabic plays; Sa’dallah Wannous’s The Glass Café (1978/2004) and Mamdouh ‘Udwan’s Reflections of a Garbage Collector (1987/2006). The translation strategies used in these two plays are recognized and rationalized in terms of giving a domesticated or a foreignized effect. Besides transferring meaning, the cultural identity of the text is highlighted as a mainstay of the translation process
  • Religion and Disability: Variation in Religious Service Attendance Rates for Children with Chronic Health Conditions
    Prior research consistently demonstrates greater religious involvement is associated with improved health outcomes for those with chronic health conditions. Fewer studies focus on how chronic health conditions influence religious service attendance rates and most focus on older Americans. Using three waves of a nationally representative sample of children in the United States, I test whether children with a chronic health condition never attend religious worship services at rates significantly higher than children without a condition. I also investigate variation in attendance rates across a broad range of conditions, something previously overlooked. Children with chronic health conditions are more likely to never attend religious worship services. Specifically, children with chronic health conditions that impede communication and social interaction are most likely to never attend. Despite shifts in prevalence these findings are stable over time. Implications for researchers, religious communities, families with children with chronic health conditions, and healthcare providers are discussed.
  • Análisis Crítico de la Reforma del Sistema Educativo Colombiano. 1990-2014
    The configuration of the current Colombian Educational System is the result of more than twenty-four years of legal adventures, political intentions, technical decisions, curricular work and exercise in the classrooms of a way of understanding education as an institution and as a practice among and with the actors of the system. At first glance, the reading that is made of the Colombian educational system is of inertia; nevertheless, within its structure a high level of dynamism is outlined that implies the confrontation between sectors and internal social and political actors, the influence of a global system that "presses" (encourages) processes that involve the country in the design of a educational globalization and the experiences, needs and expectations of the actors that directly need, use and inhabit the system, all framed in a complex and reticular historical process. The book that the reader begins to unveil is the result of four years of inquiry about the structure of the Colombian educational system, in order to know the effect of public policies (Educational Reform) both in the field of education, as in its relationship with the internal and world economic and political structures. Its focus is on understanding how the attachment to a specific development model, in the Colombian case, neoliberal capitalism demands and at the same time prefigures the institutionality of a system and how these relationships have an impact on the subjects, their conscience and their mode of understand and act in the world.
  • A method for dealing with regional differences in population size when interpreting slopes in Google Trends query data
    A quandary exists when comparing trend lines of Google Trends query data among different countries. This approach provides directionality and speed of change, but it does not account for the quantity of movement occurring when comparing large regions to small ones. This study applies the physical concept of momentum to the analysis of Google Trends results to provide a method for comparing trends among countries. By accounting for the volume of interest along with the direction and rate of interest gain/loss, one is able to make accurate quantitative statements about how the public in differently sized regions may shift interests and opinion on different issues. Momentum allows us to identify how countries have responded and how they may respond in the future without the erroneous assumption that the behaviors of large and small populations are equally flexible and responsive to new ideas.
  • The reform of the Common European Asylum System: Fifteen recommendations from a Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Perspective
    Since the 1990s, the European Union (EU) has slowly developed an increasingly sophisticated body of asylum law and policy, known as the Common European Asylum System (CEAS). This framework – both in the shape of legislative instruments and case law – has inevitably also affected those asylum seekers who claim asylum on the basis of sexual orientation and/or gender identity (SOGI). This has been vividly demonstrated by particular norms in EU asylum instruments and judgments of the Court of Justice of EU (CJEU). The current CEAS can be said to have several shortcomings in relation to SOGI claims, including in relation to: country of origin information; the notion of ‘safe country of origin’; the burden of proof and the principle of benefit of the doubt; the concept of a ‘particular social group’; and the definition of persecution. A new set of proposals for reform of the CEAS was put forward in 2016 by the European Commission, and these also affect SOGI asylum claims in precise and acute ways. This policy brief scrutinises these proposals of reform, and assesses the extent to which these proposals and different institutional positions address, ignore or aggravate the issues that currently affect asylum seekers who identify as LGBTI (lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans and intersex). The policy brief makes fifteen recommendations for European policymakers in regards to the reform of the CEAS, in order to ensure that the needs of LGBTI asylum seekers and refugees are effectively addressed and their rights are respected. Academics from the University of Sussex working on the Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Claims of Asylum (SOGICA) project, funded by the European Research Council, are calling for policymakers to implement these recommendations in order to render the CEAS fairer for SOGI asylum seekers.
  • Future access to essential services in a growing smart city: The case of Surrey, British Columbia
    The concept of accessibility – the ease with which people can reach places or opportunities –lies at the heart of what makes cities livable, workable and sustainable. As urban populations shift over time, predicting the changes to accessibility demand for certain services becomes crucial for responsible and ‘smart’ urban planning and infrastructure investment. In this study, we investigate how projected population change could affect accessibility to essential services in the City of Surrey, one of the fastest growing cities in Canada. Our objectives are two-fold: first, to quantify the additional pressure that Surrey’s growing population will have on existing facilities; second, to investigate how changes in the spatial distribution of different age and income groups will impact accessibility equity across the city. We evaluated accessibility levels to healthcare facilities and schools across Surrey’s multimodal transport network using origin-destination matrices, and combined this information with high-resolution longitudinal census data. Paying close attention to two vulnerable population groups – children and youth (0–19 years of age) and seniors (65+ years of age) – we analyzed shifts in accessibility demand from 2016 to 2022. The results show that population growth both within and outside the catchments of existing facilities will have varying implications for future accessibility demand in different areas of the city. By 2022, the city’s hospitals and walk-in clinics will be accessible to ~9,000 and ~124,000 more people (respectively) within a predefined threshold of 30 minutes by public transport. Schools will also face increased demand, as ~8,000 additional children/youth in 2022 will move to areas with access to at least half of the city’s schools. Conversely, over 27,000 more people – almost half of them seniors – will not be able to access a hospital in under 30 minutes by 2022. Since low-income and senior residents moving into poorly connected areas tend to be more reliant on public transport, accessibility equity may decline in some rural communities. Our study highlights how open-source data and code can be leveraged to conduct in-depth analysis of accessibility demand across a city, which is key for ensuring inclusive and ‘smart’ urban investment strategies.
  • Modeling Corruption as a Contagious Disease
    A system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) was developed to model the interaction dynamics between public servants and the citizens they serve to provide insights to the evolution of corruption in the public service. Corruption is modeled as a contagious disease that can "infect" susceptible citizens when they interact with "infected" (i.e., corrupt) public servants through harassment bribery. In this model, the public servants and the citizens are compartmentalized into different classes. The public servants could be honest (SH), on a crossroad (SX), corrupt (SC), or dismissed (SD), while citizens could either be upright (CU), apathetic (CA), cooperators (CC), or whistleblowers (CW). SH do not ask for harassment bribery while SX have asked for harassment bribery but only choose which citizen to ask from. SC always ask for harassment bribery no matter what, while SD have been dismissed from public service (and prosecuted) as a result of complaints. CU and CA do not give bribery but the former always complain when public servants ask for them, while the later do not do anything. CC and CW give bribery but the former willingly give them, while the later grudgingly give them and then complain. The ODEs provide for intra- and inter-action dynamics between the public servants and citizens with probabilities of interactions among actors as parameters of the model. Various combinations of interaction probability values provide for scenarios when corruption in the form of harassment bribery will become contagious, epidemic, and self-correcting (i.e., self-healing).
  • Evolution of marriage systems
    A marriage system is the set of rules and norms that regulate reproduction in a given human society. This article provides an overview of key concepts and general themes in the study of their evolution. The focus is on the number of spouses allowed (i.e. whether marriage is monogamous or polygamous), and the social and ecological factors associated with this aspect of the marriage system.
  • The Mytho-Historical Roots of Renaissance Humanism
    An intellectual genealogy of the transmission and influence of the philosophy of Ibn Rushd on early Humanism in Renaissance Europe. I argue that one can trace the development and spread of Averroism through the literary culture of the 12th to 14th centuries, culminating in the quasi-historical travelogue of Sir John Mandeville, who was able to circumvent the ecclesiastical condemnation of Averroist doctrine through the creative, narrativized portrayal of “mirror-societies” cast in a mythologized east. I suggest that it was through the idiom of mythic allegory that the literati of the late Middle Ages preserved Averroist doctrine and thereby vouchsafed the latter flourishing of Humanism in Renaissance Europe.
  • Doxamachia Restituo: From Commedia to Hypnerotomachia by way of Ibn Rushd
    This paper reflects on the philosophical traditions that would enable the artistic integration of Classical themes and values into the cultural-climate of Quattrocento and 15th century Europe. I posit that Dante’s Divine Comedy leverages the philosophical legacy of Averroes to reconcile Classical and Christian value-systems, subordinating the creative and cultural accomplishments of the former in anagogical service to the ethical and theological revelations of the latter. I argue that this project of philosophical synthesis exerts a direct influence on the intellectual and aesthetic contours of the Hypnerotomachia Poliphili, a late 15th century text attributed to one Francesco Colonna.
  • Engineering a Platform: Constructing Interfaces, Users, Organizational Roles, and the Division of Labor
    Internet “platforms” like Facebook and YouTube often avoid accountability and regulation by claiming that they are mere software infrastructures with little oversight over their users. Scholars in media and communication studies have shown that these platform companies’ control over interface and algorithm design,gives them a disproportionately large power, compared to their users, to fundamentally reshape politically salient categories like the “social” or the “innovative.” This paper argues that this power of platforms stems from their ability to shape organizational roles and the division of labor. Based on an ethnographic study of the edX organization, I describe how the architects at edX transformed it from an educational company into a platform by building digital interfaces and formatting multiple organizational roles (their own, those of their “users”) to engineer a dichotomy between “software” and “education.” I suggest that platform studies should expand its concept of governance to include the socio-technical-discursive work of engineering organizational roles and the division of labor.
  • Professional disruption in health regulation: electronic cigarettes in the European Union
    How do professions respond to fast-moving technological changes? Disruptive innovations overturn expectations about how markets function and develop, and they often raise moral, legal and scientific concerns among professionals. Sudden technological changes can result in a state of professional disruption, in which technological change challenges the institutional arrangements of a profession. This article distinguishes between fast and slow processes of professional change, focusing on the role of technology as one cause of fast changes to a profession. Professionals and non-professionals engage in framing contests that draw on cognitive, normative and relational keys to signal their expectations. It is in these framing contests that professionals run the risk of disruption. Drawing on interview data with key policy actors, I investigate electronic cigarettes regulation in the European Union and its recent revision to the Tobacco Products Directive. Medical and public health professionals that control tobacco issues were challenged by a coalition of e-cigarette industry representatives, e-cigarette users, and liberal politicians. The challengers drew on the contending norm of harm reduction in tobacco control, which successfully challenged the centrality of the abstinence norm in the institutional arrangements of the medical and public health professions and their organizational field. By discussing the parallels to other related cases in health regulation, I draw out the implications of the study for researchers and policymakers.
  • A Bayesian Hierarchical Logistic Regression Model of Multiple Informant Family Health Histories
    Family health history (FHH) inherently involves collecting proxy reports of health statuses of related family members. Traditionally, such information has been collected from a single informant. More recently, research has suggested that a multiple in- formant approach to collecting FHH results in improved individual risk assessments. Likewise, recent work has emphasized the importance of incorporating health-related behaviors into FHH based risk calculations. Integrating both multiple accounts of FHH with behavioral information on family members represents a significant methodological challenge as such FHH data is hierarchical in nature and arises from potentially error-prone processes. In this paper, we introduce a statistical model that addresses that challenges using informative priors for background variation in disease prevalence and the effect of other, potentially correlated, variables jointly with handling the hierarchical structure nesting multiple FHH accounts into families. Our empirical example is drawn from previously published data on families with a history of diabetes. The results of the model assessment suggest that simply accounting for the structured na- ture of multiple informant FHH data improves classification accuracy over the baseline and that incorporating family member health-related behavioral information into the model is preferred over alternative specifications
  • Do Millennials care about NPOs? Intergenerational differences in attitudes towards nonprofit organizations
    In this study, we analyze whether there are differences in attitudes towards nonprofit organizations (NPOs) between the generational cohorts of Baby Boomers, Generation X, and Millennials. We do so by analyzing survey data from Switzerland in two steps, a Bayesian estimation as well as a cluster analysis. The overall results suggest that there are, at best, only few and small intergenerational differences: The only consistent effect we find are the more negative attitudes of the Baby Boomer cohort towards professional associations and towards sports NPOs. From the point of view of NPO practitioners, our results suggest that the Millennial generational cohort is at least as interested in and willing to engage with NPOs as previous generational cohorts.
  • Deception Declassified: The Social Organisation of Cover Storying in a Secret Intelligence Operation
    This article asks why and how governments keep secrets from publics, journalists and politicians using the strategy of ‘cover storying’. To develop a theory of cover storying, insights are drawn from political sociologies of state secrecy and from recent sociological examinations of secrecy and deception in organisations. This theory is illustrated by analysing Cobra Mist, a secretive and deceptive Anglo-American Cold War intelligence operation. Examining recently declassified documents, this article develops a framework for the analysis of five interrelated narrative conditions that shape social processes of cover storying: correspondence; plausibility; accountability; constraint; and durability. In conclusion this article reflects on the broader implications of this analysis for contemporary state and organisational theories and understandings of secrecy.
  • Narratives of a dying woman: Contentious meaning at the end of life
    Advancement in medical science and technology enhanced the human capacity to intervene in the process of dying, forcing professionals and the public to face ethical dilemmas, and question the boundary between life and death. The contentious discourse on this boundary is particularly salient given the unprecedented levels of population ageing all over the world. This paper analyzes the discursive field surrounding a notable Italian end-of-life controversy. Combining field and narrative theories, the present study spans structural aspects and rhetorical mechanisms. Results show that not only are antithetical interpretations of the event tied to media’s ideological leanings, but the latter are also systematically associated with different sequential structures of headlines and story leads. Competing actors produce alternative frameworks by identifying different sets of perpetrators.
  • Methods for Studying the Contextual Nature of Implicit Cognition
    This chapter begins with the contention that many key theoretical questions in the sociology of culture depend on our understanding of the interaction of culture at the individual level, and forms of culture that exist publicly, external to individuals. A central assumption of this argument is that processes of implicit cognition, an aspect of how culture is stored at the individual level, depend on the social, physical, and cultural environmental of an individual. The chapter reviews findings and methods from multiple fields that can inform the study of the relationship between individual level implicit cognition and environmental context. I examine this relationship both in terms of how context informs the acquisition and the activation of implicit cognition at the individual level. Drawing on studies of implicit cognition measures in real-world settings, and laboratory and survey experiments, I discuss how these methods can be used to examine outstanding questions in the sociology of culture.
  • congressbr: An R Package for Analysing Data from Brazil's Chamber of Deputies and Federal Senate
    In this research note, we introduce congressbr, an R package for retrieving data from the Brazilian houses of legislature. The package contains easy-to-use functions that allow researchers to query the Application Programming Interfaces of Brazil's Chamber of Deputies and the Federal Senate, perform cleaning data operations, and store information in a format convenient for future analyses, making a previously-difficult task fast and convenient. congressbr downloads data on legislators, submitted and ratified law proposals, Senate and Chamber commissions, and other information of interest to social scientists across various fields. We outline the main features of the package and demonstrate its use with practical examples.
  • The Relational Nature of Employment Dualization: Evidence from Subcontracting Establishments
    Scholars argue that the dual path to labor market flexibility protects the privileges of core workers at the expense of employees relegated to a peripheral employment sector. Yet whether core workers indeed benefit from workforce segmentation remains disputed. To scrutinize this question, I study how the wages of core workers with less than college education respond when their employer shifts employment out to subcontractors, using linked employer-employee panel data from Germany. Empirically, I find the effect of subcontracting on average to be either positive or neutral, but not negative. The presence and strength of the positive effect depends, first, on whether the type of subcontracting affords core workers with codetermination rights, second, on whether core workers are represented by a works council to exercise these rights, and, third, on whether these rights are exercised in a context that augments the bargaining position of core workers by rendering conflictual labor relations costly to the employer.
  • Paleontology in Antiquity
    In The First Fossil Hunters: Paleontology in Greek and Roman Times, Adrienne Mayor suggests that the fossilized remains of prehistoric megafauna were likely seen as proof of the cyclopean monsters, fearsome gods and wrathful giants of Classical myth. The truth is that paleontological thought in antiquity was far more sophisticated. As early as the 6th century BC, the discovery of stony creatures, half-buried in the earth, led thinkers like Xenophanes, Herodotus, Eratosthenes, Strabo, and Aristotle to draw remarkably accurate conclusions about geological, tectonic and climatic processes.
  • The Online Culture of the Cryptoeconomy
    In 2009 a purportedly pseudonymous individual known as Satoshi Nakamoto released the decentralized digital currency Bitcoin to the virtual public. Since then, the virtual currency has generated a substantial cult following. Enthusiasts have put forward bombastic and contradictory claims about this disruptive technology’s radical potential: an emancipatory triumph over the junta of the market, the birth of an anarcho-capitalist utopia, the death-knell of the nation-state—in short, far-fetched sound bites befitting science fiction have been actualized in a postmodern social drama; a digital opera featuring a cyberpunk quest for Pirate Utopia on the deep web. Engaging Granovetter’s theory of embeddedness (1985), I posit that the crypto-economy is entangled in a web of value laden modern-mythic narratives that inform and largely overdetermine participants' economic activities. Beyond demonstrating the ways in which these systems of value are practically and symbolically engaged by participants in the crypto-economy, I further suggest that these engagements validate social theorist Zygmunt Bauman’s projections about the diminished regulatory capacity of the State in Liquid Modernity (2000; 2014).
  • A Pythian Predicament
    A consideration of the primary and intermediating political functions of the Pythic Oracle as viewed through the socio-perceptual framework of the Ancient Greeks. I contend with various modern "cynical" interpretations of the political affairs of Hellenic oracular institutions and, in reference to extant literary and primary historical accounts, argue that the political interventions of the Delphic Oracle should be construed as a legitimate and intentional cultic practice in service of Apollo.
  • A New Model for Pricing Collateralized Financial Derivatives
  • A New Model for Pricing Collateralized Financial Derivatives
    This paper presents a new model for pricing financial derivatives subject to collateralization. It allows for collateral arrangements adhering to bankruptcy laws. As such, the model can back out the market price of a collateralized contract. This framework is very useful for valuing outstanding derivatives. Using a unique dataset, we find empirical evidence that credit risk alone is not overly important in determining credit-related spreads. Only accounting for both collateral posting and credit risk can sufficiently explain unsecured credit costs. This finding suggests that failure to properly account for collateralization may result in significant mispricing of derivatives. We also empirically gauge the impact of collateral agreements on risk measurements. Our findings indicate that there are important interactions between market and credit risk. Acknowledge: The empirical data were provided by FinPricing at http://www.finpricing.com/lib/IrSwap.html
  • Tracing Anti-deportation Protests: A Longitudinal Comparison of Austria, Germany and Switzerland
  • Tracing Anti-deportation Protests: A Longitudinal Comparison of Austria, Germany and Switzerland
    Objective: Trace and characterize anti-deportation protests in Austria, Germany, and Switzerland between 1993 and 2013. Methods: Systematic analysis of media reports of anti-deportation protests. We manually coded 6419 article about 986 protest events. Results: The frequency of anti-deportation protest has increased in Austria and Germany, but not so in Switzerland. Many different kinds of actors are involved in anti-deportation protests, and most commonly these are actors who protest on behalf of those threatened with deportation. These actors come from across the political spectrum, and protest is predominantly local in nature. In the three countries, repertoires of protest vary, but demonstrations are the most common form. In 59% of cases, the focus is on policy reform, and in 41% of cases the focus is on a specific deportation. Conclusion: Much of the protest against deportations seems to take place relatively independent of a transnational movement that may have gained traction in the past few years.
  • The Old and the New: Qualifying City Systems in the World with Classical Models and New Data
    International audience Zipf's rank‐size rule, lognormal distribution, and Gibrat's urban growth models are considered as summarizing fundamental properties of systems of cities. In this article, they are used as statistical benchmarks for comparing the shapes of urban hierarchies and evolutionary trends of seven systems of cities in the world including BRICS, Europe, and United States. In order to provide conclusions that avoid the pitfalls of too small samples or uncontrolled urban definitions, these models are tested on some 20,000 urban units whose geographically significant delineations were harmonized in each country over 50 years between 1960 and 2010. As a result, if the models appear not always statistically valid, their usefulness is confirmed since the observed deviations from empirical data remain limited and can often be interpreted from the geohistorical context of urbanism proper to each world region. Moreover, the article provides new free software which authorizes the reproducibility of our experiments with our data bases as well as with complementary data.
  • Fair weather voters: do Canadians stay at home when the weather is bad?
    AbstractWhat is the relationship between precipitation and the temperature on turnout? Using data on the 2004, 2006, 2008, 2011, and 2015 Canadian federal elections, we try to answer this question. Through bivariate and multi-variate statistics, we find that each millimeter of precipitation decreases turnout by more than 0.1 percentage points. When it comes to the temperature, our results indicate that higher temperatures trigger higher turnout. However, we also find that these relationships are influenced by season and only apply to spring, summer, and fall elections. In the winter 2006 elections, the association was inversed; warmer temperatures in this election triggered lower turnout, in particular when it was combined with precipitation.
  • Multigenerational Attainment, Racial Inequalities, and Mortality Among Silent Generation Women
    This study extends health disparities research by examining racial differences in the relationships between multigenerational attainments and mortality risk among "Silent Generation" women born between the 1920s and 1940s. An emerging literature suggests that the socioeconomic attainments of adjacent generations, one's parents and adult children, provide an array of life-extending resources in old age. Prior research, however, has demonstrated neither how multigenerational resources are implicated in women's longevity nor how racial disparities faced by Silent Generation women may differentially structure the relationships between socioeconomic attainments and mortality. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women, the analysis provides evidence of a three-generation model in which parent occupation, personal wealth, and adult child education are independently associated with women's mortality. Furthermore, although black women's education has no association with their mortality risk, the education of their adult children is a robust predictor of black women's survival.
  • Beyond Social Contagion: Associative Diffusion and the Emergence of Cultural Variation
    Network models of diffusion predominantly think about cultural variation as a product of social contagion. But culture does not spread like a virus. In this paper, we propose an alternative explanation which we refer to as associative diffusion. Drawing on two insights from research in cognition—that meaning inheres in cognitive associations between concepts, and that such perceived associations constrain people’s actions—we propose a model wherein, rather than beliefs or behaviors per-se, the things being transmitted between individuals are perceptions about what beliefs or behaviors are compatible with one another. Conventional contagion models require an assumption of network segregation to explain cultural variation. In contrast, we demonstrate that the endogenous emergence of cultural differentiation can be entirely attributable to social cognition and does not necessitate a clustered social network or a preexisting division into groups. Moreover, we show that prevailing assumptions about the effects of network topology do not hold when diffusion is associative.
  • Institutionalized Norms, Practical Organizational Activity, and Loose Coupling: Inclusive Congregations' Responses to Homosexuality
    Congregations vary widely in their responses to homosexuality. Prior research tends to focus on determining which congregations are most likely to be inclusive of lesbians and gays. One puzzle still remains, however. Among those inclusive congregations that integrate gays and lesbians into congregational life, why do some adopt a formal organizational statement of welcoming while others do not? Drawing on the New Institutionalism and inhabited institutions literatures, this study is the first quantitative examination of the concept of “loose coupling” within religious organizations regarding homosexuality. Analyses using nationally representative congregational data (National Congregations Study) indicate that particular types of inclusive congregations are more likely to loosely couple their practical activity from their formal organizational stance. These findings suggest that inclusive religious organizations respond to myths and norms from various organizational fields and that agentic actors inhabiting the organization influence it by responding, interpreting, and making sense of those institutional norms. The analyses also indicate that loose coupling is one avenue through which particular types of religious organizations respond to the transformation of societal norms with innovation.
  • Gendering Gender: Introducing Gender Image as a Way to Assess Variation in Gender Expression in Survey Research
    This paper explores the measurement of "gender image" as a way to capture the way others perceive our gender. This can serve as an alternative to conventional gender categories (gender and sexual identity categories) in gender inequality research.
  • Do Survey Measures of Racial Prejudice Predict Racial Discrimination? Experimental Evidence on Anti-Black Discrimination
    Scholars regularly measure whites’ racial attitudes using symbolic racism and, more rarely, overt prejudice. We examine the predictive power of both measures in explaining anti-black discrimination. In Study 1 we obtain a behavioral measure of racial discrimination using the Ultimatum Game (UG). We find that white responders engaged in costly discrimination against black proposers by rejecting offers they would otherwise accept from whites. Overt prejudice predicts which whites discriminate whereas symbolic racism does not. In Study 2, white third-party observers evaluate intergroup interactions in the UG, and overt prejudice predicts racially biased evaluations of the fairness of resource distributions made by black proposers to white responders, but symbolic racism does not. Finally, we re-analyze a published candidate choice experiment and find that overt prejudice predicts discrimination against a black candidate, relative to an otherwise equivalent white one. These results demonstrate the enduring importance of overt prejudice in American politics.
  • The sources of academic assimilationism and isolationism in Russian sociology: The choice of professional ideologies and occupational niches among social scientists
    Why do social scientists choose certain theoretical and methodological stances over others? Three broad explanatory models can be derived from literature on the sociology of social sciences: (1) worldview, arguing that intellectual preferences reflect general cultural and political orientations of broad social groupings to which an individual belongs; (2) status, according to which all forms of hierarchies are reproduced in the academic field through preferences for innovative research by those occupying dominant positions and their avoidance by agents lacking resources; (3) ecological, holding that opportunity structures existing at the historical moment at which an individual enters the academic field determines the theory choice. We analyse the adoption of a Russian variety of the indigenous sociology intellectual movement and a corresponding counter-movement to explore the biographical antecedents of choosing one side over the other in an important disciplinary debate. In doing so, we rely on statistical data from a community study of sociology in Leningrad-St Petersburg between 1984 and 2011. The worldview hypothesis finds the strongest support; choice of declared preference for national or international scholarship reflects more general liberal or conservative attitudes characteristic of certain milieus existing in Russian society.
  • Turning Over Employee Turnover: A Review on Employee Alumni and Rehiring
    Purpose: This paper explores how organisations can cope with high employee turnover. This paper aims to highlight potential benefits of maintaining a network of employee alumni and rehiring former employees. Finally, this paper also introduces the concept of recoverability to define the potential of employee alumni to be rehired. Approach: This paper reviewed the latest literature on employee alumni and rehiring. This paper does not discuss the potential antecedents of employee turnover, instead focuses on a coping mechanism for the consequence. Findings: This paper challenges the assumption that former employees can no longer contribute to the organisation after their resignation. Additionally, this paper disputes the premise of employee turnover finality by exploring employee rehiring as a potential solution to recoup lost human capital. Finally, this paper identifies an apparent lack of human resources management literature on employee rehiring. Research Implication: This paper discusses scientific and practical implications and future research directions on employee alumni and rehiring. Originality: This paper highlights how organisations can cope with the high rate of employee turnover, instead of attempting to minimise it. This paper also extends the definition of functional turnover by introducing the potential of employee rehiring and recoverability of lost human capital.
  • Election proximity and representation focus in party-constrained environments
    Do elected representatives have a time-constant representation focus or do they adapt their focus depending on election proximity? In this paper, we examine this overlooked theoretical and empirical puzzle by looking at how reelection-seeking actors adapt their legislative behavior according to the electoral cycle. In parliamentary democracies, representatives need to serve two competing principals: their party and their district. Our analysis hinges on how representatives make a strategic use of parliamentary written questions in a highly party constrained institutional context to heighten their reselection and reelection prospects. Using an original dataset of over 32000 parliamentary questions tabled by Portuguese representatives from 2005 to 2015, we examine how time interacts with two keys explanatory elements: electoral vulnerability and party size. Results shows that representation focus is not static over time and, in addition, that electoral vulnerability and party size shape strategic use of parliamentary questions.
  • Duality in Diversity: Cultural Heterogeneity, Language, and Firm Performance
    How does cultural heterogeneity in an organization relate to its underlying capacity for execution and innovation? Existing literature often understands cultural diversity as presenting a trade-off between task coordination and creative problem-solving. This work assumes that diversity arises primarily through cultural differences between individuals. In contrast, we propose that diversity can also exist within persons such that cultural heterogeneity can be unpacked into two distinct forms: interpersonal and intrapersonal. We argue that the former tends to undermine coordination and portends worsening firm profitability, while the latter facilitates creativity and supports greater patenting success and more positive market valuations. To evaluate these propositions, we use unsupervised learning to identify cultural content in employee reviews of nearly 500 publicly traded firms on a leading company review website and then develop novel, time-varying measures of cultural heterogeneity. Our empirical results lend support for our two core propositions, demonstrating that a diversity of cultural beliefs in an organization does not necessarily impose a trade-off between operational efficiency and creativity.
  • Waste collection in rural communities: challenges under EU regulations; a case study of Neamt County, Romania
    The paper aims to examine the changes in the rural waste management sector at regional scale since the Romania adhesion to the EU in 2007. Traditional waste management based on the mixed waste collection and waste disposal often on improper sites prevailed in municipal waste management options of transitional economies across the globe. The lack of formal waste collection services in rural areas has encouraged the open dumping or backyard burning. The paper analyses the improvements and challenges of local authorities in order to fulfill the new EU requirements in this sector supported by data analysis at local administrative unit levels and field observations. Geographical analysis is compulsory in order to reveal the local disparities. The paper performs an assessment of waste collection issues across 78 rural municipalities within Neamt County. This sector is emerging in rural areas of Eastern Europe, but is far from an efficient municipal waste management system based on the waste hierarchy concept.
  • One Global Map but Different Worlds: Worldwide Survey of Human Access to Basic Utilities
    The paper aims to reveal one integrated global map which points out the major geographical inequalities in providing basic utilities across the countries using multivariate analysis and thematic cartography. Sixteen indicators with global coverage were selected taking into account the waste collection services, sanitation facilities, drinking water sources, energy, electricity, habitat and demographic conditions. Several data are broken down for the total, urban and rural population in order to outline the rural-urban disparities between and within countries. A special focus is given to waste collection coverage, in order to compute a comprehensive global assessment of this key indicator of public health, which is one of the poorest monitored basic utility. The world countries were divided into 10 classes according to the hierarchical cluster analysis. Each class has particular features outlining the gaps between high, middle and low-income countries with direct impact on quality of life, public health, and environment.
  • Engineering Credentials: Educational Entrepreneurship as Statecraft in the Cold-War United States
    What mechanisms drove the expansion of a “credential society” in the United States during the twentieth century? Extant accounts emphasize status-group struggles and educational entrepreneurship, but have not fully recognized the active role of the state in credential expansion. Drawing on archival records tracing administrative activity at Stanford University between 1945 and 1969, we depict how academic administrators channeled federal support for science and engineering education to expand the production of graduate degrees. Government patronage of academic training was received by schools nationwide after World War II. Our findings reveal educational entrepreneurship as a distinctive form of statecraft, and suggest closer integration of scholarship on social stratification and American political development.
  • How could a rational analysis model explain?
    Rational analysis is an influential but contested account of how probabilistic modeling can be used to construct non mechanistic but self-standing explanatory models of the mind. In this paper, I disentangle and assess several possible explanatory contributions which could be attributed to rational analysis. Although existing models suffer from evidential problems that question their explanatory power, I argue that rational analysis modeling can complement mechanistic theorizing by providing models of environmental affordances
  • Till data do us part: Understanding data-based value creation in data-intensive infrastructures
  • Till Data Do Us Part: Understanding Data-Based Value Creation in Data-Intensive Infrastructures
    Much of the literature on value creation in social media-based infrastructures has largely neglected the pivotal role of data and their processes. This paper tries to move beyond this limitation and discusses data-based value creation in data-intensive infrastructures, such as social media, by focusing on processes of data generation, use and reuse, and on infrastructure development activities. Building on current debates in value theory, the paper develops a multidimensional value framework to interrogate the data collected in an embedded ethnographical case study of the development of PatientsLikeMe, a social media network for patients. It asks when, and where, value is created from the data, and what kinds of value are created from them, as they move through the data infrastructure; and how infrastructure evolution relates to, and shapes, existing data-based value creation practices. The findings show that infrastructure development can have unpredictable consequences for data-based value creation, shaping shared practices in complex ways and through a web of interdependent situations. The paper argues for an understanding of infrastructural innovation that accounts for the situational interdependencies of data use and reuse. Uniquely positioned, the paper demonstrates the importance of research that looks critically into processes of data use in infrastructures to keep abreast of the social consequences of developments in big data and data analytics aimed at exploiting all kinds of digital traces for multiple purposes.
  • Supporting the Success of Service Learning Initiatives in Higher Education
    The work presented here stems from a four-year, National Science Foundation-funded project, designed to investigate the use of humanitarian service learning in education including a specific focus on international service learning and the work of Engineers Without Borders USA (EWB). As part of this work, our research team has conducted interviews or focus groups with a total of 42 students, 12 faculty, and 12 professional volunteers or mentors involved in EWB. One of the recurring themes that has emerged from these interviews is that, in most cases, the work that goes into creating and maintaining service learning opportunities receives little institutional support, both from a faculty and student perspective.
  • CAROLUS eller KULTURO: Om krop, Kant, metal og Joh. V.
    Hvordan relaterer det moderne menneskes splittelses- og fremmedgørelsesproblematik sig til norsk black metal, radikalisering, kroppen, 'Kongens Fald', 'The Square', Immanuel Kant, Jacques Lacan og m.m.? Dette teoretiske essay præsenterer først en diagnose for en kropsløs, kultiveret og intellektualiseret samtid, hvor mennesket er fremmedgjort fra samfundet og sig selv. Med afsæt i Immanuel Kant, Jacques Lacan samt læsninger af blandt andre Johannes V Jensens Kongens Fald (1900) og udviklingen i norsk black metal (fra 1991 til i dag) afsøger det dernæst alternativer til den ’radikaliserede’ og samfundsomstyrtende handling, der ofte præsenteres som vejen ud af fremmedgørelsesproblematikken. Vores alternativ til dødskampen mellem kropsløs rationalisme og revolutionsromantisk livsfilosofi går via Kant og kunstens ’som-om’ og præsentes som 'principperne for flersprogethed' og 'det flækkede øjenbryns princip'. | Forfattet af: Tobias Gemmerli & Marianne Stidsen
  • Statistical Reporting Inconsistencies in Experimental Philosophy
    Experimental philosophy (x-phi) is a young field of research in the intersection of philosophy and psychology. It aims to make progress on philosophical questions by using experimental methods traditionally associated with the psychological and behavioral sciences, such as null hypothesis significance testing (NHST). Motivated by recent discussions about a methodological crisis in the behavioral sciences, questions have been raised about the methodological standards of x-phi. Here, we focus on one aspect of this question, namely the rate of inconsistencies in statistical reporting. Previous research has examined the extent to which published articles in psychology and other behavioral sciences present statistical inconsistencies in reporting the results of NHST. In this study, we used the R package statcheck to detect statistical inconsistencies in x-phi, and compared rates of inconsistencies in psychology and philosophy. We found that rates of inconsistencies in x-phi are lower than in the psychological and behavioral sciences. From the point of view of statistical reporting consistency, x-phi seems to do no worse, and perhaps even better, than psychological science.
  • The Types, Roles, and Practices of Documentation in Data Analytics Open Source Software Libraries: A Collaborative Ethnography of Documentation Work
    Computational research and data analytics increasingly relies on complex ecosystems of open source software (OSS) "libraries" -- curated collections of reusable code that programmers import to perform a specific task. Software documentation for these libraries is crucial in helping programmers/analysts know what libraries are available and how to use them. Yet documentation for open source software libraries is widely considered low-quality. This article is a collaboration between CSCW researchers and contributors to data analytics OSS libraries, based on ethnographic fieldwork and qualitative interviews. We examine several issues around the formats, practices, and challenges around documentation in these largely volunteer-based projects. There are many different kinds and formats of documentation that exist around such libraries, which play a variety of educational, promotional, and organizational roles. The work behind documentation is similarly multifaceted, including writing, reviewing, maintaining, and organizing documentation. Different aspects of documentation work require contributors to have different sets of skills and overcome various social and technical barriers. Finally, most of our interviewees do not report high levels of intrinsic enjoyment for doing documentation work (compared to writing code). Their motivation is affected by personal and project-specific factors, such as the perceived level of credit for doing documentation work versus more `technical' tasks like adding new features or fixing bugs. In studying documentation work for data analytics OSS libraries, we gain a new window into the changing practices of data-intensive research, as well as help practitioners better understand how to support this often invisible and infrastructural work in their projects.
  • Determining the boundaries, structure and volume of buried shell matrix deposits using ground-penetrating radar: A case study from northern Australia
  • Determining the boundaries, structure and volume of buried shell matrix deposits using ground-penetrating radar: A case study from northern Australia
    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is used in this study to delineate the extent and internal structure of a large late Holocene buried shell matrix site at Thundiy, Bentinck Island, northern Australia. Shell matrix sites comprise a key component of the coastal archaeological record. The extensive nature of many shell matrix sites presents challenges for archaeological sampling regimes. While large-scale excavation is undesirable and impractical, limited test pits often represent only a tiny fraction of large shell deposits and are rarely considered representative. This study transforms GPR data into three-dimensional models which form the basis of deposit volume estimates. Volume estimates are evaluated against excavation data to test their accuracy. Results demonstrate that this novel methodology can generate accurate three-dimensional representations of buried shell matrices and highly accurate volume estimations with error margins of 3.5% ± 7%. It is recommended, though, that more inclusive error margins of 19.5% ± 17% are used to account for potential error, especially where results cannot be verified. This greater understanding of the extent and structural variability of deposits can be utilised to create robust sampling strategies for excavation. The methodology could also be further employed to enhance comparative regional studies and to add to conservation and management practices of buried shell matrix sites. If applied more widely this methodology will not only benefit our understanding of shell matrix deposits but also the wider archaeological record of coastal regions worldwide.
  • Revisiting Demise Through Success: The Lesbian and Gay Movement after Obergefell
    This article examines the prospects of decline in the LGBT movement after the Supreme Court’s marriage equality decision, Obergefell v. Hodges. I reject arguments that the movement is likely to enter a period of decline and argue that we should analyze the post-marriage movement developmentally. The LGBT movement is actually multiple movements made up of numerous strands developed over time. This developmental approach views movements as a set of organizations and actors who are best served by keeping these numerous strands active and available to call on in times of need. In uncertain political times where the movement seeks to defend its gains and gain new ones, it can resist decline by activating and institutionalizing these numerous strands. This article was published in Sociological Imagination vol 53 iss 1.
  • Part-Time Work and Gender Inequality in Europe. A Comparative Analysis of Satisfaction with Work–Life Balance
    Part-time work is an increasingly common strategy for handling work and family—but is it an effective strategy everywhere and for everyone? To answer this question, we examine the satisfaction with work–life balance of workers in 22 European countries included in round five of the European Social Survey. Our results show that part-time workers are more satisfied with their work–life balance than full-time workers; the more so, the fewer hours they put in. Yet, we find an important gender difference: Women in marginal part-time work (< 21 hours/week) are more satisfied than men in a similar situation, and conversely men in full-time work are more satisfied than women working full-time. Further, the societal context plays an important role: substantial part-time work (21–34 hours/week) is more conducive to satisfaction with work–life balance in more gender-egalitarian countries than in countries with low gender equality. Hence, a supportive gender climate and institutional support may entice workers to reduce working hours moderately, which results in markedly increased levels of SWLB.
  • The geometry of mortality change: Convex hulls for demographic analysis
    We introduce convex hulls as a data visualization and analytic tool for demography. Convex hulls are widely used in computer science, and have been applied in fields such as ecology, but are heretofore underutilized in population studies. We briefly discuss convex hulls, then we show how they may profitably be applied to demography. We do this through three examples, drawn from the relationship between child mortality and adult survivorship (5q0 and 45p15 in life table notation). The three examples are: (i) sex differences in mortality; (ii) period and cohort differences and (iii) outlier identification. Convex hulls can be useful in robust compilation of demographic databases. Moreover, the gap/lag framework for sex differences or period/cohort differences is more complex when mortality data are arrayed by two components as opposed to a unidimensional measure such as life expectancy. Our examples show how, in certain cases, convex hulls can identify patterns in demographic data more readily than other techniques. The potential applicability of convex hulls in population studies goes beyond mortality.
  • Regional Security Institutions and Weak States: The Case of Post-Conflict Somalia and the Inter-Governmental Authority on Development (IGAD)
    How do weak states in conflict-prone regions of the world manage crisis? This article applies a theory of international organizations as a framework to analyze how states in East Africa cooperated to address the problems associated with state collapse in Somalia. Based on a case study of the Inter-Governmental Authority on Development (IGAD), the study identifies unique factors for why weak states act through security organizations by focusing on the role of changing norms and structural factors. Finally, the article pinpoints factors that undermine the IGAD’s ability to live up to its full potential, and offers potential policy remedies.
  • Logics and practices of transparency and opacity in real-world applications of public sector machine learning
    Presented as a talk at the 4th Workshop on Fairness, Accountability and Transparency in Machine Learning (FAT/ML 2017), Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. Machine learning systems are increasingly used to support public sector decision-making across a variety of sectors. Given concerns around accountability in these domains, and amidst accusations of intentional or unintentional bias, there have been increased calls for transparency of these technologies. Few, however, have considered how logics and practices concerning transparency have been understood by those involved in the machine learning systems already being piloted and deployed in public bodies today. This short paper distils insights about transparency on the ground from interviews with 27 such actors, largely public servants and relevant contractors, across 5 OECD countries. Considering transparency and opacity in relation to trust and buy-in, better decision-making, and the avoidance of gaming, it seeks to provide useful insights for those hoping to develop socio-technical approaches to transparency that might be useful to practitioners on-the-ground.
  • Third Party Tracking in the Mobile Ecosystem
    Third party tracking allows companies to identify users and track their behaviour across multiple digital services. This paper presents an empirical study of the prevalence of third-party trackers on 959,000 apps from the US and UK Google Play stores. We find that most apps contain third party tracking, and the distribution of trackers is long-tailed with several highly dominant trackers accounting for a large portion of the coverage. The extent of tracking also differs between categories of apps; in particular, news apps and apps targeted at children appear to be amongst the worst in terms of the number of third party trackers associated with them. Third party tracking is also revealed to be a highly trans-national phenomenon, with many trackers operating in jurisdictions outside the EU. Based on these findings, we draw out some significant legal compliance challenges facing the tracking industry.
  • Fairness and Accountability Design Needs for Algorithmic Support in High-Stakes Public Sector Decision-Making
    Cite as: Michael Veale, Max Van Kleek and Reuben Binns (2018) Fairness and Accountability Design Needs for Algorithmic Support in High-Stakes Public Sector Decision-Making. ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI'18). doi: 10.1145/3173574.3174014 Calls for heightened consideration of fairness and accountability in algorithmically-informed public decisions—like taxation, justice, and child protection—are now commonplace. How might designers support such human values? We interviewed 27 public sector machine learning practitioners across 5 OECD countries regarding challenges understanding and imbuing public values into their work. The results suggest a disconnect between organisational and institutional realities, constraints and needs, and those addressed by current research into usable, transparent and 'discrimination-aware' machine learning—absences likely to undermine practical initiatives unless addressed. We see design opportunities in this disconnect, such as in supporting the tracking of concept drift in secondary data sources, and in building usable transparency tools to identify risks and incorporate domain knowledge, aimed both at managers and at the `street-level bureaucrats' on the frontlines of public service. We conclude by outlining ethical challenges and future directions for collaboration in these high-stakes applications.
  • Open Educational Science
    Scientific progress is built on research that is reliable, accurate, and verifiable. The methods and evidentiary reasoning that underlie scientific claims must be available for scrutiny. Like other fields, the education sciences suffers from problems such as failure to replicate, validity and generalization issues, publication bias, and high costs of access to publications—all of which are symptoms of a nontransparent approach to research. Each aspect of the scientific cycle—research design, data collection, analysis, and publication—can and should be made more transparent and accessible. Open Education Science is a set of practices designed to increase the transparency of evidentiary reasoning and access to scientific research in a domain characterized by diverse disciplinary traditions and a commitment to impact in policy and practice. Transparency and accessibility are functional imperatives that come with many benefits for the individual researcher, the scientific community, and society at large—Open Education Science is the way forward.
  • Policy or Window Dressing? Exploring the Impact of Poverty Reduction Strategies on Poverty Rates among the Canadian Provinces
    Poverty reduction strategies (PRS) have become a popular instrument for addressing poverty globally. In Canada, all ten provinces have committed to adopting PRS. The province’s commonalities and differences provide an ideal testing ground for studying their effects. Do PRS actually reduce poverty? According to their detractors, governments use PRS as ‘window dressing’ to gloss over unsuccessful poverty reduction efforts. In this study, I identify the timing of the introduction of PRS action plans and explore whether they have coincided with changes in provincial poverty rates. I find that more often than not rates have dropped before rather than after the introduction of PRS. This suggests that governments have indeed used PRS as window dressing, but to showcase and claim credit for poverty reduction successes.
  • Rural plastic emissions into the largestmountain lake of the Eastern Carpathians
    The lack of proper waste collection systems leads to plastic pollution in rivers in proximity to rural communities. This environmental threat is more widespread among mountain communities which are prone to frequent flash floods during the warm season. This paper estimates the amounts of plastic bottles dumped into the Izvoru Muntelui lake by upstream rural communities. The plastic pollution dimension between seasonal floods which affected the Bistrita catchment area during 2005–2012 is examined. The floods dumped over 290 tonnes of plastic bottles into the lake. Various scenarios are tested in order to explain each amount of plasticwaste collected by local authorities during sanitation activities. The results show that rural municipalities are responsible for 85.51% of total plastic bottles collected during 2005–2010. The source of plastic pollution is mainly local. The major floods of July 2008 and June 2010 collected most of the plastic bottles scattered across the Bistrita river catchment (56 villages) and dumped them into the lake. These comparisons validate the proposed method as a reliable tool in the assessment process of river plastic pollution, which may also be applied in other geographical areas. Tourism and leisure activities are also found to be responsible for plastic pollution in the study area. A new regional integrated waste management system should improve the waste collection services across rural municipalities at the county level when it is fully operational. This paper demonstrates that rural communities are significant contributors of plastics into water bodies.
  • Social Media Sellout - The Increasing Role of Product Promotion on YouTube
    Since its foundation in 2005, YouTube, which is considered to be the largest video-sharing site, has undergone substantial changes. Over the last decade, the platform developed into a leading marketing tool used for product promotion by social media influencers. Past research indicates that these influencers are regarded as opinion leaders and cooperate with brands to market products on YouTube through electronic-word-of-mouth mechanisms. However, surprisingly little is known about the magnitude of this phenomenon. In our paper, we make a first attempt to quantify product promotion and use an original dataset of 139,475 videos created by German YouTube channels between 2009 and 2017. Applying methods for automated content analysis, we find that YouTube users indeed are confronted with an ever-growing share of product promotion, particularly in the beauty and fashion sector. Our findings fuel concerns regarding the social and economic impact of influencers, especially on younger target groups.
  • Testing a Digital Inequality Model for Online Political Participation
    Increasing Internet use is changing the way individuals take part in society but research on the mobilizing effects of the Internet for political participation shows mixed results. The present study takes a digital inequality perspective and analyzes the role of political interest and Internet expertise for the social structuration of online political participation. Analyses are based on two-wave nationally representative survey data from Switzerland and use cluster analysis and structural equation modeling. A distinct group of political users emerged characterized by high education and income. Further, online politi-cal participation is predicted by political interest and Internet skills, which increasingly mediated the effects of social position. Digital information policies should therefore include the promotion of Internet skills and effective use, particularly in marginalized social groups, to avoid reinforcing traditional participatory inequalities in the digital society.
  • Beyond opening up the black box: Investigating the role of algorithmic systems in Wikipedian organizational culture
    Scholars and practitioners across domains are increasingly concerned with algorithmic transparency and opacity, interrogating the values and assumptions embedded in automated, black-boxed systems, particularly in user-generated content platforms. I report from an ethnography of infrastructure in Wikipedia to discuss an often understudied aspect of this topic: the local, contextual, learned expertise involved in participating in a highly automated social–technical environment. Today, the organizational culture of Wikipedia is deeply intertwined with various data-driven algorithmic systems, which Wikipedians rely on to help manage and govern the “anyone can edit” encyclopedia at a massive scale. These bots, scripts, tools, plugins, and dashboards make Wikipedia more efficient for those who know how to work with them, but like all organizational culture, newcomers must learn them if they want to fully participate. I illustrate how cultural and organizational expertise is enacted around algorithmic agents by discussing two autoethnographic vignettes, which relate my personal experience as a veteran in Wikipedia. I present thick descriptions of how governance and gatekeeping practices are articulated through and in alignment with these automated infrastructures. Over the past 15 years, Wikipedian veterans and administrators have made specific decisions to support administrative and editorial workflows with automation in particular ways and not others. I use these cases of Wikipedia’s bot-supported bureaucracy to discuss several issues in the fields of critical algorithms studies; critical data studies; and fairness, accountability, and transparency in machine learning—most principally arguing that scholarship and practice must go beyond trying to “open up the black box” of such systems and also examine sociocultural processes like newcomer socialization.
  • Culture and Choice: Toward Integrating Cultural Sociology with the Judgment and Decision-Making Sciences
    Cultural sociologists frequently theorize about choices and decisions, although we tend to shy away from this language and from concepts that are used by the judgment and decision-making (JDM) sciences. We show that cultural sociology and JDM are compatible and complementary fields by dispelling some common misunderstandings about JDM. We advocate for a strategic assimilation approach in which cultural sociologists are able to translate their work into key JDM terms like beliefs, preferences, and endowments. Learning to speak the JDM language will allow cultural sociologists to make important, and uniquely sociological, contributions to social scientific explanations of choices and decisions.
  • (B.A. final project) Mobilidade sócio-espacial na Região Metropolitana de Goiânia: O caso de Senador Canedo
    O presente projeto de pesquisa tem o intuito de estudar a formação e estruturação do município de Senador Canedo, como forma de perceber qual seu papel dentro da região metropolitana de Goiânia. Para isto, será estudado de que modo os deslocamentos populacionais inter-regionais e intra-metropolitanos, em direção àquela cidade, estão afetando a configuração sócio-espacial da região metropolitana. Nesse sentido, avaliando as razões da mobilidade espacial, estar-se-á analisando a influência do espaço urbano e de fatores econômicos e políticos sobre o fluxo populacional, além de compreender de que forma esse fluxo está afetando o espaço metropolitano. Salienta-se ainda a importância de se realizar um estudo que possa ao menos levantar algumas contribuições para a elaboração de uma proposta de reordenação do espaço urbano, no sentido de democratizar seu uso. Esse estudo de planejamento urbano e regional poderia ser uma maneira de reforçar a discussão sobre o assunto, suscitando novos e mais amplos trabalhos sobre essa região metropolitana. Portanto, espera-se contribuir para os conhecimentos da Sociologia Urbana, possibilitando, até mesmo, a criação de um centro de pesquisa nessa área.
  • Resisting Change: Decremental Deprivation Motivates Participation in Political Violence across 34 Countries
    Despite extensive scholarly interest in the association between economic inequality and civil conflict, we know surprisingly little about the mechanisms through which the former influences the latter. Drawing on pioneering theories of political violence, social psychological research on intergroup attitudes and behavior, and prospect theory, we examine individual-level mechanisms relating inequality to violence. Our theoretical analysis generates two propositions that are at odds with extant civil conflict research. Despite being the key explanatory mechanism, perceived lower economic status vis-à-vis other individuals (relative deprivation) is unlikely to motivate political violence. By contrast, although virtually unexplored, a projected decrease in one’s own economic status (decremental deprivation) is likely to motivate political violence. Analysis of extraordinary coverage data, spanning 51,587 individuals from 34 African states, provides strong evidence to support these claims. Based on this, we suggest that focusing on economic changes, rather than the economic status quo, is key to understanding political violence.
  • Max Weber's Disciples: Theorizing the Charismatic Aristocracy
    While several studies have explored the interactional dynamics of charismatic power, most have neglected the role of what Weber termed the charismatic aristocracy. This article revives the classical concept to respond to contemporary calls for performative, followercentric approaches to charisma. Specifically, the charismatic aristocracy is placed at the center of an analysis of a reiterative moment in charismatization: when influential followers generate content for the emerging charismatic persona. In these germinal moments, the dialogical nature of charisma is most clear, precisely because it is then that charismatic leaders often are not themselves confident in their status and can be found responding to instructional cues—indeed following the lead—of those positioning themselves as obsequious followers. Drawing on 10 years of observations, multistage interviews, and media collections, I provide an interactionist account of the charismatic emergence of John de Ruiter, leader of a successful new religious movement. I conclude by tabling a model that conceives of the charismatic aristocracy as an important fulcrum for expectation, affectation, and recognition in charismatic interactions.
  • Countering Trump: Toward a Theory of Charismatic Counter-Roles
  • Countering Trump: Toward a Theory of Charismatic Counter-Roles
    This article conducts a negative reading of Weber’s ideal type of charismatic authority, seeking to anticipate and discern hidden social interactants that are implicated in his descriptions of charismatic social processes. In so doing, this article advances the “charismatic counter-role” as an umbrella term that captures the performative bearing of a variety of actors on processes of charismatic interaction. Specifically, in addition to devoted followers (already much discussed in the literature), this typology contains unworthy challengers (competitors who fall short when judged by the new terms of legitimacy that the charismatic leader creatively establishes); and colossal players (interlocutors that are appropriately “to scale” for highlighting the extraordinary missions to which the charismatic leader aspires). Together, these charismatic counter-roles interact in ways that comprise a charismatic social system that gives a better account than has heretofore been available for the unstoppable momentum of charismatic challenges. Using the “Trump phenomenon” of 2015–2016 as its empirical source, and employing analytical tools from symbolic interactionist and performative approaches to social theory, this article has implications for future studies of how charisma destabilizes traditional and/or rational-legal social orders.
  • "We Need More Resources": Stories of QTPOC Survival in the South
    While men’s sexual violence against women is unarguably a social and public health issue, both nationally representative data and smaller studies tell us that rates for LGBTQ+ individuals are equally or significantly higher. Despite this, there remains little structural support for LGBTQ+ survivors. This paper highlights the voices of 38 QTPOC-identified (queer and trans people of color) Southerners who have experienced sexual violence and came together across three focus groups to detail recount their interactions with advocates and other professionals and explore post-traumatic needs. Nearly all survivors reported that the level of awareness regarding sexual violence in their communities was limited, with most reporting that they did not successfully access mainstream services, due to concerns about homophobia, transphobia, and racism. To address sexual violence in LGBTQ+ communities, survivors pointed to the importance of friendship and community networks “outside the system,” resource sharing about non-heteronormative violence tactics, and holding batterers accountable for their behavior within LGBTQ+ circles. Findings highlight the need to move beyond “culturally competent” health care by proactively engaging LGBTQ+ communities in education, networking, resource sharing, and anti-violence outreach.
  • ‘Integrity, Sportsmanship, Character’: Baseball’s Moral Entrepreneurs and the Production and Reproduction of Institutional Autonomy
    Sociologists have long argued that institutions like religion or economy can become relatively distinct spheres that facilitate and constrain action, goal setting, and decision-making. But, few empirical studies have looked closely at how institutions become relatively distinct cultural and structural domains. This paper examines how institutional entrepreneurs—in this case, Major League Baseball (MLB) sportswriters—build and sustain institutional boundaries by considering how they create a distinct cultural discourse that infuses baseball places, times, and events with culturally distinct meanings. Drawing from sportswriters’ columns, documentaries, and monographs written on baseball, we show that MLB entrepreneurs have developed and disseminated a discourse oriented around the generalized medium of sport exchange, interaction, and communication: competitiveness. Using these data, the paper below examines how this medium becomes quantified and embodied in tangible and intangible forms. Additionally, the paper draws on sports columns that illustrate how MLB entrepreneurs protect the autonomy of a sacred core (the Hall of Fame) from internal threats (gambling and performance-enhancement drugs) and external corruption (the influence of money). The paper ends with a discussion of implications for the applicability of the findings to other sports and institutional domains.
  • (Ph.D. dissertation) Demographic change and economic development at the local level in Brazil
    (Ph.D. Dissertation) In this analysis, I estimate the impact of the changing relative size of the adult male population, classified by age and education groups, on the earnings of employed males living in 502 Brazilian local labor markets during four time periods between 1970 and 2000. The effects of shifts in the age distribution of the working age population have been studied in relation to the effect of the baby-boom generation on the earnings of different cohorts in the United States. However, the question has received little attention in the context of the countries in Asia and Latin America, which are now experiencing substantial shifts in their age-education distributions. Taking advantage of the huge variation across Brazilian local labor markets, the models in this research suggest that age-education groups are not perfect substitutes, so that own-cohort-education size depresses earnings, as expected by the theory. Compositional shifts are influential, attesting that this approach represents a fruitful way of studying this central problem in economic development, going beyond the effects normally analyzed by formal labor market equations.
  • (M.A. thesis) Migration schedules by age and characterization of migrants in the micro-regions of Goiás and the Federal District, 1975–1979 and 1986–1990
    Title in Portuguese: Funções de migração por idade e caracterização de migrantes das microrregiões de Goiás e Distrito Federal, 1975-1979 e 1986-1990 (Dissertação de Mestrado) (M.A. Thesis) Since the 70’s, the Brazilian Middle-West Region has experienced an important modernization process in agricultural and industrial activities, which has led to an employment retraction and migration flows, especially from rural areas to the major metropolitan cities of the region. In this research the focus of analysis are the State of Goiás and the Federal District, which encompasses Brasília, the capital of Brazil. In order to understand the new population configuration, the region was divided into four sub-areas (micro-region of Goiânia, micro-region of Entorno de Brasília, the Federal District, and a group of 16 micro-regions of Goiás) and the patterns of migration, by age and sex, were estimated for the periods 1975-1979 and 1986-1991. In addition, differences between native and migrant population of each sub-area, according to the participation in the labor force, income, education and type of migration were investigated. The analysis was performed on the basis of the 1980 and 1991 Brazilian Census data. In the intra-state migration, the fluxes between the micro-region of Goiânia and the 16 other micro-regions of Goiás, and between the Federal District and the micro-region of Entorno de Brasília were the most important. In the inter-state migration, the flux from the states of Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul and the North region to the 16 micro-regions of Goiás, as well as the flux from Northeast, Southeast and South to the Federal District were significant. But there was a decline in the migration to the Federal District, between 1975-1979 and 1986-1991, while, in the same period, the migration to the Entorno of Brasília increased. The chance of the migrant population in the micro-region of Goiânia and in the Federal District to have worked in the last 12 months prior to census interview was lower than that of the native population. However, those who migrated from the Federal District to the micro-region of Entorno de Brasília had higher chance to have worked in the formal sector than those who did not migrate. Migrants who moved from the micro-region of Entorno de Brasília and the 16 other micro-regions of Goiás to the micro-region of Goiânia had lower wages than the non-migrant population. The lowest level of wages was recorded for the migrants to the 16 other micro-regions of Goiás. Migrants living in the Federal District had high level of education, while those migrants living in the micro-region of Entorno de Brasília had low level of education. In 1986-1990, the micro-regions of Goiânia and Entorno de Brasília, as well as the 16 other micro-regions of Goiás, presented a high percentage of returned migrants. In the same period, a major proportion of migrants to the micro-region of Entorno de Brasília had first moved from Southeast or from the Federal District to others regions. In addition, there was a considerable proportion of migrants with low income who had moved from Northeast to the Federal District and then to the micro-region of the Entorno de Brasília. Future research could focus other areas or regions of Brazil, and could also explore the same kind of analysis, on the basis of the incoming 2000 Brazilian Census, which requires the development of new techniques, as it did not collect information on the city of previous residence, but only on the state of residence.
  • The Ties that Corporatize: A Social Network Analysis of University Presidents as Vectors of Higher Education Corporatization
    In this paper we demonstrate how social network analysis can model the extent and type of corporatization theorized to be occurring in U.S. higher education by tracing presidents’ career histories from a heterogeneous sample of U.S. colleges and universities (n=215) across not-for-profit public universities, for-profit universities and corporations.
  • The Political Economy of Data Production
    Abstract: Cross-national macroeconomic statistics are nearly ubiquitous in international relations and comparative politics research. While we know that these data can only be measured with error, our reliance on them implies a belief that those errors are random, or, at a minimum, unrelated to the political phenomena we use them to understand. But that is implausible. Measuring the economy is largely a state function, and the political-economic backdrop against which it occurs inherently shapes it. The implicit belief that the politics of data production are inconsequential to political science research should be scrutinized. We examine this belief using a newly available dataset of ex post revisions to World Development Indicators data, with a particular focus on GDP growth statistics. We find that revisions to these data reveal a form of measurement error that is both consequential—simple political economy relationships vary substantially depending on which version of the data is used—and systematic. We focus particularly on the IMF’s role in the political economy of data production, but our analysis reveals other political factors that inform the scale and direction of ex post revisions.
  • Fall Forward or Spring Back? Evaluating Student Outcomes of a Fall-Semester Transition Program at a Public Flagship University
    Does the structure of the first-year college experience affect students’ graduation outcomes? I investigate this question by evaluating UC Berkeley’s Fall Program for Freshmen (FPF), a fall-semester program for undergraduates admitted for the following spring semester. During the fall semester, FPF participants take introductory courses and receive advising at a separate campus blocks away from UC Berkeley, while living and socializing with regular UC Berkeley students; in the spring semester, FPF participants then matriculate to the main campus. I analyze UC Berkeley admissions and registrar data and show that FPF participants are similar to fall-semester matriculants in their admission characteristics and predicted graduation rates. However, across a variety of treatment effect models, I estimate that FPF participants have a 3–4 percentage-point increase in their four- and six-year graduation rates compared to fall-semester matriculants. FPF participants with below-median high school GPAs and SAT scores have larger increases in their likelihood to graduate. Estimates adjusted for unobservable selection bias (Oster, 2017) are similar in magnitude and direction to my main estimates.
  • Childhood Bullying and Adolescent Mental Health for Sexual Minorities: Prospective evidence from a population-based birth cohort
    Objectives. To provide the first prospective evidence on sexual minorities’ early childhood peer victimization experiences and estimate the extent to which victimization histories explain adolescent mental health disparities. Methods. Longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Childhood Wellbeing Study, a population-based cohort of children born in twenty American cities between 1998 and 2000, were used. Multivariate regression analyses examined peer victimization at ages 5,9 and 15 and anxiety/depression at 15. Teens reported sexual minority status during interviews conducted between 2014 and 2017. Results. Compared to their peers, sexual minorities experienced similar rates of victimization at age 5 but higher rates ages 9 and 15. Over and above current bullying, prior victimization predicted worse outcomes on three clinically validated diagnostic scales for anxiety/depression. Results were consistent using parent and child reports. Despite sexual minorities’ elevated rates of bullying, only about 20% of their mental health disparities were explained by peer victimization. Conclusions. Sexual minorities’ bullying risk begins years earlier than previously documented and persists into adolescence. Victimization prevalence estimates based on adolescents’ recent experiences will substantially underestimate lifetime exposure to victimization.
  • Hugo Chávez y los principios del Socialismo del Siglo XXI: una indagación discursiva (2005-2013)
    En el presente artículo se puntualizan - en un plano teórico - las ideas fuerza del Socialismo del Siglo XXI que dan cuenta de un debate inacabado en el plano político. Considerando las orientaciones ideológicas expresadas en los discursos de Hugo Chávez (2005 – 2013), se analizan los elementos de continuidad y ruptura en su vertiente latinoamericana que constituyen el Socialismo Bolivariano. A partir de estos componentes, el artículo presenta una clave de lectura situada en torno al ideario socialista con el objetivo de reflexionar sobre su relevancia y vigencia en la época contemporánea.
  • Graphical representations of international and interdisciplinary links in science
    Patterns of connectedness in science among national contexts and scientific disciplines are described in the form of illustrative diagrams. The analyses are based on large-scale citation data covering the historical period between 1985 and 2012. Global illustrations as well as some more differentiated trends are presented for both international and interdisciplinary links. Such graphical illustrations may not only help to better understand patterns of information exchange in science but also promote attention for the field of scientometrics.
  • Evaluating the Impact of the Wikipedia Teahouse on Newcomer Retention
    Effective socialization of new contributors is vital for the long- term sustainability of open collaboration projects. Previous research has identified many common barriers to participation. However, few interventions employed to increase newcomer retention over the long term by improving aspects of the on- boarding experience have demonstrated success. This study presents an evaluation of the impact of one such intervention, the Wikipedia Teahouse, on new editor survival. In a con- trolled experiment, we find that new editors invited to the Teahouse are retained at a higher rate than editors who do not receive an invite. The effect is observed for both low- and high-activity newcomers, and for both short- and long-term survival.
  • Satisfied Movers Revisited
    Job mobility is an especially useful concept in sociology; where positions in a structure, not the characteristics of individuals, explain inequality. Thus, moving between positions should give significant rewards to workers. This assumption is often overlooked and doesn’t sit well with today’s precarious markets. I ask “what do workers get from mobility?” Drawing from the British Household Panel Survey (2000-2008) I test mobility’s effects on subjective and objective outcomes. Results do not support that mobility, in itself, leads to overall better jobs. Rather, internal change contains premiums beyond the characteristics of workers, while external change leads to subjective premiums alone.
  • An ethnographic approach to the study of folklore of Barumal village in India
    The focus of this ethnographic expedition is to study the folklore and traditions amongst the existing tribal populations of Barumal village in southern Gujarat, India. The fieldwork revolves around cultural and socio-economic aspects of their livelihood and this paper encompasses the knowledge from one such lens out of many. It tries to identify the importance of mythology and its roots. The data collected from three different population groups are Varlis, Kukanas, Dhodiya Patels that are set within the caste system based hierarchy inhabiting in the same region. The interview method was employed throughout with open-ended questions. The varied customs and traditions appearing in their lifestyle, occupation, and festivals are always associated with one god or another. The key informants felt the need to distinguish the history of their own tribe from the others by taking the help of myths passed down from their ancestors. Most of the key informants were mature adults including both males and females.
  • The anthropology of didactics
    Definitions of learning (and teaching) are sometimes made on the basis of references outside and above the immediate classroom event. The didactic questions phrased in terms of what, How and Why. The curriculum, policies and the various substances when these issues are preserved and problematized. At the same time, there is the school's reality in the classrooms, but more as a recipient of this problem. This reality can be the starting point of a self-sustaining reflection emanating from teachers and students and their actual situation. This is approaching it as the terms "implementing the field" where I want to continue the discussion. How do we get a different perspective on What, How and Why based on teachers ' practice? Are these questions at all realistic to ask (in practice) and what answers can you expect? What is an example for teaching science content from a student's perspective? And how is the issue from the teacher's perspective in the practical stage?
  • Racial Segregation in Metropolitan Regions: What can be Learned from a Social Interaction Approach?
    Racial segregation is a pervasive social feature of American cities responsible for social, economic and health disparities. Conventional measures of segregation have been criticised for ignoring the spatial and temporal dynamics of everyday life, which are theorized to influence the ease of interaction between people. In this paper we explore a Social Interaction Potential based measure of racial segregation (SIP-Seg). SIP-Seg attempts to quantify the time-geographic constraints on between-group and within-group interaction opportunities based on the spatial distributions of residences, workplaces, and the daily commute. We compute SIP-Seg for all Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) in the United States, and regress them against conventional measures of segregation as well as a host of factors capturing the spatial structure of regions. Our results indicate that the relationship between zonal segregation and SIP-Seg is strong, but the strongest explanatory factors are race-disaggregated commuting distances, which explain far more of the variance than non-racial spatial structure factors. The research suggests that SIP-Seg captures a spatiotemporal dimension of segregation that is ignored by conventional measures.
  • Population pyramids yield accurate estimates of total fertility rates
    Recent methodological advances in indirect migration and mortality estimation reveal important unforeseen patterns underlying these population processes, yet accurate indirect estimation of fertility remains difficult. The primary fertility index for a population, the total fertility rate (TFR), requires data on births disaggregated by mother’s age and thus cannot be calculated for the many areas and time periods that lack such information. Here we discuss a universal methodological framework for estimating TFR using inputs as minimal as the age-sex structure of a population. We show that the implied total fertility rate (iTFR) accurately estimates fertility from a population's age-sex structure in a wide range of scales, time periods, and even species. We also discuss two extensions of the iTFR that offer improved accuracy with minimal additional data requirements. To demonstrate the utility of this approach, we produce the first complete county-level map of U.S. fertility, reconstruct historical TFRs for 1000 additional country-years up to 150 years prior to the collection of birth records, and estimate TFR for the U.S. conditioned on household income, a variable unrecorded on U.S. birth records. Given its parameter-free nature, the method has wide applicability across space and time. We anticipate that our methodological framework will allow extension of fertility analysis to new sub-populations, time periods, and geographies, expanding our ability to understand fertility processes.
  • Wild-ing the Ethnography of Conservation: Writing Nature's Value and Agency In
    When reading ethnographic literature on nature conservation, one may wonder: where has nature gone? Social anthropologists have written nuanced ethnographies of how the environmental projects of governments and transnational NGOs encounter, dispossess, clash culturally with, and try to govern native people across the world. Yet, these diverse ethnographies often say little about what motivates those encounters firstly: local and global nature, especially wildlife, plants, and the planet’s ecological crisis. Thus, this paper seeks ways how ethnographic writing on conservation practice could better reflect that the planet’s many self-willed, struggling, and valued non-humans, too, enter conservation’s encounters. To find paths toward such a ‘wild-ing’ of ethnography, the paper locates and reviews disparate materials from across the social-anthropological literature on biodiversity conservation. The review is structured through three questions: How does and could the ethnography of conservation represent nature’s value? How can it show that animals, plants, and other nature make and meet worlds? How can it incorporate natural science data about non-human worlds and ecological crisis? Altogether, we understand nature conservation clearer through the interdisciplinary and more-than-human ethnography of world-making encounters. Such wilder ethnography may also better connect people’s suffering and nature’s vanishing – as problems both for anthropology and conservation science.
  • Intellectual capital and research trajectories of the teachers of the Sociology Faculty of the Santo Tomas University (Bogota, Colombia)
    This article, through a simple exercise in bibliometrics, analyzes the intellectual capital and draws the research trajectories of the 21 teachers who were part of the Sociology Department of the Santo Tomas University (Bogota, Colombia) in the first half of the year 2018. The conclusions show us a team of young researchers, which deals with 124 fields of study and in which the qualitative methodology prevails.
  • THE ‘GREAT DIVERGENCE’ IN BENGAL- AN ILLUSTRATION OF THE EARLY MODERN COTTON TEXTILE INDUSTRY
    Bengal was one of the leading producers of high-quality textile during the early modern centuries and played a very nodal role in the intra-Asian and global trade. After 1500, with the descending of the European traders on its shores, the cotton textile industry boomed. It accounted for nearly two-fifths of all textile exports to Europe from Asia. I attempt, in this essay, to understand the ‘Global Divergence’ debate in South Asia with a focus on Bengal and its trade and production in cotton textiles. I situate Bengal as a central region of cotton production and trade in the early modern global economy with regards to not only Europe but also to other parts of Asia and within the sub-continent itself. I reiterate Prasannan Parthasarathi’s contribution to the ‘Great Divergence’ debate to argue that Bengal hosted a thriving cotton textile industry deep into the late eighteenth century. I echo that the destruction of the textile industry occurred in the high days of colonialism in the latter half of the nineteenth century. I attempt to substantiate this by trying to understand Om Prakash’s analysis of the methods of procurement of production before and after the ascendency of the Europeans as political administratorsin Bengal; when production by weavers was market driven and when it was driven by coercion and impunity, respectively. I finally conclude by commenting on the limitation of this analysis and the further research scope it holds.
  • CZECHOSLOVAKIA AND HUNGARY AT THE BRUSSELS EXPO OF 1958- NATIONALISM IN THE DISPLAY OF SOCIALIST MODERNITY AND THE GLOBAL CULTURAL POLITICS OF THE COLD WAR.
    The Brussels EXPO of 1958 was envisioned by its organisers as a platform to renew the intellectual, spiritual and moral powers of humanism after the horrors of the Second World War. In its post-War setting, it aimed to promote the new Man by crossing the anxious binaries of Cold War politics. In reality, however, it fed on these very anxieties with the USA and USSR using art, technology, architectural designs to further the propaganda of their respective competing antagonistic political worldview. But, some small countries like the Soviet satellite states of Czechoslovakia and Hungary made a significant impact through their pavilions on the millions of visitors. The death of Stalin in 1953 followed by the comparatively liberal policies of Khrushchev and the consequent political disturbances in Hungary and, political reforms in Czechoslovakia determined the content and styling of the pavilions at the Expo. Both the countries marked a shift from socialist realism and posited themselves through art, architecture or technological displays which were more abstract, innovative, individualistic, existential, humanistic and even avant-garde. Moreover, the local, regional, ethnic and even the national were strongly emphasized in the pavilions, some of which at times were bereft of the traditional symbolism of a socialist state. The emphasis on the national illustrated the contradictions in the ideology and action of politics in these east and central European countries in the light of the post-Stalinist era. These contradictions, not only helped to realign the dominance of socialism internally, but had global implications and intentions in the cultural Cold War, which were played out through the content and styling of the pavilions at the expo in Brussels.
  • An Examination of Time-Use and Transportation Barriers to On-Campus Participation of University Students
    Success in postsecondary education is related to the amount of time spent on campus. The more often students attend class and access on-campus learning resources, the better their grades and the lower their dropout rates. Despite the importance of on-campus participation in student outcomes, some students living in large cities face tremendous transportation and time-use barriers that make it difficult to spend more time on campus. Accordingly, the objective of our project is to examine the mobility factors that prevent students from attending their campuses in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA). Specifically, we examine student disparities in barriers to participate based on where they live, their mobility options, as well as the time constraints of their daily activity patterns (e.g. part time work). Data for our project is drawn from a 1-day travel survey of students across seven university campuses in the GTA. This is augmented with computationally derived transport accessibility factors. Multivariate logistic regression models are then employed to uncover the mobility-related determinants for a) if students feel commuting discourages them from travelling to campus; b) if students pick courses based on their commute; c) if commuting discourages students from participating in university organized activities; and d) how many days per week a student visits campus. The results of these models fuel a discussion of how to limit mobility-related barriers to postsecondary student participation.
  • Introducing A New Model of Class Identification: A Mixed Method of Mathematical Modeling and Bayesian Statistical Modeling
    This paper aims to introduce a new analytical framework for class identification by applying a mixed method of simple mathematical modeling and Bayesian statistical modeling. First, I constructed a simple mathematical model which can explain the middle concentration tendency of class identification where the majority of people tend to regard themselves as middle, assuming that the succession of the same Bernoulli $m$-trials with success probability $p$ determines one's subjective class identification. Second, I estimated parameters of the model from SSM survey data by applying a Bayesian statistical model. The distribution of latent success probability $p$ and number of trials $m$ was estimated by the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method. I also analyzed differences in distributions of $p$ and $m$ among age cohorts and educational levels by hierarchical models. From the analysis, I found the following point: (1) approximately five trials of fifty-fifty games with around 0.5 success probability describes well the observed class identification distribution in 2015 data; (2) the Japanese postwar period can be divided in two based on people's subjective evaluations---the period of expanding opportunity (1955 to 1975) and the period of high and constant success probability, but less chance of trials (from 1985); and (3) the different games model on educational levels is always better in terms of goodness of predictions than the common game model in each survey period. However, these models were closest in terms of goodness of prediction in 1975 and 1985, possibly indicating that during the ``all middle-class society'' period, people evaluated their society almost the same as the common game where all players have the same opportunities, but different luck.
  • Journal of the History of Economic Thought Preprints - The Environmental Turn in Natural Resource Economics: John Krutilla and "Conservation Reconsidered"
    Environmentalism in the United States historically has been divided into its utilitarian and preservationist impulses, represented by Gifford Pinchot and John Muir, respectively. Pinchot advocated conservation of natural resources to be used for human purposes; Muir advocated protection from humans, for nature's own sake. In the first half of the 20th century, natural re-source economics was firmly in Pinchot's side of that schism. That position began to change as the post-war environmental movement gained momentum. In particular, John Krutilla, an economist at Resources for the Future, pushed economics to the point that it could embrace Muir's vision as well as Pinchot's. Krutilla argued that if humans preferred a preserved state to a developed one, then such preferences were every bit as "economic." Either way, there were opportunity costs and an economic choice to be made.
  • Motivations of Cosplayers to Participate in the Anime Fandom
    We examined differences between cosplaying and non-cosplaying anime fans with regard to their motivation to participate in the anime fandom. Participants, all anime fans, completed scales assessing a myriad of possible motivations for anime fandom participation. Cosplayers rated all of the assessed motivations higher than non-cosplayers. The highest-rated motivations for cosplayers included entertainment, escape from everyday life, belongingness, eustress, and aesthetic beauty. Modest sex differences were also found, as women were more likely than men to cosplay and, even among cosplayers, women reported higher belongingness, family, self-esteem, and escape motivations. With the exception of sexual attraction, however, where men were considerably more motivated by sexual attraction than women, the effect sizes for sex differences were fairly small, suggesting little true difference between male and female cosplayers. The results are discussed in relation to past research examining anime cosplayers.
  • "Something Wicked This Way Comes": Apocalyptic Overtones and the Descent into Ennui in John Logan's TV Series Penny Dreadful
    While scholars have provided some insight into Penny Dreadful, no one has addressed the relationship of the piece’s overall design to the writer’s vision. Indeed, Penny Dreadful is offered as a warning of a darker age to come. Accordingly, writer John Logan sets his series in a late Victorian, Gothicized London that serves as a microcosm for a contemporary Western world experiencing a psychological and spiritual disintegration that touches the individual and the larger culture. Logan calls attention to the anxieties generated by this disintegration by incorporating into his series characters from late Victorian Gothic fiction: Frankenstein and his creature, Dracula, the Wolf Man, Dorian Gray, and Dr. Jekyll. The individual and cultural anxieties suggested by these characters’ “monstrous” behaviors have their basis not only in their sexual dysfunctions but in their despair over God’s absence. This crisis is centered in sexually adventurous Vanessa Ives, whose attempts to return to the Christ Who has rejected her hold the series together. In the series’ final episode, just before her death, Vanessa has a vision of Jesus. In response to Vanessa’s death, most of the remaining characters are seized by an ennui that has its counterpart in our own culture. The suggestion is that Logan uses Vanessa Ives as a symbolic representation of a dying world view, which, somewhat ironically, provided for her remaining friends a hope that sustained them.